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The traditional Kandyans in these villages live a very healthy life while producing spices. situated 823 meters above sea level. up to 1960 Gohagoda. fruits and vegetables for local and export markets. Kandy city dwellers and travellers too enjoy the cool climate of this beautiful city surrounded with its hills and valleys. it attracts a large student and professional population from outside. besides there are other historical sites and monuments within the Heritage city attracting more and more tourist each year. There are number of temples with historical importance scattered in the small villages surrounding the city.1 Background to the proposed project Kandy is the hill capital of Sri Lanka. at present 120 tonnes of MSW per day collected in the city are being dumped at the Gohagoda dumpsite. In addition. Unfortunately. Similarly. due to highly contaminated through deep percolation and seepage is polluting the groundwater table. which been declared a World Heritage City. which is located within the periphery of the city. It is a huge threat in terms of air pollution due to Green House Gases (GHG) and odorous gas emissions. Buddhists and other religionist from all over the country and the world visit the holy place of Sri Dalada Maligawa (The Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic of Lord Buddha) in the city centre. The expenses of the Kandy Municipal Council (KMC) to provide adequate services on health and sanitation among other services are noteworthy. significant numbers of communities are facing various diseases and health problems. the dumpsite was semi engineered with the technical and financial support of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for increasing its capacity for two years. As a result. In year 2003. which is 7km away from the city was used as an isolated area for dumping hospital waste. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. rivers. the most beautiful cultural city in Sri Lanka. Since then. In response to such increases. . then as a sewage dumpsite and finally as the place for dumping all the waste generated from the KMC. more frequently. still Gohagoda is the final disposal site for solid waste generated in city of Kandy. The Central Government interventions to ameliorate the disposal facilities still would reply on additional expenses to maintain the improved system of managing the ever increasing generations of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). which is the main water source for entire province. It is even worse during the festival season. This picturesque city with the importance of being the capital of the Central Province has had a greater impact on the life of the city for several decades with number of renowned schools and centres of higher education including the University of Peradeniya. emissions pollute the Mahaweli River. Nevertheless. In addition to that. Many people. Therefore. lakes and cascading waterfalls. the importance of Kandy increased. It is also the capital of the Central Province. Some of villages have artisans with great skills producing artefacts of great value.

it is essential to rehabilitate the dumpsite.Therefore. rubber etc. Therefore. application of WTE concept is more feasible for polythene. However. otherwise it will continue to pollute for a considerable length of time. the rehabilitation of dumpsites was not strongly emphasised within the government policy and thus. which not only considers the environment but also generation of energy from MSW. Thus. not given the priority. The better alternatives are converting the compost to char and to establish landfill bioreactors to generate gas for power generation. Unfortunately. It is obvious that with implementations of these activities. since the University has developed number technologies that can resolve the present constraints and also provide low cost technological options to rehabilitate the Gohagoda dumpsite. Based on energy values found for different type of waste within the Kandy Municipality. EcoTech Lanka Limited formed to implement the project with the intention of deriving funds from other sources. However. it would be possible to uplift the living standards of the communities via more income generation and protect the environment for future generations while mitigating present serious environmental burdens. Colombo. The plausible conversion technologies are composting. ECOTECH LANKA has taken the initiative and responsibility to apply suitable waste treatment technologies for minimizing environmental pollution. The KMC opted to develop a corporate partnership with the University of Peradeniya. since none of the companies tended the expression of interest (EOI) were willing to rehabilitate the dumpsite and dispose the wastes without a tipping fee.2 Justification of the project The KMC while approving the project recommended and sanctioned to formulate a company to undertake the proposed project. Waste to Energy (WTE) concept is an ideal option. 1. There were several promotional events conducted jointly between KMC and the Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture (PGIA) to formulate the project “Rehabilitation of Gohagoda Dumpsite and Development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) System for KMC”. It is proposed to extract compost and convert it to char from the mined waste for plantations and remaining plastic and other polyethylene to be converted to Residual Derived Fuel (RDF) while extract the landfill gas and produce electricity as a prime income source to commence other project activities. so as to convert the wastes to tangible resources. until recently in the wake of the crisis at Bloemandhal. It also blends well with the gas generations from the dumpsite that can contribute to developing a sustainable system. This was one of the . the quality of compost is questionable. In addition. Alternate technologies and safe disposal facility are essential to overcome the plight of poor MSW management. open dumping is no longer acceptable for Kandy city. open dumping is no longer acceptable for Kandy city and Central Environmental Authority (CEA). it is possible to generate a significant percentage of energy requirements using the wastes discarded at present. since the composition analysis of the wastes indicates that more than 60 % of waste is short-term biodegradable that is ideal for producing compost. Therefore. and recyclable component of mined waste. plastic. since lack of land and other negative issues of open dumping.

In the process of reaching that target. Also additional funding is a necessity for social adjustments of the rag pickers and farmers rearing animals. Unfortunately. The gas emissions from the dumpsite can be captured to produce electricity. Still the waste management professionals either belong to engineered landfills or incineration systems. However.1 Main objective(s) of the project To implement the 30 year lease agreement given to the company to establish and operate an ISWM system for the KMC which will be implemented in stages with proven technologies while the dumpsite is rehabilitated to meet environmental standards of the CEA.3. optimization and development of scientific principles are lacking in most of the processes that are installed in most Western Countries. since the management of facilities depends on high tipping fees. In view of these novel approaches the Company has decided to initially install a 2. it has been possible to find inventive ways of managing sustainable landfills with the landfill bioreactor technology at low costs. It is essential to develop the sustainable system at Gohagoda without causing any hindrance to other Kandian villagers of cultural and historical values. Therefore. 1. haulage distance.5MW thermal power plant. emissions need treatment before allowing it to flow eventually to Mahaweli River. the health of the populations are affected due to the open dumping of wastes at Gohagoda. It is essential to rehabilitate the dumpsite and develop a sustainable ISWM system for KMC and other neighbouring local authorities while providing a healthy livelihood for the families who are dependent on the wastes. The income from electricity generation should be more than adequate to override the costs of rehabilitating the dumpsite.3. The exploitation of the dumpsite resources can commence with the correct choice of technology to establish the ISWM system. since the earlier proposal of finding an alternate site was shelved due to many reasons such as Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) syndrome.reasons to continue disposal of wastes at Gohagoda. This will contribute to the reduction of climate change and global warming. The efficiencies of the existing thermal systems can then be improved with much higher temperatures of combustion by combining landfill gas with producer gas to meet ambient air dioxin emission standards. other supporting technologies are available to increase profitability and thus reduce risk. The strides made at the University are to combine the two technologies to make the system truly integrated. most of the available technologies in developed countries are operated inefficiently. In addition. 1. They are now in the process of developing ISWM systems.3 Objectives of the project The impact on environment and thus. 1.5 MW duel fuel system and finally a 7. thus housing and developing improved livelihoods. rehabilitation of the dumpsite is a challenge requiring adequate funding with suitable technologies of making RDF and char fertilizer. social and political pressures. Nevertheless.2 Specific objectives .

1.4 Brief outline of the methodologies and technologies adopted in EIA preparation The scope of this EIA mainly covers the Terms of Reference (Annexure 1) prepared by the CEA. The study area in general covers the entire land allocated for the project.3 Objectives of the EIA report It is a necessity under the National Environment Act No 47 of 1980 (NEA) to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study considering the fact that the proposed ISWM system will be receiving more than 100 tonnes of waste per day and a dumpsite mining and rehabilitation component has been suggested as part the project Ecotech Lanka Limited. iv. surface water contamination. i. iii. In this respect. reduction. field and laboratory analysis conformed to . reuse and recycle of materials while assisting the KMC to improve collection of wastes vii. To maximise conversion of waste to energy by promoting biochemical (biogas) and thermal processes (RDF) to generate electricity and other thermal uses 1. The study involved the collection of baseline data on the existing environment. Every effort was exercised to capture the likely affected areas. To improve the infrastructure so as to access the dumpsite and operate it until landfill bioreactors can be constructed and used. To remove haphazardly dumped wastes. landfill gas emission and emissions during RDF processing and utilization. construct and operate landfill bioreactors in an integrated approach vi. The field observations. To promote avoidance. Solid Waste Management Research Unit (SWMRU) of the University of Peradeniya together with other experienced experts evaluated the present environmental impacts and possible impacts that could arise through rehabilitating of the dumpsite and during establishing and operational phases of the ISWM system with special emphasis on converting waste to energy and then to mitigate them with appropriate techniques so as to minimize the adverse impacts on the environment. Social study covers 500 m radius outside the proposed area. process the existing materials. the Project Approving Agency. To conduct preliminary works on awareness programmes while the collection system is improved. To relocate the occupants to a safe and socially acceptable habitats approved and given by the KMC v. To undertake preliminary scientific and technological investigations to develop detailed designs. In this respect the University Peradeniya with the collaboration of the Institute of Fundamental Studies (IFS) carried out physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of surface water. treatment of and extraction of gas in the rehabilitation efforts. Further this report attempts to provide a suitable monitoring programme to ensure the adherence to the proposed mitigation measures. ii.3. special attention was paid to groundwater. Soil types and bore-hole analysis were too carried out. air quality as a consequence of generation. groundwater and sediment quality in the project area.

The prelate of the temple has already provided numerous advises and solutions.6 Policy. Therefore. surveys. legal and administrative framework with reference to the project In Sri Lanka. Different surveys were undertaken by the experts in order to collect relevant baseline data as appropriate as possible. It serves the communities living around the dumpsite. meetings and discussions and computer modeling work that are usually adopted in EIA studies were used. .5 Compatibility with other projects/programs/plans/developments in the area The Kandy City development under heritage city indicates positive improvements to traffic by way of one way. The sludge beds to be constructed in the promises of the Gohagoda facility by the Kandy national water supply and drainage board (NWS&DB) will cause odour problems. the company is envisaging greater involvement of the temple to improve the spiritual and educational levels of these deprived populations living in the neighbourhood. Provincial Council and LA regulations and legislations. . National Building Research Organization (NBRO) was contracted to measure air quality and noise levels in the project area. Impacts were evaluated using the Leopold Matrix method.standard methods. field visits. The Gohagoda temple is very old and has a long heritage. The water intake project is somewhat a problematic or a concerning factor for the development of the project. underpasses and even mono-rail and thus. The challenge is then to ensure odour free facility enhancing the environment to increase the tourism industry largely dependent on the Mahaweli River. 1. But it can be compatible if the sludge is processed by the proposed ISWM system. overhead bridges. It is deeply felt that the prosperity of the project is blessed with this temple located at the edge of the dumpsite. the basic legal framework required for solid waste management is provided under an umbrella of Government. 1. thus ameliorating the conditions for supplying intake water. Tourism: The odour nuisance is one of the greatest impacts for hotels located on the other side of the Mahaweli River and in some places quite far from the dumpsite. The methodologies adopted for this study are summarized in Table 1. It can be processed to produce good quality fertilizer by charring or sterilization and drying with steam generated from the power plants. questionnaires. the proposed ISWM system will reduce the impacts. The balancing tank in the middle of the waste dump and the proposed landfill bioreactors was not located appropriately in the design and construction of it.1. Literature. the waste transportation system can be improved. Although. the present dumpsite is having an impact on water quality before treatment at the Katugathota water purification plant. This small temple requires restoration to become one of the leading religious locations not only for workers and their families employed by the company.

61 of 1989. reduction. Sections 41 and 93 to 95 of the PS Act.Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources . the Sri Lanka labor law applicable to laborers/ Workers/ Employers and others who are relevant to that field. A strategy based on the policy framework is also implemented to encourage solid waste management practices through waste avoidance..Central Environmental Authority The conditional approvals except from CEA have been already received and are given in Annexure 2. re-use. 2005). These government enactments provided the provisions and regulation for selecting a suitable lands for the project and help to do the development within the frame of law and regulations. As a response to the growing problem. treatment and final disposal. Sections 118. 15 of 1987 and National Environmental Act (NEA) are the key pieces of legislations governing solid waste management. 42 of 1987. One of the very important acts relevant to above mention project is national environmental act.1. It has been gazetted and enforced. recycling. 119 and 120 of the Urban Councils Ordinance.Urban Development Authority . No. One of the aspects of the programme was to develop appropriate policies for developing sustainable systems. Electricity act and regulations impose by the ministry under the national environmental act.The 13th Amendment to the constitution (1987) and the Provincial Councils Act No. the urban council (UC) Ordinance and the pradeshiya sabha (PS) Act. 130 and 131 of the Municipal Councils Ordinance (1980). No. all MSW generated within the boundary of local authorities (LAs) is their property. According to the MC Ordinance. the strategy recommends that all LAs provide proper landfills for final disposal. Ordinance. the sections 129.7 Approvals needed for the project from other state agencies and any conditions laid down by Government agencies for implementation of the project It has been envisaged that approvals are necessary from key institutions in charge of different subjects during rehabilitation of Gohagoda dumpsite and development of an ISWM System.Mahaweli Authority .Harispathuwa Pradeshiya Sabha .Central Provincial Council . The provision of the act vindicate and explain how to launch the project without damage to the environment. . regulations applicable to the project are provincial council ordinance. 1. They are as follows. etc. the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources has planned an implementing programme.Ministry of Power and Energy . Other acts. including the urban planners. . Further. Also it emphasizes the importance of these developed policies in order to support existing and developing economic. industrial and urban planning policies. called “Pilisaru” to coordinate the efforts of all stakeholders.Ministry of Local Government and Provincial Council . and they are mandated to remove and dispose of such waste materials without causing any nuisance to the public (Vidanaarachchi et al.

. Provincial approval from the SEA . Commitments from the local authorities to supply garbage for the project . Letter of intent (LOI) from the CEB for purchase of electricity .

which is 30 years old unmanaged open dumpsite known as Gohagoda Dumpsite.5 kilometers from Katugasthota town on Sri Rathanapala Mawatha (B365).2 is an aerial view indicating accessibility to the site.1. A copy of the Lease Agreement is annexed in this report (Annexure 2. 200 meters off the left side at Gohagoda junction.1 Project site The proposed project site is the present final disposal site of the KMC. The land is owned by the KMC and leased to Ecotech Lanka Limited for 30 years. CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT REASONABLE ALTERNATIVES 2. The location belongs to Polwatte Grama Niladhari division in Harispattuwa Divisional Secretariat Division and Harispattuwa Pradeshiya Sabha in Kandy District of Central Province of Sri Lanka.1 Description of the Project 2. well known as Katugasthota-Peradeniya road.1 is a map of the proposed location and Figure 2.1 Map view of the proposed project site . Figure 2. Proposed Project Site at Gohagoda Figure: 2. surrounding developments and infrastructure. It is located in Thekkawatte. at about 1. Gohagoda. The extent of the proposed project site is around 16 acres on the left bank of the River Mahaweli.2).

Peradeniya general hospital. commercial. This includes market waste from Kandy central market. Besides. Waste Collection System i. Mahaweli reach hotel. and other institutional waste including schools. At present. 110.Peradeniya Road Site Access Road Dumpsite Mahaweli River Proposed Project Site at Gohagoda Proposed Site for Kandy Sewerage Treatment Plant NWS&DB Water Intake Sludge Processing Unit by NWS&DB Figure: 2. Amount of . private and public offices. banks. Manikkumbura public market. street sweepings and the industrial waste other than sewage sludge are the main sources of MSW. the waste generation within the Kandy city is around 215 tones/day and according to the loading survey conducted at the disposal site. temple of Tooth Relic.2 Nature of the project a. industries (Ceylon Tobacco Company.2 Aerial view of the proposed project site 2. distilleries). Kandy general hospital. Katugastota . Sources and amount of waste to be collected Residential. Infectious Disease Prevention (IDP) unit and Harispaththuwa Pradeshiya Sabha collection and disposal by themselves. waste generated at the University of Peradeniya.12 tones/day is collected by the KMC and disposed at the Gohagoda dumpsite.1.

12 ii.3: Composition variation of MSW in Kandy Municipality It shows that readily biodegradable is the highest fraction which is about 59.27%.15 Distilleries 01.1 and details of the loading survey are given in Annexure 2.60 Commercials Kandy Central Market 08.27 Manikkumbura Public 04.. 2001). population density. income level and social background (Wang and Nie. 2007 the composition of waste collected by Kandy Municipality averaged as shown in Figure 2. Nature of waste MSW composition could vary from place to place according to the location.61 Total 110.1: Amount of waste collection from different sectors Source of Waste Amount of waste Collection Generation tonnes / day Households and 79.2% and long term biodegradable portion is about 29.waste collected from different sectors is given in Table 2. . Figure 2. The market waste has higher organic fraction. As reported by Manikpura et al.2 Table 2. obviously.3.3. 2.3.50 Hospitals 04.67 Market University of Peradeniya 01.68 Ceylon Tobacco Company 00.92 IDP Unit 08.72 Mahaweli Reach Hotel 00.1 and Anex. University and hospital waste could contain hazardous waste.

Zone 1 1A Central City Wewelpitiya Carekleen(Pvt)Ltd. Waste collection process The KMC is the responsible authority to manage waste within the Kandy Municipality. Mulgampola. Table 2. iii. Malwatta. In some places in Arruppola zone. rakes. Lewella. Proposed project expects to continue with this management structure while resolving the existing problems and providing adequate resources. shops) without transferring to primary collection points. KMC Mahaiyawa Peradeniya. Nuweea. collection crew is directly collecting the waste from the sources (houses. shovels. Zone 3 Peradeniya Katukele. .3. Tools such as mamoties. Most likely it will be commence from the Aruppola zone. Zone 4 Katugastota Mawilmada. pickaxe. which are then transferred to the tractors or compactor trucks. Frequency of collection varies from place to place ranging from three times per week to once a week. KMC Siyambalapitiya. Yatinuwara. forks and knifes are used to collect the waste. open tractors and handcarts. Asgiriya. Katugastota. Kahala KMC Watapuluwa. At present all five zones are collecting mixed waste without any separation. illustrates the management structure of waste collection process in KMC including labour forces. the source separation and bell collection system will be introduced. Zone 2 Mahaiyawa Dodanwela.2: Zonal waste management process Sub Zone Area Wards Responsibility Zones Kotugodella. Bowala Mapanawathura.2. KMC area is divided in to 5 zones according to the collection of SW as given in Table 2. Zone 5 Arruppola Buwelikada KMC Annexure 2. In future. The present vehicle fleet for MSW collection consists of compactor trucks. Handcarts are used in primary collection for discharging their loads of garbage to community collection points (open. But in some zones tools are not enough. when need arise. closed. Suduhumpola. because lacking of replacements. 1B Deiyanewela Deiyannewela KMC Bahirawakanda. from where the waste is picked up again by tractor/compactor labors and loads in to the respective collection vehicles. Ampitiya. non-permanent concrete bins).3. Compactor trucks and tractors are used to collect the waste from main roads while push carts are used for narrow roads and lanes.

v. Handcarts are used in transporting waste to the primary waste collection points and tractors are used to transport waste from primary waste collection points to the Gohagoda dumpsite. The expected haulage road net work for the waste collection and transport has explained in Annexure 2. Therefore. Table 2. Details of primary waste collection points Permanent concrete bins Zone Barrels Non permanent places Total Closed Opened 1A 48 1B 24 8 3 6 52 2 8 12 6 21 41 3 9 22 4 1 31 4 5 8 0 10 23 5 20 0 5 0 20 Most of the places do not require a transfer station.iv. except at the IDP section. However.4 for each zone with the time schedule. insufficient roofing. Hand Cart Tractor Compacter Truck Plate 2. loading problems and not located at suitable locations. Method of transportation and type of vehicles used Waste is transported using tractors and compactor trucks (see Plate 2. Haulage system to transfer waste from the primary collection areas to the proposed site including transfer / collection stations Concrete bins and barrels are used as primary waste collection points. Details of the primary waste collection points given in Table 2. conditions of the collection points will be improved by changing the structure to unload waste directly to the compactor or tractor and it will facilitate the collection of source separated waste. there are temporary locations which are used to dump waste directly on the road sides without any cover.3. Those places will be replaced with a well planned waste collection system after conducting a survey on those areas. Frequency of collection varies from place to place but most places daily collection is practiced.3. Since.1) as mentioned in above sections. it necessitate locating a transfer station to collect waste into 2 tractors and 2 compactor trucks within the Kandy city limit especially during the festival season like Asela Perahara. most of the concrete bins are not in proper conditions due to animal interferences.3.1 Type of waste transport vehicles . Further.

5.56 >3000 kg 4 17. speedometer.5. leakage of water from the radiator. the variation of the transport capacity of vehicles is given in Table 2.) and problems in hydraulic system. Table 2. leakages of oil. not enough labors (37% of vehicles have 4 labors and others have less than four).04 1501 – 3000kg 16 69. etc.40 Total 23 100 According to the survey results. These limitations will be resolved to give efficient waste transport . Transport capacity of vehicles Transport Number of vehicles Percentage capacity < 1500kg 3 13. missing body parts (lights. and KMC is collecting the total quantities at present. air pressure gauge.13 0 Zone 1 1B Number of vehicles 1 1 17 Deyyannewela Number of trips 2 5 per week Mahaiyawa Number of vehicles 1 1 10 Zone 2 Number of trips 2 3 Peradeniya Number of vehicles 1 2 13 Zone 3 Number of trips 4 2 Katugastota Number of vehicles 1 2 20 Number of trips 3 8 Zone 4 Manikkumbura market Number of vehicles 0 1 3 Number of trips 0 1 Arruppola Number of vehicles 0 2 7 Zone 5 Number of trips 0 5 In order to ensure the anticipated quantities of solid waste receiving at the site during the operational period. fuel gauge. According to that. A summary of details available vehicles and frequency of waste collection and transportation expected from each zone are given in Table 2. seat belts.4 Table 2.4: Waste collection vehicles and frequency of waste collection Waste Compactor Hand Collectio Waste Collection Area Details Tractors trucks Carts n Zone 1A Number of vehicles 4 0 48 Central City Number of trips 12.2). there are several problems and shortcomings associated with waste transportation vehicles such as falling of waste from vehicles (63% of vehicles are opened and 37% are closed). safety guards. a questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the present conditions of vehicles (see Plate 2.

Recycle) system. Especially. Hazardous waste will not be accepted by the proposed project. The facility will be fully functional when the point source separation programmes are successful. viii. Method of pre-processing In the initial stages of the project. Others are maintaining them by their own places. The existing warehouses will be renovated and use for this purpose and to store electronic wastes (e- wastes). the collection and haulage system Hazardous waste could be collect separately in parallel to the source separation. Plate 2.3. pre-processing activities will be minimal. such that prior sorted wastes will then be . Alternative roads for waste transportation There are no alternative roads to transport waste. revenue licenses. Then a Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) will be constructed to promote 3R (Reduce. Waste pre-processing i.. Maintenance of 70. Reuse. b. Details of assessed vehicle conditions are given Annexure 2.5 . vi. almost all the vehicles have proper documentations like insurance.system for the proposed project. hospital wastes except the hazardous waste other types of waste will be collected.4% of vehicles (KMC vehicles) is done in the municipal workshop at Katukele.2 Vehicle conditions assessment Nevertheless. copy of the certificate of registration and maintenance reports. Principal haulage routes and traffic management plan vii. If hazardous waste is collected..

Details of clearing.890. One of the precision extraction works for e-wastes will have air conditioned (AC) facility.0 Air conditioners 5 15 11.0 Power saw 2 2 9.0 Fans 10 15 7. The composite liner system of clay and waste polyethylene was applied on the compacted first terrace on the bench level of 476 from mean sea level.6. Requirement of power for pre-processing activities The power requirement for pre-processing activities is given in Table 2.0 Extruder 1 8 4. The road network was developed to work under all weather conditions and followed by hauling the sprawling wastes over the embankment and embankments were levelled with the wastes and compacted to form stable sides. The vehicles that are transporting non-biodegradable or long term biodegradable will enter the facility that has the storage section.0 Conveyor belts 2 8 2. the haulage trucks are the only trucks that will take biodegradable and mixed wastes to the landfill bioreactor cells. pumps. lifts. An electrically driven forklift is essential for lifting pallets with relatively high loads. The cost of the entire operation was Rs1.0 Pumps 2 7.0 Forklift 1 13 c.0 Firewood splitter 1 3 8.5 5. The biodegradable wastes will be sent directly to the landfill bioreactor cells or transferred to awaiting haulage trucks. These dumps were cleared using 240 hours of excavator and two dump trucks. extruders. ii.0 Lift 2 7 3.0 Exhaust fans 5 4 6.000. Equipment to be used Conveyor belts. The next embankment will be constructed and again the composite . iii. The end result was dumping of wastes in three of the convenient locations causing tremendous hardships to the people living near by these disposals. exhaust fans.6 Requirement of power for pre-processing activities Item Description Qty Power consumption (kW) 1. Table 2. It was also directly polluting the River. firewood splitter and fans will be used for different activities.separated and graded to different categories of wastes. Rehabilitation of the existing dumpsite i.0 Precision extractors 6 12 10. Then. levelling & embankment construction The dumpsite was not accessible due to poor management of the dumpsite by the Municipality.

ii. This finial cover will be applied at the finish level of 479. It seems that there is hardly any seeping through the parent materials that is supporting the wastes. gas wells are installed and they will be installed at different depths to compensate the level differences between terraces. Installation of vertical barriers (if any)] The hydrogeological study found that there is a confined rock outcrop and stable soil supporting surcharge loads of the dumped wastes. Thus. A 5kW blower or a vacuum pump is needed to main a minimum vacuum of 14. The safe extraction level is 12. iii. When the capping is undertaken. Some of them are mixed with construction and demolition (C&D) wastes. Gas extraction and storage system including anticipated quantity and quality of gas to be extracted Similar to the liner.2x10 -11 cm2. Availability of cover material The estimated quantity of compost cover materials is approximately 1430 tonnes. it is envisaged to install some of the wells on the embankments to capture maximum gas. Muruthalawa and Nanuoya could be used with increased thickness and additional quantity of polythene wastes. Instead.15 kPa at the inlet of blower as shown in the calculation given in Annexure2. such that deeper wells will be installed 8m and shallower at 6m. the availability of clay is restricted to the river banks and it may cause environmental problems. v. soil and turf. the available clayey soil from a borrow pits at Aladeniya. it was found that the intrinsic permeability of the wastes was found to be 3. Details of capping of the dumpsite In order to ensure sanitary conditions. In addition. it is evident that is weeping from the embankment.5 . The top of the dumpsite is to be levelled to have a 2% gradient on both sides towards the lower part of the dumpsite. Nevertheless.2kPa in the well head. The waste polythene sandwiched between clay allows water to enter but prevents escape of gases. it will create a total vacuum of 18. Alternatively. On top of this layer. The dumpsite will be completely covered with composite cover. as long as the live biocap remains above field capacity. it is proposed to apply a daily cover of compost extracted from old wastes dumped on oldest disposals around the main dumpsite or soil. provisions are made to construct a vertical barrier near to the natural drain. iv. The completion of cover will be after installing the gas extraction system to a depth of 6 m and it will depend on the establishment of landfill bioreactor in Phase II constructions. a soil layer applied to turf the entire surfaces of sides and embankments. It is more than sufficient to use as daily cover materials.3m3/min and the expected quality is given in table 2.base cover will be applied to minimise gas emissions. Also there are considerable quantities of clayey soils illegally disposed along roadsides that can be recovered. the capping of the dumpsite is constructed to maintain a live biocap. It is proposed to extract clay from these soils. After number of tests.7. The radius of influence is 12m for all of the wells. However. so that made up clay can be a useful substitute for the cover and liner systems.

66% or 100% of the circumference with spacing between slots. The subsurface drains were specifically designed to cater the rate of permeating from the sides of shows the landfill gas flaring system. Draining the and collection not only lessen the environmental impacts but also reduce the pore water pressure exerted on the waste embankments with soil on the outer surface built in 2003 and now in 2010. Therefore. collection and treatment system generation and collection The generation and quality is described in detail in section 3. thus considerable quantity of backfilling required. It is very important to make slots to ensure . Gas Pressure and Flow Measurement Flare Stack Condensate Knockout Gas Blower Flame Arrester Figure 2. the pipes were perforated with 2mm slots and 25mm long and depending on the permeability results the slots were made 33%. it was decided to lay perforated pipes with aggregate backfill of sizes from 25 mm and 40 mm at the top of the cut drain as shown in Annexure2. see Annexure. However. since s were oozing out due to the natural slope.3.6 An additional subsurface drain of the same specification was installed on the North East end of the embankment. without weakening the toe. Gas flaring system The following figure 2. Therefore..7 Gas quality vii.4 Gas flaring system Table 2.. It is necessary to construct subsurface drains up to the embankment level of the rehabilitation done in 2003 and drains cut in the embankment to lead the flows to the toe of the embankment.

continuous flows without blockages, rather than circular perforations that were made in
the pipes installed in 2003 of the JICA rehabilitation efforts.

Manikpura et al., 2008 did estimate generations using the HELP model to be as much as
30,304m3/year. Notably with additional waste disposals, the recent study reveals a higher
figure of 30, 810m3/year. The average BOD and COD values were 7,500 mg/l and 30,000
mg/l. Therefore, the treatment system should be robust and capable of reducing the value
to 30mg/l to discharge the treated . The present systems cannot achieve such low values
without having to rely on chemical treatment. Instead, biochemical means are being
researched with very marginal advantages. Nevertheless, bioreactor technology with the
liner system and recycling of can reduce it to manageable values of 500 mg/l to 1500 mg/l
in less than 90 days. The Figure 2.5 illustrates the performance of the landfill bioreactor
„test cell‟ with fresh wastes. A similar concept can be used for treating the s generated
from the dumpsite.


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Time (days)

Figure 2.5 The performance of the landfill bioreactor ‘test cell’ with fresh wastes

Therefore, a bioreactor can be designed to have an estimated hydraulic retention time
(HRT) of one day and solid retention time (SRT) of 14 days under anaerobic conditions. It
will be sufficient to reduce high BOD and COD values to low values that could approach
less than 500 mg/l of BOD. In order to reduce overloading at high values and to ensure a
SRT of 14 days, there should be two reactors. Each one operated alternatively between
active and passive modes. In the active mode both influent „‟ flow and effluent flow takes
place with recirculation of , whereas in passive mode, recirculation of the stored takes
place with few discharges depending on the rainfall and irrigation. In this manner, solid
build up is restricted to 14 days. The seven day cycles reported in many of the publications
(ref………..) points towards a natural cycle of 28 days. Thus the SRT can be increased
from 14 to 28 days, depending on the required quality of the effluent.

The discharged effluent having strengths of less than 500 mg/l BOD from the bioreactor
will be pumped to the existing two Activated Sludge Process reactors measuring 287 m3
and 261 m3 constructed in 2003 for treating sewerage gully discharges. The design of the
ASP is different because the aeration is with 4 numbers of air guns providing sufficient
oxygen for physiochemical process by adding alum for flocculating the . The expected
duration of treatment is six hours. In fact, the design criteria were based on the laboratory
experimentation done to reduce the BOD to meet CEA standards. The criteria are given in
Figure 2.6 and Figure 2.7 for settling the flocculated mass in the second reactor. The
settlement time is 3 hours.

Figure 2.6 Design criteria for treatment bioreactor

Figure 2.7 Design criteria for settling tank for flocculated mass

After settlement, the effluent is discharged into the Constructed Wetland and then finally
to the watercourse. The sludge is removed and dried for subsequent thermal treatment to
oxidise further the ion compounds. The sludge can be used as filler materials for making
cement blocks, refer section k.

viii. Permanent and temporary structures
The treatment plants of bioreactor, sludge drying sheds and activated sludge process
(ASP) reactors are permanent structures. The bioreactors will be rehabilitated once in
three to five years. There will be movable temporary sheds for mining the dumpsite during
rainy weather conditions. The newly constructed site office is temporary, until the
administrative complex will be established; see layout plans given in Figure 2.31 and

ix. Fire protection system (if any)
There will be irrigation system established to douse fires in the dumpsite and landfill
bioreactors. Furthermore, stocks of clay will be available to douse any fires, so as to
prevent cavities within the dumpsite or landfill body. It will be a filler material and an
effective sealant. Furthermore flame arresters will be installed at landfill gas flare station
to protect the system from backfire; refer Figure 2.4.

x. Off site disposal of waste material (if any)
The dumpsite may have materials that cannot be recycled. It will be recovered and stored
for subsequent disposal in the inert landfill built in the last stage of development. Until
then, these materials, like e-wastes will be stored in the existing warehouse and in the
demarcated lands for final disposal marked in the layout plan, see Figure 2.31 and

d. semi-engineered landfill

i. Extent of the site

It is proposed to extend the dumpsite, in the event that the dumpsite is inaccessible. The
location as given in Figure 2.8 and Annexure is in between the dumpsite and the road
leading to the treatment plants.

S ubsurface
leachatep ipe

Dum p

Soilembankm ent

S ubsurface Proposedextention
leachatep ipe tothed umpsite

Figure 2.8 Proposed location for semi-engineered landfill

ii. Process description
A soil embankment will be constructed in between the two embankments to retain the
wastes. Before constructing the embankment, a culvert will be constructed as shown in
Figures 2.9 and 2.10. It will be underneath the embankment. This earth embankment, the
embankment of the dumpsite and the firm ground on the side of the road will be lined with
the composite clay-waste polythene liner. The surface drain will be covered with
reinforced concrete half circular covers to withstand point and surcharge loads. They will
be placed with 25mm gaps between the covers. A layer of 40 mm and 25 mm sized
aggregates will be used as backfill and a soil layer will be placed above the backfill. The
composite liner constructed above it, thus allowing purified water to percolate down to the
drain. Above the composite liner, another 10 to 25mm sized aggregate layer will be
placed with a central pipe, having an envelope of these aggregates rapped with a „geonet‟.
The pipe will be connected to a stilling well. The base constructions including
establishment of gas wells, will ensure direct disposal of wastes without allowing any
heavy vehicles moving over the wastes.

Figure 2.9 The culvert through the bund of semi-engineered landfill


after three months of operation. The bulldozer can be used to level and compact the wastes up to 800kg/m3 after allowing settlement for 10 days. recirculation pump and bulldozer or waste handler. It is expected to have low BOD values. filling at the rate of 120 tonnes/day. biological. Initial soil requirement –source The soil for the embankment. In this instance. Equipment and structures to be used collection pipes.8 Initial soil requirement Soil Requirement Quantity (m3) Bund Construction 120 Capping 390 Total 510 vi. Post closure procedure The gas extractions will last three years and it will be aerated and mined as explained in landfill bioreactor operations given in section (e) below. Within the landfill body. The recirculation of enhances methane productions and the pipes will be interconnected to the gas extraction system network of the dumpsite. It will be filled up to the road embankment level.Figure 2. Once the total inclined heights between the embankments 469 m 476 m are achieved. the valve in the leading pipe connected to main conveyance pipe system will be opened. The recycling regime based on the permeating rate will be used to control the head of above the liner. Capacity and life span of the landfill site The capacity of the landfill is 100 days.8. a daily cover of compost will be used to ensure sanitary conditions.10 A cross section through the culvert The raw wastes will be disposed commencing from the side of the soil embankment. The total quantities are given in Table 2.000 tonnes. However. v. liner and cover will be from the site and clay deposits that are available at the site. It will be an ongoing process until the engineered landfill is completed. iv. landfill bioreactors (LBRs) i. iii. Table 2. re-circulation pipes will be laid and a cover made similar to the dumpsite and finally turf established. stilling well made from reinforced concrete cylinders. Whenever there is excess . e. Introduction The classical landfill is an engineered land method to curtail and encase the solids wastes disposed in a manner that protects the environment. The waste loads from the vehicles will be tipped onto the engineered landfill. the will be directed through the second valve to the ASP reactor. . The total amount of filling is estimated at 12.

In combining yet another concept of landfill mining or mechanical and biological treatment (MBT). The latter although not very well defined.chemical and physical processes occur that promotes biodegradation of wastes. sanitary landfills. and (4) to ensure sustainability. almost all of the wastes can be used to produce energy and power generation is a feasible option. Technological brief The research conducted at the University of Peradeniya entailed many aspects of MSW management. conversion rates and process effectiveness over what would otherwise occur in a landfill”. the pretreated materials can be processed to produce RDF. primarily through the addition of or other liquid amendments. As long as outputs are controlled and acceptable way to prevent pollution. introduced the concept of biocells within the landfill bioreactor. Therefore. thus the need for post closure care need not be passed on to the next generation and the future use of groundwater and other resources are not compromised. Reinhart et al. Inclusion of environmental barriers such as landfill liners and caps frequently excludes moisture that is essential to waste degradation. Consequently. ii. (2) to store and to treat .. It was found that there were four major problems encountered in landfills and landfill bioreactors. landfill simulations of lysimeter studies on open dumping. the bioreactor landfill attempts to control. pretreated wastes on engineered landfills and landfill bioreactors were undertaken.. there were number of intervention to understand the processes taking place in landfills and landfill bioreactors. In view of introducing such a technological approach. possible in excess of the life of barriers (Reinhart et al.. wastes are contained and entombed in modern landfills and remains practically intact for long periods of time. They are. The bioreactor landfill significantly increases the extent of waste decomposition. There were number of landfill bioreactor lysimeter simulations. Naturally. including residues left should not pose unacceptable environmental risks. 2007. points towards sustainable landfills with considerable cost benefits in reducing long term monitoring and maintenance and delayed sitting of new landfills. if necessary. In order to make it more sustainable by reducing the time for biodegradation. the focus was on developing sustainable landfills. it was necessary to evaluate the problems encountered in developing landfill bioreactor with number of biocells for optimum conversion of wastes to landfill gas. Polluting emissions of and gases needs careful design of landfills with the required barriers and treatment facilities. However. In each design. monitor. 2002 states that there are four reasons generally cited as justification for bioreactor technology: (1) to increase the potential for waste to energy. Thus. The waste degradation can be enhanced and accelerated within the life of barriers if the landfill is designed and operated as a bioreactor landfill. . It necessitated defining bioreactor landfills by a Solid Waste Association of North America working group as “a sanitary landfill operated for the purpose of transforming and stabilizing the readily and moderately decomposable organic wastes constituents within five to ten years following closure by purposeful control to enhance Microbiological processes. Hettiarchchi et al. and optimize the waste stabilization process rather than contain the wastes as prescribed by most regulations. The bioreactor landfill provides control and process optimization. 2002). (3) to recover air space.

Table 2. including heavy metals bound with organic substances is corrosive and thus. The cost of treating the is one of the drawbacks in landfill bioreactors. Increasing in ion concentration due to decomposition of organic wastes leading to inhibition of reactions and eventually toxic conditions.10below. The United States (US) environmental protection agency (EPA) prohibits use of external water supply. Inability to breakdown coarse fibres due to lack of fresh water. Reinhart et al. 1.10 Lessons learned from field-scale bioreactor operations . High concentration of ion compounds.9 Objectives of field scale bioreactor operations N Objectives o Demonstrate accelerated landfill gas generation and biological stabilization while 1 maximizing landfill gas capture 2 Monitor biological conditions to optimize bioreactor process 3 Landfill life extension through accelerated waste degradation 4 Inform regulatory agencies 5 Better understand movement of moisture 6 Evaluate performance of shredded tires in LFG collection 7 Achieve a 50% waste diversion goal 8 Reduce usable gas extraction period to three years 9 Reduce 6+ management costs 10 Shorten time period required to put the site to a beneficial end use 11 Evaluate performance of recirculation techniques 12 Investigate the use of bioreactor to treat mechanically separated organic residue 13 Investigate the use of air injection to increase waste biodegradation rate Table 2. Ammonia toxicity due to increasing in concentration with time when decomposition of organic materials takes place under anaerobic conditions. compelling recycling water for enhancing methane production. 4. external treatment is coupled to recirculation of high strength .9 and 2. In the case of clay liners.. It enables reduction of high ammonia and ion concentrations. It takes place with dehydration underneath the HDPE. 2. 2002 in reporting the status and future gives the following summaries of expected performance of bioreactor landfills and lessons learnt from field scale bioreactor operations in Table 2. 3. damages the liner systems. Inadequate good quality water (not direct recirculation of ) for anaerobic digestion to produce methane. thus diluting the strength of the in the landfill body. Breaching of high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners due to shear forces acting on the liner. they undergo rapid dispersions when the concentrations are high. In order to overcome these constraints in converting sanitary landfills to landfill bioreactors. particularly with cracks forming in clay cushion layers underneath the HDPE liner.

however long term recirculation 14 increases uniform wetting and declining generation as the waste moisture content approaches field capacity Eventually. These reactions zones promote different phases of anaerobic digestion processes. At the same time recirculation create favourable pH for methanogenesis by buffering of excessive acidity in acidogenesis. a composite clay-waste polythene and clay liner and cover was conceived to function effectively and efficiently. Evidently. These zones get mixed with increased recirculation. although the intention of recycling is to increase moisture contents in the upper layers of the landfill. The process Phase of anaerobic digestion and permeability The lysimeter studies that led to the landfill bioreactor were important in identifying different physical and biochemical processes undergoing anaerobic decompositions. There exists moisture saturation layer below the surface and above the base of the landfill. . iii. It was found that there are distinct reaction zones appearing inside the reactor. causing toxic conditions. particularly 12 for aerobic bioreactors Increased internal pore pressure due to high moisture content may lead to reduced 13 factor of saf ety against slope stability and must be considered during the design process Channeling leads to immediate production. No Lessons learned 1 Sealed system can result in plastic surface liners ballooning and tearing 2 Rapid surface settlement can result in ponding Short circuiting occurs during recirculation. a tropical landfill bioreactor with optimum anaerobic conditions for rapid methane production. dividing the reaction zones. the needs treatment or dilution for upper zone reactions. preventing achievement of field 3 capacity for much of the landfill Continuous pumping of at two to three times the generation rate is necessary to 4 avoid head on the liner build up A more permeable intermediate cover may be more efficient in rapidly reaching field 5 capacity than recirculation Low permeability intermediate cover and heterogeneity of the waste leads to side 6 seeps Accelerated gas production may lead to odors if not accommodated by aggressive 7 LFG collection 8 infiltration and collection piping are vulnerable to irregular settling and clogging 9 Waste is less permeable than anticipated Increased condensate production led to short circuiting of moisture into landfill gas 10 collection pipes 11 Storage must be provided to manage during wet weather periods Conversely. where the upper zone is hydrolysis and acidogenesis and acedogenesis and methanogenesis thriving in the lower zone. may not be sufficient in volume to completely wet waste.

Biochemical transformations of the take place in the liner to form water. These preferential paths exceed permeability limits as stated above. it is best to avoid total containment. 2007 and Thivyatharsan et al. The construction of the clay polythene clay (CPC) liner system is with waste polyethylene sandwiched between clay soil layers. Both Peradeniya and Samanthurai landfill bioreactor test cells gave permeability values much less than internationally accepted standard of 1x10-7 cm/s and. There will then be natural attenuation of the through the groundwater over 500m. In fact. providing optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion. Unlike HDPE or clay liners restricted to 300 mm of head for safety. The use of HDPE liner causes desiccation of soil underneath and large cracks formed throughout the soil profile that leads to failure of most sanitary landfills. the biochemical reactions reach equilibrium within the composite liner due to dissimilar materials of waste polyethylene and clay (Pathirana. The top layer too is applied on the compacted waste polyethylene to a very high density. 2009). it is not a point source discharge and the rate of percolation is less than the scientifically justifiable limit..11 Permeability of the field scale liner at hydraulic head of 86. making it a higher level of containment (Gunarathna et al.. However. and thus.11. natural attenuation is attained at steady state flow. The bottom layer is first compacted and then a mixture of clay and waste polyethylene applied and again compacted. Figure 2. It is then necessary to impose the regulations and norms of keeping a safe distance of 500m from a water source. The results of the Samanthurai experimentation on a test cell are shown in Figure 2. since it is a point source pollution from where HDPE liner breach. 2008).2cm in saturated and unsaturated conditions In the case of a live composite biofilter liner. since there will be preferential paths leading to the nearest water source. hydraulic conductivity of the liner is measured with a standing water head of at least one meter. in a live biofilter.The success of the technology is due to the live biofilter liner system developed to make the system biologically stable. since biological systems do require nutrient balancing. the breaching needs to be attended to before saturation conditions develops. However. the . Once the composite liner system is constructed on the base and sides of the embankments.

These findings were from a leaching column study simulating the biofilter composite liner system (Pathirana. A number of supporting literature is available on ammonia toxicities in anaerobic digestion (Li et al. The gradual reduction of these two parameters with precise recycling along with Total solids (TS). It is kept above water saturation making the conditions ideal for replacing evaporating water with ammonia. In most instances. Both the BOD and COD reduce rapidly with increase in rainwater entering the Cell. 2008)..composite liner can withstand higher pressures. emissions In an earlier study. see Figure 2.9 mg/l. the excess free ammonia gas is utilized in the live filter cover made from the same composite materials. The action of recirculation causes these ion compounds to occupy active sites making the conditions toxic. the nitrite and nitrate leach down with rainfall and irrigation. Inhibitions and toxicity The sanitary landfill suffers from inherent inhibitory reactions due to high concentrations of ion compounds as reported by many authors. 2008). stated as. through these inhibitory reactions. The nitrate leaves the biofilter after mineralizing the organic materials in terms of biomass and residual cellular materials. causing those products as substrate to undergo acedogenesis and finally methanogenesis. 1999). volatile solids(VS). The mineralized depositions were examined and it was found to be similar in nature to fine clay deposits found in low lying lands. just at the interface between peat and peaty soil. which then are converted to ammonium cations or transformed to nitrite and nitrate. thus providing adequate storage of for anaerobic digestion. which eventually makes the anaerobic process toxic. volatile .1 ±1. These were the observations that led to developing the liner system. The mineralized compounds formed within the narrow passages and above the liner as solid phase reactions. separating the two major phases of reactions. hydrolysis and acidogenesis occur in the upper zone and the products enter the zone below the saturation zone. All of these nitrogen compounds constitute an excellent nitrogen source for the grass cover above the live biofilter cover.   NH 4 2 NO N 22 HO 2 The excess nitrate nitrogen washed down from the cover and solid wastes goes through the liner at a concentration of 30. The availability of anommox bacterium even in small numbers can convert ammonia and nitrite to nitrogen. In the lower profiles these clayey fractions “Kirimatta” crystallizes to form fine white sand. In the landfill bioreactor. The decaying cells and the biomass increases the concentration of ammonia. The well stratified landfill body reduces the pollutant loads. The nitrogen initially taken up for cellular growth is released when these cells undergo premature death. At the beginning of the reactions. whereas ammonia gets absorbed to soil particles. it was pointed out that there are distinct phases and zones of reactions in landfills and dumpsites (Basnayake.6. total suspended solids (TSS).

the greater the production of substrate influencing the lower zone. 70 60 Concentration (g/l) TS 50 VS 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 Time (days) Figure 2.12 to 2.suspended solids (VSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) indicated as illustrated in Figures 2.14 that non-inhibiting conditions seemed to have influenced the stability of the saturation zone.12 Variation of TS and VS with time 35 TSS 30 Concentration (g/l) VSS 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 Time (days) Figure 2. The influence of the lower zone on the upper was discussed in terms of ammonia migration and leaching of nitrate to the lower zone.13 Variation of TSS and VSS with time . The dilutions were considerable since the water balance study indicated that rainfall contributions were 65% in supplying the upper zone with fresh water. The higher the moisture contents in this zone.

Therefore. Under very dry conditions clay cracks and it is a problem when dries up. It is recommended to avoid point With this passive sealing. In the initial stages. one meter thick clay is prescribed as the standard not only for ensuring natural attenuation of permeating through the clay but also to overcome surcharge loads. 2003). it allowed water to enter the cell. disposal of one meter thick raw waste layer prior to travel is required to prevent point loads as expected from the wheels of compactor trucks. In the case of liner left for long periods awaiting disposal of wastes. Therefore. The gas productions began very much earlier than reported (Alvarez. cracks and thus.14 Variation of TDS with time Gas generations The top cover too certainly has had an effect on gas productions. 2002). 16000 TDS Concentration (mg/l) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 100 200 300 400 Time (days) Figure 2. The methane gas generated from the Biocell can be used for secondary combustion to reduce and eliminate dioxins in the combusted fumes. the gas extractions were 2. 2006). thus travelling on the liner system is prohibitive. Liner and cover integrity A 150 mm thick clay layer is unable to withstand high point loads. Although. allows wastes to fill up the cracks. the gas will be torched to satisfy the Cleaner Development Mechanism (CDM) project. The advantage of the composite liner system is that only the top clay . perhaps it is the fastest rate so far for landfill bioreactors/biocells. It also prevented the cracking of the surface.2 l/min with increase in suction pressure. Also crawler tractors can rip the composite liner and should not be allowed without prior disposal of raw wastes above the liner system. overburden and shearing forces that exceeds 10 kN/m2/m high (Qian et. it also prevented gas from escaping since the cover was saturated in most instances with heavy rainfall experienced throughout the experimentation. The shear forces of the composite liner system can bear over ten times the loads compared to pure clay soils of equal thickness. This is a novel technique and it has been endorsed as the primary method to reduce filtration requirements to meet air quality standards (Basnayake.8 l/min and it was augmented to 4.. The bearing capacity is much higher exhibiting greater plasticity due to enmeshed pieces of polythene.

Therefore. When the water table rises. exhibits cohesive and adhesive strengths. The adhesive strengths are much higher than soils with high clay contents.15 that moisture contents within the composite liner remains less than 89% moisture content and thus.11 The strength and weakness analysis of liner systems .12. Similarly the composite cover with a final soil layer makes the system more natural with high content of water absorbed from rainfall or irrigation. As long as the surface is wet. it is gas tight and the composite cover and soil layer will not crack. It is very apparent that the damage to the liner can be prevented and could be used under both wet and dry conditions. the strength of the composite liner is low relative to low moisture consistency states. the water pressure on the liner is compensated with an equal and opposite force from the . the consistency of clay reach liquid limits and beyond it dispersion takes place. but with polyethylene sheets they are held together. Table 2. Under waterlogged conditions. It is evident from the results shown by Terzaghi and Peck. even at very high moisture contents without being dispersed. see Figure 2. it is the minimum risk in comparison to HDPE or only clay liners. at various initial degrees of saturation. initial loading should be done under dry conditions. The comparisons of liner systems and landfill types. (1967) given in Figure 2.15 Rupture lines for undrained test on a lean clay.15. However.layer allows fragmented and small particles to enter small cracks. since the enmeshed polyethylene layers prevents further movements of such materials. Also the cracks are very much smaller since the depths of the cracks are restricted and constrained with polyethylene sheets. in terms of total stresses. In fact. Figure 2. namely between conventional landfill gas (LFG) and LBR are given in Tables 2.11 and 2.

Composite No Reported problems HDPE Clay 1 Ballooning and tearing Frequent none none Rapid surface settlement can result in 2 Frequent Likely Less likely ponding Short circuiting of leachate recirculation. leachate may not be sufficient in volume to completely 12 Inadequate Inadequate Adequate wet waste. Low More. low Less. High 9 anticipated degradation degradation degradation Increased condensate production led 10 to short circuiting of moisture into Less Less More landfill gas collection pipes Storage must be provided to manage 11 Yes Yes No leachate during wet weather periods Conversely. preventing FC Limited Limited Unlimited 3 achievement of field capacity for quantity quantity quantity much of the landfill Continuous pumping of leachate at two to three times the generation rate Limited Limited Unlimited 4 is necessary to avoid head on the quantity quantity quantity liner build up A more permeable intermediate cover may be more efficient in 5 Compost Compost Compost rapidly reaching field capacity than leachate recirculation Low permeability intermediate cover 6 and heterogeneity of the waste leads Less More More to side seeps Accelerated gas production may lead 7 to odors if not accommodated by Less More Much more aggressive LFG collection Leachate infiltration and collection Very Very Less 8 piping are vulnerable to irregular vulnerable vulnerable vulnerable settling and clogging Waste is less permeable than Less. particularly for aerobic bioreactors Increased internal pore pressure due to high moisture content may lead to 13 reduced factor of safety against slope Unsafe Unsafe Safe stability and must be considered during the design process .

Table 2.12 The strength and weakness analysis of conventional LFG and LBR
No Measurable output Conventional LFG
1.0 Life of landfill Long duration Very short duration
2.0 Onset of gas productions Long Very short
3.0 Gas generation rate Low High
4.0 Gas fluctuations and ceasing High Low/controlled
5.0 head Low High/composite liner
6.0 Average strength High Low
7.0 Regular Maintenance Low High
8.0 Duration of Maintenance High Low
9.0 Sustainability (landfill footprint) Large Small

Sustainable landfills
The estimated gas generations are three years and after the gas ceases, the biocell is
aerated to oxidize and remove odorous compounds. The pipes are used to aerate the body
of cells. The excavation is done by slicing through the profile as shown in Plate 2.3. It is
important to carefully remove the cover consisting of grass and composite liner. These two
components should be removed separately, so that they could be reutilized. The remaining
materials are excavated, and heaped up in rows for ten days and at least one turning of the
piles is required to dry and completely digest rapid biodegradable wastes. The material is
then scooped and raked to remove large particles. The small particles and waste
polyethylene is sent through a screening machine to separate polyethylene and digested
biodegradable matter. The latter is sold as grade II compost and the wasted polyethylene
made into pellets and sold as RDF to envisaged power plants in the future. Since the
power plant is in close proximity to the power plant within the disposal facility, the dried
excavated wastes need not be further processed before feeding the gasifier. It is reported
that RDF manufacture is costly, if the raw wastes are processed to produce RDF as
reported by UNEP, 2010 Instead the RDF manufactured from residual wastes derived

from excavated wastes by mining landfills is cost effective and technically feasible, since
the calorific value is even higher than coal (Ecotech Lanka, 2010). There are many
publications Prechthai et al., 2006; SmellWell, 2010 to justify the use of RDF produced
from mined wastes

Plate 2.3 Slicing through the landfill bioreactor profile

The dual fuel system as against direct use of LFG in internal combustion (IC) engines is
better for the following reasons.

a. The gas need not be very clean, since combustors can burn mixture of gases,
unlike IC engines.
b. The efficiencies of steam turbine systems are much higher than IC engines.
c. In the event of reduction in gas productions, RDF component can be increased,
thus consistent production of energy.
d. The reliability of producing power is higher with a dual fuel system with less
e. There will be less dioxin productions with dual fuel.
f. The polyethylene component can be combusted safely

There are many RDF plants, not necessarily made for mined wastes that can be used with
dual fuel system, thus making the system more robust and risk aversive. The average
capital costs are within US$ 1.5 to 1.7 for generating 1MW (Ref. curtailed for
confidentiality).The unusable material is disposed of in a residual landfill having the same
composite liner. The next important operation is to rehabilitate the cleared biocell,
preparing for disposing once again of raw wastes.

iv. Capacity and life span of the landfill bioreactors (number, capacity, & lifespan of
each bioreactor
The Landfill Bioreactor (LBR-1) as shown in Figure 2.16 and Annexure will have a
capacity of 64800 tonnes. It will be 2 meters below ground and 8 meters above. It will
have a life span of 1.5 years. The LBR-2 will be constructed, once the squatters are

relocated. It should be constructed and operational before post closure of LBR-1. The
expected life of LBR-2 is two years. In both of the LBRs, the embankments will be
constructed to take the total load with 1.5 meter head. In each of the LBRs, number of
biocells will be constructed. Each biocell is filled for a period of three months, since gas
generations are much quicker than conventional LBRs.


tnemknabme 1-RBR




lewnoitcartxesaG epipnoitcelocsaG
noitalucriceretahcaeL htraedetcapmoC
krowtenepip tnemknabme


m0.2 LG

lewnoitcelocetahcaeL WSMdetcapmoC
epiphcnertdeliflevargdna )m³/gk008(

Figure 2.16 Landfill bioreactor (LBR-I)

v. Equipments and structures to be used
The construction details of the landfill bioreactor are given in Annexure……The
equipments used for construction are;
Hand held plate or roller vibrator compactor
Redevelopment of roads
Fencing, gates and retaining walls
Liner and capping systems

there will be a progressive increase in recycling plastics. However. collection pipes and recirculation system vi Details of all inputs. The flow diagram (Figure 2. Although recycling is encouraged. since the quality becomes very poor if the number of events increases. LCA points towards limited recycle use of plastics and the maximum number of recycling events is one.wells.17 Average composition of mined waste from gohagoda dumpsite CH4 Landfill bioreactor Dumpsite WTE Plant Raw Wastes Mine & Sorter 120 TPD Electricity to MRF RDF processing Plant National grid 10 MW Ash Recyclables C&D Wastes Block Manufacture .17) illustrate the average composition of wastes collected in Kandy and mined from the Gohagoda dumpsite.18) shows the inputs and outputs of the integrated system. Figure 2.3 and 2. The pie charts (Figures 2. outputs of the process and by products including material and energy balance sheets The composition of the wastes disposed in the LFB will differ and depends on the amount of wastes being recycled.

Figure 2.18 Inputs and outputs of the integrated solid waste management system .

notably 5. The and permeate are accounted in the losses and notably very small.13 Mass Balance for one tonne of wastes before and after mining of Test Cell Type of material wb db VS Ash C content 1 Combustible raw Wastes 961.19 is slightly above than reported value of Manikpura et al.23 45. The energy content per tonne of wastes in Table 2.67 8.67 125.52 105. the actual losses of dry materials. since there could be considerable error in the determining volatile content in wastes and the error could be as much as 12%.39 48.33 468. 48% and 51% respectively.8 = C. since the initial quantum remains the same. thus unaccountable 12.29 364.67 203.73 244. The energy balance study shows a loss of 32% from experimental values obtained from Manitkpura et al. Thus the ratio gives the actual amount decomposed.21 4 Non Combustibles 50. volatile solids and carbon were 36%. Methane emissions from the test cell were calculated based on the extraction rate of 4.23 45.2l/min for the 52 tonnes disposed. 2010.18.15 and 2.59 Note: Carbon content calculated VS/1. The ratio of ash content was used to deduce the total decomposition.00 477. Almost one third of the energy content is lost to the atmosphere and small quantity as .39 3 Combustible mined wastes 949.86 574.16 In fact.14 7.14.96 423.14 for one tonne of wastes. The volatile content of samples before after loading and mining the test cell were experimentally obtained. refer to Table 2.13 and 2. Therefore.67/18=113.35 6 Gas 105. 203.. The amount of carbon were determined based on C content = VS/1. the recycling of reduced the quantity to be discharged. 2010 and Nimalan 2010 as given in Table 2.96 423.37 Total 1000. almost 13kg of carbon.14 % loss 36. 2.43 Total 1000.00 581.76 114.81 kg losses include small quantities of leachate and permeate as tables 2.66 Average Ratio 0.95 Mass balance 5+6+7 468. given in Tables2.17.12 51.52 54.73 244.8.83 7 Losses 170. The total gas generations were 22% of the raw wastes on dry basis.04 210.16 . Also the mass balance calculations were based on the captured gas of methane and carbon dioxide given in Table 2.14 2 Non Combustible 38. Nevertheless. It could very well be retaining in the mined wastes.22 5 Deduced Qty of mined 192.The mass and energy balances of the LBR Test Cell are given in Annexure…… The mass balance is also summarized in the Tables 2.25% cannot be accounted. Table 2.

736 4.50E-08 m3/s Time duration for 3 years 9.52 54.649 m3 Mass of extraction for 52 T 5.Table 2.16 Mass of materials permeated Description unit Liner permeability 1.85 2.72 tonnes 0.52 1.11 kg/tonne Table 2.520 1.649 kg 5.78 kg/tonne Table 2.53 kg Unit of solids removed 0.273 57.86 78.31128 m3 Average total solids 12.14 Mass balance of methane extraction from Test cell Description CH4 CO2 unit Volume % 60 40 mol.736 l Mass of 118.623 3.57 kg % mass 0.84 2.1055 0.35 0.05 0.974 2.68 l/min 6048 3629 2419 l/day 2.15: Mass of materials removed with Description TS VS Ash unit Average concentration of removed 25. wt 16 44 Density 0.0509 kg/tonnes Mass of extraction for 1 tonne 105.512 883.94 13.487 2.97 kg 2.71 1.974 g 118.00E-07 cm/s Total surface area 35 m2 Rate of permeation 3.65 1 Extraction rate 4.49 2.01 kg/tonne Carbon extracted for I tonne 54.65 tonnes 0.89 kg Table 2.04 0.17 Energy balance per tonne of wastes in kJ for Test Cell .324.27 57.208 1.24 g/l Quantity of removed 4.13 0.0546 0.31 1.008 l/year 2.58 50.42 12.96 kg/m3 Mass 42.207.24 g/l Total solids removed for 52 tonnes 40.83 40.838 2.325 883 m3/year 6.736 4.10 14.890 68.94 kg Carbon extracted for 50 T 2.46E+07 s Total volume permeate 3.20 2.89 68.29 1.

755 Loss 3. A network of staggered arrangement of extraction wells will be installed as shown in Figure 2.18 The HHV of the methane gas extracted from one tonne of wastes Description Value Units Calorific value 212.63 kJ/kg CH4 for 52 T 4.585.514 Gas 3.456 36.795.84 Tonnes per 3 years Total energy generated 157.515.28 kcal/g 55.580 32.668 kJ per 3 years CH4 for one tonne 3.63 kJ/kg CH4 for 52 T 2.030.460.522 1.460.21.164 9.61 Loss 3.164 Mined waste 3.19 and a single well shown in Figure 2. It is very likely in large scale applications to increase the extractions which will reduce the losses to 19% from 32% as stated in Table 2.328.128 kJ per 3 years Table 2.19. Table 2. landfill gas extraction from LBRs and power generation from extracted gas i.328.566.896 % loss 32 19 f.684.095. Gas extraction system including anticipated quantity and quality The expected quantity of gas extraction is given in Table 2.460.05 tonnes per 3 years Total energy generated 225.514 3.515.239 kJ per 3 years CH4 for one tonne 4.585.5 kcal/mole 13.128 31.19 Predicted Energy balance per tonne of wastes in kJ Category Experimental Predicted Raw 9.28 kcal/g 55.522 2.20 Predictions of HHV of the methane gas extraction in the proposed system Description Value Units Calorific value 212.128 Gas 3.5 kcal/mole 13. Category Experimental Modified Shafizadeh % of Raw waste Raw waste 9.585.870.164 Mined 3.20 and mass balance of methane extractions given in Table 2.28 Table 2.094.755 kJ per 3 years .514 3.


19 A network of staggered arrangement of extraction wells. Figure 2.Figure 2.20 A gas extraction well .

0728 kg/tonnes Mass of extraction for I MT 150.261. Figure 2.05 3.84 4.48 19.00 3.85 kg ii.97 72.60 2.78 kg Carbon extracted for 50 T 4.892.02 kg/tonne Carbon extracted for 1 MT 78.Table 2. Gas cleaning system The landfill gas cleaning system will have a combination of filtering systems as shown in following figure 2.75 77.153.160 1.08 0.0780 0.03 tonnes 0.86 78.04 1.21.440 l/year 3154 1892 1261 m3/year 9461 5676 3784 m3 Mass of extraction for 52 T 7839 4055 3784 kg 7.07 3.600 1.96 kg/m3 Mass 42.33 58. wt 16 44 Density 0. mol.57 % mass 0.1507 0.65 1 Extraction rate 6.78 tonnes 0.40 l/min 8640 5184 3456 l/day 3.06 0.35 0.21 Mass balance of predicted methane extraction from LFBs and dumpsite Description CH4 CO2 unit Volume % 60 40 percent by vol.71 1.21 Gas cleaning system for power plant .

a three month mining capacity will be demarcated with drains cut such that is drained or pumped to ensure dry conditions in the isolated cell for mining.22. The torch to flare the LFG is shown in Figure 2. the dumpsite will be capped and then gas extracted and flared. . The working face of the dump will be aerated and odour filter installed and operated with temporary shelter for both the filter and working face. Installation of RDF plant and mining of dumpsite i. The shelter will house the sorting and separation machinery for screening and manufacture of RDF. These cells will be constructed and mined progressively working inwards of the dumpsite while gas is extracted from the other parts of the dump. Installation of power plant and power generation equipments and process In the initial stages a test generator system will be operated and then to supply the gas for the dual fuel RDF thermal power plants. It will be flared or a small generator will be operated until the thermal power is commissioned. iii. Mining of dumpsite and RDF manufacturing procedure Once the first LBR is constructed. g. On the Southern side.


Figure 2.22 gives values for the LBR in the future LBR. They are highly degraded samples and could be considered as the worse scenario. Table 2.22 The torch to flare the LFG ii. In contrast. .22 gives the experimental calorific values of the RDF expected from the dumpsite. expected calorific value of RDF The Table 2.

778 11531.700 28359.238 54.563 52.663 12.81 0.180 44.000 45000.02 0.065 51.345 48.033 15093.444 14000. (kJ) (kJ) (kJ/kg) Coconut husk 3.72 37.79 2.Table 2.81 7.06 0.58 Ceramic 2.19 2.603 21039.922 347807.10 0.63 4.655 Textile 2.01 0.503 Mixed Materials 35.28 Construction demolitions 6.490 Health hazard materials 2.733 12681.568 Paper 2.70 2.000 25500.12 15.40 0.21 Sub total 15.61 0.001 40431.889 27470.69 0.700 3695.778 33300.19 0.22: Experimental and predicted energy values for the mined wastes from Gohagoda dumpsite (samples from surface) Gohagoda Mined Waste Mined Waste Category Exp kg in kg in VS C in Mod.367 15501.133 17067.111 17200.449 54.000 278245.341 31.30 Glass 4.313 Plastics 9.70 0.86 .77 1.265 172904.000 19069.39 0.700 9090.56 0.14 1.06 1.07 1.50 18.92 1.448 Biodegradable 0.44 10.19 1.019 11531.965 2390.77 Sub total 84.000 16831.19 1.Sha C% HHV wb db kg kg (kJ/kg) Cont.000 18301.312 45.28 0.8708 1003717.32 0.272 Wood 1.08 Batteries & electronic parts 0.090 285018.833 45000.Sha Energy Mod.80 804539.62 0.792 356273.000 33300.233 7361.381 Scrap metal 0.019 9847.83 0.000 15560.087 Leather 0.667 24563.78 4.52 19.774 13451.77 0.73 7.71 0.000 16400.562 Coconut shells 3.402 Polythene 22.000 18192.19 0.66 6.033 4532.667 17200.28 13.23 0.36 5.81 0.585 12708.450 12309.000 19617.081 Rubber 1.000 138323.090 22578.78 4.611 16.549 22578.472 25500.031 16.

38 .Total 100.00 51.

In this study. v. In this instance. initial power requirement – source and capacity The LFG will be stored in tanks and used for initial start-up. Sorting and screening machines and equipment (convey belts etc. 1. All of them are dependent on the tipping fee (disposal fee) for generating profits and tariff for electricity productions are so low that it is not economically feasible to make business sense in generating power.309 tonnes. iii.) 4. iv. The plausible sources are MSW from other local authorities. it was finally decided to be very conservative and calculate on the basis of 33%. 2. although gas is also available for secondary combustion. Mixer 6. 1. saw dust and plastics that cannot be recycled. see Table 2. Gas storage tank. 3. thus augmenting thermal conversion efficiency of the boiler to generate super steam. The quantity to be sourced will depend on the thermal conversion efficiencies of the first 5MW plant and the quantity of wastes available in the dumpsite. the primary task is to incinerate as much as possible large quantities of wastes generated in highly urbanized cities. the systems efficiencies are within the range of 15 to 25%. It is estimated to be 196.23 below show the duration of mining depending on the rate of excavation and Table X10 gives the options and transition between dumpsite mining and LBR mining for 5MW and 10MW. RDF plants. It is proposed to in the first instance to install and operate a 5MW plant and then install another 5MW or less if other sources of energy are available on contract. the thermal conversion efficiency will increase to 40% or more. Most of them are incinerators rather than power generation systems. They are.23. rotary kiln and 3. Therefore. Excavator 2. Shredder 5. Power generation using RDF There are number of different power plants in the world. Equipment and structures to be used The envisaged system will require the following equipment and structures. However. particularly in Germany and France reach 40%. Moveable shelter for RDF manufacturing. There are number of power plants being examined. The Figure 2. pyrolyser/gasifier . stoker grate. Although they produce electricity.

16e-0.Table 2.309 250 y = 364.631 0.52 2010 121 363.53 2020 148 443. Component 4 merits some mention as it .91 2000 100 298. Grid Interconnection Point and Existing (National) Transmission Line The design and installation of components itemized 1 – 3 above are under the direct purview of the promoter company Ecotech Lanka Limited while the intake of power from the site into the national grid – itemized 4 above .182212 54354.222554 80927.66 1990 82 244.235x R2 = 0. the electric power system at Gohagoda will comprise of four main components.750 0. Switchyard inclusive of power conditioners. this chapter will be dedicated to describing design details of components 1–3. SCADA. the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB).12214 24519. Transmission line from power plant to the Grid Interconnection Point 4. Electric power generating plant (10-MW) 2. safety devises and step-up transformer 3.falls under the purview of the national power utility.713 0.149182 36506. Considering the nature and its importance to the proposed 10 MW Power plant.304 0. (Series1) 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 8 years Figure 2.23 Mining rate as a function of required duration of dumpsite life Electrical System In theoretical terms.264 2030 180 540336 2040 200 657000 Total 196. These are as follows: 1.23 the estimation of available quantity of MSW in the dumpsite Disposal Residual Predicted Year Tonnes/day Tonnes Fraction Total Tonnes 1970 55 1980 67 200.9827 200 Minnig rate TPD 150 Series1 Expon.

000 tonnes per annum Fuel type Methane from Land-fill Bio Reactor. easement for power line for power plant and easement for water pipeline. Under this system (also known as the so-called BIG/GT technologies – Biomass Integrated Gasification and Turbines). aided by recent developments in fluidised bed technologies – are making a come back in power generating scenarios when the single operation of a Rankine type power plant is itself not feasible or would only yield lower energy conversion percentages. Gasification (initially) to capture a fluidized fuel state for both solid and near- .24 below. The main characteristics of the proposal are summarised in Table 2. Table 2. Water requirement Not more than 10 mega liters per year Fuel Fuel quantity Not more than 40. a condensing steam turbine will be used with a fluidized bed or other gasifier in a typical MSW application for power generation. Gas and RDF from Dump Site Fuel storage Plant is located within the Dump Site Boundary. Electric Power Generating Plant There will be a 10 megawatt (10-MWe) electrical power system installed at the dumpsite utilizing waste material to generate electricity to be delivered to the national electrical grid of the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). Main plant equipment Combustion system Fluidized bed combustion boiler with flue gas recirculation and over fire air systems Particulate emission baghouses fitted with fabric bags control system Stack height Not more than 30 meters Cooling system Air-cooled condenser Misc Ash storage Maximum of 100 tonnes on site stored in enclosed containers. The proposed method is based on a dual-fuel system. in which state of the art gasifiers. This typically brings in a high efficiency of energy conversion. Other arrangements made to store excess ash.forms the link between the project and the national electric grid. A gasification technology coupled to a conventional Rankine cycle power plant would allow electricity generation at an enhanced rate.24 Main characteristics of the proposed power project General Life of project Approximately 25 years Generation capacity Approximately 10 megawatts Vegetation clearing Not more than 4 acres for proposal site. which is a gasifier technology coupled to a steam turbine. There have been many advances made in the gasification area globally. the multi-fuel burning process produces heat sufficient to generate super-heated steam that is in turn utilized to operate a condensing (steam) turbine based on a Rankine cycle. Methane produced from the dump through the bio-reactors will be burnt under controlled conditions to produce producer gas which is sent to a furnace that also takes in solid fuel (RDF).

Thus. tar. high-temperature steam into shaft power that can in turn be used to turn a generator and produce electric power. which in turn powers the turbine and generator. it needs to pass through a cleaning filter. A steam turbine requires a separate heat source and does not directly convert fuel to electric energy. including coal. This separation of functions enables steam turbines to operate with an enormous variety of fuels. liquid water is converted to high-pressure steam in the boiler and fed into the steam turbine. agricultural byproducts and even with municipality solid waste. creating power that is turned into electricity with a generator. equipment that transforms methane gas from bio-reactors in the dump site and solid fuel (RDF) into a low calorific value gas through a high temperature conversion process. alkaline metals and other compounds that could affect the steam turbine operation. steam based power generation is a noteworthy and desirable feature in the use of a gasifier. wood waste. called the Rankine cycle. Figure 2. This system includes a fluidized gasifier. Fuel gas from the dump site contains particulates.solid fuel has been successfully demonstrated in related biomass industries such as in bagasse based power generation. before introducing the fuel gas into the turbine combustion chamber. wood. In the thermodynamic cycle illustrated in Figure shown below. The steam causes the turbine blades to rotate. A condenser and pump are used to collect the steam exiting . generic layout of a BIG/GT system that is also proposed for the Gohagoda MSW Project.24 Simplified scheme of a BIG/GT system For descriptive purposes. a steam turbine is a thermodynamic device that converts the energy in high-pressure. Filter for gas cleaning Combustion chamber Gasifier Biomass BRAYTO N I Turbine inlet CYCLE Compressor Recuperative boiler Steam turbine RANKIN Technological E process Condensator CYCLE I I Figure 2. from natural gas to solid waste.24 shows a simplified. The lower use of steam as opposed to primary cycle. The energy is transferred from the boiler to the turbine through high-pressure steam.

This gas. The main project facilities comprise multi-fuel fired two 5-MW steam turbine based power modules. In essence. constituted by a Rankine cycle with a steam turbine (II). fuel handling system. de-mineralization plant. cooling water pump house. that uses the heat rejected by the Brayton cycle as its source. Typically in the steam combined cycle there is a topping section with a Brayton cycle (I).25 is for power-only applications and expands the pressurized steam to low pressure at which point a steam/liquid water mixture is exhausted to a condenser at vacuum conditions.25 A condensing steam turbine The turbine exhaust gases have a temperature of approximately 500°C and they still can constitute a source of heat for steam generation in a recuperative boiler. H2 between 15 and 20% and CH4 between 3 and 5%. This “in cascade” use (conversion) of the heat makes the efficiency of this combined cycle higher than that of pure and conventional steam cycles. the average content of the combustible components in the gas resulting from biomass is: CO between 10 and 15%. Figure 2. also known as producer gas. and a residential facility for the power plant staff. feeding it into the boiler and completing the cycle. raw water reservoir. ash handling and disposal order to generate heat or mechanical power. There are several different types of steam turbines: 1) A condensing steam turbine as shown in the Figure 2. The break-up of the power plant into other different configurations. fitting itself to systems where solid waste material alone cannot be used. water pre-treatment system. and it will be able to be further employed on another conversion process – aided by the RDF (residue derived fuel). and that could be used in a cycle with steam turbines. gasification provides a means to convert methane and other gases generated under controlled conditions into fuel gas through its partial oxidation at high temperatures. and a bottoming section.5-MW .the turbine. Basically.5-MW module to be supplemented by a 7. such as initially a 2. is an intermediate fuel. gotten from the dumpsite . a power house and auxiliary facilities that include a switch yard.

and a condensate recovery system along with auxiliary parts. turbine and generator. Cooling Water System: The power plant will have a closed-circuit cooling water system using water from the Mahaweli River. Each of the power modules will have a fluidized bed gasifier. The make-up water requirement is estimated to be 25 cubic meters per day. Fuel Handling System: The Fuel handling system. This allows the steam to expand more and helps the turbine extract the maximum energy from it. including a booster fan. (FHS) will comprise of two fuel streams into each power plant. The project‟s total cooling water system is estimated at about 150 cubic meters per day. Low oxides of nitrogen (NO x) burners will be used. making the electricity generating process much more efficient. Flue Gas De-sulfurization units: Each generating unit will have one limestone based de- sulfurization unit. The complete FHS will be designed for the simultaneous entry of both fuels. Each will have steam conditions of about 25 mega-pascals (MPa)/571 °C for main steam and 569 °C for re-heated steam. . Each boiler unit will have a multi-fuel furnace. 10-MW. and two air-compressors (for both units). The following are some other salient features of the power plant: Electrostatic precipitators: Each steam generating unit will be fitted with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with parallel exhaust gas paths. The steam that passes through each turbine is partly condensed into water that allows the steam to expand so that the turbine can extract most of the energy from the steam. one emergency slurry tank (for both units). The main plant comprises of three inter-connected structures: (i) Boiler Structures (ii) Turbine Building (iii) An integrated Control and Operational Building. and in the case of RDF. regenerative type air heater. high pressure steam boiler. forced draft (FD) fan.module or. one operating conveyer and one standby conveyer. that is. The ESP‟s will have a dust collection efficiency of not less than 99% while firing with solid fuel (RDF) with the highest ash content (estimated at about 34%). Water Treatment System: Water to be used in power plant operations will be filtered and de-mineralized before use. one-absorber tower. the installation of a complete 10-MW power plant in the first instance is a possibility but this will not affect the generic description here involving the upper limit of the power capacity for the site. Each path will consist of a number of fields or the collection of fly ash. two to three slurry de- circulation pumps. namely producer gas and RDF. de-aerating fans. and induced draft (ID) fan.

recording net power from the switchyard. True unification will be achieved by incorporating or integrating switchyard controls (SCADA). . Power transmission system i. since the GCV/HHV of RDF found in the dumpsite and predicted RDF from LFB is more than coal. The main integral controls for the key equipment. depending on price and availability. air- insulated. Current and Voltage transformers are located at points within the switchyard to provide for metering and relaying. 33kV high voltage winding and 440V low voltage winding. The Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) of switchyard consists of Operator Stations. Each circuit breaker shall comprise of a no-load breaker. Turbine and generator as well as the SCADA system shall constitute the switchyard and control system. An isolating switch is connected to each generator transformer connection to the main bus. Lightning protection will be provided by shield wires for overhead lines through appropriately sized Lightning arrestors. The communication between the facility switchyard and the control building will be facilitated through an internal telecommunications system. Upgrading transformer will be installed before the metering side. The following specifications for the step-up transformer are currently available: 3 phase. it is possible to sell it at the same price as coal for Norochcholai coal power plant. namely. The switchyard shall comprise of air-insulated aluminous bus type suitable for medium scale current uptakes. The system constitutes several operator work stations and engineer's work station with a high resolution Color display monitor. husk and the like can be sold to tea estates or converted to biochar for marketing the product as fertilizer. Control. Computers and associated peripherals and the switchyard bay control systems interconnected through a high speed network . the Boiler. offsite disposal of RDF In the event of sourcing funds for a power plant or there is excess of RDF. All protection and circuit breaker controls will be powered from the station battery-backed 220V DC system. protection and monitoring for the switchyard will be located in the switchyard relay room of the electrical building. Also some of the organic residual materials like coconut shells. Revenue metering is provided on the outgoing 50-60 Hz. disconnect switch on each side. A grounding grid is provided to control step and touch potentials. Transmission system. Engineer's Observation Station. and conformity with specifications. switch yard connections The Switchyard will form an integral part the 10-MW MSW (Biomass) power plant. The switchyard and the transformation system will be certified by either a CEB-supervised independent verification process. carried out by a chartered engineer. The transformer will be sourced locally or otherwise. Historical Data Logger. h. The standard upgrade conversion of 440-volts to 33-kV transformer will be available at the point of installation.

grid substations The Grid substation as proposed by the CEB is at Kiribathkumbura. Folowing figure 2. Figure 2. details of power distribution .26 shows the proposal issued with the Letter of Intent (LOI) by the CEB. ii.26 Grid substation as proposed by CEB iii.

Transmission line from power plant to the Grid Interconnection Point The following description is based on the CEB‟s distribution condition as of January 2011. Power Line: Approximately 10-km long SC-LYNX Tower 33 kV line will be constructed at the expense of the project to the nearest interconnection point. metering equipment will be installed within power house premises. Load Breaker Switch (LBS): One number of SF6 LBS –with remote control capability - will be installed at the power plant before the energy meters and the 33-kV tower line will be directly connected to the DSS through a separate 33-kV Distribution Bay. . The layout diagram below Figure 2. Metering Equipment: AS noted above.27 (courtesy: the CEB) illustrates the grid- interconnection transmission line from the Gohagoda Site to the Kiribathkumbura DSS while the single line diagram further below illustrates the entire power plant and the DSS connection point in more detail along with other electrical structures and networks within the boundary of the power plant. The interconnection point is identified as Kiribathkumbura GSS (Grid Sub-Station).

Figure 2.27 Layout of Transmission line from power plant to the Grid Interconnection Point .

In order to lessen this effect. but had not functioned as intended. On the far North East side of the dump. The primary treatment is in an anaerobic Treatment Bioreactor (LTB) and the design criteria and deductions are given in Table 2.25 Treatment Bioreactor (LTB) and the design criteria and deductions Once the is removed from an anaerobic environment. thus reducing to less than 500 mg/l or even less values to 250 mg/l. It is strongly recommended to relocate the piggeries to prevent additional pollution loads on the surface streams leading to the river. generation points. In the process of mineralization in the liner system. In most deep percolations of subsurface flows. In addition.25. an activated Sludge Process (ASP) will be installed and operated with chemical treatment for settlement in the clarifying tank. collection and treatment methods The EIA team spent considerable time and effort in finding the surface and subsurface flow of . in most parts of the dump.28. According to Manikpura et al. In the next stage of treatment. It has been shown that old LBR perform extremely well in breaking down high strength . If the need arise to incorporate a gas cleaning system. In order quantify number of rainfall storm events have been recorded at site and also physically observed the transportation and the noted number of points the oozing out from embankments.13 in section 3. the COD is reduced to 1500 mg/l and as the required solid retention time (SRT) is achieved.29. The highest storage requirement can be calculated based on a peak rainfall event of 400 mm at Gohagoda... .28 The network of new pipes and the drainage system Table X11 2. it is best to pump the excess into the nearest pipe network points. 2008. However. Figure 2. an aerobic biofilter system will be used. the wet and dry media biofilter developed by Ariyawansha et al. it can even reach 800 mg/l. The wells that were examined for water quality has been marked on the Figure 3.. considerable odour nuisance is created. The pipes that had been laid in 2005 were intact. iv.35.304 m3/year. collection and treatment system i. 2009 can be incorporated to negate odour emissions. The network of new pipes and the drainage system is given in Figure 2. safety devices i. an interceptor drain around the dump has been installed to capture all of subsurface flows in the upper strata that normally discharge into surface flow streams at different points in the dumpsite. the discharges were measured during low and heavy rainfall events. The contribution to formation is 24% of the total rainfall on average received per year. The Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model was used in estimating the total discharges as reported by Manikpura et al. The entire process flow diagram is given in Figure 2. 2008 the total estimated discharge is 30. there seems to be natural attenuation.

The large PVC pieces will be size reduced to small aggregate sizes. The advantage of using air as the media has both the effects of condensing the water while providing directly the hot air for reducing the moisture content of the RDF. The cross section of the constructed wetland and the layout design is given in Annexure…. inert material disposal system It is envisaged to produce textile fibre C&D waste cement blocks with SLS standards building material. ceramic and glass either could be used in these cement blocks or used for paving in roads. There is a very high demand for scrap metal.Figure 2. The use of heat pumps is another option rather than increasing the water temperature of the river.30 The cross section of the constructed wetland and the layout design j. Materials like PVC. 2009. inert in nature at ambient temperatures will be used for making these building blocks. The latest being fin type air condensers and the other water condensers and water towers for cooling the water to ambient temperatures.. Estimated quantity of inert materials in the dumpsite is given in Table 2.26.. The river water can be used but it should be the last option. stemming from a recent study by Jayasinghe et al.29 The entire process flow diagram ii. Therefore. Otherwise a closed loop system of water is required for the condenser too with an additional heat exchanger with air to make use of hot air for drying RDF to very low moisture contents. Treated effluent disposal systems Finally the treated water will be sent trough the constructed wetland and then discharged into the main water course. a water treatment plant is required to ensure Si content to be less than 5 microgram/L and hardness zero. . cooling water treatment process There are two options for condensing the steam for a closed loop system with 10 to 15% losses.30 Figure 2.or figure 2. The water looses can be as much as 100 to 150 m3/day if the system has problems of condensing. even rusted and they can be sold to the informal sector or directly sold to steal manufactures. Furthermore. k. There is yet another option of using ground source cooling of slightly above ambient water coming out of the initial cooling to reduce the temperature to 20 oC.

0. at an average flue gas flow rate of 24000m3/hr. control strategies.324 23 140 1990 82 244.356. flue gas desulfurization is done.303. However. o.94 149.42 901 11. so as to reduce the dioxin concentration to the required standards.743 34.063 0.00 497 6.815. The details have yet to be received from the manufacturer.750. since carbon monoxide radicals are formed which then combust once again in the stratified flame. infrastructure facilities required /provided . the presence of CO2 in LFG will prevent excessive prompt and thermal NO formations.046 0. noise/vibration generation points The details have yet to be received from the manufacturer. The particulate is removed with electrostatic precipitators and semi-dry absorber with bag hose filters. SO2.14 g/s.166 g/s mass flow rates.375. CO and Particulate Matter in 2. Instead of flue gas recirculation. while maintaining high temperature at the secondary combustion with LFG.397 34 208 2010 121 363. ii.23 g/s and 0. m. which is another technique to reduce NOx formations.13 122.Table 2. The maximum expected emission levels which will be monitored continuously along with the flow rate are: NO.26 Estimated quantity of inert materials in the dumpsite based on a fraction of different materials Year TPD Disposal (wb) Disposal (Db) Scrap metal C&D Glass Ceramic 55 0. 0. The amount of LFG at the secondary combustion can be varied to ensure high temperature at low NOx emissions.56 606 7. High temperature gasification is the proposed system. respectively.630. n. National Water Supply & Drainage Board and the Company. noise and vibration control strategies i.97 739 9. For the removal of sulfur dioxide.005 0.00 100. thus requiring less catalytic conversions.886 126 771 l. Buffer zone The boundaries have not been demarcated. Air emission control system The quality of exhaust fumes is detected for dioxins in order to increase the secondary combustion temperature and also to increase the temperature at primary combustion. since there are additional number of houses to be relocated and the reallocation of lands was done only recently between the two organizations. fuel NO formations are likely and selective catalytic reduction is a must.84 181.022 1980 67 200.709 28 170 2000 100 298. The advantage of the LFG is to ensure a stratified flame that can reduce the NOx levels.151.455 41 253 Total 2.66 g/s.713.

31 Project layout. there will be separate storage facility. iv. Construction of new roads and /or improvements of access roads (if any) A 6 m wide new access road will be constructed from the South Western side of the proposed site. Safety devices /fire protection facilities/lightening protection facilities The details have yet to be received from the manufacturer. The details of the control room have yet to be received from the manufacturer. Waste handling machines will be cleaned at the same facility every day. After constructing MRF facility. but waste handling machinery will have a parking shed facility of 110 m2 with maintenance facility. Power plant will have a one centralized operating room with all the facilities for remote monitoring. p.) There will be two operating rooms for power plant and landfill bioreactor.i. any other components (if any) . Vehicle cleaning and parking facilities There will be one vehicle washing plant with tyre wash bay and high pressure guns for body wash. See Figure 2. Every waste transporting vehicle will be washed each time before leaving the site. There will not be any parking facility for waste collection and transport vehicles. Main gate security room will have the Weighing bridge scale recording and monitoring of incoming vehicles and vehicle washing unit. Existing warehouses near to the temple at North Western side of the site will be rehabilitated and used as warehouses and storage in the initial phase. operating room (control panel etc. Storage facilities. Main administrative complex will have the main vehicle parking facility of 120 m 2 and Power plant area will also have a vehicle parking facility that can accommodate long vehicles. ii. iii. v. warehousing etc.

4 Implementation schedule The implementation schedule is given in table 2. schedule of collection and disposal Operational plan ii.27 Water requirements .5 Operational activities i. 2.1. Details of operation and maintenance activities.29 below. 2.1.2. RoadtowaterIntake repairandm aintenance TemporarySiteOffice &vehicleParkingArea Figure Project Layout existing surface water bodies within the site should be provided of appropriate scale. Project layout Tom ainroad G sd LanefxtraB ill cio tio rn eascyste torm (Peradeniya-Katugastota) LandfillBioreactor-2 a ConstructedWetland t0 (2du mmopnthscapasity) (24m onthscapasity) Existingbalancingtank LandfillBioreactor-1 BufferZone (18m onthscapasity) LeachateTreatment Bioreactor Bufferzone Leachatetreatmenttanks StorageFacility Tom ainroad (Peradeniya-Katugastota) Areafortheproposed inertlandfill PowerPlant R Tyrewashpit&weighbridge IIVE LI R Accessroad Serviceroads AWE M aterialRecovery MAH SecurityRoom Facility(MRF) BufferZone AdministrativeComplex M achineryparking. Water requirements (sources and quantities) The water requirements in project operation are as following table 2. Table 2. order to get a clear picture of the project.1.

4 National Water supply and Drainage Water Board Vehicle Washing Plant 8 Abundant Large Well at the Site Irrigation 715 Abundant Large Well at the Site Power Plant 150 Abundant Large Well at the Site 2.28 Labour Requirement Type of labour required Constructional Operational Supervisors 4 3 Skilled Labour 6 6 Labour 20 12 Total 30 21 .28 Table 2.7 Work force i.1.6 Relocation of settlers No of families to be relocated Places to be relocated Permanent and temporary structures Facilities to be provided 2. Labour requirements (during construction and operation) The labour requirements in project constructional and operational phases are as following table 2.1. Water Use Amount Source (m3/day) Drinking & Sanitary 9.

2 Signing of Contract and 1st Payment 16.1 Finalysing Power Plant 16.2 Stage I 10 Stage II 11 Installation of gas wells.Table 2.5 Commissioning of power plant . pipes and turf 12 Flairing of Landfill Gas 13 Operation of Landfill Bioreactor 14 Relocation of rest of the settlers 15 Fencing around the site 16 Power Plant 16.1 Construction of Landfill Bioreactor 9.29 Implementation Schedule Year 1 Year 2 No Activity M1 M2 M3 M4 M 5 M 6 M 7 M 8 M 9 M 10 M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 15 1 EIA approvals 2 Leachate Treatment 3 Construction of Administrative Complex 4 Vehicle wash and other facilities 5 Access Road to Dumpsite 6 Relocation of First Two Houses 7 Construction of MRF and Operation 8 Dumpsite grading and leveling 9 Removal of Small Dumpsite 9.3 Training 16.4 Power Plant construction 16.

Two skilled labours trained at the University of Peradeniya will work as supervisors in landfill bioreactor and material recovery facility operation and construction. ii. gloves and other safety gears. During rainy season rain coats will be provided for all of the worker. First aid kits will be available in administrative complex. and store facility for boots. 2.2 Analyses of Alternatives The following alternatives could be described 2. During its operation there will be a trained supervisor and skilled labours working under the management staff. iv.2. During the power plant construction there will be a specialized work force working with the recommendation of the power plant manufacturer. iii. Scavengers (permitted or not) if yes plan for incorporating them in to operations.8 Any offsite infrastructure facilities envisaged 2.1 “no action’’ alternative The dumpsite cannot be used and it needs rehabilitation. Frequent monitoring and repairing of machinery will help in reducing labour injuries. 2. thus no action alternative cannot be considered. bulldozer and tractors and for rough masonry work. vi. drinking water.2. Every measure will be taken in MRF and Power Plant to protect the labour from accidents. Facilities required or provided Two workers rest facilities will be provided for women and men and each will have a separate changing room facility. Employment of local people during preconstruction. Availability of skilled labour There are few skilled labours locally available within the site for operation of excavator. v. first aid facility. MRF and power plant. A common and good quality restaurant facility will be provided for all. sanitary facility.1. Occupational health and safety provided All the staff will be covered under a health and accidental insurance cover. Activated carbon masks. gloves. Sanitary facilities and disinfection allowances will be provided for the work force. age limits No scavenging activity will be allowed within the project premises. head gears and overall will be provided and the project management will be strict on wearing safety gears at work. construction and operation Local people residing within the proposed site that are working in the dumpsite as scavengers will be given the priority when selecting the labour force.2 Alternative sites . The CEA has taken legal action against the KMC. boots.

Furthermore.2.3 Alternative scales of the project The project cannot be scaled down by not mining the dumpsite. a site was selected in ……and there were protests against establishing any type of disposal facility.2.5.4 Alternative designs. construction techniques. However. 2. Nevertheless. The decision was made by the then Chairman CEA. operation and maintenance procedures The composting of MSW is an alternative. 2. The recent cite that was selected by the CEA was examined.At the beginning of developing the project. low temperatures and high rainfall in Kandy is not conducive to composting. Alternative ways of dealing with environmental impacts . it is an alternative technology in the Policy document of managing MSW. while creating undue pressures on the people living in the villages. but the quality of the compost is questionable.2. the pollution will continue for a very long time to come. thus compelled to withdraw the idea. 2. The main reason for not considering the site is the reduction of Kandian cultural values. including waste to energy plant and the cost of transportation the wastes was a negative factor.

1 3.1 Physical Environment Selected site is situated adjacent to the north western boundary of Kandy city and 3km away from the city of Kandy.2 Geology and soil 3. surface water drainage pattern and quality. The location map of the surrounding area is given in Figure ….2. The site is located in a valley surrounded by mountain ridges from all sides. Its location coordinates are 7° 18‟ to 45. Wattaramthanna range with a peak of 510m is located towards east in about 0.1.2. soil samples were collected from auger at 0. To the south and south west of the site lies the Gannoruwa mountain range with a peak of 570m.1. which makes it imperative that a proper attention is paid on the possible effects of emissions from the power plant.2. Soil characteristics According to the FT-IR analysis it can be observed that the soils in the downstream of Gohagoda dump site shows kaolin type clay structure and clay is lack of organic matter. Soil type distribution a. Mahathanna Watta mountains with its highest peak of 725m are situated towards western side of the area at a distance of about 4km.1 General geology of the area 3.89” N and 80° 37‟to 19.5 m above to the bed rock and closer to the bed rock as shown in Figure 3. . Analysis of soils contaminated by i.5 km distance to the site.1.. Highly ecologically valuable two mountain ranges like Hantana and Udawattakelle are located towards the south east of the area making the situation more critical. CHAPTER 3 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 3. For the purpose to ensure representative and same condition in all samples. flow regimes and streams draining the area. Total metal concentration The sample locations were selected in order to determine the physical environmental characteristics of the study area such as: topography.1.87” E which lies at an altitude of 461 m above mean sea level. The contour plan of the site is also given in Annexure 6. Entire surrounding area is with hilly undulating terrain with vital eco systems.

1: Sample locations and depth of samples The total quantity of metals extracted from 0.Figure 3.5 m above from the bed rock polluted soils were recorded as Zn>Cu>Pb> Cr > Ni >Cd concentrations and had a significant increasing pattern from the river towards the dumpsite direction (Figure 3. 70. 98. Pb. Figure 3. Cr.45 mg/kg) and Cu.3. Accordingly. Ni and Cd.2 Total metal concentrations of soil – 0.45.5m above from bed rock . 69. A scattered metal behavior was recorded closer to bed rock as shown in Figure 3.45 mg/kg respectively.15 3. Thereafter can be facilitated to move towards down wards and the deeper soil layer may adsorb toxic metals. 124. That may be the reason for the unique pattern observed at 0.2). According to observed data all binding sites in soil particles may have been occupied by metals in the upper layer. the highest total concentration of heavy metal recorded was Zn (318.85.1.5 m above layer from the bed rock.

Pb. Figure 3. 7.09 meq/100g) and specific surface area (9.4 Exchangeable metal fraction of bottom layer iii.4 mg/kg) and it may cause a threat to the surrounding environment since the concentrations are high.05. Cu were recorded as 10. Comparable less values for recorded cation exchange capacity (49. the predominant heavy metal recorded is Zn (59.3 Total metal concentrations of bottom layer ii. Further. Bioavailable fraction .05 mg/kg respectively and Cr was not recorded as exchangeable although a significant amount was detected in total metal content. Exchangeable metal fraction The heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction can be released rapidly to the environment. 5.25 m2/g) determinations reveals enough evidences to confirm that the analyzed soil has low ability to absorb in to it‟s outer-sphere. Ni. According to the exchangeable metal fraction results as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3.35. This may be a reason due to the representation of negatively charged complexes of soil in fewer amounts.4.

Cd.20. High toxic metal concentrations in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions express the risk on local living being as well as the open water bodies such as rivers and groundwater sources. Cd.60. Figure 3. Pb.85. 38. 2. According to the results upper layer soil samples had high concentration of heavy metal such as Pb. This result can be arisen due to many factors associated with soil.65 mg/kg respectively and Cu. 1. 8. Zn.5m above from bed rock Figure 3.25.65 mg/kg.5).The heavy metal elements can be transferred from abiotic (soil) to biotic environments and further facilitated to enter to the food chains by bioaccumulation. these metal leaching patterns are similar to the total concentration variation at the bottom and upper layers soil sample leaching patterns. 6. Ni and Cr were not in measurable amount as shown in Fig. and can be concluded that the soils play a major role as a natural attenuator for toxic metals however the release of these metals into the water bodies and plants especially after exceeding the capacity of binding may create problems in the future. 3. 4. 10.55. Low metal concentrations at the bottom layer was recorded as Zn. desorption and solubilization of mineral phases etc.45. 3. Ni.5 Bioavailable metal fraction of soil – 0. It is important to evaluate the potential risk to environment. respectively (Figure 3.6 Bioavailable metal fraction of bottom layer The presence of high concentration of heavy metal in soil is considerably high in Gohagoda open landfill area compared to the regulatory limits of other countries. Cu. Furthermore. .

3.1 presents the average monthly temperature in the Gannoruwa area during the period of 2001. Ground stratification and permeability 3.4 October 25.2 Meteorology The project area is located within the Wet zone mid country.0oC.3 February 25.1 Temperature Long-term records of temperature are not available in the project area.2010.8 July 25. which experiences a rainy. it is anticipated that the temperature patterns occurring in the project area are comparable to the temperature variations occurring in the Gannoruwa area. 3. respectively. Land use capabilities 3. May and March while the coldest months are December and January.2 presents the monthly maximum wind .3 June 25.3 April 26. the mean annual temperature was Wind patterns No long-term records of wind patterns are available in the project area.1: Average monthly temperature for years 2001-2010 Month Temperature oC January 24.3 August 25. For the period of 2001-2010.5oC with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 29.2.1 March 26.1 December 24.5 May 26.1. The warmest months are April. Height of ground water table 3.5 3.9oC and 21. However. Table 3.3.4 September 25. However.4 November 25. Table 3. Table 3.1. humid and mild climate.2. it is anticipated that the wind patterns occurring in the project area are also similar to the wind patterns occurring in the Gannoruwa area.

2002.1 W SW October 6-Oct-2001 4. the maximum daily pan evaporation was reported in February 2010 amounting to 10 mm.3 -3.30 SW SW August 2-Aug-2001 6. 2006.3 -3.5 are also similar to the average monthly evaporation and humidity patterns occurring in the project area.19 E E February 23-Feb-2002 14.42 E E April 5-Apr-2007 6. The mean humidity throughout the year is around 70 % in evenings and 81 % in mornings and the average annual evaporation is about 1123 mm.45 E ESE May 17-May-2002 5.2: Monthly maximum wind speed of Gannoruwa from year 2001-2010 Note: *** Not observed 3. while minimum was 0.speed experienced in the period of 2001 to 2010. Table 3.45 NW *** June 23-Jun-2002 6.2.21 E E Table 3. However.10 E E December 29-Dec-2003 14. Tables 3.3 Relative humidity Recent data pertaining to the relative humidity are not available in the project area.88 *** *** July 7-Jul-2001 7.1mm in December. the project area experiences a humid climate and according to the data reported in the period of 2001-2010.81 SW S November 29-Nov-2007 11.19 W SSW September 30-Sep-2001 8.66 E E March 9-Mar-2002 9. Table 3.3: Average monthly pan evaporation in the Gannoruwa area for the period of 2001-2010 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Evaporation (mm) 107 124 124 90 96 90 81 90 91 76 67 88 Wind speed Direction Month Date (km/h) Morning Evening January 7-Jan-2002 11.4: Mean daily pan evaporation of Gannoruwa for the period of 2001-2010 .5 show the average monthly evaporation and humidity data collected from the Gannoruwa area and it is anticipated that the data presented in Tables 3.The maximum wind speed was reported in February.

Mean Daily Month Evaporation (mm) January 3.1 June 3.5: Mean humidity for the period of 2001-2010 Month Morning (%) Evening (%) January 80 65 February 77 56 March 79 60 April 84 73 May 80 73 June 81 74 July 83 75 August 81 72 September 79 72 October 82 76 November 84 77 December 82 72 .6 August 2.0 Table 3.5 February 4.1 April 3.0 May 3.4 November 2.2 December 3.9 September 2.0 July 2.8 October 2.4 March 4.

3 Apr 298.4 Dec 180.5 Mar 163.2 2.6 Oct 254.2.9mm.7 9.0 Jul 152.2 9. According to that the average annual rainfall is 1973.9 Aug 108.3 1.5 Feb 42.2 Jun 150.6: Mean Rainfall for the period of 2001-2010 Average monthly Daily average Month RF (mm) RF (mm) Jan 76.5 Sep 136.2 Nov 282.9 May 128.9 4.8 2500 cum 2001 2000 cum 2002 Cumilative rainfall (mm) cum 2003 1500 cum 2004 cum 2005 cum 2006 1000 cum 2007 cum 2008 500 cum 2009 cum 2010 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Month .2 5.4 Rainfall Tables 3.3 3.7 5.0 4.6 shows the average monthly rainfall data reported at the Meteorological Department at Gannoruwa.3. Figure 3. Table 3.6 illustrates the cumulative rainfall variation from 2001 to 2010.7 4.1 5.5 8.

Q o is the discharge at the start of the recession. runoff will be lower. Although.3. the water table falls. permeating rate and therefore the release is partially governed by the soil permeability. The equilibrium water balance model is based on methods proposed by Budyko (1958) and Fu (1981) and further developed by Milly (1994) and Zhang et al.  SD  ETB f RF Higher the SD value. (2001. Baseflow recession can be expressed by the following equation: Qb  Qoekt Where Q is the discharge at some time after the initiation of recession.. 3. all of them got washed away with the storm that occurred.765 m2 of which approximate 40% of the land is used for the dump. the absorption capacity will depend on the maximum SD value for the duration considered. since shallow confining layers exists in the location where the waste is dumped. nearly 1 m3/h.. The hydrological characteristics are very much influenced by the dump. t is the time since the recession began. The dumpsite is located in the largest one. Unfortunately. permitted to develop a simple model.6: Cumulative rainfall variation during year 2001 to 2010 in Ganoruwa 3. The measurements were made with V-Notch weirs that were installed to obtain the flow rates from the three sub- catchments. 2004). Also the three flows that joined the main stream were measured.1.3. Unlike any other watershed. In determining the water balance the index of dryness defined as the ratio of potential evapo-transpiration to precipitation was found to be a dominant factor (Zhang et al. Surface water drainage pattern The study area have three small watersheds as shown in Figure . the stream of the sub-watershed was a dry one during non rainy seasons. having an area of 184. and k is a constant for the basin. ET and the observations permitted to develop a hydrograph based on this model considering the water balance of the dump for the sub-watershed. now has considerable base flow. SD index.2 Flow regime of the streams draining the area The rainfall data. Therefore.3 Hydrology 3. In . However.Figure 3.. A plot of lnQ versus t therefore gives the value of k from the slope of the line. the random measurements of flow during the storms and accurate base flow readings. and the baseflow to the stream decreases. term as “storage deletion”. It is based on the concept of releasing subsurface flows that eventually discharge as base flow. The baseflow component of streams represents the withdrawal of groundwater from storage. Also there are number of equations developed to determine accurately the baseflow. the wastes have greatly influenced the water absorption capacity. xx) It would be apt to include another term “baseflow” to the dryness index and thus. As the stream drains water from the groundwater reservoir.

since i = initial and f = final Q = Qb+ ROd + ∆S.000274 m3/s Ad = 30. ROd= Direct runoff of a storm in mm defined as (1-SD) Qb = Measured base flow for a unit area of the dump in mm ET= Pan evaporation in mm The condition where ∆Sf = ∆Si -Qb –ET. when change in storage capacity ∆S is above the maximum storage Sm and when ∆S is below Sm. The above equation can also be written as.this watershed the minimum flow measured were very constant. the area of sub-watershed of the dump . It could either be above or below the maximum storage Sm for a unit area and over a period of time. Qb = 0. depending on the recession limb.7: Illustration of baseflow variations with time for calculating recession flow The storage of water within the watershed can be written for a rainfall event as. indicating that there is large reservoir within the watershed. turning point or rising within the period of recession as illustrated in Figure 3. ∆Sf < ∆Si. it will approach. for the condition. t can be either +ve or negative –ve. Sm = ∑Qb+ ∑ET. 25 Total flow 20 15 Recession 10 Threshold 5 0 Baseflow 5 7 9 11 13 15 Turning point Time in days Figure 3. Q = Qb+ ROd and in the absence of rainfall. Qb  QoKt . 30 Flow Q in mm/day .  S  RF ROd QbET Where. Where.500 m2.8 was developed from the following data. RF = Rainfall in mm. ∆S= change in storage capacity in mm for a unit area.7. Q = Qb The Figure 3.

96E-06 Total watershed 175. next lowest the entire watershed and highest the area without the dump.2 of RF. mm/s = Qb per unit area RF = in mm/hr measured over a period of one month and converted to mm/day ROd= 0. assuming that Qb is 0. the lowest permeability was for the dump.7: The relationship of baseflow from groundwater and permeability of watershed Base flow Base flow Gross Permeability Category Extent m2 Mm/m /month m3/month 2 cm/s Sub-watershed Dump 30.06 734 8. The base flow rates were governed by the groundwater permeability. It can be considered as lag flow.8: Generated discharges Q in mm/day for a unit area from the prediction model vs time for the highest rainfall and highest rainfall intensity recorded at the Gohagoda Dumpsite The Figure 3. therefore in the recession curve. In applying the same model on the entire watershed. the computation should be the same.1.9 manifest these differences. then K=0. The comparative cumulative discharges illustrated in Figure 3.78E-06 . Qb Qbu  Ad . The maximum period of direct runoff is one day. it indicates the difference of resistance to flow. 700 600 Q dischage mm/day 500 400 Rainfall 300 Discharge 200 100 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Time in days Figure 3.500 24.8 shows the generated discharges for the period 1st to 31st December 2010.335 1. When there are several rainfall incidences.500 52.63 8.602 1.7.000 47. since t=1 from turning point.61 7. see Table 3. K value can be obtained. As expected.98E-07 Sub-watershed without dump 144.1 at the minimum turning point and the Qo is maximum flow of total RF of one day.8 for the dry period examined for each storm event on the same day. since SD =0. Table 3.

It is important to continue this study so that management should be automated to cope with the large variations of day and night discharges as shown in Figure 3.000 100. It is a good example of dew contribution as precipitation.The average flow can be considered as the baseflow from the dump.20 0. the sub-watershed without the dump manifests an interesting pattern showing the influence of ET on reduction of and the dew contribution in the night as illustrated in Figure 3.00 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM Figure 3.000 150.40 Q l/s 0.10 In comparison.70 0.000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time in days Figure 3.000 50.60 0.000 Cumulative Q in m3 250.11 These influences perhaps are more pronounced in a river basin.50 0.000 200. It can account for approximately 9.30 0.10: Stream flow (baseflow) measurements in the dry season of the dumpsite .000 300.9: A comparison of the cumulative discharges of the entire watershed (WS) and sub-watershed without dump and the dumpsite 0. Total WS Dumpsite WS WS without Dump 350. The retention time is very low and the pollution loads are considerable.10 0.000 m3 for the year is washed out for every rainfall event.000 m3 and the remaining 21.

The study took into account nature of the flood hydrograph.00 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM Figure 3.3 Occurrence of floods Ten year flood flow data of the Mahaweli River was analyzed according to the flood hazard analysis (statistical methods). such that the Figure 3.50 3.50 Q l/s 2.12 can give the relationship between the maximum discharges for difference recurrence intervals.50 0. 4. it is very much applicable since the Kotmale Dam reduces risk of flooding.00 0.00 2. shape/volume. .3. The log values of the flows were obtained and then ranked them from low to highest.50 1. The maximum rise in the water level will inundate the paddy fields of the low lying lands of the main watershed.11: Stream flow (baseflow) measurements in the dry season of the sub- watershed excluding dumpsite 3. Although. peak flow vs. 10 year flood flow data was used.00 3.00 1. The selection was made according to number of occurrences. The probability analysis required data selection and processing.

And R1. y = 64.1.12: Annual maximum discharges and its recurrence intervals based on records of ten years 3. while R2 was located on discharge point to the river. Then C1 was located on main canal which drain directly to the Mahaweli river. R3 were located on upstream and down steam of the river respectively. S4. S3.4 Surface water quality The sampling points were located and positioned in order to represent the entire area of Gohagoda dumpsite.00 6.44 R2 = 0. S5. S6 were around the boundaries of main dumping area.00 4.00 10. The locations of the sampling points are shown in the Plate 3. .00 8.701x + 125.9606 ANNUAL MAX.00 2.3.00 REOCCURANCE INTERVAL Years Figure 3. S1 was on the main dumpsite and S2. D1 and D2 were taken from old dump and new burned dump area respectively.DISCHARGE m3/s 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.00 12.

All other samples showed higher variations of salinity values within the range of 0-0. Additional burden is the effluent discharges from the piggery as shown in S6 values. volatile suspended solid (VSS).11: Locations of sampling points The collected samples were analyzed for the parameters of pH. Very low values of TS and VS were recorded in the stream flow. total suspended solid (TSS). TDS were within 500- 6000 mg/l range. but the process reversed after sometime. In evaluating the data. total solid (TS). 2010 the EC measurements were within the range of 1. In this study the BOD and COD values puddles on top of the dumpsite were 4800 and 32000. The total loads could be considerable considering the washouts from the top of the dumpsite.8%. In an earlier study. let alone the baseflow. Salinity. using standard methods. Phosphate.32 mS and it is typical of a MSW dumpsite (Pathirana. 2006). the nitrate nitrogen values in the river were higher than downstream and at the discharge point. In general. Sometimes due to toxicity and other complications a lower BOD values are recorded. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). electrical conductivity (EC). volatile solid (VS). total dissolved solid (TDS). . The quality and quantity generated from dumpsite was strongly influenced by the hydrological conditions. the BOD value reported was 7500 mg/l (Manikpura et al. There were low nitrate nitrogen and after a dry spell. The results of upstream (R1) in comparison to downstream after river water mixing with (R2) clearly show the level of pollution.Plate 3. The contribution of salinity to the river can be clearly seen in Annexure 2. The pollution level of river . Nitrate. The phosphate levels varied considerably. respectively. although upstream and incoming effluent pH levels were higher..12 to 9. TS fluctuations were high since decomposition and burning create high content of TS and VS. the pH had decreased. 2008). influencing the river flow. The salinity levels were very low in upstream samples of river at the beginning and then increased significantly. In summarizing the study done by Widanagamege.

increases with the additions from Gohagoda stream flow. 3.3.8: Borehole details . The quality parameters of discharge flow were very much higher than standard values.13: Bore hole locations Table 3.5 Groundwater levels Figure 3.

Bore Total Permeability (m3/s) hole Remarks Depth (m) X 10-10 No P1 0. thereafter decomposed P4 1. thereafter decomposed P5 0.186 waste layer could be observed First 30 cm depth was a soil layer.76 62.500 Could not observe a soil cover Could not dig further due to waste material. could not observe First 30 cm depth was a soil layer.48 1.28 was observed and there was not underneath Could not dig further due to gravel waste material. thereafter decomposed P6 0.182 waste layer could be observed First 30 cm depth was a soil layer.46 gray soil. wastewater from a P21 0.54 8.47 7. thereafter decomposed P3 0.54 0.82 4.350 waste layer could be observed First 35 cm depth was a soil layer.030 Could not observe a soil cover P10 0.63 surface was observed and there was not underneath First 20 cm depth was a soil layer.86 nearby piggery was flowing on the surface . stagnating on P11 0. underneath there was First 30 cm depth was a soil layer.410 waste layer and flowing on the surface could be observed Could not dig further due to aggregates and beneath. and flowing on the P15 0.33 2.48 not observed P8 0.540 waste layer P17 0.630 surface could be observed.82 There was not measurable quantity of First 30 cm depth was a soil layer. thereafter decomposed P19 0. could not observe could not observe waste layer or .52 stagnating on the surface was observed and there was not underneath Could not dig further due to gravel.61 no / quarry dust in the bottom layer P9 0.820 waste layer and flowing on the surface could be observed First 45 cm depth was a soil layer.800 waste layer First 35 cm depth was a soil layer.73 2.58 the surface was observed and there was not underneath Could not dig further due to … stagnating on the surface P12 0. stagnating on the P14 0. thereafter decomposed P2 0. could P7 0. thereafter decomposed P16 0.64 1. P13 0.090 waste layer P20 1 It was only a soil layer. thereafter decomposed P18 0.41 7.03 0.

6 Noise Inventory of existing noise sources and ambient noise levels . Table 3.735 6.47 Cultivated paddy fields 57.4 Land use The existing land use pattern within 500m radius of the project site is given in Table 3.9.21 Mahaweli river 88.645 3.59 Abundant paddy fields 19.122 11.400 2.5 Air quality Inventory of existing emission sources and ambient air quality measurements 3. Ground water quality Surface water uses including water intake points Ground water uses 3.813 67.518 1.9 :Land use pattern within 500 m radius of the project site Description Area (m2) Percentage Waste dump 51.22 Roads 27.398 100 3.51 Home gardens 531.165 7.28 Commercial 9.71 Total 785.

isolated and scattered trees (up to 20m) and shrub (up to 3m) species can be seen. flowers. Geomorphologically.7. pruning. sub canopy 10m and shrub/herb layer 2m could be recognized. Except for the centrally located dumping site. Mahaweli River makes the eastern boundary of the land while north and south are bounded by marsh lands which were formerly tracts of paddy lands.2 Home gardens – existing Home gardens are the vegetation found immediately around homesteads which are results of long term human manipulations.1 Vegetation types identified Several vegetation types (9) were identified in the project area and their characteristics are as follows.away from dumpsite They occur on peripheral lands of the dumping site where tree cover has destroyed due to various human activities such as grass cutting. the appearance varies in relation to the individual farmer practice. Grasslands have a simple vegetation structure. grazing by cattle.1. nuts. Best developed multi-storey home gardens can be located in the eastern part of the site close to Mahaweli River. Often the structure is fast changing in time and space due to weeding.3 Home gardens . It provides people with fruits. timber etc.1. 3. 3. yams. medicines. 2008).abandoned .7 Ecological Resources The site is located in Wet zone mid country within WM3b agro climate zone (Harispattuwa DSD) where mean annual rainfall exceed 2500mm.3. The dumping site is an elevated (10m-15m) land area bounded by marshes and Mahaweli River in three sides. removal of timber. However. digging etc. fencing. firewood. More exotic and agricultural crop species are found in this habitat. the site is part of rolling and hilly landscape of the area. home garden is an important faunal habitat providing animals with feeding and nesting sites. the rest of the project area has good vegetation cover representing various habitats types that have evolved due to long term human habitation and disturbances. canopy 20m. WM3b climate zone is characterized by presence of well developed Kandyan home gardens (Punyawardena. Occurrence of tree dominated multipurpose vegetation community arranged similar to a natural forest is one of the main characteristic features of these home gardens. fire. 3. there are several plant layers. just the closely grown grassy cover up to 2m in height. Continuous canopy allow very little light to reach the ground.7. the site was part of Gohagoda village system with luxuriant home gardens until some 30 years back.7. Also.1 Grasslands . According to local informants. Weedy plants and agricultural crop plants characteristic of Kandyan home gardens are the leading floristic elements in the area.7. Occasionally.1. throughout the year. firewood gathering etc. Generally. vegetables. 3.

bats. are mostly weedy species growing abundantly with no management. Ludwigia shrubs growing up to 2m are the dominant plant in many sites.Abandoned home gardens also have a fairly similar structure as in managed home gardens. 3. 3. An important feature of these shrublands is that they are well adapted to disturbed and unfavorable site conditions including garbage accumulation. herbs and shrubs. Generally. However.7. Bamboo is a dominant component in this habitat.1. Shrublands are good resting places of insects and some other small mammals. Most shrublands are distributed around the dump site.e.1. Vulnerability to fire is more or less similar to grasslands. It is the frontline defense against stream bank erosion due to water currents.1. the site is characterized by excessive growth of aquatic weeds. They occur as a patch work over the landscape. Aquatic or semi-aquatic shrubs and herbs are abundant in this habitat. Riverine forests form the inter phase between stream and other terrestrial habitats.7. amphibians etc. Riverine forests The riverine forest is found along the banks of Mahaweli river streams. two strata could be recognized. site disturbance and removal of tree vegetation has lead to the formation of such shrublands. mainly Thelendaru (Ricinus communis) are scattered over the expanse of grasslands.abandoned paddy land Marshlands have resulted from long term abandonment of terraced paddy lands in low laying areas of the site. Natural rivrine species such as Kumbuk and Mee are lacking in this strip of vegetation due to long term disturbance. Vegetation height is about 15m-20m with a partly closed canopy belt of forests. plants of the lower layers i.7.short are characterized by one stratum of shrubs (up to 2 m) with many grass species grown as a thicket. The tall shrubs are an advanced growth stage of short shrubland in absence of grazing pressure and other mechanical disturbances. Well developed riverine forests provide convenient resting sites for birds.5. They do not form a continuous canopy.4 Marshland . 3. Thick root system of trees and shrubs acts as a protective cushion covering the banks.7. Sub-canopy (10m) and shrubs/herbs (1m-2m) layers can also be distinguished. The distribution of this vegetation type is as narrow as 10m. Shrubs.8 Woodlands .6 Shrublands . reptiles.7 Shrublands – Tall The tall version of shrubland has shrubs growing up to above 2m and below 5m and has a very simple structure.Short Scrublands . Grazing by cattle. 3.

which occupied former orchards/home gardens. Total list of fauna encountered during sampling is given in Annexure . but the flora (trees. such as garbage trucks that bring waste materials to the site and. Even in the marshland bordering the garbage dumping site is very poor in its faunal composition. However.. 3.7.11).78 from dump site maximum per unit area Homegardens . Rivina Avg. The important visible feature of the flora is that most of the trees.00 abandoned cassia Ha Homegardens .1.82 abandoned elastica rubber Ha Homegardens .7.7. Table 3.9 Dumping site flora Surviving flora of the sites with newly accumulated solid and liquid waste was considered as dumping site flora.up and compacting garbage for a long period of time. 3.4 Fauna in the project area Faunal richness is the project site is extremely poor (Table 3. They are found especially on embankments near marshlands or the former terraced paddy lands.Cover 1 Herb 27.56 abandoned humilis per unit area .3 Abundance of plant species The leading plant species reference life form and vegetation type are summarized in Table 1. 3.2. from the dump drain into this marshland (formerly a paddy field) may be toxic to many ground living. Castilla Panama Density per 2 Tree 81.Cover 2 Herb Divibiju 17. No endemic or threatened plant species were encountered. shrubs and herbs which are invading the garbage heap are well adapted weedy species for such harsh conditions. shrubs and herbs) are the result of growing plants with total absence of human care. Neolitsea Density per 2 Shrub Kududawula 520.10: Major plant species in different habitats Habitat Life Plant Abundance code vegetation type Form Species Local name Grasslands . Flora A total of 165 species belonging to 47 families were recorded from the site and among them 15 species are noted invasive species (see Annexure …). 3. Different vegetation types were dominated by different plant species as given in Annexure 2.away Panicum Avg. are at varying stages of dying or showing unhealthiness due to impact of garbage accumulation at the ground.7. caterpillars piling. This area is experiencing regular disturbance.Woodlands also have a similar structure as abandoned home gardens.

00 Short maximum per unit area Lantana Density per 7 Shrublands – Tall Shrub Hinguru 1.400. Setaria Avg.50 flora repens per unit area Table 3.040.300.00 existing sepium Ha Homegardens .00 flora communis Ha Dumping site Panicum Avg.714.00 elastica rubber Ha Panicum Avg.89 existing barbata per unit area Marshland - Ludwigia Density per 4 abandoned paddy Shrub 3.00 diversifolia Ha Panicum Avg.11: Summary of the fauna recorded from the project area No.600. in No.Cover 7 Shrublands – Tall Herb kuppameniya 70.29 octovalis Ha land Marshland - Panicum Avg.00 flora nucifera Ha Dumping site Ricinus Density per 9 Shrub Edaru 1.24 maximum per unit area land Bambusa Density per 5 Riverine forests Tree Kahauna 1.67 elastica rubber Ha Castilla Panama Density per 8 Woodlands Shrub 400.Cover 3 Herb 23.00 indica per unit area Castilla Panama Density per 8 Woodlands Tree 266.00 maximum per unit area Shrublands – Panicum Avg.Cover 6 Herb 80.Cover 9 Herb Etora 32. Gliricidia Density per 3 Shrub Wetahira 986.00 vulgaris Ha Tithonia Density per 5 Riverine forests Shrub 2. Homegardens .00 camara Ha Acalypha Avg.Cover 5 Riverine forests Herb 100.67 existing sepium Ha Homegardens . Gliricidia Density per 3 Tree Wetahira 300. in the Faunal Total Number in the No.86 maximum per unit area Dumping site Cocos Density per 9 Tree Pol 80.Cover 4 abandoned paddy Herb 23.Cover 8 Woodlands Herb 47. of Home Dumping Group recorded Marshland Endemics Gardens Site Butterflies 25 25 01 04 00 Amphibians 03 03 00 00 01 .

Reptiles 05 04 00 01 01 Birds 39 33 04 07 03 Mammals 09 05 03 01 00 .

3.3 Socio-economic Environment Location of centers of population and settlements population characteristics Existing infrastructure facilities Housing and sanitation Principal economic activities Religious and cultural centers .

The present air pollution is the worse condition.166 g/s. In the dry period.2. b. There will be considerable amount of heavy machinery and trucks that will ply through the site and the exit roads. flue gases will consists of CO2.1 gives approximate concentrations. The site becomes very muddy during heavy rains and the dumpsite is not accessible. .1 Constructional Impacts The following constructional impacts are identified. SOx. The noise pollution will be considerable.5 ppm Table 4.2. since decomposing wastes are exposed and the particulate and odor nuisance is considerable.1 Types of emissions At the beginning LFG is emitted to the atmosphere.2 -1. Table 4.1 Air 4.2 Operational impacts 4.23 g/s and 0. considerable dust loads are expected during construction.14 g/s. 0. The fine clay soil in the site makes it difficult for workers and surrounding habitats. CHAPTER 4 ASSESSMENT OF ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Evaluation Criteria of Impacts The Leopold Matrix will be prepared after a brainstorming session. Table 4. NOx and PM. However the concentrations will be very low. The impact will be less when controlled mining is undertaken. The measured CH 4 emissions amounts to 288 g/m2/day and once it is rehabilitated and torched. c. The power plant will emit NO. respectively.1. 4. CO and Particulate Matter in 2. Nevertheless. it is a concerning problem that needs scientific and technological solutions that are acceptable.62 % Total VOC 4-7 ppm Benzene 1.66 g/s.2 shows the emission levels specified by the supplier. 4. 0. a. H2O.1: Landfill gas composition Description Value Units Total Combustible Gases 60 . but in the process of achieving this goal. SO2.65 % Methane 55 . water pollution will create adverse conditions. It is important to completely remove the dumpsite.

4. It is a drawback and a concerning issue.14 SO2 g/s 0.000 m3/day. The excavation of old wastes is a technological challenge and a necessity.2. Not all of the gasses can be captured for providing gas for the WTE power plant.166 4. they will be replaced with flue gas emissions from the power plant.2. odour emissions are expected.1 Quality and quantity of effluent to be discharged to the environment It is expected that the estimated and monitored quantity of that will be treated in an anaerobic reactor. the effect of LFGs will be reduced.2. ASP and finally in a Constructed Wetland will meet the required water quality standards of the CEA. Impacts of emission on ambient air quality There are number of impacts on ambient air quality from the dumpsite with or without operating it. because uncontrolled LFG emissions occur on sporadic manner when gas pressure builds up and release within a short time (Ref Sardinia/Dileepe). 4. Impact of odour due to processing of waste and excavation of existing waste In all of the activities.3 Anticipated rate of discharge The methane emissions based on point source measures with flux chambers of surface emissions may not be accurate. The extractions will reduce methane losses at low pressures maintained in the dumpsite.66 CO g/s 0.2.1. b.2 Wastewater and other liquid effluent 4.Table 4. since the ambient air quality will be affected even after closure of dumpsite. since there will be an escape of LFGs from the capping and embankments. It will replace 24000m3/hr of flue gases from the thermal power plant. Although. The methane emissions and other odorous landfill gases are the major concerns. a. 6822 kg/day is a realistic value.2 Impacts of effluent disposal on ambient water quality of Mahaweli River .2.23 Particulate Matter g/s 0. The quantity as given earlier is 30. The developed filtration system is the solution to reduce odour nuisance. The LFG emissions from the dumpsite are estimated at 4090 kg/day and it may approach extraction values of the LBR. Therefore.2.2: Stack emission levels from the proposed power plant Parameter Unit Value Flue gas emission m3/h 6000 NO g/s 2.

Surface run offs The surface drains as shown in Figure 3. Unfortunately there could be contamination from the polluted soil as given in Chapter 3.1.4. It should be noted that most of those wastes have hard plastics.8 will be separated from the flows.3.3. Approximately. 4. If the hot water is discharged directly to the River it will cause adverse effects and avoidance is recommended. Accumulation of residue waste and possible impact Almost all of the residue wastes will be sorted during the mining operation.2. However. The odour emissions as well as difficulties in handling such wastes are the major impacts. a.3. mathematically inaccurate.3 Solid and hazardous waste 4. mixing certain quantity of sewage with the will improve the ASP performance as reported by Thilakerathne. However. but now electronic wastes dominate. including PVC. Accumulation of hazardous waste and possible impacts The most hazardous wastes found in the dumpsite are e-wastes and sharps. b. 300g of e-wastes per tonne of wastes was found in the old dumpsites. They were more of electrical appliances.2. The accumulated heavy metals will be washed out. The sludge too is hazardous and needs safe disposal. 2010. 4. The latest finding is 2800g per tonne of wastes. such that a plot of e-wastes vs time can be plotted as shown in Figure 4. Any of the materials that cannot be recycled or converted to RDF will pose environmental and management issues in the relocated final disposal.2. . 4.2.3. it is possible then to fit an exponential function to determine the intermediate values.2. if the need arise in the final selection of machinery the discharge water will have a maximum of 60oC at a flow rate of 120m3/day. The total wastes disposed overtime can be multiplied by the predicted amounts to deduce the total e-wastes as given in Table 4. Although.3. Impacts due to disposal of sewage and sludge waste The gully sucker wastes can be discharged into the ASP. but it may overload and there will be additional sludge to be disposed in a secure landfill. Cooling water discharge There will be utmost efforts made to have closed loop systems.The impact will depend on the effectiveness of LTB and the amount of chemicals applied to precipitate the organic and inorganic components in the ASP and the final heavy metal uptake in the Constructed Wetland.

2. a large number of invasive plants species (15 species – see Appendix II) have found competitive advantage and established successfully. In contrary.304 1355 404 2010 363. Not a single species of endemic or threatened plants have survived in this garbage dump and associated human modified habitats due to unfavourable ecological conditions. no on-site impacts on flora is expected due to project activities.3: Hypothetical increases in e-wastes with time 4.398 1647 y = 1E-60e0.4: Estimated quantity of e-wastes in the dumpsite Disposed E-wastes Year Tonnes Tonnes g/tonne 1980 200.2.631 2800 1018 Total 1.5 Ecological resources Since the site is botanically inferior in respect to the occurrence of endemic and threatened plants.713 656 160 2000 298. The occurrence of 15 invasive species in this single site is a matter of concern.4 Noise and vibration Sources of noise and vibration (including machinery. 4. In future.Table 4.107.) Predicted noise levels and impacts Manufacture‟s specifications are not given and expert findings are yet to be reported. heavy vehicle movemets etc.0726x 3000 R2 = 1 2500 E-wastes g/tonnes 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Figure 4. the site has to be managed in a way that it .750 317 64 1990 244.

2. In any of the calculations. therefore. The main attention was paid to the Katugastota town.6 Traffic impacts In order to investigate the possible impact on traffic due to garbage trucks as a result of this project.7 Human. the draining of the land is towards the Mahaweli. there are good possibilities of spreading invasive plants to other areas using the river as the agent of dispersal. Level Of Service (LOS) on roads at present and for 15 years was calculated based on a traffic growth of 4% per annum. there will be negative impacts when mining the dumpsite and LBRs.provides no or minimum opportunities for the breeding and spread of invasive plants for surrounding areas. To facilitate the study a traffic count was administered targeting traffic flowing in main roads in Katugastota town including turning movement information for a period of 12 hours. In fact. there was no any significant effect indicated for the LOS due to garbage collectors passing through Katugastota town.2.8 Impacts on visual environment Positive and or negative impacts There will certainly be a positive visual impact because the dumpsite is being rehabilitated and the shanty dwellings removed and relocated. However. A detailed analysis will follow with the next report 4. few surveys were carried out. economic and socio-economic impacts Number of families to be affected and to be relocated Impacts on existing economic activities and income sources Changes in land use and land use pattern Impacts on access roads and transportation Impacts on historical sites/religious places Positive /negative impacts on health Positive / negative impacts on tourism Employment opportunities provided 4. 4. .2.

good practices of maintaining low pressure at the headers of the gas extraction wells.). Therefore. which are becoming rear. The duration of potential LFG extractions will depend on the feasibility of management without an income from the dumpsite. since aeration can be done with the pipes.1 Mitigation Measures During Construction Dust and waste materials cause considerable problems during constructions and it is preferred then to undertake relocation of housing activities and be completed before the construction commences.2. depending on the radius of influence. Although the houses on the …. It is recommended to confine all activities between 5 am and 8 pm. the dumpsite is mined under controlled conditions with shelter and gas purification system to mitigate pollution loads that will continue to pollute for a long time. let alone a progress in social development. . refer to section below. However. in ideal working conditions. The replaced filters and hazardous materials will be disposed in a secure landfill or used for road constructions (ref…. a barrier fence should be constructed between the housing and the proposed LBR.. they will be affected when the first landfill bioreactor is constructed. since they are also stakeholders of the project. effective aeration in dumpsites are questionable and yet to be perfected. the dumpsite will be converted to a sustainable landfill. Reductions in Operational Impacts The methane gas and particulate emissions from the dumpsite will be replaced with polluting flue gases and escape of LFG. Eventually. 5. in consultation with the immediate neighboring households. SOx and PM control. particularly of the power plant. the mining of the dumpsite becomes both environmentally and economically beneficial. However. Landfill or dumpsite mining is a new concept to attain complete rehabilitation of existing dumpsites or sustainable landfills. whereas.will be set back. it will have a complete solution. The replacement of landfill gas with flue gases as a polluting agent from thermal power plants can be overcome with advanced flue gas control technologies that will be incorporated in proposed power plant. In this instance. The level of pollution is less in this well equipped filtration system of NOx. Therefore. Most of the neighboring communities will agree to allow constructions. In the case of LFR. particularly so when they are employed in the project.. can reduce escape of LFG. It is expected to employ over hundred workers during the construction. CHAPTER 5 PROPOSED MITIGATORY MEASURES 5. In fact the concept developed by the University of Peradeniya to incorporate the dual fuel system will reduce both atmospheric pollution and filtration requirement. night work can be applied for approval from the Grama Niladari and Environmental Police.

The reductions in methane emissions as well as reduced compounds from the dumpsite will drastically improve the air quality. it was assumed that the wind direction would persist throughout the day towards the point which was under consideration for modeling. 2. even though this would never happen in practice.2. the modeling was done for a power plant of 10 MW taking future expansions into account. Initial Gaussian dispersion modeling was carried out using a spread sheet calculation procedure to establish the 24 hour maximum concentrations for the worst case stability.1: Permissible concentration levels and maximum concentrations predicted Permissible Level Maximum Concentration Pollutant (g/m3) predicted (g/m3) Carbon Monoxide 58. Maximum permissible concentration levels and calculated maximum concentration levels are shown in Table 5.There will be a positive impact on the ambient air.5 g/m3. Table 4.2. The highest concentration predicted was of 96. but the thermal power plant will add pollution loads. taking ground reflection into account. This method permitted the use of local metrological and topological data easily to investigate their effect on the ground level concentrations. 5. In the first step of modeling.1 Table 5. Therefore. when the landfill bioreactors and thermal plant will function.5 . Even though only a 2. A sample graph obtained through the calculations is shown in Figure 5. but it will be dispersed to meet the required ambient air quality standards. A thorough air pollution dispersion modeling was carried out in two steps to establish a suitable stack height for the power plant that would prevent ambient concentrations of pollutants exceeding the allowable limits.1 where the calculated maximum NO2 concentrations are shown.5 MW power plant would be established initially.2 in Chapter 4 shows the emission levels specified by the supplier.1 Atmospheric Pollution 5.000 10. the worst case scenario was established as follows 1. the ambient air quality will improve with the rehabilitation works.1.1 Air pollution control and dispersion modeling As a primary step of mitigating the environmental damage from emissions. Further. Initial calculations indicated that a stack height of 150 m is needed to ensure that the ambient levels would not exceed the permissible concentration levels of individual pollutants. due attention was paid to the selection of a power plant with proper air pollution controlling units. The stack height required to reduce the ground level concentrations to permissible levels were established using this initial round of calculations.

5 Sulphur Dioxide 80 29.1: Calculated maximum 24 h NO2 concentration profile 3. Meteorological data from Hanthana and Gannoruwa weather stations. Source strength. A thorough modeling was then carried out using the dispersion modeling software Industrial Source Complex (ISC 3). Worst case stability parameters were again selected to simulate the maximum possible concentration levels.1.5 Nitrogen Dioxide 100 96. and local topological data were the input for the model. .2 shows a section of a sample graph obtained from the ISC 3 model where NO concentrations are depicted. stack height. Figure 5. The maximum concentration levels predicted through this model were much lower than the values given in Table 5.7 Figure 5.Particulate Matter 50 7.

.4 m to prevent the downwash of pollutants at high wind speeds. Consequently. 5. It is proposed to use the vertical wells installed for gas extractions to aerate the defined isolated cells. CO.2. primarily for aerating. Provision must be made available to increase the height of the stack further. It is important to isolate cells for mining.2 Aeration and management in dumpsite A careful study of the mining procedure is required at every stage of mining it. if monitoring results indicate the violation of regulatory requirements. following steps are proposed to mitigate the environmental impacts from the air pollutant emissions 1. 2. Initial verification of supplier specifications and regular maintenance of pollution control units to ensure emission levels remains close to specified values. thus adequate surface drains are required. The drained water should not be connected to surface drains. The height of the stack should be more than 150 m and should have an internal exit diameter of less than 0. Dispersion of pollutants through a properly designed stack.2: Concentration profile of NO2 (g/m3) obtained from ISC 3 Similarly concentration profiles of SO2.Figure 5. They should be at all times connected to the drain pipes or pumped to the nearest pipe network or better still in some points in the dumpsite to pump the directly to the treatment plant. particulates matter were developed at a stack height of 150 m and found that the resulting ambient concentration levels would be lower than the permissible levels. which can be termed in the phase of operation as “Aerating Cell” (AC) and “Mining Cell” (MC).

The dischages from these landfills will be treated in the ASP and finally in the Constructed Wetland 5. The design capacity of the wetland has been increased to accommodate increased flows. it will be mixed in the ASP to improve the process and dilute the effluents.. 5. Therefore. It may necessitate the use of polyethylene sheets to direct the odour gasses for treatment in the proposed wet and dry media biofilter. 5. The efficiency of heavy metal uptake will increase at high growth rates of cattails.6 Management of hazardous wastes . which will be washed out with time.2. A temporary landfill will be constructed as marked in the layout plan for any of the wastes that will be permanently disposed once the dumpsite is mined and isolated from the LFB.2. an ASP has been incorporated in the treatment system.2005).5 Management of residue wastes to prevent possible impacts The point source separation progamme that will be introduced will drastically eliminate such wastes being deposed in LFB. In order to prevent high temperature water discharges from the closed looped system directly to the River.3 treatment The LTB is a new development stemmed from the composite liner LBR. It will still be experimental in large scale applications. Similar pits have been dug and when examined it was found that the root systems have invaded the pits and thriving well.2. It is suggested to plant trees to uptake the heavy metals and nutrients from these sludge.2. The results indicate that it is an advance system of managing highly polluting . The final treatment in the constructed wetland will ensure discharges that will comply with CEA water quality standards. Double liner system will be used in the temporary and permanent landfills.etal. the additional lands that will be given in the new lease agreement will be used to construct lined pits with the composite liner system and the sludge buried with a good soil cover. which will eventually be sent to the Constructed Wetlands. However. it can reduce at least 80 to 90% of nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds. These pits could be dug in the River reservation where the houses would be vacated. 5. There will always be some traces of accumulated heavy metals as given Chapter 3. The shelter will prevent moisture entering the isolated AC and working conditions will become ideal for mining.The shelter that has been suggested will reduce both impacts. The disposal of sludge is the main concern of such practices. Also a study is underway to extract phosphate from sludge. mixing sewage with in the ASP is an efficient management practice.4 Safe disposal of sewage and sludge waste As mentioned in chapter 4. The MRF will be functional for sorting and separating new wastes that are hazardous. The harvesting regime of the cattail (Typha latifolia) is an important management practice to remove heavy metals (Sasikala S. odour nuisance and . In order to ensure application of known and best practices.

thus promoting the use of less harmful materials. The gardeners will be trained to suppress invasive species and encourage native habitats to thrive for developing a conducive ecosystem for humans. The use of plants and trees grown on these pits can take up the nutrients over number of years. The best possible option is to concrete these materials covered in polyethylene bags. Also. which is the typical vegetation in the area. The immerging trend of „by back‟ option is the ethical way out. opening up of lands for development activities should be done to the bare required minimum.on site as well as away from the site. most importantly. Nevertheless. fauna and flora. The restoration of the site will also help to establish the characteristic faunal and floral components that could be seen in a Kandyan Home Garden system. it is recommended that. these solutions are in the infant stages or in the incubation period to be materialized in the near future. The actual e- wastes may be 20 to 40 % of the total estimated. In future.7 Impacts on flora and fauna The use of waste to produce electricity would result in the reduction of waste accumulated in the area. . amounting to 1647 tonnes of wastes from the dump and about 1018 tonnes in 2010.A management system is required to tackle the problems of hazardous waste arising from rehabilitation of dumpsite. but they are under patents. it is essential to ensure a well developed e-waste management unit within the MRF. The long term solution is to recover the materials from e-wastes and it is a lucrative solution to the present problems of managing them. discourage spread of invasive species and protect the site from land degradation. The layout of the system is shown in detail in Figure……. but they can be assimilated to provide an ecological solution.2. It is suggested to store these wastes and then finally dispose them when the mining operation of the dumpsite is completed. The technologies are available. Therefore. it can be safely disposed in secure landfill pits which can be isolated from surface and subsurface flow. The evasive measure is based on the concept of constructing composite liner system which prevents from excessive permeation of heavy metals. There are several categories of waste materials that are hazardous. Like the sludge. The study conducted on adsorption properties of the soils indicate greater possibilities of harnessing such mechanisms manifested by the existing soils for beneficial purposes. 5. all lands that are not used for civil constructions or physical infrastructure need to be rehabilitated to maintain a good forest cover with native trees or plants that have no adverse impacts on flora . The estimated quantities are considerable. instead of the invasive plants that dominate because of waste dumping. It is suggested that the project area needs to be surrounded by a protective vegetation belt that can prevent noise pollution from the power plant other machinery.

There are times when the power plant can be operational. It could even be a replacement dozer supplied by the Municipality. even an old one. The MRF should be designed and operated to clear the accumulating wastes. Therefore. The power plant will have two 5MW generators. the irrigation system will activate and if the fire persists. perhaps is best to replace the company owned machine. the clay found in the site can be diluted with water to inject the slurry inside the burning cavities within the waste. Also it will make the mining activity easier to produce high quality RDF. again the irrigation system play a major role in the application of required quantity of water to have gas tight conditions. distribution lines etc. inside the LBR. However. and even have a conveyor to lift and place the wastes in the required cell. gasification. A standby dozer. In order to reduce breakdowns of vehicles and machinery. Ideally. There could be number of breakdowns of the MRF. In the event of a fire in the LFB. but the company‟s objective is to find novel approaches to reduce costs in the long term. but there are problems of substation. thus reduce the use of bulldozer and the need for collection vehicles hauling the wastes inside the LBR. thus compelling stoppages of electricity generations. derived from mining. boiler.. a more frequent servicing schedule than recommended should be adhered to ensure low repair and maintenance costs. CHAPTER 6 CONTINGENCY PLAN The breakdowns of the waste handling bulldozers are frequent operating in most MSW dumpsites and landfills. A large floor area is required to stock the wastes in containers that can be stacked one over the other. In fact. each independent in waste loading. Both can be shut down as well when power is in excess. frequent maintenance can be done by shutting down one at a time. The system of disposal will not be hampered since LBR can be operational under most weather conditions. Under such circumstances. steam turbine and generator. The best practices of daily cleaning and maintenance of the track is vital. These suggestions may sound too advanced. so that adequate storage facility should be available to buffer the shortcomings. so as to reduce the number of roads constructed inside the landfill. It is very susceptible to jamming routine systems operations. the excess gas is stored and utilized directly in secondary combustion or flared to meet air emission standards. since the daily cover will be compost materials. Therefore. . There should be number of parallel activities so that human and other available resources can be used effectively. a waste handler should be used to prevent frequent breakdowns of the track. The wear and tear is very high with the wastes that have corrosive action and particles having diverse physical and chemical properties. In order to prevent excessive cracking of the top cover under dry conditions. it is best to have a moveable covered structure like in…. instead guards can be fixed to the bulldozer track and a baton just above and across the track to remove entangling waste materials. it will eliminate the use of soil in the LBR. Such machines are bulky for the project in Kandy. there could be occasions when the weather conditions are adverse for disposing the wastes.

There are number different units within the power plant to prevent and ensure dousing of local fires within those units. KMC. but in the event that there could be an event. Harispathuwa PS and the insurance company fire drills conducted to ensure safety of personnel and protection of power plant from any dangers.There is always safety and fire prevention regulations to be adopted in the power plant. the power plant will be built above the maximum flood level of………Only the Constructed Wetland will be affected in unlikely occurrence of a flood. . all of the different types of fire extinguishers will be serviced regularly to comply with the CEA. Naturally. It is unlikely to have floods.

The chairperson of the monitoring committee should be appointed at the first committee meeting. Further. Construction compliance monitoring. the SWMRU will undertake environmental management issues. Department of Agricultural Engineering. There are three basic environmental monitoring tasks to assess the success of mitigation and identifying residual impacts as follows.2 and should take the responsibility of reporting the status of the ISWMS to the relevant parties. and iii. He/she is responsible for executing the routine monitoring activities that described in section 7. groundwater quality. CHAPTER 7 MONITORING PLAN 7. To keep the transparency of the ISWMS operation. University of Peradeniya. It should be noted that during the construction phase both the contractor and the Project Proponent will take the major responsibility in undertaking the monitoring aspects with assistance from SWMRU. i. monitoring aspects and implementation of mitigation measures to prevent environmental pollution. air quality and noise level baseline conditions.1. The proposed ISWMS monitoring committee will comprise of representatives from various organizations and individuals as described in Table 7. Pre-construction monitoring to determine the baseline conditions in detail to identify impacts and mitigation measures and costs to respond to CEA conditions of approval. To ensure the ISWMS operation in compliance with the conditions stipulated by authorities and the ISWMS‟s operation manual and ii. In addition to that.1 Background The Project Proponent Eco tech Lanka Limited necessitates to conduct a comprehensive environmental monitoring programme of the different segments of the environment within the project site and the vicinity of the project site. This is imperative to assess the performance or success of the implemented mitigation measures. . ii. ISWMS Monitoring Committee will be established for the following purposes. Post construction monitoring of maintenance and operational project activities including surface water quality. i.

1 Members of the proposed ISWMS Monitoring Committee Organization Nominee Eco Tech Lanka ltd The Chairman/Technical Director Manager Site Engineer(s) Site Manager Environmental Executive Site Supervisor(s) SWMRU Research Associate Research Assistant(s) CEA Environmental Officers Central Provincial Council Officer (s) KMC Commissioner Chief Engineer Head.Project area . solid waste management division PHI (s) (public health inspectors) CEB Electrical Engineer (s) NWS&DB Engineer (s) Mahaweli Development Authority Engineer (s) Divisional Secretariat Office Grama Niladari.Harispaththuwa Samurdhi Niyamaka.Table 7.Project area Environmental Officer Harispaththuwa Pradeshiya Sabha Environmental Officer Public Health Inspector Non Government Representatives from local NGO‟s Organizations (NGO‟s) Community representatives Clergy of the nearest religious organization Representative(s) from Community Based Organizations A representative from a Women‟s organization in the neighborhood Representatives(s) from neighboring villages Representative (s) from resettlers .

Locations Frequency Continuously throughout the each day Responsible For monitoring work: Site supervisors with the Agency For assistance of SWMRU..2 ISWM Monitoring Plan 7. The meteorology monitoring plan is given in Table 7.). temperature..2.1 Quantity and Quality testing of incoming solid waste Table 7. University of Peradeniya For Supervision: Eco tech Lanka Limited. 7. 7. wind speed and direction Monitoring The location given in Figure …. ISWMS monitoring .2 Quantity and quality testing of incoming solid waste Monitoring objective In order to avoid unauthorized waste such as clinical and hazardous waste entering the facility Parameters to be Weight of the all the incoming waste.2.3 Meteorology monitoring plan Monitoring To monitor the prevailing climatic conditions of the project site objective Parameters to be Precipitation. ISWMS monitoring committee For Communication: Submission of report by monitoring agency and reporting the same to CEA and ISWMS monitoring committee by Eco tech Lanka Limited. Table 7. moisture content. fast and slow biodegradable monitored fraction. pH and volatile solids Monitoring Locations At the weighbridge area Frequency Daily Responsible Agency For monitoring work: Site supervisors with the For monitoring work assistance of SWMRU. Maximum and Minimum Temperature.3. University of Peradeniya monitoring work For Supervision: Eco tech Lanka Limited.7. bulk density. Pan evaporation.2 Meteorology In order to monitor the prevailing climatic conditions of the project site a meteorological station will be installed at the selected location of the project site (see layout plan Figure . Relative monitored Humidity.2 presents the monitoring plan quantity and quality testing of incoming solid waste.

the Locations existing water bodies Frequency Before and during rainy seasons For monitoring work: SWMRU. Heavy metals Sediment level monitored and Suspended solids Monitoring Location The location given in Figure …. Functions of monitored constant surveillance programs as part of routine maintenance.4. (Katugastota or Ganoruwa) For Communication: Submission of report by monitoring agency and reporting the same to CEA and ISWMS monitoring committee by Eco tech Lanka Limited and Meteorological Department (Katugastota or Ganoruwa) 7. flow rate of surrounding streams . Construction Phase To prevent erosion of the fill material and excess erosion of Monitoring objective slopes and waterways with corresponding silting of the eroded soil into the low lying marshy area and Mahaweli river Water table. committee. Iron Content. Also Monitoring the canals and culverts necessary to be constructed. ISWMS monitoring Responsible Agency For monitoring work committee For Communication: Submission of report by monitoring agency and reporting the same to CEA and ISWMS monitoring committee . Operational Phase To prevent erosion of the fill material and excess erosion of Monitoring objective slopes and waterways with corresponding silting of the eroded soil into the low lying marshy area and Mahaweli river Records of rainfall pattern/seasons. According to climatic conditions of the area and schedule of Frequency construction. pH Parameters to be value. Records of flood levels Parameters to be stability of vegetation cover after construction. University of Peradeniya For Supervision: Eco tech Lanka Limited. Sulfate content. Water levels. Hydrology The hydrology monitoring plan is given in Table 7. University of Peradeniya For Supervision: Eco tech Lanka Limited.2.. For monitoring work: SWMRU.4: Hydrology monitoring plan a. ISWMS monitoring Responsible Agency committee For monitoring work For Communication: Submission of report by monitoring agency and reporting the same to CEA and ISWMS monitoring committee by Eco tech Lanka Limited b. Table 7. Meteorological Department. The embankment surrounding the proposed landfill site.3.

electrical conductivity. BOD5. Cd. NO3-.VS.4 Surface water quality monitoring plan Table 7.6 presents the environmental monitoring plan for surface water quality.2. Table7. TP and various heavy metals such as Pb. wastewater collecting ponds. ISWMS monitoring committee Responsible Agency For Communication: Submission of report by monitoring agency and reporting the same to CEA and ISWMS monitoring committee by Eco tech Lanka Limited 7. University of Peradeniya For Supervision: Eco tech Lanka Limited. turbidity. upstream. NO2-.2. .5: Surface Water Monitoring Plan Pre-construction phase:To determine baseline (existing) conditions on surface water quality Construction phase:To avoid contamination Monitoring objective of water by construction and related activities Operational phase:To ensure existing water sources will not be spoilt during the operational phase pH. downstream Monitoring Locations and effluent discharge point at the Mahaweli river. Zn. Cr. NH4-N.VS TDS. Parameters to be monitored TN. COD. Hg The results should be assessed with reference to the CEA stipulated standards.TSS. oil & grease. by Eco tech Lanka Limited 7. Surrounding streams.5 Ground water quality monitoring plan Table 7. DO.5 presents the environmental monitoring plan for surface water quality. Once a month (The monitoring frequency Frequency should be varied and in wet season more frequent sampling should be undertaken) For monitoring work: SWMRU. total and faecal coliform levels and chemical parameters such as TS.

etc. turbidity. total and faecal coliform levels and chemical parameters such as total hardness. oil & grease. TP and a variety of heavy metals such as Pb. pH. DO. NO2-. ISWMS monitoring committee For Communication: Submission of report by monitoring agency and reporting the same to CEA and ISWMS monitoring committee by Eco tech Lanka Limited 7. The sediment quality monitoring plan is given in Table 7. salinity. As. Monitoring Locations Existing wells which are located adjacent to the project site. Cr. Ni and Zn.6: Groundwater monitoring plan Monitoring objective Pre-construction phase:To determine baseline (existing) conditions on ground water quality Construction phase:To avoid contamination of water by construction and related activities Operational phase: To avoid groundwater quality deterioration arising due to Parameters to be monitored Depth of groundwater. Hg. bore holes given in Figure … Frequency Once a month (The monitoring frequency should be varied and in wet season more frequent sampling should be undertaken) Responsible Agency For monitoring work: SWMRU. Cu. University of Peradeniya For Supervision: Eco tech Lanka Limited. Monitoring objective Pre-construction phase: To determine baseline (existing) conditions on sediment quality in the existing water bodies Operational phase: To avoid sediment quality deterioration arising due to unavoidable .Table 7. total alkalinity.7. TN. Cl- . Cd.2. the soil and sediment quality of the natural marshy should also be monitored mainly with reference to heavy metals. TDS. electrical conductivity.6 Sediment quality In addition to water quality monitoring. NO3-. TSS. Fe. NH4-N. BOD5.SO42-. COD.

CEC Monitoring Locations Existing wells which are located adjacent to the project site. NOx. Cr and Ni. Cd. However. The company will be responsible to provide all the equipment for monitoring the ambient air quality in the specified locations derived from the effected areas that will be finalized after the ambient air quality measurements are completed. bore holes given in Figure … Frequency Once in 3 months Responsible Agency For monitoring work: SWMRU.6 Monitoring of treatment It will include all the measurements and parameters given for surface and groundwater. such that the performance of individual treatment units and the entire system will be evaluated and reported.2. 7.7 Monitoring of emissions from the power plant The monitoring systems and plans are still to be finalized by the manufacturers. Zn. SOx. CO and PM will be monitored before and after controlling flue gas quality and at the point of emissions. pH.2. ISWMS monitoring committee For Communication: Submission of report by monitoring agency and reporting the same to CEA and ISWMS monitoring committee by Eco tech Lanka Limited 7. Hg. . University of Peradeniya For Supervision: Eco tech Lanka Limited. circumstances such as malfunctioning of the wastewater treatment plant and subsequent bioaccumulation scenarios Parameters to be monitored Heavy metals such as As. It will include locations stipulated by the CEA. Pb.