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ISSN 2229-5518

mappings in Menger Spaces

M. L. Joshi and Jay G. Mehta

Abstract— In this paper the concept of compatible map in menger space has been applied to prove common fixed point

theorem. A fixed point theorem for self maps has been established using the concept of compatibility of pair of self maps.

Index Terms— Common fixed point, menger space, compatible maps, weakly compatible maps.

—————————— ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

abilistic metric spaces in which a distribution function

was used instead of non-negative real number as value of

Definition 2.1. [11] A mapping F : R R+ is called a dis-

tribution if it is non-decreasing left continuous with inf

{F(t) : t R} = 0 and sup {F(t) : t R} = 1. .

the metric. In 1966, Sehgal [2] initiated the study of con- We shall denote by L the set of all distribution

traction mapping theorems in probabilistic metric spaces. functions while H will always denote the specific distri-

Since then several generalizations of fixed point Sehgal bution function defined by

and Bharucha-Reid [3], Sherwood [4], and Istratescu and 0, t 0

Roventa [5] have obtained several theorems in probabilis- H (t )

tic metric space. The study of fixed point theorems in 1, t 0

probabilistic metric spaces is useful in the study of exis- Definition 2.2. [11] A mapping t : [0,1] x [0,1] [0,1] is

tence of solutions of operator equations in probabilistic called a continuous t-norm if it satisfies the following con-

metric space and probabilistic functional analysis. In 2008, ditions:

Altun and Turkoglu [3] proved two common fixed point (t-1) t is commutative and associative;

theorems on complete PM-space with an implicit relation. (t-2) t(a,1) = a for all a [0,1];

The development of fixed point theory in probabilistic (t-3) t(a,b) t(c,d) for a c , b d.

metric spaces was due to Schweizer and Sklar [7] played The following are the basic t-norms:

major role in development of fixed point theory in proba- TM(x,y) = Min{x.y}

bilistic metric spaces. Singh et al. [8] introduced the con- TP(x,y) = x·y

cept of weakly commuting mappings in probabilistic me- TL(x,y) = Max{x+y-1, 0}.

tric spaces. The concept of weakly-compatible mappings Each t-norm T can be extended [14] (by associativity) in a

is most general as every commuting pair is R-weakly unique way taking for ( x1 , x2 ,...xn ) [0,1]n , ( n N )

commuting, each pair of R-weakly commuting mappings

is compatible and each pair of compatible mappings is the values T 1 ( x1 , x2 ) T ( x1 , x2 ) and

weakly compatible but the converse is not true. Kumar

T n ( x1 , x2 ...xn 1 ) T(T n 1 ( x1 , x2 ...xn ), xn 1 ) for

and Chugh [9] established some common fixed point

theorems in metric spaces by using the ideas of pointwise n 2 and xi [0,1] , for all i {1, 2,...n 1} .

R-weak commutativity and reciprocal continuity of map- Definition 2.3. [11] A probabilistic metric space (PM-

pings. A fixed point theorem concerning probabilistic con- space) is an ordered pair (X,F) consisting of a non empty

tractions satisfying an implicit relation was proved by set X and a function F: X X L, where L is the collection

Mihet [10] in 2005. of all distribution functions and the value of F at

The main object of this paper is to obtain fixed point (u ,v) X X is represented by Fu,v. The function Fu,v is

theorems in the setting of Menger space using concept of assumed to satisfy the following conditions:

compatibility. (PM – 1) Fu,v(x) = 1, for all x > 0 if and only if u = v;

(PM – 2) Fu,v(0) = 0;

2 PRELIMINARIES. (PM – 3) Fu,v = Fv,u ;

we recall some definitions and known results. (PM – 4) If Fu,v(x) = 1 and Fv,w(x) = 1 then

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 2

ISSN 2229-5518

Definition 2.4. [11] A Menger space is a triplet (X, F, t) S ( x)

where (X,F) is a PM-space and t is a t-norm such that

2; x [1, 2]

1 1 1

the inequality Let xn = 1 - n

then Axn = 1 - n

and Sxn = 1 + n

(PM – 5) Fu,w(x+y) t{ Fu,v(x) , Fv,w(x) } for all Thus Axn 1 and Sxn 1 and hence x = 1.

u,v,w in X and x,y > 0 . 1

Also ASxn = 2 and SAxn = 1 + n

.

Definition 2.5. [11] A sequence {xn} in a Menger space (X,

F, t) is said to converges to a point x in X if and only if for Now lim FASxn ,SAxn (t ) lim F2,1 1 (t) t

t 1

<1

n n n

each > 0 and t > 0, there is an integer M( ) N such

for all t > 0.

that

Hence A and S are not compatible.

Fxn ,x ( ) > 1 – t for all n M( )

Again lim FASxn ,Sx (t ) lim F2,2 (t ) 1

n n

Definition 2.6. [11] The sequence {xn} is said to be Cauchy

sequence if for > 0 and t > 0, there is an integer Hence A and S are semi compatible and

M( ) N such that lim FSAxn , Ax (t) lim F1 1 ,2 (t ) t

t 1

< 1 for t > 0.

n n n

Fxn , xm ( ) > 1 – t for all n,m M( ) Therefore it is clear that S, A are not semi compatible.

Definition 2.7. [11] A Menger PM-space (X, F, t) is said to Now we will show that the semi compatible pair (A, S) is

be complete if every Cauchy sequence in X converges to a also weakly compatible .

point in X. Now coincidence points of A and S are in [1, 2].

A complete metric space can be treated as a complete Therefore for any x in [1, 2], we have

Menger space in the following way: Ax = Sx = 2 and AS(x) = 2 = SA(x) and A(2) = 2 = S(2)

Lemma 2.1 [11] If (X,d) is a metric space then the metric Thus (A, S) is weakly compatible.

d induces mappings F: X X L , defined by

Fp.q = H(x-d(p,q)), p, q X, where H(k) = 0 for k 0 and 3 MAIN RESULT

H(k) = 1 for k > 0.

Theorem 1. Theorems, Let ( X , F , t ) be a complete Menger

Further if, t : [0,1] x [0,1] [0,1] is defined by

t(a,b) = min{a,b}. Then (X, F, t) is a Menger space. It is space with continuous t -norm t and let h : X X,

complete if (X,d) is complete. k : X X , f : X h( X ) and g : X k( X ) be con-

The space (X, F, t) so obtained is called the induced Men- tinuous mapping such that ( f , k ) and ( g , h) are compatible

ger space.

pairs. Further, suppose that for all x , y X and for all

Definition 2.8. [12] Self mappings A and S of a Menger

space (X, F, t) are said to be compatible if 0 the following inequality holds

FASxn ,SAxn ( x) u for all x > 0, Ffx ,gy ( ) Fkx ,hy ( ( ))

whenever {xn} is a sequence in X such that Where :R R is an increasing function such that

ASxn , SAxn u for some u in X, as n .

Definition 2.9 [16]. Two maps A and B are said to be lim n

(t) for all t 0 . If the sequence { yn }n N

n

weakly compatible if they commute at a coincidence formed by

point.

y2 n 1

gx2 n 1

kx2 n ,

Lemma 2.2 [12] If S and T are compatible self maps of a

Menger space (X, F, t) where t is continuous and y2 n fx2 n hx2 n 1 , n N

t(x,x) x for all x [0,1] and Sxn , Txn u for some u

is probabilistically bounded for some x1 X , then there

in X. Then TSxn u provided S is continuous.

Lemma 2.3 Self-mappings A and B of a Menger space exists a unique common fixed point for the mappings

(X, F, t) are compatible, then they are weak compatible. f , g , h and k .

The converse is not true as seen in following example. Proof. Let { yn } be the sequence satisfying the given con-

Example 2.1 Let X = [0,2] with usual metric d where

dition.

d(x,y) = | x – y | for all x and y in X.

t We shall show that { yn } n N

is a Cauchy sequence.

Let Fx , y for all x and y in X and t > 0. For that, we shall show that

t d ( x, y )

lim Fym , y p ( ) H( ) , for every R.

x; x [0,1) m ,p

Define: A( x ) and

2; x [1, 2] If m 2i and p 2j 1 ( let j i ) then we have

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 3

ISSN 2229-5518

Fffy , fy

( ) = Fffy , gy

( ) Fkfy ,hy

( ( ))

= Ffx2 j 2 , gx2 i 1 ( ( )) Fkx2 j 2 ,hx2 i 1 ( 2 ( ))

=F ( ( ) …. Fffy ( n ( )) H( )

ffy , fy , fy

= Ffx2 i 2 , gx2 j 1 ( ( )) 2

Ffx0 ,gx2 j 1 2 i ( 2i

( ))

for n 0 , which means that fy is a com-

for

sup inf Fyn , yk (t ) = D{ y ( 2i

( )) . mon fixed point for the mappings f , g , h and k .

2i n ,k N n }n 1

t ( )

Uniqueness: For uniqueness let if possible we suppose

Since { yn } n is probabilistically bounded, by consider-

N that there exists another common fixed point z Z ,

ing i and j , we get therefore we get,

lim D{ y ( 2i

( )) ( ) . Ffy , z ( ) = Fffy ,gz

( ) Fkfy ,hz

( ( )) = Fffy ,gz

( ( ))

i n }n 1

for m 2i 1 and p 2 j .

If m and p are both even or both odd, we pro- for n for fy is a

0 , which means that

ceed as follows. unique common fixed point for the mappings f , g , h

Fy2 i , y2 j ( ) t( Fy2 i , y2 i 1 ( 2 ), Fy2 i 1 , y2 j ( 2 )) and k .

Hence the theorem.

t( H( ), H ( )) = H ( ) .

Fy2 i 1 , y2 j 1 ( ) t( Fy2 i 1 , y2 i ( 2 ), Fy2 i , y2 j 1 ( 2 )) 4 CONCLUSION

t( H( ), H ( )) = H ( ) . In this paper, we have described common fixed point

If i and j , for all 0. theorems for four mappings in Menger space by compa-

tibility. This idea can be implemented in the other metric

Thus we have proved that is { yn } n N

a Cauchy sequence spaces.

in X which means that there exists y X such that

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

lim yn y .

n

We are thankful to Prof. L. N. Joshi, Retd. Prof in mathe-

To prove that fy gy hy ky , we proceed as matics, D.K.V. Science College, Jamnagar and Prof. J. N.

follows. Chauhan, Head, Department of Mathematics, M. and N.

Virani Science College, Rajkot for their cooperation in the

fy = f lim kx2n = lim fkx2n = lim kfx2 n =

n n n preparation of this paper. We are also thankful to the nu-

k lim fx2n = ky . merous referees for their helpful and valuable comments.

n

gy = g lim hx2 n 1

= lim ghx2 n 1

= lim hgx2n 1

= REFERENCES

n n n

[1] K. Menger, Statistical metrics, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 28

h lim gx2n 1

= hy . (1942), 535–537.

n [2] V.M. Sehgal, Some fixed point theorems in function analysis

Since Ffy , gy

( ) Fky ,hy ( ( )) = Ffy , gy

( ( )) and probability, Ph.D dissertation, Wayne State Univ. Michigan

(1966).

[3] V.M. Sehgal and A.T. Bharucha-Reid, Fixed points of contrac-

…… Ffy , gy

( n ( )) H ( ) . For all 0. tion mappings on probabilistic metric spaces, Math. Systems

Theory 6 (1972), 97–102.

Thus fy gy hy ky . [4] H. Sherwood, Complete probabilistic metric spaces, Z. wahr-

scheinlichkeits theorie and verw. Grebiete 20 (1971), 117–128.

fy is a fixed point for the mapping

The point [5] V.I. Istratescu and I. Sacuiu, Fixed point theorem for contraction

f , g , h and k . We shall show this for the mapping f . mappings on probabilistic metric spaces, Rev. Roumaine Math.

Pures. Appl. 18 (1973), 1375–1380.

The proof for the mappings g , h and k is similar. [6] I. Altun and D. Turkoglu, Some fixed point theorems on fuzzy

From compatibility of ( f , k ) we obtain that metric spaces with implicit relations, Commun. Korean Math.

Soc., 23(1)(2008), 111-124.

kfy = kf lim yn = lim kfyn = lim fkyn = fk lim yn [7] B. Schweizer and A. Sklar, Probabilistic Metric Spaces, North

n n n n Holland(Amsterdam, 1983).

[8] S.L. Singh, B.D. Pant and R. Talwar, Fixed points of weakly

= fky = ffy . commuting mappings on Menger spaces, Jnanabha 23 (1993),

IJSER © 2010

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 4

ISSN 2229-5518

115–122.

[9] S. Kumar and R. Chugh, Common fixed point theorems using

minimal commutativity and reciprocal continuity conditions in

metric spaces, Sci. Math. Japan 56 (2002), 269–275.

[10] D. Mihet, A generalization of a contraction principle in proba-

bilistic metric spaces, Part II, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2005 (2005),

729–736.

PM-spaces, Math. Japon. 36(2), (1991), 283-289.

space through compatible maps of type (A), Chh. J. Sci. Tech. 2

(2005), 1-12.

rem in Menger space, Journal of the Chungcheong Mathemati-

cal Society 17 (1), (2004), 1-17.

[14] E. P. Klement, R. Mesiar, E. Pap, Triangular Norms, Kluwer

Academic Publishers, Trend in Logic 8, Dordrecht (2000).

[15] R. A. Rashwan & A. Hedar: On common fixed point theorems

of compatible mappings in Menger spaces. Demonstratio Math.

31 (1998), no. 3, 537–546.

[16] G. Jungck & B. E. Rhoades: Fixed points for set valued functions

without continuity. Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 29 (1998), no. 3,

227–238.

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