The Pharmaceutical industry in the Global Economy
Larry Davidson* and Gennadiy Greblov
Indiana University Kelley School of Business Bloomington, Indiana *Davidson is Professor of Business Economics and Public Policy and Greblov is working towards his MBA degree at the Kelley School of Business
Prepared for the Indiana Economic Development Corporation with the support of the Center for International Business Education and Research at the Indiana University Kelley School of Business. Information Services via the World Trade Atlas, U.S. State Export Edition. To receive free copies of the export report please contact the Indiana Economic Development Corporation’s Office of International Trade at 317.232.4949. Direct
questions to the authors of the report to Larry Davidson at email@example.com or 812.855.2773.
This paper summarizes the results of our global pharmaceutical industry analysis and is intended to increase awareness of the general public – investors, policy makers, managers, employees of the companies – about its current developments. The paper has the following major goals: 1) To analyze the current situation, major challenges and the prospects of the pharmaceutical industry; 2) To identify major players of the global pharmaceutical industry and make a comparative analysis of their business practices and financial results; 3) To determine the relative position of the U.S. pharmaceutical companies in the global pharmaceutical industry, as well as to reveal opportunities for further strengthening of their positions. The paper consists of three major parts. In the first part we present an overview of the pharmaceutical industry as a whole – its major players, current trends and challenges. The second part focuses on a more detailed analysis of major pharmaceutical companies. These major companies are divided into two major groups: a) companies with headquarters in the U.S., b) foreign pharmaceutical companies with headquarters outside of the U.S. Pharmaceutical companies are compared with other companies in the same group; and major trends within each group are analyzed. Part 3 sums up our findings.
Part 1. Pharmaceutical industry overview.
Major players of the world pharmaceutical industry The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by a high level of concentration with fifteen multinational companies dominating the industry. Table 1.1 contains information about these major pharmaceutical companies that are sorted in the order of their 2004 revenues from the sales of pharmaceutical products. Numbers provided in this table include sales of all subsidiaries and affiliated companies that are consolidated in annual reports of the corresponding companies. In order to facilitate a comparison of different companies revenues of all of them are shown in US dollars; financial data of the companies with headquarters outside of the U.S. was converted to US dollars using average 2004 rates provided in Table 1.2.
Table 1.1. Major pharmaceutical companies.
Revenue of pharmaceutical segment, mln USD Pfizer NY, U.S. 46,133 GlaxoSmithKline UK 31,434 Johnson & Johnson NJ, U.S. 22,190 Merck NJ, U.S. 21,494 AstraZeneca UK 21,426 Novartis Switzerland 18,497 Sanofi-Aventis France 17,861 Roche Switzerland 17,460 Bristol-Myers Squibb NY, U.S. 15,482 Wyeth NJ, U.S. 13,964 Abbott IL, U.S. 13,600 Eli Lilly IN, U.S. 13,059 Takeda Japan 8,648 Schering-Plough NJ, U.S. 6,417 Bayer Germany 5,458 Source: 2004 Annual Reports of the companies Company HQ location Total sales, mln USD 52,516 37,324 47,348 22,939 21,426 28,247 18,711 25,168 19,380 17,358 19,680 13,858 10,046 8,272 37,013 Share of pharmaceutical segment, % 87.85% 84.22% 46.87% 93.70% 100.00% 65.48% 95.46% 69.37% 79.89% 80.45% 69.11% 94.23% 86.09% 77.57% 14.75%
As Table 1.1 shows, the majority of the largest pharmaceutical companies are not diversified. They are either concentrated exclusively on pharmaceutical products (Eli Lilly and AstraZeneca are good examples with virtually 100% of their revenues coming from sales of pharmaceutical products) or, although they develop and manufacture other health care products, they still have pharmaceutical divisions as the core of their business that provide more than 50% of their revenues. Other products manufactured by these companies usually include medical devices, nutritional products, consumer healthcare products and products for animal health. Only two out of these 15 major pharmaceutical companies have revenues from sales of pharmaceutical products that are lower than 50% of their total sales. These companies are world giants Johnson & Johnson (which besides pharmaceutical products manufactures consumer goods and medical devices) and Bayer which has only about 15% of its revenues from the sales of pharmaceutical products. Eli Lilly’s $13.1 billion sales figure made it the twelfth largest company – with Pharmaceutical sales considerably larger than Bayer’s $5.5 billion but a lot less than Pfizer’s $46.1 billion. Geographical headquarters of major pharmaceutical companies are approximately evenly distributed between the U.S. and Western Europe with only one Asian company in the list. Indiana is home to one of these companies, Eli Lilly. More detailed analysis of these companies will be made in the second part of this paper.
which is currently one of the top-selling products for each of these companies. or through mergers and acquisitions.8333 USD / JPY 108. cooperation of Sanofi-Aventis and Bristol-Myers Squibb resulted in production of Plavix. “Big Pharma” companies are constantly looking for synergies that they can get from cooperation with their competitors. As the result.2438 GBP / USD 1. top-companies in the industry were active participants of mergers and acquisitions (M&A). new joint ventures and spin-offs of non-core businesses. Last years gave multiple examples of such initiatives. bigger companies can allow investments in more research and development (R&D) projects that diversify their future drugs portfolio and make them much more stable in the long term. Average 2004 exchange rates. Besides economies of scale in manufacturing. it gives a significant advantage. AstraZeneca (merger of Astra and Zeneca) and Sanofi-Aventis (merger of SanofiSynthelabo and Aventis).2.
Currency Exchange rate EUR / USD 1. Another form of structural change in the industry was establishing of new strategic alliances and joint ventures. thus providing them with excess cash for further rapid growth – whether organic. For example. Although size of the company on its own does not guarantee success. 4
. The largest acquisitions in the industry during last years were the acquisition of Pharmacia by Pfizer (purchase price $58 billion). especially in pharmaceutical industry. Both acquisitions allowed these two U. European companies were even more aggressive in M&A activity than their American competitors – 3 out of 6 major European companies underwent mergers during the last several years: GlaxoSmithKline (merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham). and acquisition of Guidant by Johnson & Johnson (purchase price $25 billion).Table 1.S. and point out the industry’s strong reliance on research and development. Structural changes The pharmaceutical industry is currently undergoing a period of very significant transformation.-based companies to solidify their places among the elite of the pharmaceutical industry. So far as the research and development process for each drug take many years and requires significant investments.2426 Source: calculated using Federal Reserve daily data
Industry Trends Here we examine structural changes causing significant transformations. and the outcome of these investments of time and financial resources remains unclear until the final approval of the drug. The majority of “Big Pharma” companies generate high returns.1508 USD / CHF 1. clinical trials and marketing. major factors leading to strong future sales growth.
Major factors of future growth The pharmaceutical industry showed high sales growth rates in the recent past. will inevitably result in growing pharmaceutical sales. it takes about 10-15 years.S. and a number of factors suggest that this trend will continue in the future. thus increasing pharmaceutical sales. these countries also have a significant potential for the pharmaceutical industry in the future.Finally. in 2001 the pharmaceutical industry had one of the highest
. According to industry statistics. according to “Research and Development in Industry: 2001” report of the National Science Foundation. Massive sales of nonpharmaceutical businesses by Takeda also were compatible with its strategy to concentrate its financial resources on its core pharmaceutical business. according to various studies. “Big Pharma” companies in order to maintain strong sales growth and meet profitability expectations of their shareholders were actively selling low-profitability or non-core businesses. only about one third of the U. On average. the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act starting from the beginning of 2006 will increase access of senior citizens to the prescription drug coverage. Fast growing economies in Asia. For example. growing proportion of elderly people promises further growth of demand for healthcare products. For example. due to numerous advancements in science and technology. and about half of all new medicines fail in the late stages of clinical trials. Strong emphasis on R&D One of the distinctive characteristics of the “Big Pharma” companies is a very high level of investments in research and development. Although developing countries at the moment have a small portion of world pharmaceutical sales. and millions of dollars to develop a new medicine. including those in the health care industry. Further reforms of legislation systems in the countries of these regions. a significant portion of elderly population in the United States and other countries does not receive proper treatment. First. As the result. population who requires medical therapy for high cholesterol is actually receiving adequate treatment. As it is expected. life expectancy in the developed countries has been steadily growing. Moreover. in 2003 Merck sold its low-profitability Medco Health Solutions that helped to increase its profitability margin. only about one in ten thousand chemical compounds discovered by pharmaceutical industry researchers proves to be both medically effective and safe enough to become an approved medicine. South America and Central & Eastern Europe suggest an increasing solvency of population and make these markets more and more attractive for “Big Pharma” companies. especially regarding patent protection issues. Not surprisingly.
Because generic drug manufacturers do not have to recoup high R&D costs. they must manage within a world of price controls that dictate a wide range of prices from place to place. Opposite to the research-oriented pharmaceutical companies. as the result. cardiovascular. Price control Pharmaceutical companies have to operate in a highly regulated environment. pharmaceutical companies should not only demonstrate high efficiency of their products. Second. after patent expiration. More detailed information on this issue is provided in the second part of this paper. psychiatric or oncology diseases. dramatically decreasing revenues of the “Big Pharma” companies. generic drugs manufacturers capture significant market share. Finally. companies must be constantly on guard for patent violations and seek legal protection in new and growing global markets. Competition The pharmaceutical industry currently represents a highly competitive environment. prices of their products are usually much lower then those of major pharmaceutical companies. “Big Pharma” companies compete among themselves. the whole pharmaceutical industry competes with other health care industries. In this case.R&D expenditures as percentage of net sales. and start manufacturing already developed by other companies drugs after their patent expiration. First. generic drug manufacturers spend minimum resources on R&D. Although not all leading pharmaceutical companies cover all segments of pharmaceutical market. Third. Key Challenges The main challenges for drug companies come from four areas. almost all of them are active in R&D and production of drugs in the segments with the highest potential – such as treatment of infectious. Secondly. obviously. which invest significant financial resources and time to develop new medicines. One can distinguish three layers of competition for “Big Pharma” companies: First. “Big Pharma” companies experience significant profit losses due to competition from the generic drug manufacturers. but also provide obvious proof of cost advantages in comparison with other forms of care. they must manage their product pipelines so that patent expirations do not leave them without protection for their investment. Finally. the degree of regulation to a significant extent depends on the country and type of the product.
. they must deal with competition from within and without.
sales of Claritin by Schering-Plough declined from $3. Therefore. prices of the same products can significantly differ in different countries. careful planning of R&D projects is very important for the long-term stability of the company. and they are subject to a periodic price review. and insure that new products become available by that date. In the United States – the largest and the most attractive pharmaceutical market – currently there is no direct price control for non-government drug sales. generic drugs manufacturers sometimes start production of patent-protected drug analogues even before a patent expires. The majority of European countries control drug prices.8 billion in 2002 and to $0. as the result of generic drug competition. we are reminded of the case of Shering-Plough.2 billion in 2001 to $1. the company has to carefully monitor its patent expiration dates. As the result of price control. First. and only a very small portion of all projects is successful. and this downward pressure on prices has been increasing during last years. Japan has even stricter price controls than European countries. non-efficient legislation that does not provide the necessary level of patent protection is one of the factors that hamper expansion of “Big Pharma” companies to the developing countries. and soon after the expiration of the patent the sales of the drug sharply go down. Drugs portfolio management Drug portfolio management is one of the most important determinants of long-term prosperity of research-oriented pharmaceutical companies. Schering-Plough’s Claritin patent expired in 2002. Projects that the company starts today will determine its financial performance 10-15 years later. Otherwise. Moreover. all prices are controlled by the government. insofar as patents keep exclusivity of drugs only during a limited time. At the same time. it is expected that Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act will potentially increase downward price pressure. Therefore. For example. it takes an extremely long time to develop a new drug.37 billion in 2003. when
. Although research-oriented companies in many cases are able to protect their patents.One of the most important aspects of government regulation for pharmaceutical companies is price regulation. and different countries have different policies on this issue. At the same time. they do suffer from lost revenues. Protection of patents Generic drugs manufacturers represent a significant threat to research-based pharmaceutical companies. protection of patents is one of the key conditions necessary for further development of the pharmaceutical industry. Second.
Argentina and Venezuela also show much faster sales growth rate than average worldwide. First. the UK.S. Indiana exports most of these products to Europe – the leading destinations in 2004 were France. Therefore. market alone accounts for about 47% of world sales. and Austria. Indiana’s Pharmaceutical export profile is very similar to the nation’s – the United States and Indiana are almost totally focused on NAFTA partners and Europe. thus reducing its profitability. Between 2002 and 2004.after expiration of its major drug patent the company did not have a new product of similar value and the company experienced losses in 2003 and 2004. China imported
. At the same time. such as Mexico. the European Union and Japan comprise the three major pharmaceutical markets which together represent 88% of world sales. The remaining top 10 destinations were Canada. Spain. The key components are described as medications. Definitely. especially on the U. followed by Thailand (16% growth) and Egypt (15%). the United States is the largest importer of Pharmaceutical products followed by EU15 (the fifteen countries that comprised the European Union before the recent expansion to 25 countries) and Switzerland. Indiana Pharmaceutical exports increased by $425 million – an increase of 78%. hormones. There are several things to note from this table. Japan and Canada are important destinations but each import less than Switzerland. Switzerland. they show much faster growth rate than developed countries do. and Germany. Who buys the world’s Pharmaceutical products? The United Nation’s Statistics Division publishes annual values for Pharmaceutical imports and exports for most countries. showed a 26% sales increase in 2004. Ireland. and the U. market. Prospects for international expansion According to IMS Health as restated in the 2004 AstraZeneca Annual Report. but in any of these cases the company will have to pay a premium price. Mexico. Those four countries took almost 59% of Indiana’s Pharmaceutical exports that year. Indiana in the World Market for Pharmaceuticals In 2004 Indiana’s Pharmaceutical exports reached $971 million. Below we report statistics for 2003 for these two areas as well as for other key areas and countries.S. the China. 9th largest world market. Not surprisingly. Brazil. For example. all “Big Pharma” companies to a significant extent concentrate their resources on these markets. the United States. Some Latin American countries. planning errors or rapidly changing demand in the industry can be corrected by acquisition of smaller research companies or patents from competitors. developing countries contain a significant potential for further expansion of pharmaceutical industry in the future. The key world importers include the United States and Europe. the Netherlands. That made it Indiana’s sixth largest export industry – accounting for about 5% of all Indiana exports. although the share of world pharmaceutical sales in developing countries at this point of time is much lower. and antibiotics.
35% from Europe Switzerland 9.731 52% from North American. the next one features the hot flows – those that have grown the fastest between 1995 and 2003. 7% from North America EU15 28. 23% from North America Canada 6.1 and 54.165 6.351. Notice that this list is a lot different from the one above.739. Canada has two entries showing increased Pharmaceutical imports from Europe ($2. and Asia.847 1. America.465. 10% from North American Japan 6.628 88% from Europe. America Europe Europe Dollar Change In thousands.5 billion) and North America ($1.127 69% from Europe. The data is in thousands of dollars.983 1.
. dollar change
Imports to USA EU15 EU15 Switzerland USA EU15 Canada Canada USA Japan China Imports from Europe N.904.024.632 65% from Europe. America N. Switzerland is mentioned once with rapidly growing imports from Asia. These two codes cover what is traditionally thought of as Pharmaceutical products. and China’s largest imports came from Europe. It is interesting that Europe15 is not on this list.491 10. EU15 also shows up three times in the table with a total of about $28 billion – from N. Europe.2.540
While the above table shows where most of the goods are going. Switzerland.064.705. Europe refers to a very large and wide definition of countries in western and east/central Europe.
The next table shows the largest changes that occurred in Pharmaceutical imports between 1995 and 2003.816 2.8% from North America Table note: These data refer to Standard Industrial Trade Classification (SITC Rev: 3) data for codes 54. The largest change was the almost $22 billion increase of imports to the United States from Europe. North America.969. 13% from Asia.786. The United States is listed four times with triple digit import growth from Europe.882 3.853.968. America ($2 billion). Importer thousands Exporter USA 31. Changes in pharmaceutical imports between 1995 and 2003.057 3.
Table 1.5 billion) and the N.628 49% from Europe. America Europe Europe Asia Asia Europe N.less than $2 billion in 2003 but remains an interesting destination because of its remarkable growth and development. Pharmaceutical industry – international trade
2003 imports. Japanese imports from Africa showed huge percentage growth.4. Switzerland is part of Europe but is not a member of the EU.
Table 1.851 14.464 1. The United States also received large inflows of Pharmaceutical products from Asia ($3.718.624 79% from Europe.3.518.193. Japan.041. 1995 to 2003 21. as did China’s imports from Central & South America and Africa.601. EU15 refers to the 15 members of the European Union – those that were members before the increase to 25 members. 48% from North America China 1.9 billion). Asia.565 859. and Oceana.
Changes in pharmaceutical imports between 1995 and 2003. America Asia N. China. America Asia Oceana Percent Change. percent change
Importer Japan China China Canada USA USA USA China Switzerland USA Exporter Africa C&S America Africa Africa Europe N.
Table 1.A look at the second column is instructive.370 11.036 487 431 395 386 382 367
. 1995 to 2003 270. and Switzerland.5. Africa shows up three times – suggesting that Africa is becoming a more important exporter of Pharmaceutical products.S.477 16. Africa has had good luck selling to Japan. Asia is also included with strong exports – primarily to the U.256 1. and Canada.
7% 4.0% 14. pharmaceutical companies. This approach allows not only achieving synergies of working in these segments. Finally.0% Other 1.S.2% Consumer Health & Nutritional products 6.7% 17. Several factors are worth mentioning. has sales of pharmaceutical products that are approximately 1.6% 10. First.9% 93. pharmaceutical companies in which they have either highly successful products or significant investments in research and development. Second. the majority of leading pharmaceutical companies also work in Consumer Health.2 summarizes major areas of focus of U. lack of diversification (especially in less risky segments) requires even more thorough planning of the new medicines pipeline.3% Source: Annual Reports of the companies *In Financial statements Animal Health products are not stated as separate segment Abbott 69.6% 13.1% 9.0% Schering-Plough 77.7% Animal Health 3.1 Business segments of major U.8% Medical Devices and Diagnostics 35.S. pharmaceutical companies
Pfizer J&J Merck BMS Wyeth Lilly* Pharmaceutical 87. but also smoothening a highly volatile pattern of revenues in the pharmaceutical industry. moreover. only two companies. Nutritional Products or Medical Devices / Diagnostics business segments. Segment shares were calculated on the basis of 2004 sales as stated in annual financial reports.
. companies play a key role in the world pharmaceutical industry – 8 out of 15 leaders of this market are headquartered in the United States.7% 80. for almost all companies presented in the table. the largest world pharmaceutical company. world giant Johnson & Johnson. NJ-based Pfizer.S. the pharmaceutical segment is the largest.0%
Table 2. concentrate their resources almost exclusively on pharmaceutical industry. sales of pharmaceutical segment are below 50%.1 provides a segment decomposition of the largest U.S. Merck and Eli Lilly. Table 2. Major players of pharmaceutical industry
U. Animal Health.4% 94. It is obvious that areas that have a huge market and promise high rewards.5% Other Healthcare 10.S. each of these two companies has about 94% of sales from this business segment.8% 46. Although this approach potentially can reward shareholders of these two companies because of using capital in the business segment with one of the highest returns.5 times higher than those of its closest competitor.Part 2.
Table 2. and only for one of them.0% 80.8% 6.8% 5.3% 31. pharmaceutical companies U.
3% 13.3% 8.7% Source: calculations.4% Johnson & Johnson 12.3% 15.0% Schering-Plough 4. cardiovascular diseases. 2002-2004
2002 2003 2004 Pfizer 11.2.3% 38.S.4% -7. pharmaceutical companies.6% 11. and oncology attract the majority of leading pharmaceutical companies and create a fierce competition among them.0% 13.5% Eli Lilly -4.5% 17. pharmaceutical companies
Pfizer J&J Allergies X Anti-bacterial / antifungal / infections X X Anti-inflammatory / analgesics X X Cardiovascular diseases X X Dermatology X Endocrine disorders X Eye diseases X Gastrointestinal X Hematology X Immunology X Metabolic diseases X Neurology / psychiatric disorders X X Oncology X X Respiratory diseases X Urogenital conditions X X Virology (including HIV) Source: Annual Reports of the companies Merck BMS Wyeth Lilly Abbott Schering-Plough X X X X
X X X
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
X X X X
Tables 2.2% Wyeth 4.6% 2. Sales growth of U.1% -0.6% 10.
Table 2.4. data used from Annual Reports of the companies
Table 2. Total Assets growth of U.0% Bristol-Myers Squibb 0.3 and 2.3% -18. neurology/psychiatric disorders. Major area of focus of U. Each of these 3 drivers will be discussed below in more detail. research and development of new medicines and ability of the company to protect exclusivity and patent rights of medicines available for sale.4 present sales and total assets dynamics of selected pharmaceutical companies.
Table 2. anti-inflammatory/analgesics. More detailed analysis revealed three major drivers of sales and total assets dynamics on micro-level: acquisitions and reorganizations of the companies.3% 15. 2002-2004
.such as anti-bacterial/anti-infection.3% 0.7% 9. pharmaceutical companies.S.1% Abbott 8.S.1% Merck 8.3.5% -56.
Therefore.0% 4.4 billion).9% 14.5.5% Merck 8.8% 10.8% Wyeth 13.7% Abbott 4.9% 5. As the result of this acquisition that was valued at $56 billion Pfizer increased its total assets by 152% and its sales by 38.9% Johnson & Johnson 5.2002 2003 2004 Pfizer 18.1% 8.0% 9.4% 19.2% 19.4% 151. leading pharmaceutical companies reduce their own risk.3 and 2. As it was discussed in Part 1 of this paper.4).
. the pharmaceutical industry bears higher-than-average level of risk to a significant extent because of the high level of uncertainty regarding the success or failure of any particular drug development.7% Schering-Plough 16.S.9% Bristol-Myers Squibb -10. It is worth emphasizing the importance of multiple smaller acquisitions of start-ups and patents by leading pharmaceutical companies.0% 10. pharmaceutical companies are summarized in Table 2.2% Source: calculations.7% 4. The recent acquisition of Pharmacia by Pfizer (before acquisition Pharmacia on its own was among largest pharmaceutical companies of the world) in 2003 led to an even stronger position of Pfizer as the largest company in pharmaceutical industry.3. by acquiring small companies that are on their last stages of developing new medicines. Major recent acquisitions by U.1% 10.0% -14.4% 8. 2. So far as this acquisition was not completed by year-end 2004 it did not have an impact on total assets and sales of the company provided in Tables 2. data used from Annual Reports of the companies
The pharmaceutical industry is currently undergoing a period of active transformation lead by the largest companies in the industry.1% 7.5% (see Tables 2.4. Another example of ongoing consolidation in the industry is the acquisition of Guidant by Johnson & Johnson (transaction is valued at $25.9% 13.4% Eli Lilly 15.
as it will be shown below.5.0 $1. Recent acquisitions by major U.Table 2.
.3 $0. core hospital products business by Abbott in 2003.6% and 14.S.3 $25.7% respectively. pharmaceutical companies
Company acquired* Pharmacia Pfizer Esperion Therapeutics Guidant Consumer Pharmaceuticals Johnson & Johnson Egea Biosciences Biapharm SAS Micomed Merck Aton Pharma Banyu Pharmaceutical Bristol-Myers Squibb Eli Lilly Acordis Applied Molecular Evolution TheraSense Abbott i-Stat Spine Next SA Core business of target Prescription pharmaceutical products.4
$0.5 $0.1 $1. manufacturing and sales of drugs for cardiovascular diseases and antibiotics Materials for Wound Therapies products Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis Advanced diabetes management technology Diagnostic testing Spine-care business $2. in 2003 Merck sold its Medco Health.4 Purchase price. USD $56. bln.2 $0. Other examples of spin-off were Oncology Therapeutics Network by BMS in 2004. and others. but on the other hand. gene assembly and construction of large synthetic gene libraries Skin care products Spinal implants Development of novel treatments for cancer and other diseases R&D. business that provides pharmacy benefits services in the United States. This transaction lead to a reduction in sales and total assets in 2003 by 56. during recent years several companies sold some of their businesses with lower profit margins to concentrate their resources on their core business. allowed it to significantly improve its profit margin.6
Source: Annual Reports of the companies *Acquisitions of patents only is not included in this table
On the other hand. For example. consumer healthcare products and animal healthcare products Biopharmaceutical company with no approved products Treatment of cardiac and vascular disease Non-prescription pharmaceutical products (former JV of J&J and Merck) R&D in synthesis of DNA sequences.
not surprisingly the pharmaceutical industry is characterized by a very high level of R&D cost as percent of total revenues.9% 13.7 contains information regarding top-5 drugs for each company according to sales in 2004.6% 19. to insure stable sales.For leading pharmaceutical companies.2 billion. sales of Claritin (medicine developed by Schering-Plough) in 2001 were $3.4% 14. a pharmaceutical company constantly has to start selling new drugs to replace those whose patents will expire soon. investments in research and development are crucially important for survival and prosperity.6% 2004 14.6% 10. So far as it usually takes a long time to develop a new medicine (usually 10-15 years).2% 18.6% 11. Table 2.3% Schering-Plough 13.4% 14.5% 16.0% 17.37 billion accordingly.4% Abbott 9.4%
Another very important factor that determines stability of sales is composition of its drugs portfolio and ability of the company to protect exclusivity of its drugs.2% Wyeth 13. As soon as a patent expires other companies start manufacturing generic analogues of the drug thus causing significant reduction of its sales. Therefore. To illustrate this.
. Table 2.8% 12.
Table 2.6 can be explained by current acquisitions or spin-offs.6.4% 19.8 billion and $0.7% 8.2% 19.1% 10.1% 5.3% 17. The rule of thumb in the pharmaceutical industry is that a major portion of revenue from any drug comes before the expiration date of its patent.5% 12.2% Bristol-Myers Squibb 11.4% 8.9% Merck 5.0% Source: Annual Reports of the companies 2003 16. R&D costs. % of total revenues
2001 2002 Pfizer 16. many companies have a policy of investing in R&D an approximately stable share of company revenue. sales of Claritin in 2002 and 2003 were $1.7% 11.7% 8.6 contains data regarding investments in R&D during last 4 years.9% 14. and there is a high level of uncertainty whether this particular R&D project will be successful. It is also worth mentioning that some sharp fluctuations of R&D costs as a percent of total revenues provided in Table 2. in 2002 its patent expired.3% Eli Lilly 19.1% Johnson & Johnson 11.2% 14.
This is the case of Lilly’s Zyprexa which is the best selling drug of the company.420 $1. caused for example.2% 13.0%
$4. etc.347 $1.1 shows the data regarding short.591 $1.102 $1. Chart 2.7% 8.054 $880 $760
20. When concerns about potential weight gain and hyperglycemia appeared.200 $2.4% 7.2%
$3. it led to much lower-than-expected sales of this drug and was one of the major reasons of declining Lilly’s stock price in 2004 by 19%.3% 9. as well as their debt-equity structure.145 $2.500
22.0% 12. At the same time it is necessary to understand a drawback of the situation when one drug has 20-30% in total revenues of the company: the whole company becomes vulnerable in case of any negative dynamics of its sales. Top 5 pharmaceutical products for each company based on the sales in 2004
Sales.Table 2.0% 7.4% 6.
.4% 3.361 $3.327 $2.8% 8. mln USD % of total sales
$10.2% 6.3% 5.2% 6.050 $2.3% 7.800 $2.013 $998
$746 $692 $594 $563 $459
$3.589 $3.4% 4.410
Lipitor developed by Pfizer is a fantastic success and is the only drug that on its own had sales of more than $10 billion in 2004. Analyzing financial performance of major pharmaceutical companies we concentrate on two major factors – profitability and risk analysis.600 $1.1% 5. Table 2.302 $2.8 contains calculated rate of return on assets (ROA ratio) and its components – profit margin.862 $4.5% 4.200 $3.and long-term liquidity of companies.5% 6.4%
$3. mln USD Pfizer Lipitor Norvasc Zoloft Celebrex Neurontin J&J Procrit / Eprex Risperdal Remicade Duragesic Topamax Merck Zocor Fosamax Cozaar Singulair AZLP BMS Plavix Pravachol Taxol Avapro / Avalide Paraplatin % of total sales Wyeth Effexor Protonix Prevnar Premarin family Zosyn / Tazocin Eli Lilly Zyprexa Gemzar Humalog Evista Humilin Schering-Plough Remicade Clarinex / Aerius Nasonex Peg-intron Temodar Sales. by appearance of a competing drug.1% 4.0% 8.083 $1.635 $991 $930 $673
17. found with negative side effects.463 $3.7. total assets turnover ratio.2% 11.8% 3.2%
$5.3% 6.9% 8.1% 4.6% 5.7% 14.214 $1.
ROA did not changed significantly.8% 18.4% in 2003.8% Profit margin 28. As the result.1% 11.8% Profit margin 11.54 7. profit margin. this positive effect was totally destroyed by the significant reduction of its total assets turnover ratio.8% 13.6% 15.Table 2.80 Wyeth ROA 18.3% 0.67 3.8% 30.7% 16. and total assets turnover stable.0% 0.6% 0.3% 8.62 0.0% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.
.8% in 2002 to 30. data used from Annual Reports of the companies 9.77 Schering-Plough ROA 15.69 0.71 -6.13 0.4% 0.57 Source: calculations.94 Merck ROA 15.60 0. regardless of their very active acquisition policy.0% -0.9% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.2% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.6% Profit margin 24.8% 14.51 Bristol-Myers Squibb ROA 8.1% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.53 2003 2004
Several comments should be made regarding profitability analysis. however.4% 20.77 0.3% 0.5% 12.76 0. Johnson & Johnson manages to keep its ROA.56 Eli Lilly ROA 15. Spin-off of the low margin Medco business in 2003 allowed Merck to significantly increase profit margin from 13.4% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.60 11.62 Abbott ROA 11.4% 0.93 14.5% Profit margin 13.4% -1. Unlike J&J.2% 17.4% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 1.8% 7.2% Profit margin 30.1% 0.8.9% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0. Profitability analysis
2002 Pfizer ROA 21.0% 25. First.2% Profit margin 18.7% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0. Pfizer experienced significant fluctuations in all three of these parameters which definitely can be connected with its acquisition of Pharmacia.7% 16.44 16.4% 21.1% 0.8% 10.74 0.8% 14.92 0.8% Profit margin 15.3% 4.2% 12.6% Profit margin 19.55 Johnson & Johnson ROA 16.2% 7.55 8.3% 12.1% -11.
1.80 1.S.S. companies remain Japan and Western Europe. and only Schering-Plough in 2004 was the exception to this rule.5 billion in 2004) lead to decline of ROA from 18.
1. At the same time several companies have Cash Flows from operations to Total Liabilities ratio at the level below 20% which is considered as a minimum safe level for financially healthy company. $2 billion in 2003 and $4.8% in 2004.00
All companies have high enough level of Current Ratio. Most important international markets for U.60
. as well as absence of other products to insure adequate level of revenues.4 billion in 2002.S.Current litigation charges of Wyeth (company paid in litigation charges $1. pharmaceutical companies have more than 50% of their sales from the U.2% in 2002 to just 3. Due to expiration of Claritin’s patent in 2002 (and immediate significant decline of sales as the result of competition from generic analogues of this product). Liquidity analysis
2. Schering-Plough experienced losses during 2003-2004. showing the ability of the company to cover its short-term liabilities with it current assets. For Wyeth and Schering-Plough – companies that experienced significant reduction in profitability during the last years as it was mentioned above – the inability to satisfy longterm liquidity requirement is especially alarming. Analysis of geographical distribution of sales in 2004 revealed that 7 out of 8 major U. market.
2. Proportions calculated on geographical distribution of total sales.S. these companies consolidate their financial statements using different currencies (see Table 2.Chart 2.
90% 80% 70%
. Geographical distribution of sales. : this is British GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca. Swiss Novartis and Roche. In this section all ratios were calculated on the basis of financial statements in original currencies.
Pharmaceutical companies outside the U. Influence of currency exchange fluctuations is significant and in some cases complicates direct comparison of financial indicators. There are two factors that make comparison of these 7 companies more complicated than that for US-based companies. First. for comparison purposes in some cases financial indicators were also translated into US dollars.S. French Sanofi-Aventis. 2004
Source: Annual Reports of the companies *No geographical distribution of pharmaceutical segment is available. Japanese Takeda and German Bayer.
Seven out of 15 largest pharmaceutical companies are headquartered outside of the U.9).
For example. reagents. GAAP resulting in significant differences in financial statements of this company under these two accounting standards. Currency used in annual reports by major non-US based pharmaceutical companies
Company GlaxoSmithKline AstraZeneca Novartis Sanofi-Aventis Roche Takeda Bayer Currency used in consolidated annual reports British Pound US dollar Swiss Frank before 2002 and US Dollar starting from 2002 Euro Swiss Frank Japanese Yen Euro
Secondly.1% Animal Health 3. The pharmaceutical segment of almost all of these companies is the largest one.5% Takeda5 86.8% 31.Table 2. but has been accounted as acquisition of Astra by Zeneca under U. companies headquartered in different countries use different national accounting standards which in some cases can give very different results. recent merger of Astra and Zeneca is reported as a merger under UK GAAP. the only exception is Bayer pharmaceutical sales of which was just about 14. Business segments of major non-US pharmaceutical companies
Pharmaceutical Consumer Health & Nutritional products 15.6% Medical Devices and Diagnostics 25.0% Novartis2 65. activated carbon and wood preservatives.0% Source: Annual Reports of the companies 1 Although AstraZeneca has minor non-pharmaceutical businesses (for example.6% 4. AstraZeneca
.5% 13. So far as not all data is reported in U.
Table 2.10 summarizes major business segments of non-US based pharmaceutical companies calculated on the basis of 2004 sales.4% 11. Table 2.6% Other Healthcare Other 5.4% Sanofi-Aventis4 95.2% AstraZeneca1 100.10. Astra Tech is engaged in the R&D.7%
Business segment decomposition for non-US pharmaceutical companies is very similar to that of major US-based pharmaceutical companies. GlaxoSmithKline 84.1% 2. GAAP in financial statement of the companies.9.S.7% of total sales in 2004. manufacture and marketing of medical devices and implants).S.5% Roche3 69.1% Bayer 14. 5 Starting from 2003 Takeda reports both pharmaceutical and consumer healthcare businesses as Pharmaceutical segment. the company does not report any other business segments than pharmaceutical 2 In financial statements Animal Health products are included in Consumer Health business segment 3 By ‘Other’ Roche reports results of discontinuing operations 4 Sanofi-Aventis reports two business segments: Pharmaceutical and Human vaccines (the latter one is shown in this table as ‘Other’).0% 6.9% 65. to keep integrity of data financial reports in national standards were used for ratio calculations. In 'Other' segment Takeda reports sales of vitamins.
both of which underwent recent merger processes.2 and $4. mainly concentrate their resources on areas with the highest market size – anti-bacterial / anti-infections. in a similar way to U. such giants as GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis with 2004 R&D expenditures of $5. Moreover. such as Takeda and Bayer with 2004 R&D expenditures of $1.and Sanofi-Aventis. latex business. These moves allow Takeda to concentrate all its resources on the most profitable part of its business and are intended to increase the market share of the company on the world pharmaceutical market.11 shows.2 billion respectively cover almost all areas. with total sales of about 30 billion euro even the small share of the pharmaceutical segment gives Bayer about 4. almost totally concentrate their resources on pharmaceutical industry. numerous chemicals business) that increased its pharmaceutical segment share in total sales.4 billion euro of revenues from sales of pharmaceuticals products. food business. As mentioned above. Obviously. Because of extremely low share of its pharmaceutical segment it is difficult to call Bayer a pharmaceutical company. cardiovascular diseases. German Bayer stands apart from all other companies presented in Table 2.10 with only 14. Roche and Novartis follow another strategy that assumes diversification of highly risky pharmaceutical business by other segments of Health Care industry: Novartis has about one third of its sales from the Consumer Health segment. the company during last years significantly increased its level of outsourcing (from 30% in 2000 to about 65% in 2003).7% of its sales from pharmaceutical segment and 35% of its sales from all Health Care businesses. while companies with much lower levels of R&D spending.6 billion respectively. According to recent restructuring efforts of Japanese Takeda the company has a similar strategy of concentrating on almost exclusively the pharmaceutical segment: during the last few years Takeda sold a number of its non-pharmaceutical businesses (agricultural chemicals business. companies. Besides the Health Care segment Bayer also works in Crop Science.2 and $2. neurology / psychiatric disorders and oncology. concentrate on some specific areas. non-US pharmaceutical companies. Material Science and Chemical business segments. nevertheless.S. As Table 2.
. and Roche has about one quarter of its sales from Medical Devices and Diagnostics business.
1% 13.0% 5.2% -3.0% 6.11.1% 3.2% Source: calculations.3% 4.1% -5. Sales dynamics of non-US pharmaceutical companies.6% 13. Three major factors that determine the dynamics of these parameters – mergers / acquisitions.7% Novartis 11.12 and 2. and ability of companies to protect their patents – are briefly discussed below to give a better understanding of sales and total assets dynamics.12. R&D expenditures.0% AstraZeneca 10.1% 86.2% Sanofi-Aventis 14.5% 1. 2002-2004
2002 2003 2004 GlaxoSmithKline 3.9% Bayer -2.0% 0.6% Roche 1.Table 2.13.
Table 2.3% 19.8% 8. Major areas of focus of non-US pharmaceutical companies
GlaxoSmithKline Anti-bacterial / antifungal / infections X Anti-inflammatory / anagletics X Cardiovascular diseases X Dermatology X Eye diseases Gastrointestinal X Hematology Immunology Metabolic diseases X Neurology / psychiatric disorders X Oncology X Respiratory diseases X Urogenital conditions X Virology (including HIV) X Source: Annual Reports of the companies AstraZeneca X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Novartis X Roche X X X X X X X Sanofi-Aventis X Takeda Bayer X
X X X
X X X X X X X X
X X X
Sales and total assets dynamics of 7 major non-US pharmaceutical companies are provided in Tables 2. data used from Annual Reports of the companies
.6% 4.9% Takeda 4.
S. it took 2 years and about $1.S.7% Novartis 13. improved R&D productivity and increased financial strength. both of each do not concentrate exclusively on the pharmaceutical industry.7% 9. Other non-US pharmaceutical companies also tried to strengthen their positions by acquiring other companies according to their strategy. AstraZeneca and Sanofi-Aventis. 2004 and December 31.3% 9. GlaxoSmithKline was formed as the result of the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham in 2000. It is worth mentioning that in both cases the companies had to spend significant resources and time to utilize synergies of theses mergers. For example. need to spend extra resources in order to successfully compete with US-based companies on their territory.0% 6.4% Sanofi-Aventis -5. restructuring initiatives that followed the merger had a negative impact on its sales during next several years after the merger took place. recently underwent the process of mergers. At the same time.0% Source: calculations.0% -2.5% 10. Novartis and Roche.13.4 billion in order to consolidate the operations and remove duplicate activities of different units of the newly formed company.3% 8.12 and 2. As the result.13. The results of operations of Aventis for the period between August 20. Bayer’s current acquisitions
. Similar factors lead to the merger of Astra and Zeneca in 1999 to form AstraZeneca.0% -7. GlaxoSmithKline. the 5th largest pharmaceutical company worldwide according to 2004 sales from the pharmaceutical business segment.4% 4.S. Therefore. : three out of seven major non-US based pharmaceutical companies. consolidation of the pharmaceutical industry outside of the U.3% Takeda 12.1% 687. GlaxoSmithKline is now the largest pharmaceutical company outside the U. the largest and most attractive market for pharmaceutical companies is the United States.6% -10.1% 3.Table 2. according to 2002 annual report of AstraZeneca. further diversified their businesses by acquiring non-pharmaceutical companies.4% Roche -15.5% AstraZeneca 16.1% -5.4% Bayer 12.8% 13.2% 1. and the second largest worldwide. companies with head-quarters outside of the U. Total assets dynamics of non-US pharmaceutical companies. data used from Annual Reports of the companies
As it was mentioned above. during the last few years was even stronger than in the U. High rates of consolidation in the industry were one of the factors that lead to another significant merger: in 2004 Sanofi-Aventis finished its registration as the result of the merger of Sanofi-Synthelabo and Aventis. 2004 have been included in the consolidated financial statements that resulted in a significant increase in revenues and total assets shown in Tables 2. Among major reasons of this merger were named enhanced marketing power. 2002-2004
2002 2003 2004 GlaxoSmithKline -0.S.
Recent acquisitions by major non-US pharmaceutical companies
Company Company acquired* Merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham Block Drug AstraZeneca Merger of Astra and Zeneca Sabex Mead Johnson's adult nutrition business Idenix Pharmaceuticals Inc Igen International Roche Disetronic Sanofi-Aventis Merger of SanofiSynthelabo and Aventis Roche's over-the-counter business Gustafson Source: Annual Reports of the companies *Acquisition of patents is not included in this table Core business of target Megrer of two major pharmaceutical companies (registered in 2000) Oral care and over-the-counter medicines Megrer of two major pharmaceutical companies (registered in 1999) Generic manufacturer with a leading position in generic injectables Global adult medical nutrition Purchase price 843 mln GBP 565 mln USD 385 mln USD 255 mln USD + up to 357 mln USD in possible additional payments 1. First.14.6% for Sanofi-Aventis is explained mainly by current merger of Sanofi-Synthelabo and Aventis – according to accounting standards in-progress R&D costs of Aventis were capitalized after its acquisition. During three years preceding this merger the company annually spent about 16.(seed treatment business and over-the-counter medicines) even further decreased its share of pharmaceutical segment.2% of its sales for R&D. Several comments should be made.
.132 mln CHF 206 mln EUR 100 mln EUR
Human in-vitro diagnostics Insulin pumps and injection systems for the treatment of diabetes. non-US pharmaceutical companies have approximately similar R&D costs as % of total sales to those of U. the incredible 49. Merger of two major pharmaceutical companies (registered in 2004) Over-the-counter medicines Seed treatment
Overall.14. as shown in Table 2.15. Major acquisitions of non-US pharmaceutical companies are summarized in Table 2. companies.
Table 2.S.823 mln CHF 1.
9% in 2004.3% 15.3% 49. after expiration of its patent. R&D costs as % of 2004 total sales
GlaxoSmithKline AstraZeneca Novartis Roche Sanofi-Aventis Takeda Bayer Source: Annual Reports of the companies To calculate this ratio R&D costs and revenues for all business segments of the company were used 2001 12. Another example is the expiration of Bayer’s Cipro patent that caused a 41% decline in sales of this Bayer’s top selling product.9% 16.7 billion) that was one of the major factors that caused decline in sales of the company by 5%.5% 17.6% during last 4 years).Second.16 shows for all listed companies the share of the best-selling product is below 20% while three US-based companies exceed this level (Pfizer’s Lipitor has 20. while AstraZeneca had the best result in relative terms (average of 17.9% 9.6% 14.
Table 2.3% 15.3% in 2001 to 11. As Table 2. For example. Expiration of patents had a significant negative effect on some of non-US pharmaceutical companies during last several years.7% of sales. Recent restructuring initiatives of the company that were mentioned above allow Takeda to concentrate its resources mainly on development of new drugs that had the reflection in increase of its R&D expenditures as % of total sales from 9. If we do not count capitalized R&D expenditures of Sanofi-Aventis.3% of sales.2% 13.1% 15.2% of sales).5% 2002 12. very low values of R&D costs as % of total sales for Bayer to a significant extent can be explained by a very low share of pharmaceutical business in its total sales.7% 2003 12. negative effect of generic competition to GlaxoSmithKline’s Paxil and Wellburtin was estimated to be 1.4% 11.5% 16. and BMS’s Plavix has 17.5 billion GBP (about $2.5% 13.9% 17. and Eli Lilly’s Zyprexa has 31.7%. Finally.3% 16. drugs usually experience very sharp decline in their sales. Therefore.9%) and two other companies are very close to this threshold (Wyeth’s Effexor has 19.
.6% 11.0% 8.4% 2004 13.15.1% 13. Takeda has the goal of becoming one of the leading pharmaceutical companies worldwide.3% 8.9% 17. From this point of view non-US pharmaceutical companies look better.7% 14.9% 18.2 million). companies with a well balanced portfolio of their products with no any single product having very high share of sales can be considered as less risky.1%
As it was discussed above. GlaxoSmithKline was the leader in 2004 R&D expenditures in absolute terms (about $5.9% 7.9% 8. Merck’s Zocor has 22.4% 10.
% of total sales 18. Top 5 pharmaceutical products based on the sales in 2004
GlaxoSmithKline Seretide / Advair Avandial / Avandamet Paxil Zofran Wellbutrin Sales.883 $2.502 € 1.9% Ciprobay / Cipro € 837 2.5% 4. mln Novartis mln USD sales Bayer EUR sales USD Diovan / CoDiovan $3.9% $700 Source: Financial reports of the companies Sales are provided in the currency of financial reports. and accounting of inventories (total negative effect of 342 million EUR after tax). % of total Sales. mln GBP £2.368 $2.377 Roche MabThera / Rituxan NeoRecormon.046 $1. mln CHF CHF 3.7% 5. It is too early to make any conclusions regarding the results of the merger of Sanofi-Synthelabo and Aventis.129
AstraZeneca Nexium Seroquel Losec / Prilosec Seloken Pulmicort
Sales.16.Table 2.078 3.676 $1.046 million EUR).423
% of total sales 12.436 € 1.786 $1. mln USD $2.155 $1.
.3% ROA in 2004 in comparison with 21.1% 9.162 4.1% 5.8% Adalat € 670 2.461 £1.3% 10. both GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca that underwent large-scale merger processes showed pretty stable financial performance during the last few years that indirectly says something positive about successful completion of their restructuring initiatives.5% 9.8% Aspirin € 615 2.S.027 $1.041 Gleevec/Glivec $1.634 5.1% $780 Zometa $1. mln EUR € 1. mln USD $3.2% 3.403 % of total sales 10.257 $1.6% Kogenate € 563 1.868 $1.1% Ascensia € 627 2.387 $1.562 CHF 1.0% 4. Although the company reported -8.7% 3.5%
Sales. pharmaceutical companies we calculated profitability and liquidity ratios for non-US pharmaceutical companies (provided in Table 2.107 $1.770
Sales.093 10.3 respectively). mln % of total Sales.1% 6.378 CHF 2. conversion of sales into USD was made for comparison purposes
As for the case of U.904 € 1.082 CHF 1.8% 6.949 $1.1% $765 Neoral / Sandimmun $1.5% 9.719 $1. Several factors are worth mentioning.5% Sales.694 € 1.011 3. mln USD $4.8% $1. First.116 £1.399 $1.7% Sales. Epogin Pegasys + Copegus Herceptin CellCept Sales.9%
Sanofi-Aventis Lovenox Plavix Allegra Taxotere Stilnox
Sales.17 and chart 2.947 $1.6% 4.6% during the previous year this sharp decline is mainly caused by accounting treatment of transactions related to the merger: expensing total acquired R&D of Aventis (total negative effect of 5.512 $2.435 CHF 1.0% 9.3% $833 Lamisil $1. mln USD $2.063 £763 £751 % of total sales 12.5% 5.7% 11.
For example.6% 20. as well as sale of the Vitamins and Fine Chemicals Division.6% 2. b) consolidated financial debt includes the debt incurred by Aventis prior to acquisition.4% Profit margin 15.2% 13.17. Such significant increasess of debt can be explained by two major factors: a) company incurred a new debt to finance the cash portion of the acquisition consideration.72 Source: calculations. data used from Annual Reports of the companies 2004 19.1% 20.8% 0. direct customers in the vitamin case.52 Bayer ROA 2.89 0.77 0.93 15.5% 17.49 0.3% 0.2% 0.8% 5.Second.99 AstraZeneca ROA 14.2% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.6% -4.1% 26.3% -24.
.42 0.0% 0.7% 21.0% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.87 11.54 11.6% Profit margin 22. this ratio for Sanofi-Aventis jumped from 0.1% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0. Partially this can be explained by much lower share of the highly profitable pharmaceutical business in its total sales.35 before the merger to 0.4% Profit margin 3.6% Profit margin 18.75 0. Bayer showed much lower results than other companies in this group.5% 20.6% 20.1% 10.0% 26.79
Analysis of liquidity ratios shows that on average companies that recently underwent the merger process have higher Debt-Equity Ratio than others.6% Profit margin 23.49 1.4% 0.53 -8.7% -3.5% Profit margin 23.5% 13.7% 9.8% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.95 0.
Table 2.8% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.54 0.9% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.3% 21.S.1% 21. Profitability analysis
2002 2003 GlaxoSmithKline ROA 17.8% Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0.51 Sanofi-Aventis ROA 18.53 Roche ROA -5.83 Novartis ROA 11.1% 0.6% 25.84 Takeda ROA 12.0% 0.9% 16. losses of Roche 2002 to a significant extent can be explained by the legal settlements with U.35 13. Finally.0% Profit margin -13.53 at the year of the merger.
While almost all U.00 3. represented the largest geographical segment.S.
Chart 2. for non-US pharmaceutical companies it is much more difficult to gain access to the U. AstraZeneca and Novartis) the U. showed the lowest debt-equity ratio (0.S.It is also interesting to compare European and Asian business models: Takeda. From the point of view of geographical distribution of sales Takeda remained apart from all other companies – it had more than 50% of its sales from non-US and non-European markets (mainly from Japanese market). pharmaceutical market that remains the largest and the most attractive market worldwide.
4.S.25) that is much lower than average 0.50
Not surprisingly.3.50 3.48 for the whole group. Liquidity analysis
4. pharmaceutical companies had more than 50% of their sales from the U. market.S. At the same time.00
. the only Asian country in this group. it is worth mentioning that for three largest non-US companies (GlaxoSmithKline. none of non-US companies could claim as much as 50% of the revenues from it.
Geographical distribution of sales.
80% 70% 60%
. and with related-health companies who want a share of their action. Proportions calculated on the basis of geographical distribution of total sales. 2004
Source: Annual reports of the companies * No geographical distribution of pharmaceutical segment is available.
Part 3. The industry is changing fast. To survive and to prosper involves managing drug pipelines – as drugs come off patents they no longer bring in enough revenues and must be replaced quickly by other drugs with durable patents. Drug companies compete vigorously – with themselves. Summary
Indiana is home to Eli Lilly and is the location of several other pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. These companies contribute significantly to Indiana’s domestic and international profile. But the gains for any particular company are not guaranteed. generic producers.4. Demographics and rising incomes in industrial and developing countries combine to promise rapidly growing future sales. something that sounds easy but involves great risks. Huge sums must be invested in uncertain in-house research and development and/or must go toward mergers and acquisitions with other promising companies.Chart 2. This means that the companies have to think ahead. The good news is that that these companies – like the rest of the industry – are doing well and share in a sanguine outlook. Strategic alliances can be used to augment opportunities as well.
Building strong and growing pharmaceutical clusters at home will entail both inbound and outbound investment since whatever companies locate or stay in their areas – they will be compelled by global competition to own production facilities abroad. Picking places and partners takes more than the usual scrutiny or a company can lose valuable resources. This suggests an infrastructure that supports not only the usual needs for top flight talent and communications/transportation advantages – but it suggests an environment that allows for flexibility and risk taking. Speaking of places – we noted that the U. Communities that desire to maintain or build pharmaceutical clusters must be mindful that investment is always a two-way street.S. Egypt. While clusters bring to mind new facilities and higher employment. producers.S. and strategic alliances will continue to be critical. It is always painful for any community when firms restructure. acquisitions. is the largest market for pharmaceutical sales – and therefore will continue to be a hotbed of competition for Lilly and the other U. global competition suggests that drug companies will survive and prosper sometimes by shedding unprofitable lines of business.-European-Japanese affair – deregulation means sales opportunities are growing rapidly in the developing world. Such changes always have implication for location requiring communities around the globe to think harder about their roles as globalization unfolds.
. This global competitive environment creates challenges and opportunities for the companies – with equal importance for the communities in which they reside.S. If size matters in the drug industry then both domestic and foreign mergers. This research offers no new insights into what it takes to build a viable pharmaceutical cluster but it surely underlines two facts – that it is worth doing in Indiana and that it will involve retaining and attracting companies that need to take sizeable financial risks.S. While most of drug consumption and sales is a U. Thailand. soil. Mexico.As companies develop their new pipelines they must be mindful of changes caused by regulations and deregulations in countries all over the globe. Argentina. Non-U. It is tempting to regulate firms so that the blows to the community are softer. But even this has more than the usual global risk for drug companies because of the importance of intellectual property protection.S. Many new drug companies are springing up in developing countries and the biggest global firms are moving into those territories. companies have been very active in mergers and acquisitions and will be more formidable competitors on U. But the truth of the drug industry is that competitiveness and growth will require many actions on the parts of these firms – and not all of them will seem to be in the best short-run interest of the community. and Venezuela have been increasing their imports of pharmaceuticals products at rapid rates. where there is growing demand – there is also growing supply and competition. China. Brazil. Of course.
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