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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 1

ISSN 2229-5518

Sintered Properties of Aluminium Alloy for


better Nano Tool Products
Raji.K, S. Alfred Cecil Raj

ABSTRACT - The most important property of aluminium is its low specific gravity (2.7), high electrical and thermal
conductivities, high ductility and corrosion resistance in various media. Aluminium has a face centered cubic crystal
lattice whose constant depends upon its degree of purity. Moreover the mechanical properties of pure aluminium are
not very high though it posses good ductility. When aluminium is added with copper, nickel, iron, silicon the
mechanical properties will be increased. The present investigation explains how the mechanical properties of Al-Cu
composition are increased and the effect of sintering on the above composition dominating. One of the advantages, of
P/M is , metals and alloys in any proportion can be mixed together to manufacture articles of any desired shapes, in
this respect process is not governed by the phase rule1 which is applicable to alloys manufactured by melting.

INDEX TERMS—Compact, Heat Treatment, Porosity, Sintering

—————————— ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION
The copper powder is put in the muffle furnace
When aluminium is alloyed with copper or for 2 hrs in order to oxidize. These powders
nickel, manganese, magnesium, etc, sieved using – 180 sieve and mixed in the
systems with limited solubility or chemical ratio of Aluminium and Copper Oxide as 97:3,
compounds are formed, improving the 95:5, 93:7 and 91:9. The powders mixed by
strength properties of the alloys and pot mill for 4 hrs in order to get homogeneous
enabling the heat treatment2 to be applied. mixture .The apparent density, tap density and
Copper is a valuable metal, its wide the compressibility is shown in the following
application in many fields of engineering tables , TABLE: 1,2,3
due to its exceptionally high electrical and
thermal conductivity, low oxidisability and TABLE: 1 Flow rate, apparent density and theoretical
good ductility and to the fact that it is the Density for various composition of Al- CuO
basis of the important industrial alloys,
bronze and brass. COMPOSITION FLOW APPARENT THEORETICAL
gms RATE DENSITY DENSITY
2 EXPERIMENT gm/Cc gm/Cc

Al- CuO Secs/gms


2.1 Materials and their characteristics
970-30 221 .84608 2.755
Atomized uncoated Aluminium powder is
obtained from M/S Metal Powder Company 950-50 152 .81752 2.786
Ltd and the electrolytic copper powder
obtained from the same place.
________________________________ 930-70 93.8 .8816 2.818

1
Associate Professor of Physics, 910-90 102.1 .87192 2.850

Holy Cross College, Tamil Nadu, India.


2
Associate Professor of Physics,

St.Joseph’s College, Tamil Nadu, India

TABLE: 2 Tap Density and Ratio of tap / the

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 2
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Composition Tap Tap tap / tap / the 2.3 PREPARATION OF COMPACTS


Density Density the

%CuO in Al For The experimental set up for preparation of


gm/cc gm/cc For maximum compacts consisting dies, punch, lower punch
minimum Taps support and ejection block. Lower punch
Taps support is placed at the bottom of the die to
For For
minimum maximum support the loose powder poured in the
Taps Taps cylinder. Molybdenum die sulphide is used for
die wall lubrication in order to get the finished
compact from the die wall easily. Ejection
3 1.1708 1.5420 .4249 .5597
block is used to eject the finished component
from the die wall without any damage. A
5 1.1640 1.4873 .4178 .5338 universal testing machine is used for
compaction of the Al - Cu composition by
7 1.1223 1.5294 .3982 .5427
single action die compaction.

9 1.1814 1.5343 .4145 .5383


2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF
TABLE: 3 COMPRESSIBILITY PLOT COMPACTS
Nearly 15 compacts are prepared for the test. The
LOAD X 10- 3 X X 10- 3 X 10- 3 green compact obtained is weighed using a
IN FOR 3% 10- 3 FOR 7 % FOR 9% common balance. Length and diameter of the
TONS Cu FOR 5 % Cu Cu green compact is measured with a micrometer.
Cu Green density is calculated using the equation
0 0.9271 0.9544 1.0805 0.8327
2 1.6765 1.918 1.9598 1.8129 G = 4W / ( d 2 g Ig)
4 1.9266 2.2789 2.2734 2.0819
and it is tabulated. The parameters like apparent
6 2.0190 2.4711 2.4083 2.2115
density, theoretical density, true porosity and
8 2.089 2.5834 2.5037 2.3010 hardness are calculated and recorded.
10 2.1488 2.668 2.5659 2.3632
12 2.2115 2.7456 2.6131 2.4134
14 2.2688 2.7929 2.6621 2.4711
2.5 PRESINTERING
2 .2 SINTERING It is the process of heating the green compact
to a temperature below the sintering
Sintering is a process of heating the mixed temperature. This is done to remove the
powder composition in order to agglomerate lubricants and binders added during blending
small particles into bulk materials. A bond and to increase the strength of the compact.
must develop (1) through the formation of a After sintering they become so hard4.
liquid phase or (2) by solid diffusion for
sintering to occur. Although bonding may be 2.6 SINTERED PRODUCT
achieved by the formation of a liquid phase,
the liquid must lose its fluidity before the After being compacted into a briquette
material is finally made for a desired service. having the shape of the finished work piece
Due to this the strength of the properties is aggregated metal particles are heated in a
increased3. furnace to a temperature close to the melting
point of the base metal which goes into the
mixture.

This is carried out in controlled atmosphere

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 3
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furnace. The heating causes the metal according to the Al-Cu composition. The
particles to sinter, that is, a proportion of them pressure given on the powder is naturally
is partly melt and by so doing cement the being different during tapping of the powder.
remaining particles together in a cellular This is clearly shown in Graph II of Table 2
structure. Sintering is preferred to achieve all
possible final strength and hardness needed5
in the finished product. The three most
important variables governing the sintering
process are temperature, time and sintering Graph II for table 2
atmosphere.
1.2
2.7 FRICTION
Lubrication of the die walls is helpful in 1
reducing friction and minimizing pressure
gradients within the compact. Zinc stearate
and graphite powder are used as lubricant. 0.8

Tap
3 RESULTS density 0.6
gm/cc
1. The flow rate reveals the fact that the flow
rate of the above combinations is very 0.4
Sluggish.

2. The table 1 shows the apparent density and 0.2


theoretical densities are increasing according Graph II for table 2
to the increase in the powder mixing 0
Graph II for table 2

proportion and it is shown in the Graph I. 1.2


0% 3% 5% 7% 9% 11%
Tap 2 1
density 1 Graph II for table 2 CompositionAL-Cu in%
Graph II for table 2

gm /cc 0 0.8
Tap Graph II for table 2
0% 3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 1.5
density
Tap 2 0.6 Tap
CompositionAL-Cu in% 1
gm/cc
density 1 density
/cc 2
Tap
gm 0
0.4 gm/cc 0.5
density 1 0
0% 3% 5% 7% 9% 11%
0.2
0%

3%

5%

7%

9%

11%
gm /cc 0
CompositionAL-Cu in% CompositionAL-Cu in%
0% 3% 5% 7% 9% 11%
0
CompositionAL-Cu in%
0% 3% 5% 7% 9% 11%
CompositionAL-Cu in%
Graph I for Table 1

4. The readings recorded in Table 3 show that


3
the density is increasing with the application of
compacting pressure which is applied to
various proportion of Al- Cu composition and it
2.5
is shown in the Graph III .The result of
compressibility plot is good.
2
Density

1.5

0.5

0
3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15% 17%
Composition

3 .Due to the flow rate and tapping of the


powder , the tap density is showing variation

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Graph II for table 2

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 4


ISSN 2229-5518 Tap 2

density 1

gm /cc 0

0% 3% 5% 7% 9% 11%

Graph III for Table 3 CompositionAL-Cu in%

20%
REFERENCES
Density gm/cc

15%
Graph I for Table 1
10%
3 1. F. Nia and B.L. Davis, “Production of Al Cu and Al-
5% 2
Density

Cu-Si alloys by PM products”, pp 209-213, Vol 25


1 1982, Powder Metallurgy.
0%
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2. S.K. Hajra Chouldhury, “Materials Science and
3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15% 17%
Load in Tons Processes”, Indian Book Distributing Co, India, Chapter
Composition 8, P147, 2008

3. H. Raymond Higgins, “Engineering Metallurgy- Part


5. From the above graphs it is well to II”, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd, Toronto, P211,pp 1976
understand the best results of heat treatment
over various compositions during compacts.
4. A. H. Cottrell, “Theoretical Structural Metallurgy”, 3,
Heat treatment given is facilitated to soften the
the English Language Book Society, p93, 1983
metal powder for the smooth flow of powder
during compaction. Hence the best result of
densification is obtained. It is also clear that 5. R.Z. Valiev, R.K.Islamgaliev and I. V. Alexandria,
the gas pockets are closed and the “Progressive metallurgy Science “, 45, pp103-189,
percentage of porosity be controlled. Due to 2000
the sintering a bonding action be facilitated
between the individual powder particles and 6. I. V. Alexandrov and R. Z. Valiev,” Scripta Mater “,
that also increased the strength of the 44, pp 1605-1608, 2001
compact.
7. Zuhailawati Husain and Koay Han Keong, “Studies
on alumina dispersion
Graph I for
– table
strengthened
Table 1
Copper
Graph II for 2

4. CONCLUSION composite”, Journal Teknologi, P 43, pp 1-10,Dec 2005


Graph I for Table 1
3 1.2

1
The development of friction materials and the 2.5
increasing demands for modern automotive
Density

3
2Tap 0.8

industry has resulted in increasing interest in density 0.6 Graph I for Table 1
2.5
1.5gm/cc
production of new components and 0.4
DensityDensityDensity

2
1
composites. The development of gear wheel is 3 0.2
one such component in modern high speed 1.5
0.5 0 Graph I for Table 1
automobiles. Due to friction and overheat the 2.5
1
0 0% 3% 5% 7% 9% 11%

product loses6 its longevity. But, due to the 0.52


3 3% 5% Graph
7% I for
9% Table
11%1
CompositionAL-Cu in%
13% 15%
alloying composite and sintering phenomena 1.5
0
the gear wheel can obtain high strength and 2.51 Composition
3 3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15%
high temperature and withstanding capability. 2
0.5 Graph I for Table 1
Keeping this point in mind this investigation is 2.5
1.50 Composition
DensityDensityDensity

carried out. Moreover, the overall reduction in 2


1
weight reduces the sluggishness to retard 3
3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15%
1.5
0.5 Graph I for Table 1
during functioning, reduce the problems 2.5 Composition
1
0
occurring during production7 and increase the 2
production rate. 0.5 3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15%
3
1.5
0
2.5
1 Composition
3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15%
2
0.5
1.5
0 Composition
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
1 3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15%
Author is grateful to the management of Holy 0.5
Cross College, St.Joseph’s College and UGC 0 Composition
funding agency. Author also thanks Udaikumar 3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15%
for his continuous encouragement.
Composition

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, December-2010 5
ISSN 2229-5518

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