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Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science

I have read something on epistemology. It is hard to understand. It is a
highest form of knowledge faculty. In Gujarati epistemology is called

Feminist epistemology is related the epistemological work related to female.

Here two concepts are involved. One feminists and other is epistemology.
Let us first understand epistemology and then feminism.

And philosophy of science is related with the dominant system of knowledge
which bypassed the gender aspect. It studies conceptions and practices of
gender related the aspect which influences our conceptions of knowledge
and practices of inquiry and justification.

It believes that the dominant conceptions and practices of knowledge has
made injustices to the women by various ways like

(1) Excluding them from inquiry,

(2) Denying them epistemic authority,

(3) Producing theories of women that represent them as inferior, deviant, or
significant only in the ways they serve male interests,

(4) Producing theories of social phenomena that render women's activities
and interests, or gendered power relations, invisible, and


advances. knowers. evaluating ideals of objectivity and rationality. theories. and Feminist epistemology. not just social.[1] It comes under the umbrella of social epistemology. especially in biology and the social sciences. defining the proper roles of social and political values in inquiry. objectivity. (2) Show how gender has played a causal role in these transformations. and scientific methodology. (5) Producing knowledge (science and technology) that is not useful for women or that reinforces gender based social hierarchies. They also aim to (1) explain why the entry of women and feminist scholars into different academic disciplines. Feminist epistemologists trace these failures related to the gender knowledge with regards to conceptions of knowledge. Elisabeth Anderson argues that the concept of situated knowledge is central to feminist epistemology. Donna Haraway makes the point that most knowledge. the broad set of approaches to the study of knowledge. They offer diverse accounts of how to overcome these failures. Feminist epistemology is concerned with the way in which gender influences our concept of knowledge and "practices of inquiry and justification". has generated new questions. and (3) defend these changes as cognitive. in particular academic 2 . and methods. Different conceptions of how gender situates knower’s also inform feminist approaches to the central problems of the field: grounding feminist criticisms of science and feminist science.

the exclusive experience of women should be considered in our conception of knowledge.the situation and perspective . 3 . while. Some postmodern feminists suggest that terms such as 'oppressed' actually encourage patriarchy. It is an individualistic form of feminism and theory. the proletariat have knowledge that the bourgeoisie do not. working up/on/through all kinds of research relationships [2]. This theory is similar to the Marxist form of polylogism. women have knowledge that men do not. which focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.knowledge is always situated and "produced by positioned actors working in/between all kinds of locations. According to Marxism. According to feminist standpoint theory. Postmodern feminism looks critically at the causes of inequalities and differences between men and women as well as the structure of society.of the knower. and thus what is known and the ways in which this knowledge can be known is subject to the position . Feminist epistemology includes feminist empiricism: obtaining knowledge through the experiences of women. a form of polylogism. according to the feminist standpoint theory. Liberal feminism looks at the personal interactions of men and women as the starting ground from which to transform society into a more gender- equitable place. Liberal feminism Liberal feminism asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform.

who is not a liberal feminist herself. Voting. Fair compensation for work. 4 . Susan Wendell. Sexual harassment. And bringing to light the frequency of sexual and domestic violence against women. Affordable childcare.Issues important to liberal feminists include Reproductive rights and abortion access. Affordable health care. Since one of the modern political goals most closely associated with liberal feminism is equality of opportunity which would undoubtedly require and lead to both. Proclaimed that Contemporary liberal feminism is "Committed to major economic re-organization and considerable redistribution of wealth." Liberal feminists generally work for the eradication of institutional bias and the implementation of better laws. Education.

John Stuart Mill." John Stuart Mill believed that men are not intellectually above women and much of his research centered on the idea that women. and Rebecca Walker. Wollstonecraft "denied that women are. Gloria Steinem. are superior in knowledge than men. In the United States. in fact. Betty Friedan. Mary Wollstonecraft has been very influential in her writings as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman commented on society's view of the woman and encouraged women to use their voices in making decisions separate from decisions previously made for her. liberal feminists have historically worked for the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment or Constitutional Equity Amendment. She reasoned that if they were confined to the same cages that trap women. 5 . by nature. men would develop the same flawed characters. What Wollstonecraft most wanted for women was personhood. including reproduction. more pleasure seeking and pleasure giving than men. work and equal pay issues. Feminist writers associated with this tradition are amongst others Mary Wollstonecraft. With the hopes it will ensure that men and women are treated as equals under the democratic laws that also influence important spheres of women's lives.

The largest liberal feminist organization in the United States is the National Organization for Women (NOW). opposition Young feminist to conflicts such as the Iraq War programs 6 . Their priority issues are: Constitutional Equality Amendment Reproductive issues and abortion access Ending violence against women Combating racism Gay and lesbian rights Economic justice Also important Immigration Social Security Affirmative action Promotion of nominating judges Supreme Court Disability rights with feminist viewpoints Title IX/Education Ecofeminism Legislation Welfare Family Legal recognition of same-sex marriages Workplace Opposing right-wing causes discrimination contrary to NOW's interests Media activism Women in the Global feminism Mothers' economic Rights Military Women's health Working for peace.

T he CEA: The Constitution Equality Amendment (CEA) was rolled out in 1995 by American Women's Organizations.S. sexual orientation. national origin.Some American liberal feminists believe that equality in pay. color or indigence. race. 7 . The items that were included in the CEA which were missing in the ERA include: Women and men shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place and entity subject to its jurisdiction.S. which was never ratified. job opportunities. The goal of liberal feminism in the United States was embodied in the Equal Rights Amendment to the U. social security and education needs to be guaranteed by U. Constitution. Rights without discrimination on account of sex. Constitution. ethnicity. The CEA incorporated all of the concerns that have arisen out of a two-year study by NOW and other groups of the ERA which reviewed the history of the amendment from 1923 until the present. political structure. marital status. Prohibits pregnancy discrimination and guarantees the absolute right of a woman to make her own reproductive decisions including the termination of pregnancy.

Critics of liberal feminism argue that its individualist assumptions make it difficult to see the ways in which they argue that underlying social structures and values disadvantage women. (1998): "Postcolonial Feminist Theory" in S. Other critics such as black feminists and postcolonial feminists assert that mainstream liberal feminism reflects only the values of middle-class white women and has largely ignored women of different races.. 1923-1996 Bryson. 2 (summer 1987): 65-94. Jones eds. These critics believe that institutional changes like the introduction of women's suffrage are insufficient to emancipate women.14-15 Mills." Hypatia 2. [Edit] References Hooks. cultures or classes. Susan. PA: West view Press 2009. MA: South End Press 1984 Wendell. Jackson and J. "Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction" Philadelphia. Contemporary Feminist Theories (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press) pp.98-112 8 . S. no. a b Tong. "A (Qualified) Defense of Liberal Feminism. Rosemarie. "Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center" Cambridge. bell. V. They argue that even if women are no longer dependent upon individual men. (1999): Feminist Debates: Issues of Theory and Political Practice (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp. they are still dependent upon a patriarchal state. NOW Key Issues Chronology of the Equal Rights Amendment.