You are on page 1of 22

CHAPTER 1

LEADERSHIP, SUPERVISION, AND TRAINING

Basically the world has three types of people: reasoning ability, experience, and personal example.
those who make things happen, those who watch Until you grasp the basics of leadership, you will be
things happen, and those who don’t know what’s unable to apply the more in-depth principles. For
happening. Today’s petty officer must work diligently example, you had to learn to crawl before you learned
to stay away from the last group and should direct all
to walk, and you had to walk before you learned to run.
energy toward the first two groups. As a leader, you
must look and listen to what is happening within your Where do leadership basics come from? What
work environment; then, at the right time, you must determines their limits or capacities? How do they
make things happen. relate to people? These questions are answered in the
The purpose of this chapter is to help you build a following paragraphs.
base for self-development. Thus, you can use this
information in building your own leadership style. The WHERE DO LEADERSHIP
first section of this chapter tells you about the basics of FUNDAMENTALS COME FROM?
leadership. The second section explains the
relationship between leadership and human behavior. We learn many fundamentals, or basic principles,
from the experiences of our successful leaders; we
Why is this chapter so important? Because the learn from their mistakes and successes. For example,
Navy needs professional leaders who have high
suppose you saw your leader or supervisor do
standards, who are highly skilled in their roles, and
who are willing to study and learn to achieve their full something that ended in negative results. You would
potential. Being a Navy leader has always been a then reason that if you repeated the same action in a
tough, demanding, but rewarding job because of the similar situation, you could expect the same results. As
high standards and responsibilities involved. The children pattern their behavior after their parents, we
challenges facing today’s leader are greater than ever pattern our leadership behavior after people who are
before. successful leaders.
FUNDAMENTALS OF LEADERSHIP WHAT GOVERNS LEADERSHIP
ACTIONS?
Learning Objectives: Identify the fundamentals of
leadership. Recall the Navy’s policy to provide leader Every society sets up laws to govern its people.
development opportunities and training. Recognize the The Navy, being a unique service, is a society within
relationships between leadership and people.
itself. Navy ships are literally floating cities, and each
We need men and women who by their ship is an individual society within the naval society as
personal integrity, their sense of moral a whole. Naval ships have their own form of
purpose, and their acceptance of the government (the chain of command) and a system of
requirement for hard work will exemplify the
laws that sets their operating limits.
best in the leadership traditions of the Navy and
of our country. The petty officer, as a leader, fits into this “chain of
—Admiral Arleigh A. Burke (USN RET) command” as an official representative of the naval
(Former Chief of Naval Operations, society. The petty officer’s job is to be sure his or her
1955-1961) leadership actions conform to the rules and regulations
governing that chain of command. The publications
Fundamentals of leadership is another term for
basic principles of leadership. These terms are used that govern the rules and regulations of the petty
interchangeably in many books. They boil down to the officer’s actions are U.S. Navy Regulations, Manual
art by which a leader influences people to work toward for Courts-Martial, and Standard Organization and
a specific goal. The art of influencing involves Regulations of the U.S. Navy.

1-1

REVIEW QUESTION These formal leadership classes will be reinforced
in warfare/specialty pipeline training, all hands
training, and development/professional assignments.
Q1. Which of the following terms is
interchangeable with fundamentals of Indoctrination Training
leadership? Indoctrination is another essential part of
1. Total quality leadership leadership training. These courses provide information
to members either entering a new paygrade or being
2. Motivational theory assigned to a new duty station. The following is a list of
3. Basic principles of leadership the indoctrination courses:
4. Principles of supervision • Petty Officer Indoctrination Course—
mandatory for E-4 selectees before frocking or
advancement
LEADERSHIP CONTINUUM • Chief Petty Officer Indoctrination Course—
mandatory for E-7 selectees before frocking or
It is the Navy’s policy to provide appropriate advancement
leader development opportunities and training for all
personnel throughout their careers. Leader • Command Master Chief (CM/C) Course—
mandatory 4-day seminar-style course required
development is the responsibility of the individual,
within the first 6 months after assignment as a
each Navy command, and the Navy training
CM/C
establishment.
• Tailored leadership courses as part of the
Leadership Training Courses training for recruit company commander (RCC)
instructor and Navy career recruiting force
P e r s o n a l l e a d e r s h i p d eve l o p m e n t i s t h e
responsibility of everyone in the Navy. Individuals • Navy Command Indoctrination Program—
provide s c omma nd a nd a re a - s peci fi c
who want to get ahead must actively seek to develop
information to new arrivals; it also reaffirms
themselves as leaders. Seniors must be conscious that
Navy values, performance standards, and
they are models and must actively guide and encourage
expectations
leadership development in junior personnel.
With these thoughts in mind, the Navy has REVIEW QUESTION
developed the Navy Leadership Continuum. This
program provides career-long progression of leadership Q2. When you realize you have made a wrong
education, training, and experience. Leadership courses decision, admit your mistake, accept the
have been developed for both officer and enlisted responsibility, and
personnel to take them from recruitment to retirement.
1. criticize others for the mistake
These courses are mandatory at specific career
milestones. Sailors will attend courses upon selection to 2. don’t let subordinates know of your
E-5, E-6, E-7, and Command Master Chief/Chief of the mistake
Boat. Successful completion of the course is required 3. take steps to avoid repeating the error
before recommendation for advancement to the next
paygrade. 4. do nothing else

The foundation of all the courses follows these
four themes: HOW DO LEADERSHIP FUNDAMENTALS
RELATE TO PEOPLE?
1. Values
2. Responsibility, authority, and accountability of The most important element of leadership is
leadership PEOPLE. The Navy defines leadership as follows:
LEADERSHIP IS THE ART OF INFLUENCING
3. Unity of command, Navy, and services
P E O P L E TO P RO G R E S S TOWA R D S T H E
4. Total quality leadership ACCOMPLISHMENT OF A SPECIFIC GOAL.

1-2

money. it could cost the loss of a life. even in the face of popular disagreement. we can depend on them to only through honest. As a conscientious leader. They know they cannot expect loyalty from on your subordinates. you should strive to leadership. you will avoid many COMMAND—They remain faithful to the chain of misunderstandings and have a more positive influence command. they also are willing to act group differently than another. if a They know a lack of high-performance standards results leader is decisive. but you important of all. Simply stated. you should be aware that the • INITIATIVE—They have an inward desire that actions you take might affect one member of your work motivates them to excel. People with initiative seek positions of another. and military bearing. and beliefs. and religious heritage determine an subordinates may wish to adopt for themselves. At the same time. and thoughtful supervision support all levels of the chain of command. individual’s personality. and accept the When you apply the basics of leadership presented responsibility and consequences for those decisions. opposite of leadership is wrong. They make decisions. also accept blame when at fault. To understand the relationship between The following are some of the personal qualities or followership and leadership. They will respect you as a person subordinates without being loyal to both subordinates who supports equal opportunity for all. and materials. influences as childhood experiences. here. Success comes and superiors. Such that is above reproach. there can be no leaders. In NATION—They are proud to be a part of the United providing guidance for the worker. For example. An effective leader recognizes each person as an • ENVIABLE EXAMPLE—They set an example individual with different values and beliefs. You One point we often overlook concerning should set standards for yourself that you expect from successful leaders is they were successful followers others—commonly referred to as “leadership by before they became successful leaders. ethnic appearance. Your actions could have without orders and to offer well-considered a positive effect on one person and a negative effect on recommendations for the improvement of the command. In the areas of conduct. • DEDICATION TO THE NAVY AND THE and usually are. can see that leadership and followership are not • MORAL COURAGE—They stand up for what opposites. t h ey a r e wo r t hy o f y o u r • ACCOUNTABILITY—They are accountable. The leadership structure you build is only as FOLLOWERSHIP good as the foundation you lay. that the additional time. They 2. • HIGH STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE— The idea that followership is the reverse or They believe anything worth doing is worth doing right. but most follower is disorganized. A leadership role and a followership role can be. To lead.” Understanding the followership role will allow you to function more effectively when you become a People have certain expectations of all leaders. since people are your g r e a t e s t r e s o u r c e . they show qualities background. Because of these differences. equal. a leader may 1-3 . identify and consider these differences when deciding upon a course of action. and that quality forms the cornerstone of leadership. example. a supervisor is States Navy and proud to be called Americans. you will have a foundation upon which you can build. Followership and leadership are not opposites. values. you must first be able to follow: for PERSONAL QUALITIES OF A LEADER without followers. leader. the reverse says that the follower is in sloppy work. The list is unending. Leaders perform both roles at the same time. Remember. performed simultaneously. good or bad. understanding and respect. functioning as a leader. of your people. —Navy saying You cannot expect your subordinates to maintain higher standards than you maintain yourself. They know sloppy work costs the Navy indecisive. By considering these • LOYA LTY TO TH E CH A I N OF individual differences. or if the leader is organized. you should recognize the traits expected of and common to all successful following facts: leaders: 1. is right.

or poorly trained personnel. you have inexperienced personnel can understand and follow. The Navy did both roles require you to train others in the development not advance you to give you more pay for the same of technical skills necessary to meet group or mission work. you will decrease your effectiveness • YOU R R ESPON SIBILITIES WI LL as a leader. You may be The skills required of you in a followership or sticking to your old job and avoiding any effort to leadership role are similar in many ways. and being a good Now consider some of the broader aspects of your follower are all necessary ingredients in the art of increasing leadership responsibilities: leadership. or formal classroom training. In expressed a willingness to accept the responsibilities dealing with your subordinates. For example. Even if you are lucky enough to have a h e l p s y o u f u l fi l l y o u r a s s i g n e d d u t i e s a n d highly skilled and well-trained work group. For example. personnel for a particular job requiring skills none of However. you will always be responsible for training lower-rated People unaccustomed to accepting responsibility personnel for advancement and training inexperienced are hesitant to make decisions for fear of being wrong. you must make decisions even if they are your personnel have. belonging within your particular work group. • YOU WILL BE R EGU LA R LY AND Exercise of authority is inseparable from an C ON TIN UA LLY R ESPON SIBLE FOR acceptance of responsibility. At times you shortchange the Navy and yourself. must assume a followership role. However. it expects you to practice your increased skills goals or both. togetherness. You will need to conduct wrong on occasion. you should strive either ignore or be afraid to take over your to create harmony. duties as a specialist. When you realize you have made a additional training when you get new hardware and new wrong decision. responsibility. find yourself making the same mistake. accept the people who have not been trained on certain equipment. and a sense of responsibilities of leadership. that they supervise but do little else. COMMAND. ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY practical. Petty officers link between the workers and the higher level who supervise too little may continue to perform their supervisors within the chain of command. At the same time. That will increase the respect of others toward involvement in some training. general military training The other mistake made by new petty officers is (GMT). supervise and instruct others in lower rates. In the leadership you should be to avoid supervising too little. therefore. To be a good leader. if you haphazardly combine these ingredients. or a maintenance technician—and nothing else. You also may need to train You should recognize that as a natural feeling. You may 3. you must blend these EXTEND BOTH UP AND DOWN THE CHAIN OF ingredients in the proper proportions. Knowing the basics of leadership. as a follower or as a leader. prepare to conduct you as a leader. You may whether you are a leader or a follower. New petty officers often make two major mistakes.be dealing with higher level supervisors and. Some people think Your role. on-the-job language even relatively By accepting advancement in rate. The “crow” on your sleeve symbolizes that subordinates. you will responsibilities. see that they perform and carry out the delegated authority of your new their work properly. formal and informal training programs. Followership and leadership skills are similar. an operator of equipment. role. should be as careful to avoid supervising too much as cooperativeness. responsibility and the authority that goes with the paygrade. You are a connecting they may supervise too little or too much. You show harmony (high morale) by your attitude. For example. having the personal qualities of a good leader. you show and promote harmony by exercising Supervisors who won’t dirty their hands on occasion sound leadership principles. explain to your superiors any important needs or problems of your position. on-the-job training (OJT). admit your mistake. determines supervision consists of ordering subordinates to do all the use of these skills. By making this mistake. are more of a liability than an asset because morale problems are certain to develop. still find training is necessary. You can accomplish this training through and knowledges by supervising and instructing others. The granting of authority TRAINING. 1-4 . Both officer and enlisted personnel will expect you to translate general orders into detailed. and esprit de corps. as a follower you the work while they sit back and do nothing. and take steps to avoid repeating the Since these and similar problems will require your error.

Without an understanding of exchange ideas clearly with others. they look to you for guidance and direction and leader you should call your technician aside. language of your work. if there were on the receiving end instead of the giving end. and your Sailors. Keep informed of all work to full potential. do not assume total responsibility for the problem. Learn as much as you can people as individuals have different values about the work of other ratings. publications. by reading various instructions. If you cannot human behavior. You dealing with lower-rated personnel. 1. fit in with the overall mission of the organization. Another requirement of effective communication Are leadership and human behavior related? The is the ability to use technical terms correctly. • YOU WILL HAVE THE ADDITIONAL changes and developments that might affect your work RESPONSIBILITY OF WORKING IN COORDI. human behavior correct use of technical language will help you to dictates the way you lead your people and also receive and pass along information accurately and to determines your success. For example. However. you take the advancement examination for the next People’s needs or desires dictate how they act at higher rate. notices. Accountability communication is understanding. you will associated with your technical work. you cannot be as successful as you understand the precise meaning of the technical could be as a leader. YOUR ABILITY TO 2. BEHAVIOR starboard. stern. port. you will be at a disadvantage when you try to read official publications about your As a petty officer and a leader. equipment. A Sailor with an unresolved problem will not various stages of development. Use appropriate and accepted language in speaking and in 2. When a situation Learning Objective: Recognize the five basic levels of calls for the use of standard Navy terminology. bow. As you advance. find many of your plans and decisions affect many people. and train others. Since you are their know that is not the Seaman’s normal behavior. Which of the following traits is/are common EFFECTIVELY ALSO MUST INCREASE. make a special effort to do so when notice one of your technicians seems depressed. overhead. you need to understand the duties and responsibilities of Q3. Although you always should use technical specific times. study your work. supervise. try to get to know and understand them. An effective leader should recognize that personnel in other ratings. Some of those decisions may even affect people REVIEW QUESTIONS in other divisions or departments. • YOU WILL HAVE THE INCREASED RESPONSIBILITY OF KEEPING UP WITH NEW Your concern for your people is important. use it. False CO MMUNICATE CLEARLY AND Q4. Initiative good knowledge of the language of your rating. True • AS YOUR RES P ONS IBILITIES IN CRE A SE . As a leader. and give directions as if you your concern. and deck are Navy terms used for specific purposes. The two are definitely related. Act. All of the above that others can understand exactly what you mean. Remember that the basic purpose of all 3. You also will be at a great disadvantage when personnel. 1-5 . Dedication writing. The Navy has standardized some terms to LEADERSHIP AND HUMAN ensure efficient communication. you must be able to speak and write so 4. procedures. If you DEVELOPMENTS. show will imitate you. human need. and so forth—is subject to change and is in leader. For example. Practically everything in the keep the lines of communication open between you Navy—policies. Then plan your work to and beliefs. you cannot help but succeed as a systems. To lead. and try to help solve the problem. A s e c o n d r e q u i r e m e n t f o r e ff e c t ive communication in the Navy is the use of common Navy RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN terminology. is one. talk. suppose one morning you terms correctly. For that reason. The to all successful leaders? basic requirement for effective communication is a 1. Actually. and periodicals NATION WITH OTHERS.

or levels. stay with the familiar homeport? 4. such as violence. We all toward a favorable outcome. Every person has understanding of people’s behavior. Helping your people resolve their problems will result in a unit that Now look at the five groups. that means we know our limits and try to By observing human behavior. this feeling is self-esteem. All successful petty officers must have an determine that through experience. do some crew members look wanted by family. To be a successful leader. Why do people act the way they do? Why do some people have an easy time. However. a whole branch of science and psychology has must get a feeling of importance from two sources. you can often tell how a person feels. you could say self-esteem alone will not satisfy our esteem needs. They also may be complex. coworkers. as a petty officer. tried to answer such questions but has found no First. Second. such as our need to relieve pain (survival) you observe your personnel. If you observe how a have five basic levels of need. food. since hard-and-fast answers. you can gain the perform. includes the need for the security of an adequate job and money in the bank. with an upcoming belonging. of needs and will operate smoothly and be highly productive. It also need for respect and acceptance. SAFETY-SECURITY—The safety-security understand and easy to identify. we people behave the way they do for a reason. 1-6 . the definition of each: 1. and others with forward to visiting foreign ports. can help your people satisfy their needs learn how to influence the behavior of people so that and be more successful. You. level concerns the need to be liked and extended deployment. we In fact. to the Navy. but We can reasonably determine an individual’s you may be able to influence the person or situation needs by understanding basic human needs. in fact. for example. cents—but to you. feelings of importance. Leadership and human behavior work hand in (social belonging). This need your people and work with them to resolve their satisfaction is an ongoing behavior that determines our problems. You can learn why people act and react in These five levels of needs are acted out in certain ways. as a leader. Each of us has needs. with an understanding of types of behavior and needs of people. they can see how meeting the needs of the command will satisfy their own needs. and to the person How well you understand and apply the basic concepts could determine. energies to meet these needs as we see fit. your success in the himself/herself? You. you will be able to help is more important than a need to be liked by coworkers them adjust to almost any situation. You can learn how to identify the various behaviors. knowledge you need to better understand yourself and other people. is the full realization of our own potential. while others have a hard time 3. and relief from pain. Simply stated. INDIVIDUAL WORTH Don’t take lightly human behavior and its What is an individual worth—not in dollars and application to the areas of leadership and supervision. disease. Human behavior is the result of attempts to satisfy certain needs. or adjusting to shipboard life? Why. sleep. the reason may not be clear. You also can these needs. we must have a feeling of importance that comes from within. and we direct our everyday actions. If you understand different wants and desires and has a different the needs of your people and help them to satisfy those emotional makeup. or poverty. will have to Navy. within those limits. Our needs are in order of person acts. SELF-ACTUALIZATION—Self-actualization question. SOCIAL-BELONGING—The social. while others prefer to whom we associate. If importance. it may not be logical or rational either to you or to the person in 5. must feel that other people believe we are important. oxygen. To satisfy our esteem needs. In general. water. you will succeed as a leader. to a great extent. ESTEEM—The esteem level involves our Finding the answers to these questions is not easy. such as the threats. such as the need for level involves the need for protection from possible food and water. then we hand. friends. SURVIVAL—The survival level consists of the HUMAN BEHAVIOR basics we need to sustain life itself. These needs may be simple to 2. Remember that one trait you needs. If we satisfy one level. cannot change is the emotional makeup of a person. you must understand work to satisfy the next level of need. to our full potential.

Recognize reasons for recognizing. personal problems. Thought processes leader. maintaining qualification records. as a 2. and the capabilities of your crew. Before you can help your personnel adjust to to evaluate subordinates’ qualifications to perform various situations. Recall how to participate subordinates for failure by expecting too much. Many people think a supervisor’s job is done at this point. it means if you do become angry. it is simple. must make is who will do what. however. Jobs that require more than one person to LEADERSHIP/SUPERVISORY SKILLS accomplish can be broken into smaller tasks or steps. Recognize the necessity to coordinate material and you control the emotion so you’ll have a better chance safety requirements. you must show self-control. When dealing with people. you never get angry. Safety-security definitely is not the case. Recall how to develop and publish daily work means holding back an impulse to say or do something schedules for subordinates. look at specific tasks for work center subordinates. with positive concern for their growth and Recognize the necessity for continuous improvement in development. Survival the beginning of a supervisor’s job. Leadership With practice and hard work. Identify the elements To be an effective Navy leader. providing you know the job. Supervision is the art then can mold them into highly productive Sailors. Recognize the need to inappropriate in a situation. For example. Identify the procedures for of taking appropriate action. know what Recognize methods to resolve conflicts or differences resources are available to help them overcome their between subordinates. That tasks. Indeed. leadership welfare. First. You can then assign each task or step to a different Learning Objectives: Recall the process used to worker. Identify reasons for to perform. you can NOT BREAK THE JOB INTO TASKS change which of the following human traits? When your work group is given a job from an 1. Self-control does not mean provide rating specific expertise to subordinates. He or she will then assign the tasks to the 1. you must believe needed to judge the progress of a job. 4. A definite sequence of events must be followed translate work requirements into assignments and to do even the simplest job right. This is the 4. that 2. of making sure the job is done right. although they are closely related. Sound simple? Well. Wants immediate supervisor. Recall how the steps involved in painting a bulkhead. Recall how to counsel subordinates’ professional Our mission in the Navy is to accomplish our performance. assigned duties—do our job. problems. Self-actualization Q6. your concern openly and honestly. as you shall see in the following paragraphs. You and influence people to do a job. and rewarding subordinate performance. the job will suffer. Esteem most appropriate persons. Have as a continuous improvement team member. the 1-7 . be careful not to set up improving mission readiness. the first decision you. REVIEW QUESTIONS What makes a person a good supervisor? A good supervisor will first break a job down into individual Q5. Emotional makeup planning and organization phase. you will soon develop consists of the personality and skill needed to motivate a knack for knowing the true worth of your people. Good supervision requires good leadership skills. What level of human behavior is the most tasks and then ensure all needed materials are important? available. and express the elements used to evaluate a completed assignment. The smart leader approaches subordinates reporting job progress to immediate supervisor. those actions are only 3. Recognize the and trust in your subordinates’ basic worth and ability guidelines for giving feedback. Personnel will look up to you with respect Leadership and supervision go hand in hand. and ask for your advice when you show interest in their However. Skills get it done. Identify concern for your subordinates’limitations. While trusting in their basic worth and support of Department of the Navy’s strategy for ability to perform is important. If your subordinates have reporting. and supervision are two separate roles. how to 3.

military standard. trained workers available. Not understanding the technical language of then the finish coat of paint should be applied. hammers. make sure items possible to train your personnel. Whenever safety precautions will be observed. Do not trust your memory on technical matters. way can cause injury to the worker and damage to the Information on standards and other areas that will help tool and the work piece. you also must consider the Once you. you must conduct training. use past observations personnel accomplish all required steps. As mentioned equipment in accordance with command and Navy instructions and policies. and screwdrivers are dangerous when used Some schedules are generated automatically for you as chisels or pry bars. The 5100 series of OPNAV above. and time AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS and material would be wasted. Failure to advance in rate A good leader ensures each worker understands his 3. A knife blade is understand. the surface should be cleaned of any residue from the sanding or stripping. your workers. technical orders. You are responsible for the you develop this schedule is presented below. be met (time. A shelf-life item is one you must use or discard within a It is a good practice to develop a schedule on paper certain time.surface must be sanded (or stripped. Make sure all of work performance. A good work schedule of these items. well being of the personnel assigned to you as well as 1-8 . Having to stop possible. will be wide range of safety concerns. If you have no superiors and causes unnecessary delays. standards to shelf-life dates. the leader. instruction. 4. as an experienced instructions provide detailed information relating to a person for the job or a senior person in your rate. If the required training is beyond your capability. and your and the untrained worker gets trained. instructions. Shelf-life dates appear on the containers for yourself and the workers. All of the above Remember the job of painting a bulkhead discussed earlier? Suppose you assigned a task in that painting job to someone who didn’t know the proper way to COORDINATE MATERIAL perform the task. have planned and organized events needed to accomplish a task. As you train your workers. It should be given to each worker or not a good screwdriver. technical manuals. Poor communication ASSIGN TASKS 2. there will be times that you. source. Using a tool in an inappropriate and you need only fill in any missing information. use especially when they involve safety. that way you get good results on the job equipment frustrates you. subject to shelf-life restrictions are current. 1. The entire job would suffer. pair a knowledgeable worker with an work while you track down a certain part or piece of untrained one. then you must danger to your ship and your workers when an make sure all required materials are available and individual is unaware of safety rules. wrenches are not good displayed in the work area for everyone to review. refer to appropriate checklists. Misinterpretation of official publications or her part in the job and can do the assigned task. a primer coat and Q7. During this part of your chain of command to get it from an appropriate the planning phase. and Personnel required safety checks are up to date on all necessary Qualification Standards (PQS) records. Third. worker(s) assigned. by shifts if applicable. expected to conduct training. training records. or instructions to When evaluating your workers’ skills and make sure work meets all safety requirements and qualifications to perform a task. If any of your rate results in which of the following these tasks or steps are skipped or done out of problems? sequence. Do not use materials with expired lists each step of the task to be performed. if required). Be sure to provide manuals. and so on). insist upon the proper The schedule should be concise and easy to use of the proper tool for any given job. When assigning tasks. the job will have to be redone. REVIEW QUESTION Second. and any THE PROPER TOOL FOR THE JOB other pertinent information needed to get the job done. and hands-on experience when When getting materials for a job.

The most important sound difficult. PMS cards. such as standards. Safety apply to other jobs. STATUS REPORTING PROGRESS CHECKS As a leader you will often encounter your As mentioned earlier. how are you going to know “B’s” when reporting to superiors: whether you are doing a good job or not? Are you going to finish on schedule? Will the finished product meet • Be on time set standards? Standards are the key to answering these • Be accurate questions. courteous gender. But wait. you • Be brief must measure the progress against some standard. critical 5. Occasionally you will have Performance feedback is evaluative information to set your own standards for performance. The true An excellent source of information concerning proper professional makes every effort possible to exceed tool use is Use and Care of Hand Tools and Measuring standards. Second. Answer these five basic questions you may wish to seek advice when trying to solve an before you begin: unfamiliar problem. appearance of your vehicle. provide timely enough” and “best possible” are the same. you several seemingly minor areas. Make certain your standards for “good Deckplate and Maintenance Crossfeed. When reporting status to a superior there are four “B’s” to remember: Be on time. Be brief. we all set standards performance feedback is POSITIVE FEEDBACK. • Be gone What is a standard? A standard is a basis by which you can compare your performance against the REVIEW QUESTION performance level expected by your chain of command. and technical orders often a field day is “good enough. How should it be done? accurate up-to-date information. Who should do it? decisions have their basis on the reported readiness of Having decided on these basic considerations. First. forceful of the performance standards that apply to your assigned tasks. be careful to report 4. you will have no way to judge the upper-level supervisor when you need help. and Be semiannual Physical Readiness Test (PRT) measures your physical abilities in strength and endurance 1.the condition of the tools in your care. When called upon to report 3. NAVEDTRA 14256. For example. actually. but. That may about how a job is performed. A superior information concerning new developments in safety. Don’t stretch the truth to make your section look better. the accurate. When you tell your workers maintenance manuals. The type of information 1. Keep that in mind when you set periodicals and other Navy publications. When should it be done? information to your superiors. Remember the four can begin the job. Tools. Be completion of a test or action. What must be done? you relay will often involve the status of work in 2. To keep track of your crew’s progress. tell them. 3. Standards can consist of specifications for tasks or equipment or a time span allowed for Q8. Usually either your supervisors or the technical PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK manuals or PMS cards that apply to the particular job set the performance standards. you may be called upon to relay information to your boss. everyday.” you set a standard they will describe the proper tool for a specific task. formal As a petty officer you will sometimes function as a first-line supervisor.” then you have set a personal standard for the unable to recommend them for a medal or letter of 1-9 . progress of the job. For example. gone against an established standard for your age group and 2. In that capacity you must be aware 4. You may be enough. Often. There are three basic reasons developing a plan and organizing the steps and the why you would want or need to contact your immediate resources needed. you begin a job by immediate superiors. Where should it be done? progress or the mission readiness of your particular area of responsibility. performer does more than just meet standards. you might go to an organized steps. Third. Without a definite job plan and chain of command. if you decide your car is “clean When your people do a good job.

Try to be aware of what is going on with your workers. If • Navy Achievement Medal (NAM) you treat them as adults and show respect for them. If a problem exists. If a worker demonstrates exceptional of their peers. • Flag LOC Always remember that your workers are people. individual’s outstanding performance. counseling is required. such as at morning quarters. private and praise in public. see if they have an obvious using early liberty or time off from normal working problem. • Command Letter of Commendation (LOC) 5. you will be amazed at what they can accomplish. A good work or it may not be perceived as a reward for above rule of thumb for these situations is to “correct in average performance. and its contribution to the mission of the 3. Before jumping on your personnel. 1-10 . A personal problem. Some examples of formal written rewards are: 4. A counseling sheet. Quarter. find out command and/or the Navy. If the problem is your fault. It takes only a little of shows your appreciation for an acceptable or well done your time to write and submit an award that could mean job. work with subordinates to solve the problem. Another formal form of rewarding 2. correcting a problem involves more provides them positive feedback of what good than simply informing a worker that his or her work is performance is and what is expected of them. performance. responsible for correcting the problem. counseling sheets in division folders. a word of praise. outstanding performance is one written to recite the and correct in private. but one that should be used sparingly and only performance. Positive recognition is one of the best detail the requirements for application and submission motivators in a leader’s arsenal. and then try to work with them to solve the hours is that it may become expected for any level of problem.1 and local instructions performance. you are back. make sure their coworkers know you much to your workers.” Practicing that rule will just make sure the individual views this assignment as a help you avoid embarrassing your subordinates in front reward. or some other little gesture Be creative when giving rewards. The trouble with observe their work habits. there is a reason positive reinforcement goes a long way in building behind poor performance. Although that Rewarding your workers for their good work may sound simple. This substandard and must improve. a more formal form of reward may be in Fo l l ow five b a s i c g u i d e l i n e s t o p r ov i d e order. Always praise good performance or correct poor command’s mission is a positive reward and can be performance as soon as possible. Those The second type of performance feedback is types of feedback provide informal recognition. but make sure they know you of awards. Above average performance may be rewarded by assigning more job responsibility. why someone is not performing up to par. When your things cost less or accomplish more than a pat on the subordinates fail to meet established standards. many times you can avoid problems if • Flag LOA you see them coming. but definitely not least. Place positive subordinate is a reward to yourself. and off is also a reward that is much coveted by most ignorance of standards can all lead to poor Sailors. Few CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK. evaluation. back. be sure to praise good SECNAVINST 1650. That does • Navy Commendation Medal (NCM) not mean you should allow subordinates to run wild. A simple pat on the awards that can be given for outstanding performance. outlining the exceptional behavior demonstrated and its effect on the 1.commendation. or Year you must insist on adherence to rules and regulations. delay doesn’t referred to when writing the individual’s annual make a hard job any easier. (SOM/SOQ/SOY) Last. Praise in public. Look for the reason behind the action. for continuous good performance. There are many types of individual and unit appreciate their good performance. Often. • Command Letter of Appreciation (LOA) acknowledge and resolve the problem. • Sailor of the Month. A day thinking the chain of command doesn’t care. In addition. Giving an award to a appreciate their good performance. inserted in the division performance feedback: officer’s personnel record book. Occasionally. confidence and trust in the chain of command. and through your division head express appreciation at quarters. the job that was done.

you will have to recognize the existence of a problem and discover its nature on your own. Disciplinary affect the job performance of all your subordinates. Do you remember percent success rate on easy jobs? While Seaman the old saying about 20 percent of the people causing Smith was successful only 80 percent of the time. get 100 percent team effort from your assigned Your supervisors will occasionally call upon you workers. When doing that. Promising an award the leader or counselor. What type of feedback is given when job CONFLICT RESOLUTION performance standards are not being met? Sailors are capable of developing an almost 1. Then the form is placed in the individual’s 4. You also will need to provide a performance evaluation to your superiors • Disciplinary 1-11 . You somehow must put individual’s need for help may be declining job aside friendships and dislikes and present an honest. Your job as a leader is to others. failures. A simple pat on the back problem. Remember. as 2. Positive counseling sheet acknowledging the steps to be taken to correct the deficiency. which may or may not be 2. direct. Difficulty getting to work on assigned tasks. your supervisors may request input COUNSELING for a formal performance evaluation or to clarify a worker’s ability. When that situation arises. Q10. Evaluative pulling their weight. First. you will have to consider those facts. that will happen on two is needed. Some indicators of an weeks ago were your peers. take note of the time. In some cases. Constructive job related. be Counseling is a tool a leader uses to help a person completely honest with yourself and those you are explore. • Personal Avoid reporting minor problems you can correct yourself through counseling and leadership. they should be of concern to you. percent to 90 percent of your “personnel admin” time When comparing a person’s performance to that of on 20 percent of the people. Sometimes friction arises between workers. occasions. or a personal problem causes workers to stop 3. Positive infinite variety of problems. performance. and successes. Which of the following is not an acceptable the problem or deficiency and the steps required to sign of appreciation for a job well done? resolve the matter. Generally. and find solutions to a evaluating. and complexity of the tasks. In the following section you will read about (or you may find it necessary) to discuss the counseling methods that will not only help to resolve performance of your subordinates with your conflicts but also assist in other areas where counseling supervisors. You may be involved with four major types of blur your professional judgment. REVIEW QUESTIONS for such occasions. Second. the goal is to correct a 1. You One of the hardest tasks you will undertake as a should be able to recognize changes in behavior that new petty officer is the evaluation of people who just often signal problems. Meritorious captain’s mast division or department file. • Career you will need to seek help from your supervisor on occasions when you are unable to correct a • Performance performance or behavioral problem. changes in attitude. and the counselee sign the form 3. Was rebellion against authority or the system in general Seaman Jones’ work exceptional because of a 100 often indicate personal problems. Differences of advising and counseling sessions: opinion do not necessarily mean poor performance. members may come to you with their problems. When those occasions arise. or withdrawal from professional opinion of a person’s ability to perform friends and associates. You. Formal performance counseling requires written statements of Q9. he 80 percent of the problems? You can expect to spend 80 was performing tasks normally done by a petty officer. Don’t let personal feelings and attitudes problem. and help the subordinate correct the deficiency. Since these problems ultimately 4. hold a counseling session and document the session. constant demands on a leader’s time. and the counseling session is to train. In EVALUATING PERFORMANCE other cases. better understand.

Try to develop a nonevaluative style of listening and 2. That will encourage individuals to open up 3. it may grow into a bigger and have the counseling sheet signed. as a frontline leader. however. Use the nature of the problem and the purpose or intent of occasional. For each type of session. sense. You may have difficulty finding a quiet place in ability to manage human resources. If the concern is of a • Keep the individual’s problem confidential. You are in daily contact with the workers in your unit or division. aware of the resources available to you. When counseling is necessary. Occasionally restate what has been said. Career responding. the hangar deck. you can’t solve a problem. could be disastrous. you should first try to “set the stage. general questions to guide the conversation. actions. You should also understand the desired Avoid questions that can be answered “yes” or “no. Be operations to talk with the individual or individuals. however. REVIEW QUESTION Nondirective counseling occurs when you allow your subordinates to determine the direction of sessions. are the first link in • DO NOT make promises you can’t keep. wait until after normal chaplain’s office. and personnel office work hours or at least until a lull occurs in the tempo of often can help solve problems or offer advice. or behaviors following a session. spotting problems. Be sure you know • DO NOT be quick to decide. receiving the counseling. or pointing out failure to use common fulfill a need. At other times you will have to work a little harder to get to the root of a • Give the individual the facts. caution should be exercised when providing assistance with • DO NOT lose your self control. The results personal matters. Some key counseling points are as follows: Often your counseling efforts will consist of little more than providing information. the meeting. professional help.” results. simply letting people talk 4. you should understand out problems can help them find a solution. You. but try to get as much privacy as circumstances allow. Use common sense in Review available records. The Navy has trained professionals for this sort of help. provide them with sources of help. How you counsel will depend entirely upon your personality and the personality of the individual • Determine interview goal before meeting. Often. provided it is of a professional nature • Be a good listener. your Your quiet place may be an office or a vacant corner of leadership will never reach its full potential. personal nature. Unless you make many operating environments. approaches you with a request for specific information or your opinion. We all want to help our shipmates. • Help the individual grow in self-understanding. guide them to a resolution. Be fair. problem. Performance and work out frustrations. not all problems are how to spot problems and counsel your workers. pass it up the chain of • DO NOT forget to document formal counseling command. Q11. legal officer. whether they are problem and help find a solution. pointing out • Perform counseling to solve a problem or to infractions. a conscious effort to develop that ability. does that mean? If possible. If you ignore it. When an individual pleasant or unpleasant. and worries without fear of embarrassment. as they can become loaded guns if not carefully thought out and expressly worded. fears. Personal said. no matter what the Don’t be afraid to seek help when faced with an reason. The morale Try to find a quiet place where interruptions will not and job performance of your people depend on your occur. Which of the following is not a type of Your primary task is to listen to what they are saying. Improvement 1-12 . advising and counseling session? Show you are actively listening by reacting to what is 1. • Refer the individual to other resources for Exercise caution when expressing opinions.” What unfamiliar situation. and not a personal nature. developing your approach. Your chain of command. but do the best you can. If solvable in a single counseling session.

Leaders. it is nearly impossible for workers to part of most people’s basic psychology. leaders the top down. therefore. they will probably continue to shrink. • Better justification for budgets because of more Today’s leaders must set their sights on improving efficient operations the entire system. decreased productivity. improved quality There are two methods of record keeping—hard copy ultimately results in decreased costs and increased (chart) and automated data processing (computer). they often are stand-alone training program but provides a key extremely practical. are good at coming up with nonstandard (but workable) maintain specific equipment. Continuous improvement has several direct CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT benefits: A major problem facing the armed services today • Increased pride of workmanship among is the lack of money. application of “working smarter. We have done an time between equipment failures excellent job with our present system. In a rigid out the natural fear of change and innovation that is bureaucracy. the improved method available to everyone involved in It is the individual Sailor’s responsibility to the process. the improves the efficiency of our operations. those solutions member within a unit. In reality. consult the waivers of standards. Often. but is not applicable makes sure the recommended improvement is easy to to nuclear propulsion or the fleet ballistic missile use and meets all applicable standards.” Your responsibility will be to help guide the individual A popular myth among military leaders is that through the program. PQS is used in the procedures. Indeed. process by which work gets done. The essential ingredient of continuous The focus of continuous improvement is the improvement success is leadership involvement. a process is workers who do the job.PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION are responsible for making job improvement STANDARDS suggestions as easy as possible for workers. We must develop the ability to find element of a well-structured and dynamic unit-training improvements and include them into standard program (OPNAVINST 3500. of scarce resources. To make our dollars go further will mean a change in the way we do • Greater mission survivability business. Supervisors and managers should monitor the work Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) is a process so that they can respond to suggestions from the compilation of minimum knowledge and skills work force concerning unworkable procedures. The PQS program is not a result in unsafe practices. It reduces same information is entered for tracking the individual’s rework requirements as well as the need for special progress. NAVEDTRA 43100-1. however. it aviation and surface communities. Quality. doing so serves a dual purpose. It also reduces mistakes and Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) Management produces monetary savings through more efficient use Guide. Second. however. not harder. must drive either unwieldy or just plain unworkable. For detailed information. it will not allow for many • Improved sustainability because of extended improvements in production. How can that be? A focus on quality method is valid. Under continuous improvement. In some cases. Total quality persuade upper levels that there is a need to change leadership requires acceptance and a total effort from procedures. or perform as a team solutions to problems. First. Our budgets are not going to individual workers increase in the near future. Increased productivity and better • Streamlined maintenance and production quality through leadership is the primary goal of the processes continuous improvement program. Regardless of which method is used. Each productivity. This guidance involves keeping an increased quality results in increased costs and accurate record of their progress through a point system. Although our present system of • Increased readiness doing business is adequate. it makes weapons systems. Total quality leadership is a practical maintain and complete the sign-off pages of PQS sheets. is in the hands of the responsible for making it work. 1-13 .34). Sailors necessary to qualify for a specific watch station. and the method used is dictated by the extends the time between failures in equipment and command. The person most Management controls the process that accomplishes familiar with the process is the individual worker the mission.

and coordinating good way to start is to review the guidelines and the training program. Recognize be able to perform the duties and responsibilities of a the importance of training subordinates. Training 3. the greater his or training. Inadequate training practices can affect the operational • Oversee preparation of training materials. We can expect top requirements are met. Administration TRAINING SUBORDINATES RESPONSIBILITIES OF A TRAINING PETTY OFFICER Learning Objectives: Recall the duties and As a petty officer second class. a • Assist in planning. Training also Navy. You will assist in administering procedures for using training aids. you are required to responsibilities of the training petty officer. you need to know various techniques for methods of instruction to be used for a lesson. training policies stated in OPNAVINST 3120.S. • Provide and/or assign instructors to give The more senior a petty officer. Production the command 4.32. As a second class • Provide training to assigned instructors in petty officer. REVIEW QUESTION is used to qualify people to perform in positions of greater difficulty and responsibility. developing. performance from our Navy personnel only when their • Maintain training records. To make the improvement available Q13. consult the people so that they become capable of performing their Standard Organization and Regulations of the U. Standard Organization and Regulations of the U. methods and techniques. such as on-the-job training (OJT). subordinates’ knowledge and skills through more formal training programs. To recognize the individual that came up with the improvement 1. and responsibilities of a training petty officer are as Have you ever asked yourself. This section covers basic • Provide information on Navy and DANTES features and requirements of training and instructional courses. conducting a proper and effective training program. What is one of the most important challenges to everyone we face as petty officers when dealing with subordinates 2.S. The better trained our Sailors are. and aid in applying for courses. For further detailed information on the duties and Training is the process of imparting knowledge to responsibilities of a training petty officer. PQS. chapter 8. Recall training petty officer. Recall the be a collateral duty. Assist readiness and performance of your command. Why should improvements under the continuous improvement program be REVIEW QUESTION standardized? 1. Additionally we enhance our • Inform personnel of fleet and service schools. This assignment most likely will instructional methods and techniques. OPNAVINST 3120. her responsibilities are for training. Q12. • Develop monthly training schedules. graphs. “What is the best follows: and most effective way to train my people?” Well. Informal training is progress by using records such as charts and continuous. the more • Keep personnel informed of PQS and training productive they will be. Some of the duties training team (CTT) process. assigned duties in an acceptable manner. Recall the command training within your assigned area. To reduce expenditures for similar tasks 2. Scheduling 4.32. Navy. To maintain the improvements within 3. knowledge and skills are up to the requirements of their billets. Training is one of the most important challenges • Observe training/instructors to ensure we face as petty officers. 1-14 . in advancement training for personnel. and counseling sessions.

as well as your voice. consider (1) the nature of the trainees. Unfortunately. Every method depends asking questions. or failure to cannot possibly interact with all trainees on each point. the instructor fear of being classified as stupid. You must decide which methods to combine and the emphasis to place on each unless the curriculum itself 4. calling upon trainees to answer on oral instruction to give information. Develop monthly training schedules 1. its use continues as a means of reaching a Frequently ask if the class has any questions. All methods of instruction can be classified as 2. Which of the following is not a responsibility instructor. known. However. you sometimes may need to remind them that they must AND TECHNIQUES give undivided attention to the instruction. As you speak. showing or 3. thus large group at one time with a condensed. organize your oral presentations with the of the training petty officer? following techniques in mind: 1. and to develop receptive attitudes on the part of the trainees. as an Q14. Emphasize important points by the use of dictates the combination needed. Some instructors make the feverishly throughout the lecture. role. or any combination of these. a desire to participate. rather than writing trainees the most trouble. telling. Lecture Method Observing facial expressions as an indication of The lecture is still the most frequently used method doubt or misunderstanding is not an absolute way of of instruction. Your eyes.) 1-15 . and reactions schools communicate to you. understand the subject matter well enough to explain The learning effectiveness of the lecture method has where their difficulty lies. In making that gestures. 4. to arouse questions. However. when classes are large. The use of pauses in reality. or discussing. Assign personnel to fleet and service and their eyes. regardless of your skill as a speaker. demonstrating. can hear every spoken word. pausing momentarily to meet 2. or a INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS lack of interest. Make certain the trainees best way of teaching combines the various methods. Make the trainees feel that what 3. Providing trainees with lesson doubts or misunderstandings on their part. shift your gaze about the class. brief specific questions about those areas that might give notes concerning the objectives. organized giving the trainees an opportunity to express any body of information. but important. presenting a lecture without ensuring trainee comprehension. and variation in voice inflection. and evaluating answers. Often the Enunciate your words clearly. presentations in which oral explanations play a (Later in this section you will find techniques related to secondary. mistake of waiting until the end of the presentation to The lecture method will be presented first because ask questions. ask more effectively. Check trainee comprehension carefully subject matter. REVIEW QUESTION attention and interest. Maintain training records you have to say is directed to each of them personally. decision. Some trainees may pausing for interaction with trainees can be ineffective appear to be comprehending the subject matter when. they are completely confused. Maintain a high degree of enthusiasm. Those techniques apply not only mental block that prevents the trainee from to lectures but also to many other kinds of concentrating on the subject matter being presented. misunderstanding. lecturing. communicate to them. fatigue. Speak in a natural. Watch for indications of doubt. and (3) the time limitations. Mental fog tends to create a methods of training. Therefore. repetition. The best time to clear away mental fog is the techniques involved serve as the basis for other when the fog develops. It will help them to take concise. been questioned because of the lack of interaction. (2) the 5. They may hesitate because of natural timidity. Maintain good eye contact. If you are dealing with young trainees. conversational voice. facial expressions. Trainees who during the lecture for direct oral questioning creates are in doubt often hesitate to make their difficulty interaction between instructor and trainee. Based on objectives before the lecture will enable them to listen your personal knowledge and past experiences. Oversee preparation of training materials the gaze of each trainee. throughout the presentation by watching the faces of the trainees and by questioning them.

You can control and direct a small group you. The use of the terms class discussion and directed • Build a background for the discussion. rather than a mere recall of easily than other ideas. you must make trainees have had ample opportunity to express their more extensive and more thorough preparations than ideas. 6. guide the discussion to a • Ask thought-provoking discussion questions. Then stimulate the trainees to discuss the also creates interest in the solution of the problem. contrast. Use the subject matter to be able to sift out pertinent ideas. and angles of the central problem. particularly those dealing with human class discussions. basic questions. Use words. Use the discussion method only when classes are more easily than you can larger groups of 10 or more small enough to allow everyone a chance to take part. you act as the chairman • Ask questions to keep the discussion in bounds. If possible. prior Navy training and experience. Guide the trainees away from irrelevant ideas and explanations. finally. The most easily adaptable areas facts previously learned. they would when carrying on an ordinary conversation.” familiar with the subject matter as a result of outside reading. A true class discussion requires a trainee-to-trainee • Be willing to accept. and rhetorical questions (a question to from scattered sources. and redirection of ideas. C l ear up tangent. small groups are more table so that all of the trainees can see each other and desirable. visual illustrations. an incorrect interchange of ideas. Think. temporarily. A hasty “No!” or “You’re wrong!” can bring interchange of ideas during a typical sudden death to any discussion. problems. Another device is the use discussion. or moderator. class become genuinely interested in exploiting all • Encourage the timid. If a group is extremely large. the trainees should have some previous of suggestions. You can use a number of require trainees to compare. concepts. Give due credit to the aware of ideas that may lead the trainees off on a tra ine e s for the ir c ontributions. They also require trainees to solve Among those devices are thought-provoking questions. 1-16 . As a result of your questions. Conduct discussions with large or group. to bring out the desired aspects of the main problem. first lay a suitable foundation for the and limits the problem to an area that can be covered in a discussion by asking one or more challenging reasonable length of time. or civilian Discussion Method training and experience. and suggestions. They forget the normal maintain a standard of discipline in keeping with the classroom restraints and begin to talk to each other as maturity level of the trainees. Instruct on the class level. steer the discussion away from those ideas. The discussion in this text refers to methods in which you development of an appropriate background tends to facilitate verbal exchange in the class. question-and-answer period is not a class discussion. the trainees in the to guide the discussion toward the desired conclusion. and the like. toward the desired goals without dominating the directed to the needs of the average trainee in the class. you would for a lecture. trainees. and weigh facts. you must have a thorough knowledge of the • Summarize the discussion at intervals. discussion. as used here. You can adapt some ideas to discussions more refers to creative thinking. questions. To receive full benefit from the which no answer is expected). misunderstandings and emphasize correct ideas. logical conclusion. however. They could be me” and “Consider your reaction to this situation. Although the trainees supply the ideas. such as “I want you to think along with familiarity with the subject matter. Stimulate trainees to think. An appropriate background questions. restrain the talkative. problem situations. and ideas. challenging relations. break it into Use the following techniques in conducting a smaller groups or teams with a discussion leader for classroom discussion: each team. and to glean hidden or obscure information statements. An instructor-to-trainee idea. In the directed discussion. • Avoid expressing your own ideas until the To conduct a class discussion. Be chalkboard for this purpose. arrange trainees to think constructively while interacting with the classroom in such a manner that you are a part of the the rest of the group. To use these focus the trainees’ attention upon the central problem methods. 7. arrange for the group to sit around a small groups. Discussion methods are effective in getting the To help make the class discussion a success. instructional devices for stimulating trainee thinking.

In The term summary as used here refers to that part short. If trainees do not understand a certain lesson or a skill because it covers all the necessary steps in an operation. this method is recommended because it leaves of the lesson in which the instructor reviews the nothing to chance. These techniques include the use of the repetition step helps the average and slow learners and lesson summary. Teach a safety precaution just sure to show the steps in the proper sequence and to before reaching the point in your demonstration where include all steps. procedures if possible. identify and organize the subject matter. and the safety precautions. the You can use instructional techniques with any of the nomenclature. The above methods. This method is recommended for teaching orders. Plan techniques to make the various steps effective. When practical. will always include a demonstration step and a performance step. the teacher hasn’t taught” might apply in some situations. When summarizing. it applies.—Make every effort to get trainees to observe correct procedures the first time Use the demonstration or “doing” method to they try a new task. the reason for and the significance of each step. the steps or procedure. old saying. and training aids. Demonstrate. you can help them learn be trying harder than you suspect. the summary so that it assists the trainees in organizing 1-17 . attempts of a beginner. Use the presented. group or if the trainees might have trouble seeing Patience is a virtue for any petty officer. explain have them practice the skill. oral questioning.—The basic method of instruction for teaching skill-type subject If you find that your trainees have not learned what matter is the demonstration-performance method of you tried to teach them. use not come naturally to you. do not react as if they disobeyed instruction. keep in mind For convenience. that person may reinforcing proper procedures. The direct demonstration the patience of the expert as much as the fumbling approach is a very effective method of instruction. By impatient. you When setting up an instructional plan. DEMONSTRATION METHOD. If it does because of the size of the equipment involved. A slow learner may never acquire the allow trainees to repeat the procedure in a “hands on” knowledge or skill you are trying to impart if you are practice session to reinforce the learning process. that could indicate a poor job of teaching. The most effective learning results teach skills. the instructor must especially when trainees have the opportunity to repeat patiently demonstrate and explain until the trainee the procedures. where you don’t have to follow these steps in the sequence necessary. First. Second. plan the demonstration so that you will be especially important. and such an asset justifies any amount of patience. rather than activities. So as soon as you teach trainees to do a job. however. “If the learner hasn’t learned. patient. material covered. instead choose the steps in the sequence following techniques in summarizing a lesson: best suited to the needs of the trainees. you want to help the trainees skills are presented in steps. the when trainees use a skill immediately after you have procedures in a job task. While demonstrating. using the exact physical taught it. the techniques for imparting two major aims. in memorizing the subject matter. Nothing exhausts the task more quickly. immediately correcting the trainees’ mistakes and Avoid sarcasm toward a bungler. Those details include the necessary background knowledge. “Good instruction” T E C H N I QU E S USED IN THE means a more effective crew. The performance step gives Lesson Summary all trainees the opportunity to become proficient. The effective learning order. you must use judgment in selecting • Summarize the subject matter thoroughly. understand that want to assist the trainees in understanding and. gives the trainees an additional opportunity to see and hear the skill being taught. To be Teaching applicable safety precautions is effective. acquires the needed competence. you must train yourself to be enlarged devices or training aids. The demonstration step gives trainees the opportunity to see and hear the details related to the RELATED TECHNIQUES skill being taught. step-by-step. Although you • Introduce the summary properly. State the reason for the precaution so that the If you must give the demonstration before a large trainees will understand the need for compliance.Demonstration Method GENERAL HINTS.

adequate understanding of the subject. Asking a general question. well-directed oral questions. usually a lesson as a topic. Such questions aid in motivating trainees. you would not the ability to recall mere facts. If the lesson ask questions that emphasize the ability to reason and is long. Review the actual subject matter. call for the application of facts. as they mentally search for an answer. The ability reteach. so forth. Thought provoking year?” will serve to clear trainees’ minds of any 3. Therefore. or chalkboard drawing. demonstration piece. rather than just facts alone. This 4. 2 or 3 hours in duration. mock-up. requiring trainees to solve problems that will provide them with an opportunity to apply knowledge. Ask questions increases their listening skills. That information will enable you to determine the level at which you should begin instruction. Intimidating 1-18 . to direct thought-through questioning is recognized as one of the most valid proofs of teaching skill. figures. To help trainees will absorb short summaries better than an unduly long remember certain facts. you can determine the trainees’ REVIEW QUESTIONS level of knowledge in a particular subject matter. Having the trainees review the topics (class notes) will aid them in • Focus the trainees’ attention. Asking and answering that require trainees to comment on previous experience questions helps trainees organize their thoughts. formulas. Allow trainees to require little or no thought on the part of the trainee. and summary at the end of the complete lesson. thoroughly enough for the trainees to gain an whole. use preplanned oral questions to reinforce a subject matter in the trainees’ minds. During a class discussion. Active involvement in the class discussion • Establish a level of instruction. A direct • Increase trainee participation. Enough emphasis cannot be placed on the importance of questioning in any teaching situation. Again. Encourage relationship exists between your success as an trainees to take an active part in the instruction by instructor and the quality and quantity of oral allowing them to both answer and ask questions. what questioning technique should be used? • Arouse interest. question about a particular part of a model. Ask questions that their own questions. Ask questions Often the difference between a dull. By asking a series of oral questions. you will find the following techniques of invaluable use to you. Trainees remember information longer if the material is given as answers to • Stimulate trainee thought. if you need training aids to make the right kind of lesson presentation. can direct the trainees’attention to that immediate area. then you also need them for • Review the subject matter. Facts easily can be committed to memory and • Develop communication skills. for example. Encourage trainees to as an instructor: ask questions to help them learn. Q15. • Summarize at appropriate intervals. Devise questions the right kind of summary. Closed ended extraneous thoughts. • Check for comprehension.the important subject matter into a form more easily type of questioning usually is used to generate interest learned. questioning you use in teaching. Trainees • Drill on the subject matter. Yes or no as “How many of you have fired a . chart. By asking a understanding the subject. boring lecture and covering the main points of the lesson to detect and a lively discussion is only a matter of some correct errors in thinking and to locate areas you need to well-planned.50-caliber machine gun?” or “How many persons died on the highways last 2. you • Avoid a strictly oral summary. in the subject matter you are going to teach. shapes. if possible. • Increase trainee learning. ask and answer questions to improve their speaking skills. be wise to summarize at the end of each period or at the end of each significant area of subject matter. not just the in a large block of subject matter. This technique Oral Questioning eventually will lead to the trainees’ mastery of the subject on which they are being drilled. Remember. such 1.

prevention training. check for points that need clarification or emphasis. The command training of the chalkboard drawing before the instruction period. The advance. and equal opportunity issues and policies. (EOPS) from a major command or staff. are reading or studying the aid. Look at the film. Test the lesson topics follow an NR&R workshop course guide usefulness of an aid by asking yourself what important provided by the Chief of Naval Education and Training points it reveals or clarifies. use aids enough to keep the class size below 20 people. True 2. if ever. • Plan how you will introduce and what you will and a forum for discussing Chief of Naval Operations say about an aid. Commands must conduct training frequently illustrate points in the lesson. Exposed aids may distract the group’s annual workshop includes sexual harassment attention from other steps in the lesson. examine the chart. The following guidelines apply to the CTT: • Be sure every trainee can see and hear the aid and has the opportunity to handle it if required. listen to are formed in the command to accomplish this the recording. 1. False 3. use the keeping everyone up to date on areas such as fire following procedures: fighting. The annual workshop. Telling 1. listen to. • Each Navy command. responsibilities. stand so that you do not block of a minimum of two members in paygrade E-6 or above the trainees’ view. examine. Minimum CTT size is as follows: 1-19 . During your preview. use a pointer to locate parts on the who are trained in conducting NR&R workshops. (CNET). Rarely. Everyone fills out a critique sheet as a means • Plan how and when you will use aids during the of feedback on workshop effectiveness. They receive the instructor by going through the explanations and steps training from a CNET activity. After instruction. Mount or prepare the aid. but do not expose it in hold an all-hands NR&R workshop annually. except those with less than 50 military personnel. uses a training guide provided by CNET. review of the latest Navy equal opportunity (EO) policies and the Navy EO climate. team (CTT) consists of command personnel trained to Never lose valuable instruction time and waste the time present the Navy Rights and Responsibilities (NR&R) of the trainees by stopping instruction to learn how to use workshop. and above all. Training teams • Always preview the aid. and command-specific issues. safety. when the trainee is required REVIEW QUESTION physically to repeat the steps in a procedure. Lecturing 2. aid.Q16. and check the visibility mandatory training mission. handle. All personnel must attend an NR&R workshop within 90 days of reporting to a new permanent duty • Select and prepare aids that emphasize or station. Commands lesson. not to the aid. Prospective CTT members receive formal training • When possible. or operate the aid. or by an equal opportunity program specialist keep the trainees’ attention. However. Discussing COMMAND TRAINING TEAM TRAINING AIDS There are vital mandatory training needs that are given command wide for the purpose of informing and To get the best results from training aids. talk to the trainees. That will help clear misconceptions and (MTT). Provide time for the trainees to view. All only because they are pretty or nice to look at. mobile training team you have given. held in conjunction with the annual EO command don’t expect them to listen to you at the same time they assessment. or adjust an aid. appoints a CTT consisting • When using an aid. Training aids should be in plain view when classroom instruction begins. have a trainee take over as the in conducting NR&R workshops. Demonstrating 4. what method of teaching should have been used by the instructor? Q17. personal rights.

30 months O PNAV IN ST 3500. all 50 — 100 2 are important for effective leadership. DC. especially in the areas of job Standard Organization and Regulations of the U. • Members of the CTT should complete the Equal However. COMMAND SIZE CTT Some skills. Pensacola. and motivating Navy. 4. • Prospective CTT members must have a minimum of 18 months remaining from their assignment date REFERENCES before their planned rotation date (PRD). Because you have a great influence on your • Members of the CTT who are inactive in the CTT people. You will have the responsibility • Commands must document formal training as a to understand your people’s needs and to help them CTT member in the Sailor’s service record. Chie f of Naval Operations. FL. members of the CTT repeat formal training? 1990. nevertheless. N ava l Educ a tion a nd Tra ining P r ogr am Q18. 24 months Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) Program. planning. 1993. They still are in the Navy’s most effective leaders. 2000. FL. After what inactive period of time must Management Support Activity. the Program Management Support Activity. Chief of Naval Operations. They are alive and well—they are seen of a host or neighbor command. leadership. 1. leader. are more important for a petty officer than for a commanding officer. and your country. Chief of Naval subordinates. Naval Education and Training apply leadership skills depends partially on your level in Program Management Support Activity. you will sometimes be in a supervisory position. SUMMARY Petty Officer Indoctrination Course. The extent to which you. Student’s Journal. S. 1991. Being a leader entails many different skills. you should strive to be a strong. 1-20 . meet their needs while helping to achieve the Navy’s mission. NAVEDTRA 43100-1. the 301 — above 5 Navy. Naval Education and Training In today’s Navy with resources at a minimum. DC. 101 — 200 3 Whatever the job or situation. you exhibit better 201 — 300 4 leadership skills when you have pride in yourself. counseling. 1992. respect. Such have no requirement to have a formally trained CTT if traditional Navy values as honesty. training. responsible for addressing command-specific issues and policy updates. Washington. Washington. work will you rise from one of the crowd to become a true Navy leader. Only through diligent study and hard to the training team. the chain of command or your specific job situation. most of those skills involve pride. DC.32C. as a Navy leader. As a petty officer. 1994. petty officer is called upon even more to be a front-line FL.34E. Washington. NAVEDTRA 10049. Pensacola. You also exhibit better leadership skills when you act in a professional manner • Commands with less than 50 military personnel in your rating and in your role as a leader. for instance. NAVEDTRA 14256. and an understanding of those (NAVEDTRA 13099-E) within 3 months of assignment working for you. Petty officers must be skilled in work center leadership/supervision. positive process for over 24 months must repeat the formal influence that will aid in their growth. OPNAVINST 3120. training. NAVEDTRA 38200. personnel are important and are emphasized by effective Use and Care of Hand Tools and Measuring Tools. 18 months Guide. Pensacola. 3. 12 months Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) Management 2. and trust they can arrange to participate in the NR&R workshops are NOT dead. Opportunity in the Navy nonresident training course professionalism. The rights and responsibilities of all Navy Operations. Management Fundamentals: A Guide for Senior and REVIEW QUESTION Master Chief Petty Officers.

not the responsibility of the training petty A5. (2) By using thought-provoking questions in a A6. you will be repeated by a trainee require a physical unable to communicate effectively. and disciplinary. thus it is the most important level chain of command. (4) Without a proper understanding of the A16. an effective leader should take these differences personnel can be expected only when their into account in his or her leadership. problems will affect your advancement. (4) The four types of advising and counseling toward a specific goal. of human behavior. (2) You should never promise an award A18. A2. A13. formal training. (4) Assignment to fleet and service schools is leaders. (3) A successful leader will neither criticize others for his or her mistake nor hide this A12. A1. therefore. (1) Since an individual’s values and beliefs use and will meet all applicable standards. knowledge and skills are up to the requirements for their billets. (1) Improvements under the continuous mistake from subordinates. do not stretch the truth nor take up more of your superior’s time group’s attention from other steps in the than is absolutely necessary. all participants are desires. Standardization results in ease of A3. (2) Constructive feedback is used help the individual improve his or her performance. (3) The term fundamentals of leadership refers to the art of influencing people to work A11. (1) Top performance from our Navy ethnic background. (4) Every person has different wants and classroom discussion. he or she has a different encouraged to voice their opinions and emotional makeup that cannot be changed. A15. (3) Procedures that will be physically technical language of your rate. (2) Exposed training aids may distract the A8. A4. thoughts about the material. everyone. sessions are personal. and religious heritage. and will demonstration in order for them to observe misinterpret official publications. This decision is made by the Sailor’s sustain life. career. A9. (3) Members who are inactive in the CTT because awards come through the chain of process for a period of 24 months must repeat command. (3) Survival consists of the basics we need to officer. (1) When reporting status. are influenced by childhood experiences. Taking steps to improvement program should be standardized avoid repeating the error is the appropriate to make the improvements available to action when an error has been committed. These and later perform the procedure. A17. (3) Initiative. dedication and accountability are traits that are common to all successful A14. REVIEW ANSWERS A10. lesson. performance. A7. 1-21 .