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Visualizing cortical waves and timing from data

Kay A. Robbins1 Mark Robinson2 David M. Senseman3
University of Texas at San Antonio University of Texas at San Antonio University of Texas at San Antonio
Cajal Neuroscience Research Center Cajal Neuroscience Research Center

Waves are a fundamental mechanism for conveying information in many physical problems. Direct visualization techniques are often used
to display wave fronts. However, the information derived from such visualizations may not be as central to an investigation as an
understanding of how the location, structure and time course of the wave change as key experimental parameters are varied. In
experimental data, these questions are confounded by noise and incomplete data. Recognition of waves in networks of neurons is
additionally complicated by the presence of long-range physical connections and recurrent excitation. This paper applies visual techniques
to analyze the structural details of waves in response data from the turtle visual cortex. We emphasize low-cost visualizations that allow
comparisons across neural data sets and variables to reconstruct the choreography for a complex response.

a b c d 368 lateral neurons 124 ms 208 ms 1 0 time (ms) 800 475 ms 650 ms . The labels a. diffuse light flash. CLIP 1: Response to diffuse flash (soma voltage) Clip 1 shows snapshots from a 3D animation of the response of the excitatory neurons (lateral and medial) to a diffuse light flash. A hot color map displays response amplitude with yellow-white representing maximum amplitude and dark red representing zero amplitude. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. 12 Snapshots of the soma voltage in response the lateral pyramidal cells in response to a to a diffuse flash stimulus for selected times. 4 Space-time diagram of soma voltage of Fig. b. 4 and the shape snapshots of Fig. c and d correspond to labeled times in the space-time diagram of Fig. 12. The insets in the upper left of each frame display a contour map of the response. The response has been low-pass filtered with a cut-off of 20 Hz and interpolated on a 32 × 32 grid.

a spot stimulus. 4 overlaid Fig. c and d correspond to labeled times in the space-time diagram of Fig. 5 Space-time diagram of Fig. The diffuse response is shown as in Clip 1 using a colored surface. The labels a. a b c d 368 lateral neurons 124 ms 208 ms 1 0 time (ms) 800 475 ms 650 ms . 12 Snapshots of the soma voltage in response with a contour map (in black) of the response to to a diffuse flash stimulus for selected times. The insets in the upper left of each frame display a contour map of the response difference. The response has been low-pass filtered with a cut-off of 20 Hz and interpolated on a 32 × 32 grid. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. CLIP 2: Response to diffuse flash versus spot flash (soma voltage) Clip 2 shows snapshots from a 3D animation comparing the response of the excitatory neurons (lateral and medial) to a diffuse light flash with the response to a spot flash. A yellow inset color means the colored surface representing the diffuse flash response is greater. The response for the spot stimulus is represented by a wire mesh. A hot color map displays response amplitude with yellow-white representing maximum amplitude and dark red representing zero amplitude. A cyan color means the wire frame surface representing the spot flash response is greater. 12. b. 5 and the shape snapshots of Fig.

b. Both surfaces have been scaled so that their resting level is zero and their maximum is 1. The insets in the upper left of each frame display a contour map of the response difference. A cyan color means the wire frame surface representing the AMPA current response is relatively greater. 6 Space-time diagram of Fig. 4 overlaid Fig. CLIP 3: Soma voltage versus excitatory AMPA current for diffuse flash Clip 3 shows snapshots from a 3D animation comparing the soma voltage to the AMPA excitatory current for the excitatory neurons (lateral and medial) in response to a diffuse light flash. The labels a. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. NMDA (in blue) currents a b c d 368 lateral neurons 124 ms 208 ms 1 0 time (ms) 800 475 ms 650 ms . The response has been low-pass filtered with a cut-off of 20 Hz and interpolated on a 32 × 32 grid. A hot color map displays response amplitude with yellow-white representing maximum amplitude and dark red representing zero amplitude. A yellow inset color means the colored surface representing the voltage response is relatively greater. c and d correspond to labeled times in the space-time diagram of Fig. 6 and the shape snapshots of Fig. The AMPA current is represented by a wire mesh.0. The diffuse response voltage is shown as in Clip 1 using a colored surface. 12 Snapshots of the soma voltage in response to with contour maps of AMPA (in black) and a diffuse flash stimulus for selected times. 12.

blue) currents a b c d 368 lateral neurons 124 ms 208 ms 1 0 time (ms) 800 475 ms 650 ms . 12. The labels a. 4 overlaid with Fig. c and d correspond to labeled times in the space-time diagram of Fig.0. A cyan color means the wire frame surface representing the NMDA current response is relatively greater. The insets in the upper left of each frame display a contour map of the response difference. CLIP 4: Soma voltage versus excitatory NMDA current for diffuse flash Clip 4 shows snapshots from a 3D animation comparing the soma voltage to the NMDA excitatory current for the excitatory neurons (lateral and medial) in response to a diffuse light flash. The response has been low-pass filtered with a cut-off of 20 Hz and interpolated on a 32 × 32 grid. The diffuse response voltage is shown as in Clip 1 using a colored surface. 12 Snapshots of the soma voltage in response to contour maps of AMPA (in black) and NMDA (in a diffuse flash stimulus for selected times. A yellow inset color means the colored surface representing the voltage response is relatively greater. Both surfaces have been scaled so that their resting level is zero and their maximum is 1. The NMDA current is represented by a wire mesh. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. A hot color map displays response amplitude with yellow-white representing maximum amplitude and dark red representing zero amplitude. 6 and the shape snapshots of Fig. 6 Space-time diagram of Fig. b.

0. The labels a. The response has been low-pass filtered with a cut-off of 20 Hz and interpolated on a 32 × 32 grid. 12. a b c d 368 lateral neurons 124 ms 208 ms 1 0 time (ms) 800 475 ms 650 ms . with contour maps of GABAA (in black) and GABAB (in blue) currents. The GABAA current is represented by a wire mesh. 4 overlaid a diffuse flash stimulus for selected times. A yellow inset color means the colored surface representing the voltage response is relatively greater. The diffuse response voltage is shown as in Clip 1 using a colored surface. A cyan color means the wire frame surface representing the GABAA current response is relatively greater. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. 7 and the shape snapshots of Fig. 6 Space-time diagram of Fig. Both surfaces have been scaled so that their resting level is zero and their maximum is 1. CLIP 5: Soma voltage versus inhibitory GABAA current for diffuse flash Clip 5 shows snapshots from a 3D animation comparing the soma voltage to the GABAA inhibitory current for the excitatory neurons (lateral and medial) in response to a diffuse light flash. The insets in the upper left of each frame display a contour map of the response difference. A hot color map displays response amplitude with yellow-white representing maximum amplitude and dark red representing zero amplitude. b. 12 Snapshots of the soma voltage in response to Fig. c and d correspond to labeled times in the space-time diagram of Fig.

A hot color map displays response amplitude with yellow-white representing maximum amplitude and dark red representing zero amplitude. 12. 11 Projections on 2 most energetic KL spatial Fig. landmarks marked by vertical gray lines on earlier space-time diagrams. A cyan color means the wire frame surface representing the 2D KL reconstruction of the response is relatively greater. 4 and the shape snapshots of Fig. The response has been low-pass filtered with a cut-off of 20 Hz and interpolated on a 32 × 32 grid. b. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. c and d correspond to labeled times in the space-time diagram of Fig. The insets in the upper left of each frame display a contour map of the response difference. CLIP 6: Soma voltage versus 2D KL reconstruction for diffuse flash Clip 6 shows snapshots from a 3D animation comparing the soma voltage to the 2D KL reconstruction of the soma voltage for the excitatory neurons (lateral and medial) in response to a diffuse light flash. A yellow inset color means the colored surface representing the voltage response is relatively greater. The diffuse response voltage is shown as in Clip 1 using a colored surface. The labels a. 12 Snapshots of the soma voltage in response to basis functions for diffuse stimulus shows a diffuse flash stimulus for selected times. end linear growth (124 ms) stimulus end (150 ms) recurrent (186 ms) 124 ms 208 ms stimulus onset (0 ms) prototypical (208 ms) end recurrent (475 ms) end oscillations (650 ms) 475 ms 650 ms . The KL reconstruction is represented by a wire mesh.