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CarnosineFrontCover_Spine 2/17/06 11:27 AM Page 1


Author: Stephen Adelé
Design: Marcus Knodle
Editor: Sue Mosebar

H+BLOCKER —The Carnosine Breakthrough

Published by
15000 W. 6th Ave., Ste. 202
Golden, CO 80401 USA

Copyright 2006 by iSatori Technologies, LLC

2nd printing, 2006.
ISBN#: 0-9714154-5-5

Printed in the USA.

Notice: Before you begin following the instructions contained in H+BLOCKER —The Carnosine
Breakthrough, you should consult with your primary doctor to ensure you are in good health. For
best results, follow the enclosed instructions as closely as possible, and do not exceed the recom-
mended dosages of the supplements suggested in this guide. If you are diabetic, you should not use
these supplements without prior consent from your primary physician. This manual is intended for
information purposes only and is not meant to substitute for nor provide any type of medical
advice. No liability is assumed by iSatori Technologies, LLC, or the author of this manual for any
information contained herein.

For questions, comments, or additional copies, please contact us at 1-866-688-7679 or by emailing us
at You can join the author, Stephen Adelé, online at

As individuals differ, so will results. There are no typical results, even if you follow the same plan.

...............59 CHAPTER 5: THE H+BLOCKER DIET AND TRAINING PLAN .....................................................5 INTRODUCTION: THE CARNOSINE BREAKTHROUGH ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................87 CHAPTER 7: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................73 CHAPTER 6: SUPPLEMENTATION AND WHAT TO EXPECT .27 CHAPTER 3: THE BENEFITS OF CARNOSINE LOADING .................19 CHAPTER 2: CARNOSINE & MUSCLE-BUILDING PERFORMANCE ............................101 APPENDIX: TARGET HEART RATE TRAINING ZONE .115 Contents 3 ..................................43 CHAPTER 4: CARNOSINE LOADING 101 ...............................111 REFERENCES ...........................................113 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ..............................................................Contents PREFACE: EUREKA ..................13 CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS CARNOSINE? .............


there’s nothing quite like being the very first company to create and market a totally new type of supplement that promises to forever transform the future of sports supplementation. I wake up every morning with the hope of shouting “Eureka!” sometime later that day. muscle building. as well as our high quality control standards. to 3-XL™. Last April I finally had that “Eureka!” moment I had long dreamed of. bodybuilders. But still. I love the work I do day in and day out.Preface: Eureka! VER 13 YEARS AGO. to ISA-TEST™. CREATINE WAS INTRODUCED TO THE WORLD O OF SPORTS SUPPLEMENTATION. Don’t get me wrong. our advanced creatine ethyl ester formula. our advanced testosterone/anti-estrogen supplement. our scientifically proven fat-targeting supplement. This substance forever changed sup- plementation for athletes. even when there are no magical breakthroughs. Preface 5 . As CEO of iSatori. With our emphasis on research and development and independent clinical studies performed on all of our supplements. and pretty much anyone who worked out with weights and wanted to develop a better looking body. and performance enhancement that are a cut above. as crazy as it sounds. I’m no exception. and I have to tell you… we take immense satisfaction in delivering such excellence. The pursuit of which is what keeps me awake most nights. But. this is nothing compared to what I am about to share with you… Every sports supplement company CEO dreams of discovering the next big break- through supplement. iSatori develops and produces supplements for fat burning. And I am extremely proud of all of our great products— from Lean System 7®.

Tallon was sharing the results of a new study he had done on the distribution of carnosine in different muscle fiber types with 1 dietary supplementation . I also knew professional bodybuilders and elite athletes in strength. breaking down his latest research findings about carnosine supplementation. this was the final piece of a puzzle I had been putting together in my mind for months. He had even persuaded me to partially sponsor his new study. Yet until this moment.. The whole notion of carnosine-boosting supplementation was so radically new and different from anything I had ever encountered before that I couldn’t quite wrap my mind around it. You see. Over the course of the preceding year. It’s a moment I will never forget. and power sports have much higher levels of carnosine—especially in their “fast-twitch” Type IIx fibers—than the average person. I already knew carnosine is a naturally occurring compound in muscles that helps them resist fatigue when working at very high intensities. I was attending a presentation by Mark Tallon. Now I excitedly learned that with the right supplementation.D. bodybuilders. I nearly leapt out of my seat. That changed in a flash when Tallon stood in front of me and the 20 or so others. although I was certainly intrigued. mostly scientists. at an annual meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) in San Diego. an applied nutritional chemist from England. who had come to hear him. Ph. speed. I just didn’t get it completely. Mark Tallon had been trying to con- vince me that carnosine-boosting supplementation had tremendous potential to enhance muscular development and improve anaerobic muscle performance in athletes. Tallon’s opening remarks… 6 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . and fitness enthusiasts. in simple terms and with infectious passion. everyday men and women could greatly increase the carnosine concentration in all of their skeletal muscle fibers.

you will experience seven key benefits: G Immediate. Preface 7 “ I now believe that due to the recent onslaught of current research underway. The last 10 or so minutes of the presentation are a blur in my memory. is the first person in the world to earn a doctoral degree in carnosine metabolism. who by the way. carnosine. product beta-testers. explosive strength and power gains G Increased training intensity and workload capacity G Faster recovery between reps. that’s not just hype. and the anecdotal evidence on the street backs up this claim 100%. The recent university science. through the influence of Type IIx muscle fibers . I stopped listening to Tallon and began scribbling furiously in my notebook. ” Suddenly I knew for certain that carnosine-boosting truly was the next great break- through in sports supplementation and that my company had to develop the standard- setting product in this new category. I had heard all I needed to hear! I knew we were on to something big here. will eventually surpass the popularity of creatine. Formulated by Tallon. H+Blocker™ is the most effective muscle-building supplement ever created—and make no mistake about it. continu- ing clinical studies. this new performance aid. and workouts G Increased hypertrophy. our internal pilot studies. patent-pending supplement went to market as the world’s first carnosine synthesizer. our standard-setting. my friend. In all hon- esty. sets. Research studies have shown that with carnosine-boosting supplementation. Really big! Six months later.

It took me a year to understand how it all works. Talking late into the night on many occasions over the phone with Tallon. and truth be told. the answers are not simple. They blow tons of money on pages and pages of advertising. Only to leave you disappointed. you too will likely need a step-by- step education before the light bulb goes on in your head.” due to oxidation. trying to trick you into buying their hyped-up product. are smarter than that and deserve better than just a 8 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . and pretty much ticked off. Frankly. H+Blocker is too special. until I fully grasped every detail and could make complete sense of carnosine’s role in muscle metabolism. After feverishly pouring over 23 studies on carnosine. And besides. short 50 bucks. and fitness enthusiasts like you. G Improved peak muscular contractions and enhanced muscle fullness G Reversed muscle decline and “shrinkage. some unpublished. That’s the sole reason I’ve written this book. which occurs between workouts G Greater performance and fat-burning capacity in high-intensity cardio intervals By now you’re probably curious to know more about carnosine and how it achieves such exciting benefits. that’s what other companies do. bodybuilders. repeatedly trying to grasp how it all worked inside the muscle. who are serious about muscular development. and the way it works is too unfamiliar for that conven- tional approach to work. But I knew athletes. Writing and rewriting the details of what I’d learned out—like an adolescent schoolboy who had been punished by his teacher and had to write out what he’d done wrong—over and over again. One thing I understood immediately when I had my own “Eureka!” moment with carnosine was that I couldn’t just put a great carnosine-boosting supplement on the market and spend hundreds of thousands of dollars advertising it and expect it to suc- ceed.

Just look at these four quotes from members of our initial H+Blocker pilot study.” . How do I know? Because virtually everyone who tries H+Blocker gets astounding results they don’t want to let go of. you must first get a “crash course” on carnosine and carnosine-boosting supplementation. I maintain a pump for at least two hours after my workout. I am absolutely. Hey. I have a hunch you’ll be more than ready to give H+Blocker a try. this morning was my most intense workout ever. and I’m confident the muscularity was sustained over a longer period of time than previous workouts. you must first understand carnosine. which they sent to me after just one week’s use: ______________________ Subject #0023A “This supplement works! With my first dose. positively certain you’ll want to con- tinue using it. And to understand what H+Blocker is and how it works. and how it really works… before I could ever expect you to spend your hard-earned money on it. The next day the muscles I’ve worked feel harder and firmer. Once you understand the science. I have faster recovery times between sets and a fuller. I don’t blame you. longer pump. what H+Blocker is. and after you’ve given it a try. Preface 9 bunch of fancy advertisements. Instead.” ______________________ Subject #0014A “After my first serving. I measured my increase in strength by the extra reps I was able to perform. I had a great pump. I was able to increase the reps for almost every set.

It blows creatine away. I can honestly say I’ve never had a supplement that’s worked as forum 11-21-2005. So I ordered a full tub. Posts: 99. It’s not even just a case of being stimulated. I train harder than I ever have. 11:16 AM milton Registered User. and it was quite impressive. as fast. but I’ve tasted much worse. Taste wasn’t flatter- ing. Age: 33 “THIS STUFF ROCKS!! I got a sample in the mail from the company who makes H+Blocker. sometimes I felt like my arms were going to explode! This is really cool stuff. than I ever have. and my training partner is dieing to try it. With the combination of the great pumps and the intense muscular contractions. and my pumps are 10 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . from just one dose. iSatori. and I’m revved up to go. since H+Blocker’s introduction to the general public. Intensity is through the roof. I hit a new personal best on the bench press and did more reps on the squat.” On top of that. I must say. I take this stuff. and man is this stuff freaky. Via bodybuilding.” ______________________ Subject #0037A “My initial week’s workouts were insane. It seems to get better the longer you take it too. with 315 lbs. This stuff is awesome. ______________________ Subject #0004A “I do have to say my strength increases were pretty noticeable within the first week. just take a look at what these people have written on supplement retailer websites and the most popu- lar online message boards: “I had a similar result (and continue to) with H+Blocker too. Even if I’m totally de-motivated to train. Join Date: Apr 2002 . and gives you such a kick-ass workout. this supplement delivers on its promises.

explosive strength gains I experience… which help me reach a new personal best on almost every new workout. my muscles feel fuller. with absolute certainty. if you were sitting right here in front of me. bodybuilders. I would look you straight in the eyes and guarantee you. For me. the best part about H+Blocker is that when you take it. the tub contains a month’s supply). (This is helpful. This is no joke. I begin to feel like there’s electricity flowing through my veins. I find it really cranks up my workout intensity. I simply mix the Fruit Punch-flavored powdered drink mix with about eight ounces of water and gulp it down 20 or so minutes before I plan to work out. like carno- sine and H+Blocker. In fact. is being among the first athletes. you will feel the muscle-stimulating effects from the very first dose. 2005 Product: H+Blocker And I feel I’d be doing an injustice if I didn’t share my personal experiences with the power of carnosine-boosting from H+Blocker: “Quite possibly. at 6:00 in the morning!) And by the time I start working out. ever want to train again without it! It’s that forum H+Blocker Review by bigdirks Date: Tuesday 01 November. and best of all… I really enjoy turning heads in the gym because of the immediate. or fitness enthusi- . Via 1fast400. at this very moment. and I’ll gladly report after the full tub is empty at the four-week mark (another positive.” Perhaps the next best thing to discovering a breakthrough supplement. I absolutely love using it before I weight train. I am on week two. Preface 11 incredible. that once you train with H+Blocker. you will never. I even recover faster too. I’VE NEVER FELT ANYTHING WORK LIKE THIS BEFORE. and by the time I get to the gym and am ready to hit the weights. Within about five minutes. when you train like I do. the contractions from lifting the weights are much more intense than normal.

That’s the opportunity this book will give you. more muscular body. ground-breaking benefits. because this is a gateway to the next level in your quest for a better. asts to begin using it and experiencing its incredible. I encourage you to read through this book carefully and thought- fully. stronger. With that said. And one other thing: Try not to knock anyone over when you shout “Eureka!” and leap out of your seat! 12 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough .

on a stationary bike. you’re doing a set of barbell squats in the gym. By the time you complete your ninth. While Y doing the seventh repetition. Believe it or not. While it limits muscle performance. you begin to feel a burning sensation in your quadriceps. muscular acidosis also prevents us from training to the point of hurting ourselves. muscu- lar acidosis in effect is our bodies’ genetically coded way to spare our muscles from incurring irreparable damage. and what’s now become your final repetition. muscle fatigue.Introduction: The Carnosine Breakthrough ou know the feeling. By shutting down muscle function and weakening the intensity of the contractions before the muscles become too acidic. it’s one of the primary causes of weakness. Muscular acidosis is definitely uncomfortable and oftentimes frustrating. and it’s the rea- son your quads start burning when you’re doing a set of heavy squats or something similar. it’s also one of the main reasons you can’t push out an eleventh repeti- tion on squats after maxing out on the tenth or continue pedaling at maximum intensity forever.. whenever you are training at high intensity and you draw closer and closer to exhaustion—the fluid in and around your muscle cells literally becomes more and more acidic. tenth. By acid. your legs begin to feel as though they are being devoured. like someone’s lit a fire underneath your quad muscles. See. and ultimate failure during high-intensity exercise. The next repetition burns even more. More important.. In other words. say. such as a maximum-intensity interval cardio training. Exercise physiologists refer to this phenomenon as muscular acidosis. Introduction | The Carnosine Breakthrough 13 . in a sense your muscles are being devoured. but it hap- pens for a reason.

or balance. or speed is the effectiveness of these mechanisms. Let me explain how this works… (This is where it gets really exciting!) To stay alive and healthy. your organs and cells function properly only when they stay safely within a very narrow pH range. 14 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . resulting in sickness or even death. or speed and those of “extraordinary” strength. they lose homeosta- sis. For example. these tissues become dam- aged. muscularity. The point I want to make here is that the loss of optimal pH balance in your muscles that results from high-intensity exercise begins to interfere with your muscle contractions.” The body has natural mechanisms that act to prevent muscular acidosis. your body has to remain in what’s called a state of home- ostasis. Think of carnosine like a sponge. making them more acidic. though it varies from person to person). This is where carnosine enters the story. between various extremes. your body tissues must remain within a certain very narrow temperature range (around 98. positively charged hydrogen ions that lower the pH of the muscles. (You’ll learn the exact scientific meaning of these terms in Chapter 2 of this book. causing muscle performance to plummet and literally reach a point of “muscle failure.) High-intensity exercise happens to produce metabolic byproducts—in particular. Another very important sort of balance in body tissues is acid-base (or pH) balance. and problems occur. muscularity.1° F. If they become either too acidic or too alkaline. roaming around in the mus- cles. Again.6 +/. soaking up these byproducts—hydrogen ions—so your muscles can continue contracting. and one of the major differences between individuals of “average” strength. If they get too hot or too cold. I’ll explain exactly how later. Carnosine is a naturally occurring compound stored in skeletal muscle tissue that actually helps maintain proper pH balance by neutralizing the hydrogen ions that cause muscular acidosis.

Now. explosive strength gains G Increased training capacity . you probably guessed you can’t change the muscle fibers you were born with. have a prepon- derance of carnosine-rich Type IIx muscle fibers. As a result. you might already be aware that different people have different combinations of muscle fiber types throughout their bodies. thanks to the new research conducted by Drs. (This is what I’ve been so excited to share with you!) The results of increased carnosine stores within the muscles have been shown to cause: G Immediate. the harder and longer it can continue to work before losing pH balance and eventually shutting down and thus slowing your progress too. muscularity. Jeffrey Stout. and it’s especially concentrated in Type IIx muscle fibers (the kings of strength. carnosine was found to be more abundant in Type II muscle fibers (the strength. scientists believed that training was the only way to increase muscle carnosine levels. they are able to work harder and respond to high-intensity training better than those of us who don’t have as many Type IIx fibers. anyone can vastly increase his or her carno- sine stores. we have learned that with proper supplementation. Roger Harris. there is a direct relationship between the amount of carnosine in mus- cle fibers and their ability to resist acidosis. slow-and-go. as well as the majority of professional bodybuilders. muscularity. but you can increase the carnosine content of the fibers you do have with appro- priate training. and speed). But within the past few years. repetitious specialists). and speed specialists) than in Type I muscle fibers (the endurance. But until recently. Introduction | The Carnosine Breakthrough 15 Interestingly. naturally “gifted” strength and speed athletes. And basically. And here’s the best part. and Mark Tallon. See. But what’s really great is that new science has unveiled that the more carnosine a muscle fiber has stored in it. Even more interesting.

Tallon has also found that carnosine boosting is most efficient when the supple- ment is not pure carnosine but is instead a nutrient matrix combining beta-alanine and L-histidine (the two amino acids that. This way. Mark Tallon. Carnosine is a whole new science in muscular performance. It’s not anything like creatine. none of those rinky dink “me too” sup- plement companies can copy it. G Faster muscle recovery G Slowing/reversal of cellular aging G Increased muscle hypertrophy (growth) G Increased muscle fullness and G Better fat-burning performance in high-intensity cardio intervals. Then it’s specially bonded with another ingredient called aspartic acid. No wonder people are calling this the “Carnosine Breakthrough”! The man leading this carnosine breakthrough is Dr. nothing else like it. H+Blocker. There is. it is now awaiting patent approval from the U. literally. H+Blocker also delivers the optimal dosage needed for maximum carnosine loading. the carnosine-boosting supplement my company developed with the guidance of Tallon. in fact. This forms beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine. strength. and muscularity in a way no other supplement does. which is 3.2 grams per day. combined with aspartic acid. And it’s nothing like a steroid or pro-hormone. Through his latest research. the applied nutri- tion chemist you met in the Preface to this book. It’s so special. What’s most exciting about boosting carnosine is it enhances muscle performance.S. synthesize into carno- sine). once in the body. Tallon has determined the optimal protocol for carnosine-boosting supplementation. is the only supplement with this specific form of beta-alanine and L-histidine. It’s far from nitric oxide. government. 16 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough .

and let’s get started! With respect and admiration. and fitness enthusiast can—and should—take advantage of the carnosine breakthrough. H+Blocker. and how to maximize its effectiveness through proper diet and training. Most importantly. Introduction | The Carnosine Breakthrough 17 See. bodybuilder. training. you will learn exactly what carnosine is and how it enhances muscular performance by preventing muscular acidosis and by acting in a cou- ple of other important ways to enhance exercise capacity. you will learn all about the seven key benefits you will get from using H+Blocker. what you can expect from it. So. Finally. I will wrap it up with answers to the most frequently asked questions about carnosine. Next. I will show you how to use H+Blocker most effectively. In the coming chapters. And that’s the purpose of this book: to give you all of the information you need to take full advantage. and muscle growth. and I feel strongly every athlete. if you’re ready… really ready… to unlock your body’s full potential and experi- ence a new evolution in performance supplementation. then turn the page. the key to making continued progress with muscular development is to contin- ually find new ways to stimulate additional gains. and see undeniable scientific proof that these benefits are real. Stephen Adelé . the ultimate carnosine-boosting supplement. H+Blocker is one way to stimulate progress.


bodybuilders. Mark my words. very few understand the revolutionary importance of recent discoveries related to carnosine and muscle performance—discov- eries that will absolutely. carnosine will be even more popular than creatine is now. I want you to do me a favor… that is. And even among those well-informed men and women who have heard of carnosine. But.Chapter 1: What Is Carnosine? A year or two from now. positively reshape the future of muscular development and the sports nutrition industry. bodybuilders. Today. however. The word will be out that boosting carnosine stores in the muscles is one of the. is education. most potent ways to enhance performance and build muscle. as with any new supplement you’re considering. and those of us who train with weights has ever heard of carnosine. which in this instance begins with answering the following question: what is carnosine? Chapter 1 | What Is Carnosine? 19 . consequently. only a small fraction of athletes. promise me you’ll remember you heard it here first! The first step. So count yourself fortunate: reading this book will afford you the opportunity to be among the first to enjoy the remarkable benefits of the recent carnosine breakthrough. It will be common knowledge that taking a carnosine-boosting supplement such as H+Blocker will increase muscle carnosine stores far beyond the levels achievable without supplementa- tion. I have a hunch that most athletes. and fitness enthusiasts interested in muscular development will know all about carnosine. if not the.

1 G ated as a “super” antioxidant. which hoarded its science. The Carnosine Story Carnosine was discovered in Russia way back in 1900. how it works in the body. carnosine is broken down into beta-alanine and L-histidine and then reconstituted within the cells that use it. and other tissues of many animals. this research is still ongoing. in part because most of the early research took place in the Soviet Union. the research focus has been on identify- ing its physiological functions—that is. 20 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . This is likely why you might have already seen carnosine supplements on some store shelves. More than a century later. Carnosine can be obtained in the diet mainly from eating meats. including chicken and beef. Researchers identified it as a naturally occurring dipeptide (a combination of two amino acids) that is found in the muscles. It is able to neutralize a broad range of free radicals—those unstable mole- cules that damage cells and contribute to various diseases and conditions. Until now. Most of us take in anywhere from 50 to 250 mg daily in our normal diets. brain. including humans. The two amino acids that make up carnosine are beta-alanine and L-histidine. and in part because carnosine is extremely diverse in its functions. When a carnosine-containing food is eaten. and are believed to be a major cause of biological aging.) Since the discovery of carnosine. carnosine has been most widely appreci- Fig. (See Figure 1: The Breakdown of Carnosine. including some cancers.

its potential as a muscle-performance booster. I thought it was impor- tant to first explore some of the other great benefits of carnosine. It’s pretty much become a “staple” in the diets of people ranging from professional athletes and weekend warriors to everyday bodybuilders and all walks in between. creatine phosphate is an important source of anaerobic energy. prevents glyca- tion (a processes where excess sugar in the bloodstream damages body proteins. increases the supply of this important energy source and thereby enables the muscles to work harder and longer before reaching exhaustion. and extends the lifespan of 2 individual cells . The research that led to the creatine revolution was grounded in this perspective. they can continue performing. Prior to this time. We all know how wildly popular crea- tine has become. As potent an anti-aging compound as carnosine appears to be. It goes without saying that this is what I am most excited to share with you. But. the existing carnosine products are marketed as anti-aging supplements due to solid research showing that carnosine neutralizes free radicals. Energy for high-intensity muscle contractions. so you can gain a true appreciation for this breakthrough in supplementation. Taking a creatine phos- phate precursor. fatigue occurs—or so the theory goes. con- tributing to Alzheimer’s disease and other problems). . Chapter 1 | What Is Carnosine? 21 Typically.” Their understanding basically stated that when the muscles have an adequate supply of the right sources of energy. based on the latest findings. when the supply of energy sources runs too low. That is. Only within the past several years have some researchers begun to explore the functions of carnosine in relation to muscle and exercise performance. Now. fast forward 80 years. usually in the form of supplemental creatine monohydrate. Scientists might still be unaware of this incredible potential if not for some earlier research that changed our understanding of muscle fatigue in the 1980’s. now seems even greater. exercise scientists understood muscle fatigue almost entirely in terms of “energy supply.

It’s an inevitable part of intense training. it so happens that one of the most effective acid buffers in the muscles is—you guessed it—carnosine! Oops. a byproduct of anaerobic energy release. muscular acidosis is what happens when positively charged hydrogen ions. Exercise scientists found that one of the key differences between elite strength. and ultimately muscle failure strikes. no matter how much you want to. they began to take a much more seri- ous look at carnosine. and as the muscles become more acidic. in the 1980’s. Another important cause of fatigue at high exercise intensities is muscular acidosis or loss of pH balance in the muscles. In one study. One of the first researchers to work in this area was Roger Harris of Great Britain— the same Roger Harris responsible for some of the pioneering research on creatine and muscle performance in the early 1990’s.. I’m starting to get ahead of myself…. The more these ions accu- mulate. Basically. the body attempts to use certain “acid buffers” to neutralize hydrogen ions and allow the muscles to continue working hard.. you can’t per- form another repetition on an exercise. muscle performance plummets. could have as great an impact on muscle perform- ance as energy sources such as creatine phosphate. And. fatigue. when weakness. (Seems unfair. the more acidic the muscles become. However. Harris and colleagues took muscle 22 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . begin to accumulate in the muscles during weight training or intense bursts of cardiovascular exercise. speed. doesn’t it?) Yet. At this point. So please allow me to get back into the actual evolution of carnosine… When scientists realized that acid buffers. through their ability to bind hydrogen ions and stabilize pH levels in blood. and power athletes and the “aver- age” person is that the acid buffering system is vastly more effective in top athletes. exercise scientists began to appreciate the fact that there are 3 other causes of muscle fatigue that are not directly related to energy supply .

Dr. H+Blocker™. The path of future research was clear. Next. which are the aerobic specialists. it was now established that carnosine was the main acid buffer in high-performance muscle fibers. The next step was to determine whether different levels of carnosine in the muscles are associated with different levels of muscle performance. One study found that muscle carnosine levels were 50% higher in 5 professional bodybuilders than in sedentary individuals . From there. Tallon also discovered that other nutrients—namely. Tallon studied carnosine biosynthesis and found that supplements containing the individual amino acids beta-alanine and L-histidine are more efficient muscle carnosine boosters than supplements containing carnosine itself. Harris concluded that carnosine accounted for approximately 50% of the total acid buffering capacity in the horses’ Type IIb muscle fibers. . caffeine and carbohydrates—facilitate the uptake and enhance the actions of carnosine in the muscles. This groundbreaking dis- covery eventually led to the development of the ultimate carnosine-boosting supple- ment. scientists needed to find out whether it is possible to boost carnosine stores in the muscles and thereby enhance muscle per- formance.] Type IIb muscle fibers are also the biggest producers of hydrogen ions in horses. Follow-up studies discovered that it is possible to boost muscle carnosine levels with appropriate training and—even more exciting—using appropriate supplementa- tion. Chapter 1 | What Is Carnosine? 23 biopsies from thoroughbred racehorses and measured the concentration of carnosine in 4 each of three muscle fiber types . confirmed that there is a direct correlation between muscle carnosine levels and muscle performance. subsequent human studies by Harris’s star pupil. With that quest in mind. Due to its ability to bind hydrogen and stabilize pH levels in the muscle. the same muscle fiber type that is referred to as Type IIb in animals is called Type IIx. Mark Tallon. Thanks to Harris and his team. Interestingly. They discovered that the carnosine concentration was more than three times higher in Type IIb muscle fibers—which are built for anaerobic per- formance—than in Type I fibers. [Note that in humans.

I believe beta-alanine and its role in carnosine/muscle metabolism is by far the most promising and legitimate. “It truly is the next creatine.D. and carnosine supplementation and its effects on muscle performance is just beginning to appear in the major scientific.” Stout is not alone.” While carnosine-boosting supplementation remains the best-kept secret in exercise nutrition. L-histidine. But carnosine boosting is different. “It’s based on real. solid scientific findings from the likes of Roger Harris. and others you can trust. Research into the effects of beta-alanine.D. Ph. A joint study by British and South Korean researchers found that four weeks of supplementation with beta-alanine increased the muscle concentra- 6 tion of carnosine by 64% and increased anaerobic exercise performance by 14% . some of the most well-respected names in sports nutrition have stepped for- ward to vouch for the solid research supporting carnosine-boosting supplementation.. many supplements have looked promising. peer-reviewed journals. on the surface—and have consequently been hyped as “the next creatine”— only to disappoint us when used or after further studies.. Really different. These results are even more impressive than the results of the early creatine studies that caused such a stir in the early 1990’s! Since then. “Of all the performance-based supplements currently being researched. professor of Exercise Science at Florida Atlantic University. In fact.” says Jeffrey Stout. some top athletes and competitive bodybuilders—who are typically the first 24 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . Jeff Stout. head of the Ohio Research Group of Exercise Science & Sports Nutrition.” says Tim Ziegenfuss. Ph. “We have tested beta-alanine [carnosine synthesizer] in the lab.

and other athletes in Europe and Japan have reported stunning individual improvements from carnosine- boosting supplementation and now swear by it. . The final word on the carnosine story has yet to be written. bodybuilders. we’re going to explore exactly how boosting carnosine levels can influence muscular growth and performance. using the latest scientific studies. how effec- tive it can be. and other ways to enhance its synthesis and activity. and other top sports nutrition researchers continue to investigate how carnosine works. Chapter 1 | What Is Carnosine? 25 to get in and “experiment” with new trends in supplementation—have already begun using it. track and field athletes. Stout. Now. Elite speed skaters. Tallon.


But I have to warn you. But. this is undeniably true when it comes to muscle performance. it’s complex material. the more you can apply this knowledge to enhance the power and size of your muscles. In this chapter. nutrition. and supplementation. I really like this chapter and enjoyed writing it. I get excited by scientific journals and new research relating to the physiological functions of our bodies. the more you learn about how your muscles work and respond to training. so don’t expect to fully grasp every little detail the first time you read it. the science is fairly complex and can get a little cumbersome. Keep in mind.Chapter 2: Carnosine & Muscle- Building Performance K nowledge is power. I’m going to do my best to translate it. Make no mistake. Then again. In the Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 27 . I will explain what exercise physiologists currently know about the role of carnosine in muscle performance. it took me well over a year to entirely decipher the biochemical role of carnosine. so you can fully under- stand it and gain a thorough appreciation for the science of carnosine and its affects on muscle-building performance. Basically. still. Instead. I would invite you to allow the scientific explanations to resonate—and then possibly go back and re-read them to help fill in any gaps in your understanding. However. I have to admit. This knowledge will help you take advantage of carnosine-boosting supplementation and enjoy the many scientifically proven bene- fits that result from it.

if you wish to skip over this sec- tion. then great. the actin filament is pulled toward the center of the sarcom- ere by the myosin filament. The sarcomeres are the smallest functional units of a muscle fiber and consist of the major contractile pro- teins myosin and actin.) These proteins are long filaments arranged in a parallel for- mation. During contraction. curling a 20-lb dumbbell requires fewer muscle fibers to be recruited than curling a 40-lb dumbbell. For example. Shortening of the sarcom- eres in a myofibril causes the shortening of the muscle fiber. the number of muscle fibers contracting at any given time is deter- mined by the amount of force required to overcome the resistance to movement and shorten the muscle. Muscle Performance 101 If you could get a good cross-sectional view of a muscle. I’d like to begin with a very basic description of how the muscles work during exercise.” If you would rather keep reading (and enhancing your physiological knowledge). called fasci- cules. If we traveled a little deeper. (Keep these two words—myosin and actin—in mind because I’ll be referring to them a lot. are made up of individual muscle fibers (or muscle cells). you would see it’s made up of numerous bundles separated by connective tissue. I suggest you turn to page 43 and dig right into the next chapter entitled: “The Benefits of Carnosine Loading. causing the sarcomere to shorten. interest of education and appreciation for the sciences. Muscle fibers are fur- ther subdivided into myofibrils and the myofibrils into sarcomeres. we’d see that voluntary muscle contractions are initi- ated when the brain sends an electrical signal through motor neurons to the neuromus- 28 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . However. I believe it would be well worth your time to read this chapter in its entirety. Within a muscle. and start exploring the really exciting facts of carnosine and its groundbreaking benefits. These bundles. With that in mind. Let’s get to it.

The physiological process. or muscular contraction. which lifts the tropomyosin off the active sites so the myosin heads can bind and shorten the mus- cle fibers. positively charged calcium ions are released from a special storage area called the sarcoplasmic reticulum..e. 1b this. 1c. Again. is what’s repeatedly hap- pening in every repetition you perform. E Fig. When an elec- trical impulse enters a muscle cell. Still with me? Good. 1a When calcium ions are released from the sar- coplasmic reticulum. (See Figures 1a. Myosin has “heads” that are able to latch onto actin and yank it like hands pulling a rope. they attach to troponin. E Fig. take a look at the diagrams to the left. 1c .) Another. carnosine plays a key role in allowing calcium ions to do their job more effectively. At rest. Let’s move on then… For a visual cue to help make sense of all of E Fig. there are two main contractile proteins in muscle tissue: actin (also known as the thin filament) and myosin (also known as the thick filament). Tropomyosin has to be moved out of the way for a contraction to occur. which show the muscle when it’s “loose” (i. a tube- shaped protein called tropomyosin stands between the myosin heads and the actin fila- ment to prevent contractions from occurring. while you work out with weights. Now the muscle contraction is com- pleted. not contracted) versus when it’s “tightened” and fully contracted. Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 29 cular junction—which is where the motor neurons and the muscles meet. on every exercise. 1b. more complex protein called tro- ponin is also attached to the thin actin filament. Calcium ions play a key role in completing a muscle contraction—and as you’ll soon discover.

or “fast- twitch. think of the cheetah. on the other hand. and serious fitness enthusiasts. and their muscles can no longer contract. Type I fibers. (Unless. Whereas. and produces no negative byproducts. Skeletal muscles contain two basic fiber types.” on the other hand. Type I fibers have a much greater ability to use oxygen to release energy aerobically. using every muscle in their elongated bodies. Type II fibers. known as Type I and Type II fibers. The different performance capacities of the two basic muscle fiber types are rooted in their different structural and metabolic characteristics. so it can con- tinue almost indefinitely before fatigue sets in. rely more on anaerobic (without oxygen) energy production.) But as an example of Type II fibers. (I’ll say more about the aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways as we move on. See. interesting. These big cats can achieve maximum running speeds of 70 miles per hour. As a result. such as heavy weightlifting or short-distance sprinting. here’s where it gets really exciting. also known as “slow-twitch. specialize in short-lasting speed and power movements. bodybuilders. migratory birds such as geese have wings that are made up almost entirely of Type I muscle fibers. But they can only sustain such speeds for 12 or so seconds before exhaustion sets in. Think of activities like hiking up a mountain or running a marathon. which is efficient. and where I believe carnosine holds the greatest promise for athletes. As an example. which is fast but inefficient. they have to stop running. Type II fibers. they caught their prey before physical exhaustion set in!) 30 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . of course. within seconds.” specialize in prolonged activity at low to moderate intensity. Type II fibers are structured in a way that enables them to shorten much faster than Type I fibers. not all muscle fibers are the same. The cheetah is an animal that exem- plifies the type of performance that can be achieved when Type II fibers are predomi- nate. which enable them to cover vast distances with minimal rest. draws upon abundant fuel sources. Muscle Fiber Types Now. the scientific truth is. and produces fatigue-causing hydrogen ions.

strength. Type II fibers have fewer mitochondria and capil- laries. Elite marathon runners. the chest (pectoral) muscles. which are dominated by Type II fibers and as a result give them greater speed. more well-defined mus- cles. The mid-distance runners. on the other hand. Additionally. we can in fact morph a Type I fiber into a Type II or vice versa. if we take a closer look. for example. but surprisingly. These individuals have a blend of muscle fiber types that enables them to run at a fairly quick pace. Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 31 Type I fibers are loaded with mitochondria. the calf muscles. which are organelles within the cells where oxygen is used to break down fuels for energy (aerobic metabolism). almost at the same speed as . whereas bodybuilders are likely to possess a higher percentage of Type II fibers in their muscles. In addition. Now. By contrast. By contrast. though this is very difficult. which are designed for short. we see that the distribution of fiber types varies widely among different muscles throughout the body and from one person to the next. Like the ones in the Olympic games. are likely to possess a high percentage of Type I fibers in their muscles. some individuals have a lot more fibers of one type or the other. Type I fibers contain more aerobic enzymes. Type I fibers are also surrounded by a large number of small blood vessels called capillaries that bring in oxygen. The sprinters running the 100-meter dash tend to have larger. and power. the fuels for anaerobic energy release. it’s been shown in studies that while we can’t alter our genetics. which are designed for prolonged activities such as walk- ing or running. like you and me. You can get a good visual appreciation of the differences between Type I and Type II muscle fibers in humans by watching a track meet. The average person. which facili- tate aerobic metabolism. lighter in bodyweight. powerful movements such as pushing. but they have a greater store of the high-energy phosphates and glycogen. But. For example. only for short distances. who compete in the 400-meter run or 400-meter hurdles. has approximately a 50/50 mix of Type I and Type II muscle fibers throughout the body. contain predominantly Type I fibers. are somewhat muscular. and leaner. contain more Type II fibers. and more anaerobic enzymes.

on the other hand. using greater amounts of oxygen) can increase the mitochondrial con- tent and aerobic metabolic capacity of Type II fibers. without using much oxygen) will enhance the phosphagen system of the Type I fibers. Type IIx fibers. but they are also much more effi- cient at aerobic metabolism than Type IIx fibers. have the fastest contraction speeds of any muscle fiber type. Types of Muscle Fiber Types Genetics are the main factor determining the distribution of muscle fiber types in an individual. That is. the short-track sprinters. we are either born with more of one type than the other. Whether we like it or not. Type IIx fibers also have the highest con- centrations of carnosine to deal with these high levels of hydrogen ion production. but they can practically run forever. The long- distance runners are just plain skinny. you are starting to figure out which type of muscle fibers we want more of—Type II. All muscle fibers. Type IIa fibers have much faster contraction speeds than Type I fibers. Filled with Type I muscle fibers. My hunch is. by now. however. even at their maximum speed. yet quite a bit further. 32 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . They have the greatest capacity for growth and for increases in strength and power. The major types are IIa and IIx. they can’t run particularly fast (relatively speaking). diet and supplementation can also positively affect muscle fiber characteristics. Type IIa fibers are considered intermediate fibers between Type I and Type IIx. and training anaerobically (short- term. Training aerobically (long-distance. they produce more hydrogen ions than other muscle fiber types. In addition. can respond to athletic training by improving their ability to perform according to the way they are trained. we would notice there are actually sev- eral different types of Type II muscle fibers. Because they are able to release such tremendous amounts of energy through glycolysis. if you are like me and regularly lift weights and are searching for ways to improve muscle-building performance. Incidentally. If we peeked even deeper inside the fibers.

they use the aerobic metabolism system. only ATP can make a muscle fiber contract. there is only enough ATP stored in the muscle to support a maximal effort for a few seconds. For those who perform any type of cardiovascular exercise. triglycerides—must be converted into ATP before energy can be released for muscle activity and contraction. whatever.S. However. the muscle uses oxygen to break down carbohydrate. But to gamble. The energy stored in the molecular bonds of this compound is made available when a phosphate molecule is separated from ATP. like running on a tread- mill or elliptical trainer. lies in understanding that energy that drives a muscle contraction is released when a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (abbreviated to ATP) is split apart. glucose. It is able to generate 38 ATP molecules from one glucose mole- cule. you must convert the currency you came with into chips. The various fuels that are brought into the mus- cles—creatine phosphate. and anaero- bic glycolysis. As a result. whether you are working with weights. pro- tein to generate ATP. Think of ATP as chips in a casino. Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 33 Energy Pathways of Muscle The most basic physiological affect of exercise. francs from France. in this instance. there are three energy pathways that the muscles use to replenish ATP: oxidative phosphorylation (or aerobic metabolism). running. and. However. In aerobic metabo- lism. Similarly. it produces energy at a much slower rate than the anaerobic energy sys- . pounds from England. in muscles. only chips can be used to gamble inside the walls of the casino. There is no other direct source of energy for muscle work. You can come to the casino with any type of cur- rency: dollars from the U. Aerobic metabolism is a very efficient way of generating energy for muscle contraction. or playing sports. or outside activities like trail or moun- tain climbing or running.. when needed. the phosphate system. fat. Essentially. riding a stationary bike. ATP must be continually replenished or muscle contraction will stop. Simply put.

the greater the muscle’s potential for aerobic energy production. tems. When you have a serious medical crisis. like ATP itself. but when you need life-saving help now. and physical therapists—more useful for less intense and longer term muscle work. etc. Well. and really good at providing a huge burst of energy without delay. avail- able. such as paramedics. a maximum-intensity muscle contraction is sort of like an emergency in your muscles. aerobic energy production occurs in small organelles within the muscle fiber called mitochondria. fast. available. specialists. Without this system. Glycolysis cannot produce ATP as fast as the breakdown of CP. CP is a bit like emergency first responders. Glycolysis gen- erates ATP by the breakdown of carbohydrates stored in the muscle in the form of blood glucose and glycogen (long chains of glucose stored inside muscle cells). Creatine phosphate (CP) is the immediate supplier of energy for the formation of ATP. powerful movements such as sprint- ing or intense weight training could not be performed. it releases energy for the rapid replenishment of ATP. you need help that’s fast. but it is much faster than 34 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . As CP is broken down to creatine and inorganic phosphate (Pi). specialists.) are more like your general practitioners. and really good at taking care of urgent situations. The other muscle fuels (glucose. CP is your muscles’ emergency first responders. It demands a fuel source that is fast. (Thus. As I just mentioned.) There is a sufficient amount of CP stored in the muscle to support a maximal effort for eight to 12 seconds. The first system. the popu- larity of creatine supplementation. To draw an analogy. a “high-energy “phos- phagen compound stored in muscle. the more mitochondria in a muscle. General practitioners. fats. creatine phosphate is. So. and physical therapists are good for non-urgent and long-term care. For those of us who like to train with weights and work out intensely. there are two anaerobic energy pathways used to replenish ATP: the phosphate system and anaerobic glycolysis. it’s the paramedics you want. A second anaerobic system in which ATP is produced is glycolysis.

“pH” stands for “potential for hydrogen. And during an all-out. more than 99% of your muscle energy is pro- duced aerobically. Muscular Acidosis To put all of the muscle energy and physiological effects together. the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions. there is a limit to how fast the mitochondria can use pyruvate. During a 90-second sprint. The body’s normal pH is approxi- . yielding only two or three ATP molecules per glucose molecule.” Basically. Again. the lower the pH value. anaerobic glycolysis produces pyruvate faster than the mitochondria can snatch it. At very high exercise intensities. they produce the most hydrogen ions. The mitochondria then soak up pyruvate and break it down fur- ther to release additional energy aerobically. Therefore. the muscle cells tend to depend more and more on anaerobic metabolism. at a comfortable jog. 10-second sprint. which occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. as the intensity of work increases. and consequently. For instance. In the previous chapter. In anaerobic glycolysis. although far less efficient. and this is a very important fact to keep in mind. Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 35 aerobic metabolism. Now I can tell you that pH is actually measured as the concentration of hydrogen ions in tissue—in fact. about 95% of your muscle energy comes from anaerobic metabolism. However. I explained the importance of pH balance in the muscle tis- sue for optimal muscle performance. we would see that anaerobic glycolysis (pronounced gli-ko-le-sis) and aerobic metabolism work synergisti- cally. Unused pyruvate quickly breaks apart into lactic acid and hydrogen ions. because Type IIx muscle fibers are anaerobic special- ists. pyruvate is pro- duced as a byproduct. aerobic and anaerobic pathways con- tribute energy about equally. which accu- mulate in the muscle cells and “leak” into the bloodstream. such as the type of weight training you and I do. the more acidic the tissue.

in this instance. including the role of calcium ions discussed.0.4. you can see more closely where the calcium ions bind into the troponin molecule (colored green). This Fig. you see the mechanism that brings about muscle contraction. as we know it. So the million-dollar question: how does the accumulation of hydro- gen ions negatively affect this process? 36 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . The following figures demonstrate the two ways accumulating hydrogen ions liter- ally crush muscular performance.) Again. (Active sites are represented as red dots on the orange-colored actin. The simultaneous shortening of all the sarcomeres that make up a muscle fiber causes the entire fiber to shorten or. short- ening the sarcomere.2 G “action” causes the actin filament to slide along the myosin filament. as I covered in the pre- vious chapter. to contract. mately 7. In Figure 3 (on the following page). Physical exhaustion and muscular fatigue occurs when the pH level drops to roughly 6. imagine the myosin heads as a row of hands and the actin filament as a rope that these hands grab and pull in one direction. This then lifts the tube-shaped tropomyosin protein away from the binding sites on the actin filament so that the myosin head can bind and bring about muscle shortening/contraction. In Figure 2.

Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 37

Here’s how…

As our muscles produce more and more hydrogen ions through anaerobic glycolysis
during intense exercise, some of these hydrogen ions occupy space on the troponin
head, where the calcium ions would bind. As a result, the calcium ions cannot attach
and thus the tropomyosin stays sitting on the actin-binding site, preventing the myosin
head from attaching. Thus, as hydrogen ions accumulate, the number of sites for
myosin heads to bind decreases, leading to fewer and fewer muscle fibers being activated,
which translates into decreased force production and ultimately muscle exhaustion and
an inability to contract the muscle any longer.

Or better stated, as you and I
likely experience in literally every set
of an exercise we do, complete “mus-
cle failure.”

Hydrogen ions also reduce muscle
performance by inhibiting ATP pro-
duction. In Figure 4 on the next page,
you can see the typical steps in
anaerobic glycolysis. One of the most
important enzymes in this pathway
that allows the products of glucose
breakdown to release ATP is phos-
phofructokinase (PFK). PFK (See step
3 in Figure 4) converts Fructose 6-
phosphate to fructose 1, 6-diphos-
phate—a process releasing ATP.
Fig. 3 G

The activity rate of these enzymes
(in other words, the speed they can

carry out reactions) is pH-dependent, so any disruption to the “normal” pH levels in
muscle will negatively affect their activity. We know the primary cause of pH decline
(acidosis) is excessive hydrogen ion production as it occurs during intense exercise. We
also know from experimental research that when muscle tissue pH drops to 6.4, glycoly-
sis is completely inhibited, resulting in physical exhaustion. What’s interesting is that
PFK inhibition has a domino-like
effect, not only inhibiting the ATP
produced from its own reaction but
also the ATP-producing capacity
further down the pathway (see
ATP produced in Figure 4), which
makes complete muscle failure an
inevitable part of training.

Fig. 4 G

Carnosine to
the Rescue
As you’ve been told, carno-
sine is a natural metabolic acid
buffer. This means it is able to
neutralize some of the hydrogen
ions produced during exercise.
The factor that primarily influ-
ences the buffering capacity of
carnosine (or any other buffer) is
something known as pKa. The
pKa value is linked to how much
of a compound is bound to hydro-
gen ions at different pH levels.

38 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough

Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 39

Again, the body’s normal pH is approximately 7.0. Because of this, a buffer must have a
pKa close to pH 7.0 to be beneficial. For instance, a compound with a pKa of 7.0 would
have 50% of its total hydrogen ion binding capacity bound to protons. This leaves the
remaining 50% of the compound “free” to attach to other circulating hydrogen ions—
such as the excessive amount produced during intense weight training.

Carnosine has a pKa of 6.83, which is very close to the 7.0 pH found in our bodies. It
should come as no surprise, for this reason, that carnosine is one of the, if not the, most
effective buffers, or pH stabilizers, in human skeletal muscle.

Imagine carnosine as a four-seated car, driving around in your muscles, with two
people sitting in the front (hydrogen ions), leaving two seats empty in the back to pick
up two more people (additional hydrogen ions). Therefore, the more carnosine in the
muscle, the more hydrogen ions the carnosine can pick up. Obviously, this helps prevent
the associated decline in pH—stabilizing it. And yep, you guessed it: immediate, explo-
sive power—from increased bursts of “muscle energy,” more intense muscular contrac-
tions, and a noticeable delay in the onset of muscular fatigue.

To get a good sense of the usefulness of carnosine, it’s helpful to look at some ani-
mals that have the most of it. The muscle carnosine concentration in diving mammals,
such as whales and dolphins, is approximately 16 times higher than it is in humans.
Because these animals breathe in small amounts of air, in sparse intervals, and live
underwater, they need to have the capacity to remain active for long stretches of time
without oxygen. As they swim underwater, their muscles release energy anaerobically,
causing rapid production of hydrogen ions, which their abundant carnosine stores
allow them to better manage. Thus, their muscles are much more efficient.

Land animals that specialize in speed and power, such as cheetahs and greyhound
racing dogs, which have lots of Type II muscle fibers, also pack a lot of carnosine in
their muscles. Greyhound dogs, for example, have approximately four times the muscle
carnosine concentration of the average human.

You may not need to swim long distances underwater or chase down prey or race on a dog track. which translates into more strength and continually increasing muscle mass gains. bodybuilders. 40 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . it’s quickly becoming one of the most popular supplements to study at present. you can also benefit from having high carnosine levels. so you perform better in workouts and get greater benefits. The subjects in the above mentioned study who had the highest muscle carnosine levels also tended to have the greatest number of Type IIx muscle fibers. In other words. and others. Increasing your muscle carnosine stores will enable your muscles to sustain maximum-intensity contractions longer without fatigu- ing. studies have found a correlation between muscle carnosine levels and anaerobic muscle performance in athletes. For example. These. again. researchers discovered a significant correlation between muscle 7 carnosine concentration and performance in 30-second sprints on a stationary bicycle . with more carnosine in your muscles. are the muscle fibers that respond most readily to anaero- bic weight training and are the “trainable” muscle fibers that are more apt to grow in size. with more volume. I shared how carnosine is naturally most abundant in Type IIx fibers. Carnosine Studies Offer Proof Not surprisingly. in a Japanese study. and at a higher intensity than you nor- mally train at. If you remember earlier on. But since we now know that training and supplementation can increase muscle carnosine levels (much greater than with food alone). and there’s mounting scientific evidence that carnosine-boosting supplementation has a positive effect on anaerobic muscle-building performance. but as someone who works out intensely with weights. you will now be able to per- form more reps and sets.

Check out the graph below (Figure 5) and see the results for yourself. Based on the results. the study’s authors concluded that “beta-alanine supplementation enhances muscle and exercise per- formance. positively the most effective formulation for muscle carnosine load- ing. It’s for these reasons I believe H+Blocker is absolutely. The subjects taking the beta-alanine supplement improved their performance dramatically. increased their ability 8 to perform maximum-intensity exercise . the world’s foremost authority on the ability to perform maximal exercise at intensities experienced in the gym. and their maximum power output was recorded. researchers reported that beta-alanine (a primary constituent in H+Blocker) supplementation increased muscle carnosine levels in subjects and. They were then given either beta-alanine or a placebo every day for the next 10 weeks. carnosine metabolism. the results of carnosine-boosting supple- mentation vary based on the type of supple- ment used. and the dosage. its purity and potency. Chapter 2 | Carnosine & Muscle-Building Performance 41 Some of the most exciting evidence was presented at the 2005 International Society of Sports Nutrition Annual Conference in New Orleans. At this conference. based on the cutting-edge research by D Fig. subjects performed a graded exercise test on stationary bikes. more important. aren’t they?! In this study. Pretty impressive. 5: Beta-alanine supplementation increased Mark Tallon. just like with any other supple- ments.” Naturally. As I shared with you . They repeated the sec- ond testing format at four weeks and 10 weeks. clinically effective dosage. and time to fatigue was measured. Not only is it the first ever supplement of its kind. Subjects then performed a second bike test in which they pedaled as long as they could at 110% of the maximum power output level they achieved in the first test. but it is also the only such supplement that delivers the optimum.

42 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . Tallon helped us formulate H+Blocker. earlier. dosing. based on his intimate knowledge of carnosine synthesis. then do yourself a favor. using his studies and others performed by Roger Harris. In Chapter 4. I’ll cover why supplementation is necessary (due to limitations of carnosine in our diets). H+Blocker. and turn the page. timing of supplementation. But first. if you would like to hear all about the seven breakthrough advantages you can expect to get from carnosine-boosting supplementation. we’ll go more in-depth on carnosine loading and tell you everything you need to know about using the word’s first carnosine-boosting supplement. and the benefits of taking carnosine precursors with certain key carnosine activators. using beta-alanine and L-histidine specially bonded with aspartic acid (awaiting patent approval under the name beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine).

As a matter of fact. I have used phrases such as “enhance muscular development” and “boost muscle performance” to describe the effects of this new. to use! Benefit #1: Immediate. barely scratch the surface. In this chapter.Chapter 3: The Benefits of Carnosine Loading U ntil this point. They’re actually an understatement of the truly exciting benefits you can really expect from carnosine loading. breakthrough supplement. I have been speaking somewhat generally about the benefits of carnosine-boosting supplementation. you’ll be pushing at the gate to start putting the power of the world’s first carnosine-booster. But make no mistake: these descriptions. there are actually no fewer than seven dis- tinct benefits of carnosine-boosting supplementation relevant to your performance. after you finish reading this chapter. Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 43 . And you know what? I have a hunch. the new lean body mass you can gain from workouts. you can expect these increases from the very first time you use it. H+Blocker. I will detail each of these special benefits. in my opinion. and the results you get from them. Explosive Strength and Power Gains Carnosine-boosting supplementation increases maximum muscle strength and power in both indirect and direct ways… and better yet.

allows you to further increase your workload in the gym. If you take advantage of the increased training capacity and squeeze out those extra reps and sets. you can do three. There are two functions of carnosine in the muscles I have not men- tioned previously because they are considered secondary to its role as a hydrogen- binder and pH-controlling agent. you might find that instead of eight reps with 100 lbs. when it comes to increasing maximum muscle strength and power. you will stimulate a greater adaptive response in your body that will enhance your maximum strength and power. Research has shown that. you can achieve greater improvements in maximum strength and power. For example. including increased maximum strength and power. the faster you will gain strength and power. By improving your resistance to muscular acidosis. The higher the intensity of your lifts and the more total lifting you do (within the limits of what your muscles can recover from of course). First. But these functions are hardly unimportant for those seeking to increase the strength and power of their muscles. an enzyme that removes individual glucose molecules from the long chains of glucose 44 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . Instead of two sets. very soon after beginning to use carnosine-boosting supplementation. and by taking advantage of your increased train- ing capacity. Carnosine-boosting supplementation allows you to increase your training volume by increasing the amount of high-intensity work your muscles can do before they become fatigued. carnosine loading may also enhance maximum strength and power in a more direct way. which will trigger even greater results in muscle mass and strength capacity. carnosine-boosting supplemen- tation increases your training capacity. This in turn enhances all the benefits that come from “super” intense training. What’s more. the two most important training variables are the intensity of lifts and the volume of lifting. in turn. carnosine enhances energy supply to the muscles by activating phosphorylase. you can do 10 reps with 100 lbs. This.

The more powder kegs you can light and explode simultaneously. the more powder kegs you can light at one time. So. the muscle fiber con- tracts. actin. As you recall. the more total weight you can lift. each with a 50-lb weight on top of it. by increasing ATPase activity through carnosine loading. I was too at one time. It is well known that the more ATPase activity there is in a muscle fiber. Continuing the analogy. this represents a muscle contraction. in this particular function. Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 45 9 molecules called glycogen that are stored in muscle cells . Since carnosine . And the more ATPase you can activate. you essentially enhance the abil- ity of the muscle to break down ATP to bring about contraction. It is these individual glucose molecules that are used to replenish ATP through anaerobic glycolysis. the breakdown of ATP releases the energy that allows myosin to bind to the other contractile protein. which gets fuel from the fuel tank through the fuel line to the engine faster. the faster it can shorten (contract). so the engine can produce more power. Carnosine also activates ATPase. Carnosine. When the powder in a keg explodes and a weight shoots into the sky. Phosphorylase is like a fuel line that connects the fuel tank (glycogen) to the engine (myosin). which is the name we give to the contractile pro- tein myosin when we consider its role as the enzyme responsible for breaking down 10 ATP . If you are confused… don’t worry. The powder kegs represent ATP molecules (energy source) and the 50-lb weights rep- resent the contractile proteins. the more powerful it is. Imagine a row of 20 kegs filled with gunpowder. but let me see if I can help clear up this confusion with a simple analogy. ATPase is essentially a flame that lights a powder keg and allows it to explode and shoot a weight into the sky. and the faster it can shorten. When this happens. is like a fuel injector.

from the very first time you try it! Benefit #2: Increased Training Intensity and Workload Capacity The primary job of carnosine in the muscles is to counteract one of the primary causes of muscle fatigue during high-intensity exercise: muscular acidosis. four. causing the muscle to run out of ATP. Quite simply. And you don’t have to wait one. lowering the pH and thereby hastening exhaustion. so as the accumulation of hydrogen ions causes muscle pH to drop. hydrogen ions begin to accumulate in the muscle tissue. During sustained work at high intensities. It makes your muscles stronger and more powerful. there are actually two distinct ways hydrogen ions cause muscle fatigue. The activity of PFK is pH- dependent. faster. an enzyme that plays a key role in allowing glucose to regenerate ATP (the immediate “energy” source for all muscle contractions) through anaerobic glycolysis. you will be able to delay muscular acidosis longer. or using heavier weights while training or more or longer intervals of cardio exercise at a given intensity of training) before reaching exhaustion. reps. 46 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . and force. three. they prevent the contractile proteins actin and myosin from binding. hydrogen ions inhibit the activity of PFK. it enables you to lift more weight. anaerobic glycolysis is a major source of energy for high-intensity muscle contractions. and as we know. the binding of these two proteins is the essence of muscle contraction. If you remember. As you read in the previous chapter. power. In addition. First. you’ll train much more intensely (whether it’s more sets. By increasing the concentration of carnosine in your muscles through supplementation. or eight weeks to “feel” carnosine working. PFK becomes less and less effective. Consequently. Positively charged hydrogen ions are a byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis. you’ll continue to stave off the “inevitable” muscle failure. activates ATPase. two.

Reps. the more carno- sine a muscle fiber contains. Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 47 Consequently. believe it or not. we usually think about the couple of days between our workouts. muscle recovery also occurs between exer- cise sets and. as we’ve come to learn. You know something? In all my research. . And the best news about carnosine-boosting is that it’s able to accelerate the in-between workout recovery as well as the very short-term type of recovery that occurs during your workouts. but more on that later). As you can see. 11 This was demonstrated in a recent study by a group of American researchers . the more hydrogen ions can be neutralized. carnosine helps prevent both of these causes of muscle fatigue by soaking up hydrogen ions like a sponge. More simply. and Workouts When we think about muscle recovery. as a result. Basically. and the longer the muscle can continue contracting and “working” at high intensities. Benefit #3: Faster Recovery Between Sets. Their research showed that after four weeks of supplementation with beta-alanine (you’ll recall that beta-alanine is one of the two primary amino acids comprising carnosine) increased the muscle carnosine concentration of subjects by a whopping 58% and increased their anaerobic work capacity (as measured in a stationary cycling test) by a respectable 16% compared to placebo. carnosine-boosting supplementation dramatically increases muscle carnosine lev- els and. increases the amount of capacity and workload the muscles can do at higher intensities. even between repetitions within a set. I think this is definitely one of the most intriguing discoveries about carnosine (right inline with its influence on the “trainable” Type IIx muscle fibers for rapid growth. these types of results clearly demonstrate that increased carnosine levels and increased anaerobic work capacity go hand-in-hand. But in weightlifting.

opening that window of opportunity for carnosine to work its magic. Even if you perform active instead of pas- sive recoveries (as an example. the more carnosine you have stored in your muscles. Most researchers would agree. Ever wondered why a mere one-second pause between repetitions actually helps— in other words. when you rest between sets or pause briefly between repetitions. increasing your intramuscular carnosine stores will allow you to recover faster and more fully so you can perform at a higher level of intensity in the next interval. See. the faster you will recover between each set and repetition. and at the same time. See. what’s great is carnosine loading can accelerate recovery between hard intervals in your cardio workouts too. The net result is you will derive greater benefits from your interval cardio workouts. and the production of hydrogen ions slows equally. In a similar way. anaerobic gly- colysis in the muscles slows dramatically. why can you do more reps with a given weight when you pause between repetitions than you can when you don’t pause? Well. when you slow down from a hard anaerobic intensity level to an easy aerobic intensity level at the end of an interval. This gives carnosine a chance to play “catch-up. too. it’s a great big window of opportunity for your intramuscular carnosine stores to take full advantage of. the rate of anaerobic glycolysis and hydrogen ion production plummets. even if you merely slow down instead of completing stopping while you’re “resting”) between intervals. this allows you to take on a higher work- load in workouts and enhance the training effect you get from them.” rapidly soaking up hydrogen ions produced in the recently completed set or repetition. biochemical reactions in muscles occur at lightening speed. the more hydrogen ions it can neutralize between sets and reps. so while one second might not seem like much to you. 48 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . the further out you will push the onset of muscular fatigue. As a result.

the lower your muscle carnosine stores are at the beginning of a workout. girth. that it technically means “increased ventricular mass. The critical 24 to 48 hours between training sessions. have very little capacity for growth. through the Influence of Type IIx Fibers Before I start. So. just in case you aren’t familiar with the word hypertrophy. This is because hard workouts reduce muscle carnosine stores. Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 49 On top of all that.” So. you’ll be all “fired up” and ready to give it everything you’ve got—to get the most out of every workout. creating a need for additional carnosine replenishment. The fact is. Think about it: with carnosine. There are various types of fibers in our muscles. Carnosine-boosting supplementation allows you to complete workouts with more available carnosine and replenish your carnosine stores faster between workouts. I should first tell you. And those various muscle fiber types have varying capacities for growth or hypertrophy. you’re able to work out sooner and perform better in the next workout. and volume. “fast- . “slow-twitch” specialists. you won’t be dragging yourself into the gym. in less time than it normally takes you to recover. the next time you work out.” Thus. even if it’s in the next day or two. you are physiologically “adapted. Type IIx. the aerobic. so. For instance. still sore. in other words. Instead. in the sense of skeletal muscle. the faster you will become fatigued in the workout. which is what we’re most concerned with. you’ll never again have to worry about another bad workout! Benefit #4: Permanent/On-Going Muscle Hypertrophy. hypertrophy is the growth of muscle cells—in mass. carnosine-boosting supplementation may also enhance muscle recovery between workouts. going back to our first point. Type I fibers.

is certain there is a very strong correlation between muscle carnosine levels and muscle hypertrophy. 50 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . (I guess that’s why most researchers call Type IIx the “trainable” fibers. they’re the fibers every athlete (especially those. they contain the highest concentrations of carnosine. He stated that training was certainly a contributor. who are serious about training with weights) wish we had lots more of. they tend to grow so much more easily than their counterpart. and an astounding 40% contribution to the buffering capacity of their Type II fibers. healthy subjects . Coincidentally.. Tallon could only speculate as to why the muscle carnosine levels in these body- builders were so high. Tallon and his team took biopsies of the vastus later- alis muscles of six national-level competitive bodybuilders and six age-matched 5 untrained. yet at the same time. What’s interesting is that the highest carnosine levels ever recorded in humans were found in professional bodybuilders. have the greatest capacity for growth. But he could conclude that carnosine. on the other hand. Type IIx fibers are also the greatest hydrogen ion producers. fast-twitch fibers are the muscle fibers that have the potential to make you almost “super-human.. but moderately active. like you and me. Type I). The significance of this finding caused the researchers to estimate that these incredible carnosine levels represented at least a 20% contribution to their overall mus- cle buffering capacity. What Tallon found was that muscle carnosine in the bodybuilders was twice that in controls (the untrained group of men).” They are the muscle fibers athletes need to set world records in track and field events like sprinting and in powerlifting.. In a study published in the November 2005 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. keep in mind. twitch” muscle fibers. You probably won’t be surprised to learn it was Mark Tallon who discovered this. and as a result. and he could not rule out a possible effect of anabolic steroids. played a role in influencing the Type IIx fibers.. Now. once influ- enced. they’re the fibers that have the capacity to grow beyond your wildest imagination. because. somehow.

. 6: CARNOSINE STORAGE IN MUSCLE FIBERS In a recently documented study. Sadly. only a very small percentage of us who take up weight lifting to build muscle mass are born with lots of fast- twitch fibers. found only in H+Blocker. this has a huge impact on mus- cular performance. And unfortunately. The bad news. J Strength Conditioning Sci) alter our ratio of slow. “fast-twitch” muscle fibers have a much greater potential for muscle growth than Type I fibers or “slow- twitch” fibers. Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 51 The good new is. though.. here’s some incredible news. (Tallon. In other words. fullness. what it can do is “enhance” your genetics. anyway. workload capacity. resistance to high-intensity fast- twitch fibers. and muscular nothing you and I can do to growth. But. greater carnosine stores in muscle fibers were shown to be much higher in Type IIx fibers due to their matter. So. is most of us have just as many slow-twitch fibers as fast-twitch muscle fibers. by supplying our bodies with the nutrients to synthesize carnosine. . and growth! Because of this revolutionary breakthrough. Enough of them to D Fig. as I just shared. in essence. et al. in my humble opinion. we can preferen- tially direct the intracellular actions toward the muscles that have the greatest capac- ity for greater contractions. they begin to appear to all “act like” fast-twitch. what we can do is “blast” the heck out of the existing fast-twitch fibers we do have. As a result. M. there is preferential distribution. Type II fibers. Here’s how… With the patent-pending carnosine synthesizer. H+Blocker will quickly become the standard by which all physique development supplements are held.J. While boosting carnosine stores cannot “alter” your genetics.

it is theorized that nutrients traveling through the blood will be more efficiently delivered to their destination. Most of the nitric oxide- boosting supplements on the market are L-arginine-based. (Though many weight trainers still swear by the stuff. Benefit #5: Improved Peak Muscular Contractions and Enhanced Muscle Fullness In recent years. 52 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . In the body. yet none have been proven conclusively effective in increasing nitric oxide activity. It does this by signaling the endothelial cells on the inner lining of the blood vessels to relax. may be why people claim the intake of other nutrients or supplements they take in combination with nitric oxide stimulators are improved. especially when blood flow is further enhanced by exercise. Because the blood flow increases.) Bodybuilders and many other fitness enthusiasts seek out this effect because they like the way it makes their muscles appear larger. causing the blood vessels to dilate. various nitric oxide precursor supplements have become popular due to the fact that nitric oxide is known to increase blood flow and nutrient delivery to the muscles and other tissues. A study performed at the Imperial College School of Medicine in London compared the effects of carnosine and L-arginine on nitric oxide production and found that carnosine 12 was in fact more effective . nitric oxide is derived from the amino acid L-arginine with the help of an enzyme group known as nitric oxide synthase (NOS).” Another important but overlooked benefit of increased nitric oxide is nutrient deliv- ery. What most bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts don’t realize is that carnosine appears to be a more effective supplement for nitric oxide production than L-arginine. in turn. Affectionately called “the pump. This.

muscle-building capacity and muscular performance decline as well.) So. The study authors esti- mated that this would result in a seven-percent deterioration of total muscular perform- ance. it’s pretty clear to me that if you are currently spending your hard-earned money on an arginine-based. Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 53 The study revealed that carnosine produced a 62% Fig. muscle samples were taken from the mid portion of the vastus lat- eralis (thigh) muscle of younger subjects (with an average age of 23 years) by needle biopsy and from older subjects (with an average age of 70 years). In Tallon’s study. not arginine. (See the chart to the left. and as a direct result. we now know that muscle carnosine stores tend to decline with age. Tallon and his colleagues observed a marked. noticeable decline in muscle carnosine in the older subjects’ Type II fibers. This was shown in another recent carnosine study led by Mark Tallon. the older subjects had 47% less carnosine in these fibers than the younger subjects. due to the loss of buffering capacity. Benefit #6: Reverses Age-Related Muscle Decline and “Shrinkage” The fact is. Interestingly. So. On average. nitric oxide stimulator and if you’re interested in increasing your muscular “pumps”—not to mention the benefit of increased nutrient delivery to the muscles that also comes with enhanced nitric oxide activity—your sup- plement of choice should probably be the premium carnosine booster. Muscle fibers were characterized as Type I and Type II and the carnosine content of each was measured. somewhere between the ages of 23 and . 7 F greater increase in nitric oxide production over the use of arginine.

Glycation alters protein structure and decreases biological activity. those highly reactive chemical invaders that dam- age cell membranes and other cell constituents. nonfunctioning struc- tures. Glycated proteins. along with your muscle performance and workload capacity. naturally starts to decline. and neurological impairment are at least partially attributable to glyca- tion. In fact. The accumulation of free radical damage to cells over the course of the lifespan is one of the major factors contributing to the functional decline of organs and tissues that characterizes aging. may also help dispose of glycated proteins. as some research suggests. your muscle carnosine stores. as we have already explored. What’s more. In at least two ways. 70. Glycation (pronounced gli-kay-shun) can be described as the binding of a protein mole- cule to a glucose molecule resulting in the formation of damaged. First. it neutralizes free radicals. and kills them off. in that with proper supplementation. reverse the aging process throughout your entire body. Carnosine is able to prevent glycation and. 54 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough .. Carnosine appears to prolong cell life.. we can elevate your muscle carnosine stores to a higher level than they have ever reached in your entire lifetime. including DNA. Essentially. the sugar roams around in the blood and finds “good” cells. cataracts. to some extent. encapsu- lates them. it can go even further. which accumulate in affected tissue. Research has found that carno- sine levels are especially high in the most long-lived cells. What you may not know is that many age-related diseases such as arterial stiffen- ing. carnosine-boosting supplementation can slow and. Carnosine also protects cells against a similar aging-related process called glycation. You can see the importance of carnosine loading. which can literally “turn back the hands of time” by replacing any carnosine you may have lost due to aging. are reliable markers of disease.

fiber type distribution. Of particular interest to you and me. we’ll not only help our muscles stay young. Studies have revealed a strong correlation between muscle carnosine levels and high-intensity cardio performance. The subjects then did 30-second sprints on a stationary bike. Japan . and high- intensity exercise performance in 11 healthy men. One of these studies was done recently at the 7 University of Tsukuba. and their power output was measured. but we’ll keep our muscles from “shrink- ing” and atrophying while we’re not working out. . carnosine loading is just as effective for enhancing perform- ance in high-intensity cardio workouts. such as from H+Blocker. and the carnosine concentration was determined. The purpose of the study was to examine the relation- ships among skeletal muscle carnosine concentration. Benefit #7: Greater Performance and Fat-Burning Capacity in High-Intensity Cardio Intervals What most people don’t seem surprised to find out is that fatigue-causing hydrogen ions are produced at high rates not only during weightlifting but also during intense car- diovascular activity. Like riding a stationary bike. or sprinting on a track. running on a treadmill. as it is for increasing weightlifting performance and muscle size and strength. and the results you get from them. The fiber-type distribution was also determined. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. carnosine loading will enhance the fat-burning and cardiovascular fitness-building effects we seek from high-intensity cardio training. Because of this. Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 55 What this means for you and me is that by supplying our bodies with adequate amounts of the materials able to synthesize into carnosine.

which. heart-strengthening fitness. So. when you could instead burn two. They also found that the men with the highest carno- sine levels produced the most power per kilogram of bodyweight.” This particular study looked at the effects of natural differences in carnosine concen- tration among individuals. not two. three. Even more com- pelling.. H+Blocker. remember. but seven convincing reasons to experience the powerful benefits of the world’s first carnosine-boosting supplement. high-intensity exercise performance. 56 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . they observed the strongest correlations between carnosine concentration and mean power per unit body mass during the final two phases—just when you’d expect hydro- gen ions to be taking their toll—diminishing muscle performance.. when the researchers divided the 30-second sprints into five 6-second phases. born with more Type II muscle fibers).. anything—I mean literally anything—you can do to enhance your performance in workouts will enhance the results you get from them. Just imagine if you could stop wasting valuable hours upon hours on cardio exercises. are greater fat-burning and cardio- vascular. or even four times more calories and bodyfat by using the carnosine-supplement H+Blocker beforehand. The researchers found that the men with the greatest number of Type IIx fibers also had the highest carnosine levels.e. in the case of high-intensity cardio training. Seven “Over-the-Moon” Reasons There you have it… you now have not one. The study’s authors con- cluded. “These results indicated that the carnosine concentration could be an impor- tant factor in determining. while you might not be interested in becoming the world champion of 30-second stationary bike sprints. But it’s clear that the effect of increasing your muscle carno- sine concentration through supplementation will be much the same as that of having been born with naturally higher levels of carnosine (i.

So let’s keep moving… . Chapter 3 | The Benefits of Carnosine Loading 57 The next questions are obvious: Is H+Blocker the best carnosine-boosting supple- ment to take? How much do I take? How often? What else can I take it with? How should I eat and train while using it? How do I get the most out of it? Well. I will gladly answer these and other related questions in the next chapter.


but I believe people should get all of their necessary nutrients from natural foods as often as possible. and fitness enthusiasts in general have special goals that create special nutritional needs. strength. if not mandatory. In other words. you need greater than normal amounts of certain key nutrients—amounts that are difficult. supplementation with them increases the muscle carnosine concentration well beyond the level achievable by eating foods that nat- urally contain carnosine. these two nonessential and essential amino acids are natural biological precursors to “carnosine biosynthesis” (once consumed). however. beta-alanine and L-histidine. and anaerobic muscle performance. Among the key nutrients individuals with such goals need more of are the natural carnosine precursors. and performance more than a non-supplemented diet can. Making supplementation necessary. nutritionally speaking. To achieve goals such as increasing muscle mass. Nutritional supplements should be used only when it is impossible or highly impractical to get needed nutrients from natural foods. strength. if not impossible. what you need. the increased carnosine stores greatly improve the potential for muscle size. to get from natural foods. Chapter 4 | Carnosine Loading 101 59 .Chapter 4: Carnosine Loading 101 Y ou might find it odd for the president of a nutritional supplement company to say this. That’s just the honest truth. carnosine-boosting supplementation is necessary. that the definition of “necessary” is goal-dependent. bodybuilders. In this sense. Because when combined. depends to a large degree on what your goals are. Therefore. As a result. Understand. Athletes.

“carnosine cannot be taken up into the muscle intact. where they are resynthesized to carnosine by carnosine synthetase.” Rendering it literally useless.2-gram dose of a specially bonded form of beta-alanine and L-histidine with aspartic acid. as Tallon once explained to me. Moreover. are some years away from the knowledge we have on creatine transports. we do know food does not contain enough carnosine to achieve a significant carnosine-loading effect in the muscles. which is highly active in blood. according to Tallon’s latest studies. Don’t Take It—Make It Something to consider is that when we eat a food containing carnosine. for those with goals like those I just mentioned. But it is believed carnosine may travel through muscle plasma using similar transporters as creatine. But you would have to eat four or five pounds of turkey a day to get as much carnosine as you can effectively get from one dose of H+Blocker (which contains the clinically effective 3. and much of the carnosine we get from foods never winds up being reconstituted as muscle carnosine anyway. 60 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . rather than whole carnosine). For example. These amino acids are then taken up into the muscles. And. turkey is a good natural source of carnosine. it gets hydrolyzed (broken down) to beta-alanine and L-histidine by the enzyme carnosinase. if you would like to achieve them anyway!) Yes. supplementation can. play a specific role far and above the normal amounts we might obtain from the foods we eat. We know little about the carnosine transport system at present and apparently. and does. when taken in the appropriate amounts. and pretty much all of the carnosine consumed in food is essentially lost during digestion. (That is.

and as I mentioned earlier. it is more economical and much more beneficial to consume a sup- plement containing the individual amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. These leftover hot dogs are available to be eaten. How well do they turn into carnosine. are typ- ically sold in packages of only eight. histidine is still very much war- ranted to synthesize carnosine in the body. there will still be four hot dogs left over. beta-alanine corresponds to the buns and L-histidine corresponds to the frankfurters. That’s the key. contrary to conventional wisdom. upon fur- ther inspection. Hot dogs are typically sold in packages of a dozen. However. because histidine is fairly present in blood plasma already. more of a limiting factor in relation to carnosine synthesis. as efficiently as possible. Unless you are a vegetarian. what prevents more carno- sine from being made is the fact that there is not enough beta-alanine. in fact. if you buy one package of hot dogs and one package of hot dog buns and take them home to feed your family (this is not recom- mended. when it comes to carnosine synthesis in your body. iden- . After all eight of the buns have been eaten. the limiting factor will be the buns. however. but they typically won’t be eaten because there are no buns to “complete” them. if histidine isn’t readily available. let’s look at this analogy. some research has theorized beta-alanine would do the job entirely on its own. even a pure carnosine supplement is not the best tool for carnosine loading. you see. For that reason. then. However. is the ability of these two nutrients to synthesize into carnosine. under nor- mal circumstances. work by a couple of researchers in Japan. To better understand this. So. whole carnosine is far too expensive to produce. Well. and therefore to use. The problem is lack of efficiency. then again carnosine won’t be made. once consumed? Well. lead by Aonuma. The problem. But. there is probably enough L-histidine available in your body to make more carnosine. Hot dog buns. And besides that. it is broken down into beta-alanine and L-histidine before it even leaves the digestive tract. on the other hand. Chapter 4 | Carnosine Loading 101 61 So. by the way!). Interestingly. I’ve been able to discover that even though beta-alanine is.

Using the latest research. Of special interest. Thus. if you’ve been around the supplement industry for any length of time. it has become worthy of the U. “me-too” products and “knock offs” show up pretty quickly after a new supplement gets really popular. government patent we’ve applied for.) But make no mistake: There is only one form of beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine. Beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine is absolutely. hoping to peddle their products to unsuspecting ath- letes and bodybuilders who don’t know any different. or what it does. Train Harder—Make It Work Better It’s important to understand that the very first thing you need to do if you want to increase your muscle carnosine stores is create an increased demand for carnosine in 62 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough .S. my company collaborated with Tallon in his laboratory (and a private manu- facturing facility) to create a specially bonded form of beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine. knowing our “one-of-a-kind” carnosine-boosting compound is so powerful and novel. And it’s found only in H+Blocker. they rush their cheap. and you won’t find it in any supplements other than H+Blocker. tified an amino acid known as aspartic acid (aspartate) as the likely candidate to drasti- 13 cally improve the rate of synthesize of beta-alanine and histidine in the body. (As you know. paid for by companies like mine. we can better enhance muscle carnosine stores by focus- ing on higher aspartate content and an L-histidine dose already shown to support carnosine synthesis. Because we created it and own the patent on it. By bond- ing these two separate amino acids (L-histidine and aspartate) and further manipulating them into aspartyl-L-histidine. positively the most superior carnosine synthe- sizer known to the world of sports supplementation. how it’s made. infe- rior “copy-cat” versions to market. Mainly so no one can replicate it.

you will trigger an adaptive response in which the genes responsible for governing carnosine synthesis will be “up-regulated. muscle carnosine levels rise significantly. In one such study. That means performing cardio intensely and working out with relatively heavy weights to near “failure. 8: Shown in a recent study. four weeks of beta- alanine supplementation resulted in a mean 15 increase of 64% in muscle carnosine .” Every workout. results in a significant carnosine load- ing effect. as long as the raw materials are available. . immediately following supplementation. mean carnosine levels had increased by 58%. Chapter 4 | Carnosine Loading 101 63 your muscles by regularly doing exercise that is intense enough to cause muscular acido- sis. and it’s certainly not to take a pure carnosine supplement. and several studies since then have shown that carnosine-boosting sup- plementation. More recently. So the proper recipe for maximizing mus- cle carnosine is not necessarily to eat carno- sine-rich foods. combined with intense training. By week four. the same researchers examined the effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine levels in untrained sub- 16 jects . Twenty male subjects took either beta- alanine or a sugar placebo for the first week. The potential for synthesizing carnosine was first described in cell-culture studies 14 back in 1994 .” This means your muscle cells will be able to synthesize more carnosine. It is instead to create a demand for more muscle carnosine by D Fig. By overwhelming the capacity of your current carnosine stores to buffer the hydro- gen ions produced in workouts.

or even 10 years. beta-alanyl-l- aspartyl-l-histidine) to satisfy this demand. working out intensely and then providing your muscles with plenty of the raw ingredi- ents (our bonded form of beta-alanine. beyond the level beta-alanine achieves on its own. In other words. the ultimate carnosine-boosting supplement should contain both of carnosine’s constituent amino acids. make it! The Ultimate Carnosine Booster When I first sat down with Mark Tallon to discuss the possibility of collaborating to develop a carnosine-boosting supplement. because it would be so unique and thus patent-worthy. in my opinion. and aspartic acid. later. and fit- ness-minded people. if not the only. The reason is most likely that the addition of L-histidine helps activate the metabolic pathways used for carnosine synthesis. So I asked Tallon to put the full extent of his carno- sine knowledge into creating a formula no one else could match—or copy. making him. The first key point he brought to my attention was the fact that. persons in the world to do so.) Tallon came through in a BIG way. I wanted to produce the best possible carnosine-boosting supple- ment for athletes. when taken supplementally with beta-alanine. (I think this is where the hot dog analogy breaks down!) Therefore. the rule is this: don’t take it. Being the first would mean nothing to me if someone else came up with a better for- mula one year. the top authority on the subject of carnosine. bodybuilders. it does increase carnosine synthesis. beta-alanine and L-histidine. 64 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . I made it clear to him that my goal was not to produce the first carnosine-boosting supplement for athletes. in carnosine metabolism and is probably one of the only. Tallon received his Ph. (Keep in mind. and fitness-minded people everywhere. L-histidine. bodybuilders. when it comes to carnosine loading.D. while L-histidine is not entirely a limiting factor in carnosine synthesis.

And make no mis- take: H+Blocker is the only carnosine-boosting supplement that contains this specially bonded form of beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine. Therefore. And in a recent scientific paper. But it provides clear evidence that even a small amount of caffeine works to enhance carnosine’s effects even further. beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine is. causing a decline in the ability of your muscles to contract and produce force. Tallon explained to me. I know. like I said earlier. and in prolonged endurance exer- . for a muscle cell to contract. it’s awaiting final patent approval. And. like carno- sine itself. Evidence suggests this compound is the natural biological precursor for carnosine and. the release of calcium ions may be inhibited. Think of a receptor as a trans- port system. Carnosine has been shown to stimulate RR-mediated calcium release from the muscle. This decision was based on evidence that caffeine. as we talked about earlier. What’s more. aspartic acid is an amino acid that binds with beta-alanine and L-histidine to form beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine. We also chose to include a small amount of caffeine in the nutrient matrix of active ingredients in H+Blocker. in my and Tallon’s opinion. stimulates the release of calcium ions in intensely trained muscles. The receptor I’m referring to is called a Ryanodine Receptor (RR). One way of doing this is through a receptor. During intense exercise. the absolute most powerful carnosine-boosting supplement you can take. See. Chapter 4 | Carnosine Loading 101 65 Even more important. it was found that these effects of carnosine can be further enhanced with the 17 addition of caffeine . This study demonstrated that the combination of these two com- pounds significantly enhanced the ability of human muscle fibers to prolong the gener- ation of force via increased efficiency in the release of calcium by the RR system. previous research has shown that caffeine enhances performance in sprints. is the con- tribution of aspartic acid. Technical. Also known as aspartate. calcium ions must be able to pass outside the cell membrane. 13 as such. in all-out efforts lasting four to five minutes. it’s metabolized in a similar way as carnosine .

Cyclist participating in this study received a six-percent glucose solution. or plain water during a two-hour indoor cycling test. A study from the University of Birmingham in England recently found that caffeine enhances exogenous carbohydrate 19 oxidation (i. the rate carbs consumed in a supplement are burned) during exercise . providing fuel to the working muscles more quickly. it delays fatigue by reducing the athlete’s perception of effort. have been linked to central nervous system fatigue dur- ing exercise. Decreases in dopamine. The likely effect on performance is the ability to work harder for a longer period of time 66 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . reduce perception of pain. As a result. The endorphins affect mood state. Adenosine is produced during exercise and inhibits the release of the brain neurotransmitter dopamine. It may help to understand that carbohydrate oxidation is the breakdown of glucose derived from dietary carbohydrate to produce energy.. they found the rate of exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was 26% higher in the cyclists receiving carbs with caffeine than in those receiving carbs without caffeine. another brain neurotransmitter. a six-percent glucose solution plus caffeine. and create a sense of well-being. carbohydrates. It increases the concentration of hormone-like substances in the brain called beta- endorphins during exercise. 18 cise .e. It appears caffeine enhances performance in shorter events by increasing muscle recruitment. Researchers used indirect calorimetry to measure the amounts and proportions of fat and carbohydrate oxidized during the test. in the form of a specific ratio of simple sugars—glucose. As an adjunct to caffeine. In longer events. fructose. Caffeine has also been found to delay fatigue during exercise by blocking adenosine receptors. The study’s authors concluded that caffeine may have increased the rate of glucose absorption in the intestine. along with increases in serotonin. and sucrose—increase the effectiveness of our carnosine- boosting supplement by improving carbohydrate oxidation and delivery of nutrients.

it seems by coin- cidence that beta-alanine. these two nutrients help “piggy-back” beta-alanine and force it into muscle for faster carnosine storage. . a precise blend of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) were added to H+Blocker in a specific ratio of 2:1. See. The final ingredients in H+Blocker’s active ingredient matrix are citrulline malate. It is an intermediate in the Urea Cycle. H+Blocker contains a precise 12. cittruline malate quickly replenishes the muscle’s 22 energy-producing capacity . The Urea Cycle is a complex system in the liver of carrier molecules and enzymes that convert nitrogenous wastes into urea and eliminates them from the body. the produc- tion and removal of urea is essential for the elimination of ammonia and toxic nitrogen metabolites. Do you want “in” on a little-known secret? Citrulline malate has been shown in a recent study to increase plasma arginine levels higher than 20 taking the amino acid arginine itself . eventually causing fatigue. Basically. In essence.” By eliminat- ing all of the muscle “pollutants” and toxic byproducts. possesses the ability to pass into the muscle 23 using the commonplace metabolites sodium and chloride . to expe- dite the absorption and further speed the rates of carnosine storage. similar to creatine. Last. Think of citrulline malate as an immediate source of “muscle energy. Chapter 4 | Carnosine Loading 101 67 without becoming fatigued. This is to aid in the rapid transport of the nutrients through the gut (so you don’t experience any stomach discomfort) and into the muscle plasma.5 grams of simple carbohy- drates per serving to achieve this muscle performance-enhancing effect. a critical precursor to nitric oxide production. which 21 also leads to muscle fatigue . What’s exciting about the use of citrulline malate is that many of its functions stem primarily from its ability to increase plasma levels of arginine in the body. which build up from exercising intensely. such as what you would find in many of the popular nitric-oxide booster supplements on the market today! Here’s something else you’ll want to know about citrulline malate and why we added it to the H+Blocker formula. which are built up in our muscle plasma during intense exercise.

finding the optimal dosage for any ergogenic supplement is a tricky process.) Research by Dunnett demonstrated that horses given 100 mg/kg of bodyweight of beta-alanine for 30 days with L-histidine at 12. the process of find- ing the optimal dosage actually began in horses. For safety reasons. To find the dosage “sweet spot” for a new supplement. Taking too big a dose may cause a down-regulation of transporters (so it takes bigger and bigger doses to get the same effect) or present unwanted side effects. On the other hand. and coupled with our own pilot studies con- 68 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . it’s inadvisable to consume more than the necessary amount of any nutrient. Harris. this is a fairly common approach. you don’t want to shortchange yourself by tak- ing too little and thereby get only a fraction of the benefits that particular supplement offers. (Even though you may not agree with this practice. a significant muscle carnosine load- 11 ing effect was achieved . and Tallon. The goal is always to find the smallest dosage sufficient to achieve the most desirable results. On the one hand.5 mg/kg experienced an 18% increase in 15 the muscle carnosine levels of Type IIb fibers . along with the close evaluation of other research reports pre- sented by Stout. In the case of carnosine. many researchers begin such a process in animals other than humans when they are unsure what the effects of overdosing may be. you have to run experiments to compare the effects of different dosages.2 grams per day) for five weeks. While a horse is not a human. research presented at the American College of Sports Medicine on beta- alanine supplementation in humans demonstrated that by consuming 800 mg four times a day (or 3. The Question of Dosage Make no mistake. In 2005. Based on this study. this research was important because it showed that muscle carnosine concentrations could be greatly increased in an athletic mammal through supplementation without ill effects.

Chapter 4 | Carnosine Loading 101 69

ducted, we fixed 3.2 grams per day as the clinically based recommended dosage for
H+Blocker. (And because of this evidence, we made sure every serving of H+Blocker
contains exactly 3.2 grams of the exclusive, specially bonded beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-his-
tidine, along with the other ingredients we just covered.)

At this level, the muscles exhibit significant carnosine loading, which begins to take
affect from the very first dose. And as training intensifies, muscular strength dramati-
cally improves, and peak muscular contractions become more and more intense. As the
research shows, in approximately three to four weeks, carnosine stores begin to impart
their full benefits, and surprisingly, even greater levels of carnosine have been found
after up to 10 weeks of use.

What’s more, the rate of continued loading between four and 10 weeks suggests that
muscle carnosine levels may continue to increase much longer. In fact, as far as we know
right now, as long as you take H+Blocker, you can continue to expect to experience
results. Now that, my friend, is worth the investment alone. Simply because, to my
knowledge, there is no other supplement that can make that claim. Most muscle-building
supplements essentially stop working after about three, four, or five weeks.

Unlike other supplements, like creatine for example, you do not need to divide
H+Blocker supplementation into separate “loading” and “maintenance” phases. The 3.2
grams per day dosage is adequate for both initial and ongoing carnosine loading.
However, if you weigh more than 200 lbs, I would strongly consider taking two serv-
ings (two scoops) of H+Blocker per day. Taking two servings at the same time before a
workout will maximize workout performance. Or, dividing the dosage into two single
servings (for example, taking one serving in the morning and a second in the afternoon)
may result in more complete absorption and usability.

To maximize carnosine loading, you need to take H+Blocker daily. The best time to
take H+Blocker is approximately 20 to 30 minutes before working out. Any type of
workout, really. Whether it’s weight training, cardio exercise… running track, or play-

ing basketball. Simply mix a serving (one heaping scoop) of H+Blocker with six to eight
ounces of water, and drink it down 20 or so minutes before you are ready to work out.

(I’ll say the taste, while not flattering, is kind of like Fruit Punch Kool-Aid® with a
bit of a “bite” at the end. The reason for the sharp aftertaste is the potent ingredients are
very difficult to cover up—they are extremely bitter. So, in an effort to make the flavor
much more enjoyable, we worked closely with a flavor technologist to help us produce
the best Fruit Punch flavor we possibly could, but I have to forewarn you, the taste is
not going to knock your socks off. But, hey, it’s the results we’re after, right?)

You will find that just after you consume H+Blocker, it immediately begins to stimu-
late increased blood flow. Numerous people have agreed with me—it feels almost like
there is electricity flowing through your veins, which will enhance nutrient and oxygen
supply to your muscles. Putting your muscles on “standby,” ready to enhance your
workout performance and muscular strength.

On days you’re not planning to work out with weights or do any form of cardio
exercise, it’s best to take H+Blocker with a meal or a meal-replacement shake. Taking it
with food aids absorption. In my opinion, because H+Blocker contains a small amount
of caffeine, breakfast is the ideal meal to supplement with it. It really gets your energy
levels cranked up and keeps you going all day strong.

Cycling Carnosine-Boosting
So far, the good news is, there is no evidence that muscle carnosine stores reach a
saturation point with continued supplementation. This is unlike muscle creatine stores
are known to do, after approximately 10 weeks of creatine supplementation. Though

70 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough

Chapter 4 | Carnosine Loading 101 71

there must be some upper limit to the muscle carnosine concentration that can be
achieved. But the fact is, as with other ergogenic supplements, it’s probably not a bad
idea for users of H+Blocker to follow an eight- to 12-week “on” period followed by a
one- to two-week “off” period. This is not because long-term supplementation is
unhealthy. Rather, in my opinion, and that of many leading sports supplementation
researchers I’ve talked to, “cycling” this way may enhance the long-term effectiveness
of the supplement by minimizing any possible “tolerance” effect. And, it’s also not a
bad idea to cleanse your body out every once in a while from all supplementation,
regardless of what you are taking.

Moreover, following this approach will likely help your body “respond” better and
faster as soon as you resume using the supplement again, and you will continue to expe-
rience progressive, incremental results. See, unlike most creatines and pro-hormones,
where the muscular gains aren’t necessarily permanent and quickly diminish after you
stop using them, carnosine doesn’t cause your hard-earned muscle to “shrink” during
the time you take a break from using it. So, essentially you get the benefit of picking up
right where you left off. Now, how cool is that?!

In Summary—Know This!
H+Blocker is not only the world’s first carnosine synthesizer supplement but it’s the
only carnosine-boosting supplement on the market that will ever contain the patent-
pending, specially bonded form of beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine, and whose every
ingredient has been verified clinically effective in its suggested role and provides the
correct dosages shown by science to produce the desired benefits.

Sure, there might be other ways to increase muscle carnosine levels—like eating an
entire five-pound turkey every day. Training harder, eating more meat, or taking a
cheaper, inferior, alternative form of supplementation that may or may not have some

let’s get into the specific diet and training plan designed to complement your supplementation with H+Blocker. But H+Blocker. is the only way to truly maximize muscle carnosine and experience the unparalleled. ground- breaking benefits that come with it! And now. 72 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . combined with intense training. effect on your carnosine levels.

Strength. the combination of H+Blocker and training allows you to immediately increase your training workload (such as lifting heavier weights or doing more sets and so forth).Chapter 5: The H+Blocker Diet and Training Plan I t probably goes without saying that to get the best results from H+Blocker. as does your muscular strength. This is the type of weightlifting with heavy loads. which H+Blocker continues to satisfy. earlier on. By increasing your muscle carnosine concentration. The most obvious one is high-intensity strength training. But it doesn’t stop there. If you remember. But let me be clear about something: these fibers Chapter 5 | The H+Blocker Diet and Training Guide 73 . your power output goes up. at an above-moderate to super high intensity. you need to combine its use with a consistent. As a result. effective workout schedule and a healthy diet. You’ll recall that Type IIx muscle fibers are the muscle fibers that have the greatest potential to gain size and strength. which then allows your muscles to continue to get bigger and stronger. which creates a demand for even more muscle carnosine. at a faster rate. we talked about how intense training creates a demand for more carnosine in the muscles that H+Blocker then satisfies. and Training There are two types of workouts that complement H+Blocker supplementation. Size.

combined with the power of H+Blocker (taken before each weight-training session) will develop Type IIx fibers effectively… in addition to developing the Type IIa fibers that are recruited at somewhat lower intensities. high-intensity cardio intervals activate some Type II muscle fibers. And the best part is. boring cardio into super-intense. these gains are ongoing and permanent. Nevertheless. fat-incinerating cardio. So. high-intensity cardio intervals make H+Blocker supplementation even more effective. Combining carnosine- boosting supplementation with high-intensity strength training is the “ideal” recipe for increasing muscle size and strength. thereby burning many more calories. and H+Blocker supplementation makes your cardio training more effective by allowing you to perform at a higher level intensity. 74 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . Consequently. As previously discussed. As a result. stimulate rapid production of hydrogen ions. these mus- cle fibers benefit most from carnosine-boosting supplementation. Type IIx muscle fibers are the biggest producers of hydro- gen ions and contain the highest concentrations of carnosine. you’re able to stimulate more fat oxida- tion (burning) and turn regular. Doing your cardio workouts at high intensity levels allows you to get greater fat-burning and cardio-fitness-building benefits in less time than you get from low-intensity cardio workouts. only become active when muscle contractions approach maximum intensity. Therefore. and create a serious demand for carnosine. Super Fat-Burning Cardio The second type of workout that complements H+Blocker supplementation is high- intensity cardio training. in essence. The muscle contractions involved in high-intensity cardio workouts are less intense than those involved in strength training. only workouts involving maximum and near-maximum muscle contractions. by taking H+Blocker 20 or so minutes before any type of cardio exercise.

don’t fix it. was carefully designed to maximize the effectiveness of H+Blocker supplementation and help the participants experience its full gamut of benefits. if it ain’t broke. they were able to follow the prescribed diet guidelines (which is pretty darn good.000). before H+Blocker was brought to market. our 3. we conducted a small pilot study in which some of our company’s most loyal customers were asked to test the product in their own environment. which showed us not only that H+Blocker is truly the breakthrough supplement we had expected but also that the diet and training plan we designed to complement its use was “right on the money.000 calories a day (200 x 15 = 3. our participants confirmed that at least 82% of the time. although not customized to each participant. The first rule is to consume approximately 15 times your bodyweight in calories each day. but to make the results more valu- able. As a result. we did ask all of the participants to follow a specific diet and training plan (called a protocol.000 calories would be divided into six meals. Their diet. I would like to share the very same diet and training plan with you. the participants got amazing results. For example. which is similar to what is done in any type of legitimate study). using this same example. So. if you ask me). Chapter 5 | The H+Blocker Diet and Training Guide 75 As I mentioned in the Introduction to this book. With that in mind. a 200-lb man would multiply his weight by 15 and therefore try to consume 3. which consist of approximately 500 calories each. This was not a sci- entific study. According to our pilot study trial feedback forms. Then simply break down the daily caloric intake into six balanced meals.” As the old saying goes. Mass Construction Diet The H+Blocker diet couldn’t be simpler. You . controlled within a laboratory setting.

and 300 calories in fat (33 grams of fat). each meal would consist of roughly 69 grams of carbohydrates. and fats in most of the food you plan to eat.650 calories in carbohydrates (412 grams of carbohydrate). From there. As an example. consuming 3. rest assured. But.. Easy enough to figure out. carbohydrates. you eat six meals each day. 1. faster than you ever have. want to space out your meals evenly throughout the day.050 calo- ries in protein (262 grams of protein). would consume approximately 1. 35% from protein. and once a meal has been added to your “favorites. then you should pay close attention. and fats from sources you normally eat. so you’re eating about every two to three hours (however your schedule permits). you will find that eating by these rules requires a fair amount of reading labels and counting calories and grams of proteins. the same 200-lb man. and 10% from fat. isn’t it?! Next. using the 55/35/10 pro- tein/carbohydrate/fat profile for each meal.000 calories. Like good quality lean red meats. and fresh salmon and tuna 76 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . but let me assure you.. if your goal is to increase your strength (and blow away all of your pre- vious “maximum” lifts) and grow new lean body mass.” you don’t have to count it out ever again. Consume proteins. carbohydrates. At first. for example. This type of ratio of protein-to-carb-to-fat may seem a little unconventional. chicken. and six grams of fat. we suggest that 55% of your daily calories come from carbohydrates. The easiest thing about the H+Blocker diet is you don’t have to fuss about macronutrient sources. 44 grams of protein. you will quickly build a repertoire of meals that meet the H+Blocker diet requirements. let’s say. For our same example 200-lb man.

it’s really not all that hard. oatmeal. . but certainly no later than lunchtime. Wholesome foods. especially if you are a meat eater because it’s naturally found in these foods. mixed into 12 to 14 oz of water and drink it 20 to 30 minutes before your workout. So. like flax oil. Chapter 5 | The H+Blocker Diet and Training Guide 77 for protein. Like I said. and drink it approximately 20 to 30 min- utes before your workout (either weight training or a cardio workout). I’ve found that most people tend to overcomplicate their diet. But always have at least one serving right before you workout! On non-training days (for example. there you have it. and nuts like almonds and pecans. seeds. To make a serving of H+Blocker. simply mix one heaping scoop (a single serving) of the supplement into eight ounces of water. Stir it up until it is dissolved completely (it should mix almost effortlessly). you can add in “good” fats to your diet. Pretty simple. like the ones I’ve mentioned. There is really no need to consume any special forms of these nutrients. and the other serving later in the day. take H+Blocker with your first meal of the day. usu- ally breakfast. and if you follow the guidelines I’ve outlined for you. However. days when you are not planning to train with weights or doing cardio exercise). work just great. if you are over 200 lbs in bodyweight or would like to magnify your workout intensity even further. brown rice. this is the exact diet protocol our ini- tial pilot study participants used and with great success. for the most part. I suggest you consume two scoops of the H+Blocker supplement. and. Or you can also “split” the two servings of H+Blocker and consume one in the morning. yams. Now. The next important part of the nutritional plan is to supplement your diet daily with H+Blocker. and whole-wheat pasta for carbohydrates. fat will take care of itself. with your first meal.

e. Hypertrophy-Specific Training The H+Blocker training plan is fairly straightforward too and calls for six workouts per week on a “three-day split. will produce the kind of size and strength gains you will be very satisfied with… and will help “fast-track” your results to a bigger. Chapter 6. more muscular-looking body. with four weekly weightlifting sessions and two cardio sessions. where I’ll discuss. harder. exactly what you can expect from using H+Blocker—from the very first dose to the first few weeks and over the course of time. Here is your weekly workout schedule: Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun Strength Strength Cardio Strength Strength Cardio Chest Biceps 35 minutes Chest Biceps 35 minutes Back Triceps ~ and ~ Back Triceps ~ and ~ Off Shoulders Legs Strength Shoulders Legs Strength Abs Abs Now here’s the plan. in combination with H+Blocker supplementation and the H+Blocker diet.) 78 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . then I would suggest you turn to page 87.” The workouts should take no longer than 45 to 50 min- utes to complete. in more detail. and individual workouts. if you’d like to go there now. in specific detail. The emphasis is specifically on hypertrophy (i.. muscular develop- ment) and explosive strength. Again. (If you would rather skip over the following workout section. This plan. and come back to it later when you are ready to put it to use in the gym. that’s page 87.

followed by the number of seconds to raise or push the weight. * 1 set x 12 reps or until failure / 2-0-2 tempo Shoulder Training G Overhead Dumbbell Presses 1 set x 12 reps 3 sets x 5 or 6 reps / 3-1-2 tempo .) G Incline Dumbbell Presses 3 sets x 6 reps (increase weight each set) / 3-0-2 tempo G Decline Dumbbell Flyes (or Swiss Ball Dumbbell Flyes) 2 sets x 12 reps / 3-0-2 tempo Back Training G Pull-Ups (Chin-Ups) or Machine Lat Pull Downs 3 sets to failure / 3-0-2 tempo G One-Arm Dumbbell Rows 3 sets x 6 reps / 2-0-2 tempo * Immediately following the last set. the “pause” time in seconds. without any rest in between. * 1 set x 12 reps or until failure / 2-0-2 tempo (Tempo is the number of seconds to lower or pull the weight. without any rest in between. Chapter 5 | The H+Blocker Diet and Training Guide 79 DAY 1—MONDAY. WORKOUT #1 Chest Training G Barbell Bench Presses (or Smith Machine Bench Presses) 1 set x 12 reps for warm-up 2 sets x 8 reps / 3-1-3 tempo 1 set x 5 or 6 reps / 3-0-2 tempo * Immediately following the last set. with no pause. you would take three seconds to lower the weight. As an example. for a 3-0-2 tempo on bench presses. and two seconds to raise the weight.

* 1 set x 12 reps or until failure / 2-0-2 tempo G Side (Lateral) Dumbbell Raises 2 sets x 8 reps / 2-1-2 tempo Do not take more than 60 seconds to rest in between each set. * 1 set x 12 reps or until failure / 2-0-2 tempo Leg Training G Barbell Squats 1 set x 15 reps for warm-up 1 set x 10 reps / 3-0-3 tempo 3 sets x 8 reps / 4-0-3 tempo 80 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . without any rest in between. WORKOUT #2 Biceps Training G Standing Barbell Curls 3 sets x 10 reps / 3-0-2 tempo G Seated Dumbbell Curls 3 sets x 5 or 6 reps (each arm) / 2-0-2 tempo * Immediately following the last set. DAY 2—TUESDAY. and rest no more than 90 seconds in between each body part exercise. * Immediately following the last set. * 1 set x 12 reps or until failure (each arm) / 2-0-2 tempo Triceps Training G Lying Overhead Triceps Extensions 3 sets x 10 reps / 4-1-4 tempo G Overhead Dumbbell Triceps Extensions 3 sets x 5 or 6 reps / 4-1-2 tempo * Immediately following the last set. without any rest in between. without any rest in between.

Chapter 5 | The H+Blocker Diet and Training Guide 81 1 set x 5 or 6 reps / 3-0-2 tempo * Immediately following the last set. without resting. * 1 set x 12 reps or until failure / 3-0-2 tempo Take about three minutes (180 seconds) to fully recuperate between sets if you’re really working out intensely and breathing extraordinarily hard. take about three minutes to fully recuperate between sets. without any rest in between. G Or Leg Presses (do not squat and do leg presses in the same workout) 1 set x 15 reps for warm-up 1 set x 10 reps 3 sets x 8 reps 1 set x 5 or 6 reps / 3-0-2 tempo * Immediately following the last set. * 1 set x 12 reps or until failure / 3-0-2 tempo Again. perform one set of leg exten- sions. and rest no more than 90 sec- . G Leg/Knee Extensions* 1 set x 15 reps for warm-up 2 sets x 8 reps * Superset these two exercises together.” Hamstring Training G *Stiff-Legged Dumbbell Deadlifts 3 sets x 8 reps / 3-0-3 tempo G Or Lying Leg Curls (Machine) 3 sets x 8 reps / 3-0-3 tempo Calf Training G Seated or Standing Calf Raises 3 sets x 20 reps / 3-0-1 tempo Do not take more than 60 seconds to rest between sets. That’s one completed “superset. In other words. and then. without any rest in between. perform a set of stiff-legged deadlifts or lying leg curls.

or nau- sea. or sprinting outside) 35 minutes: 5 minutes @ 60% of Maximum Heart Rate 15 minutes @ 70% of Maximum Heart Rate 10 minutes @ 80% Maximum Heart Rate 5 minutes @ 50% Maximum Heart Rate To calculate your target heart rate zones. treadmill. lightheadedness. stop exercising immediately and seek the advice of your physician if it persists for more than 15 minutes. DAY 3—WEDNESDAY. in the Appendix. onds after each body part exercise. WORKOUT #3 High-Intensity Cardio Training G Cardiovascular Exercise (such as recumbent or stationary bike. elliptical. The only exceptions are squats and leg presses. including dizziness. If you feel any of these symptoms. This cardio workout is carefully designed to test and improve your cardiovascular conditioning for better stamina and endurance and is effective for fat burning if you are already fairly fit and looking to really lower your bodyfat levels. take up to 180 seconds (three minutes) between sets of these exercises. so please be careful and pay attention to potential warning signs. Ab Exercises G Crunches (on a Swiss ball or on the floor with your feet on a bench) 3 sets x 25 reps / 2-1-2 tempo G Reverse Crunches (or Leg Raises) 3 sets x 20 reps / 3-1-3 tempo 82 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . I rely on the “Karvonen Formula” as described on page 111. The 80% heart rate zone represents a more vigorous level of activity.

) G Incline Dumbbell Presses 2 sets x 12 reps (increase weight each set) / 3-0-2 tempo G Decline Dumbbell Flyes (or Swiss Ball Dumbbell Flyes) 1 set x 20 reps or until failure / 3-0-2 tempo Back Training G Pull-Ups (Chin-Ups) or Machine Lat Pull Downs 2 sets to failure / 3-0-2 tempo G One-Arm Dumbbell Rows 3 sets x 8 reps / 2-0-2 tempo Shoulder Training G Overhead Dumbbell Presses 1 set x 15 reps 3 sets x 8 reps / 3-1-2 tempo G Side (Lateral) Dumbbell Raises 2 sets x 12 reps / 2-1-2 tempo Do not take more than 60 seconds to rest between sets. WORKOUT #4 Chest Training G Barbell Bench Presses (or Smith Machine Bench Presses) 1 set x 15 reps 2 sets x 10 reps / 3-1-3 tempo 3 sets x 8 reps / 3-0-2 tempo (Tempo: take three seconds to lower the weight. no pause. and two seconds to raise the weight. Chapter 5 | The H+Blocker Diet and Training Guide 83 DAY 4—THURSDAY. . and rest no more than 90 sec- onds after each body part exercise.

take about three minutes to fully recuperate between sets. whenever you are training leg muscles. DAY 5—FRIDAY. WORKOUT #5 Biceps Training G Standing Barbell Curls 2 sets x 15 reps / 3-0-2 tempo G Seated Dumbbell Curls 3 sets x 10 reps (each arm) / 2-0-2 tempo Triceps Training G Lying Overhead Triceps Extensions (E-Z bar) 3 sets x 10 reps / 4-1-4 tempo G Overhead Dumbbell Triceps Extensions 2 sets to failure / 4-1-2 tempo Leg Training G Barbell Squats 1 set x 15 reps for warm-up 3 sets x 10 reps / 3-0-3 tempo 1 set x 8 reps / 3-0-2 tempo Remember. G Or Leg Presses (Do not squat and do leg presses in the same workout. take about three minutes to fully recuperate between sets if you’re really working out hard. G Stiff-Legged Dumbbell Deadlifts 3 sets x 10 reps / 3-0-3 tempo G Or Lying Leg Curls (Machine) 3 sets x 10 reps / 3-0-3 tempo 84 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough .) 1 set x 15 reps for warm-up 3 sets x 10 reps 1 set x 8 reps / 3-0-2 tempo Again.

elliptical. This will keep your intensity levels way up. where you can take up to 180 seconds (three minutes) between sets of these exercises. WORKOUT #6 High-Intensity Cardio Training G Cardiovascular Exercise (such as recumbent or stationary bike. WORKOUT #7 Off . treadmill. DAY 6—SATURDAY. Chapter 5 | The H+Blocker Diet and Training Guide 85 G Seated or Standing Calf Raises 3 sets x 20 reps / 3-0-1 tempo Keep in mind. try your best not to take more than 60 seconds to rest between sets and to rest no more than 90 seconds after each body part exercise. or sprinting outside) 35 minutes: 5 minutes x 60% of Maximum Heart Rate 15 minutes x 70% of Maximum Heart Rate 10 minutes x 80% Maximum Heart Rate 5 minutes x 50% Maximum Heart Rate Ab Exercises G Crunches (on a Swiss ball or on the floor with your feet on a bench) 3 sets x 25 reps / 2-1-2 tempo G Reverse Crunches (or Leg Raises) 3 sets x 20 reps / 3-1-3 tempo DAY 7—SUNDAY. The only exceptions are squats and leg presses.

Make no mis- take. along with your own full potential. that’s what makes the H+Blocker experience so unique and promising. where I am going to explain exactly what you can expect from your H+Blocker experience. while you might see this as a point where our journey ends together. and intensity. as long as you keep taking it. If you want to make consistent progress over the long term. I wouldn’t even recommend it. you can’t just keep doing the same workouts over and over. you have to continually evolve your diet and training program. I don’t expect you to follow the diet and training plan described in this chapter indefinitely. But to realize H+Blocker’s full potential. But one of the great things about H+Blocker is that it has the potential to stimulate consistent progress in muscular performance and development over the course of months and even years. The rationale for this plan is to work syner- gistically with H+Blocker supplementation to deliver fast results over the short term. So. This is certainly true when it comes to get- ting results from exercise. You must vary your pro- gram in sensible ways. it will enable you to repeatedly take your training to the next level by paying bodybuilding “dividends” that you can then “reinvest” into your training by increasing your workload. volume. the truth is: This is only the beginning! Time for us to move onto the next chapter. my friend. as unconventional as some of the diet and training plans are that I’ve called for. From your very first dose… through the first four weeks of continued use… and beyond… 86 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . Just the Beginning A wise man once said that the definition of insanity is doing the same thing you’ve been doing and expecting different results. What’s more.

increased training intensity and workload capacity. and a handful of other researchers involved in the latest sports sciences—through appropriate supplementation. faster muscle recovery between reps. We explored recent studies that indicated carnosine is preferentially found in fast-twitch (Type II) muscle fibers in humans. thus delaying muscular acidosis. explosive strength. and performance. I have shown you that there are no fewer than seven pretty amazing benefits you can expect to get from carnosine-boosting supplementation: immediate. The muscle fibers that have the potential to make you almost “super-human” because they grow so fast. strength. reversal of age- related muscle decline and “shrinkage”. resulting in “faster” fat loss. profound relationship between muscle carnosine concentrations and muscle size. and workouts. increased hypertrophy from the influence of Type II fibers. You have seen there is a direct. sets.Chapter 6: Supplementation and What to Expect W e have covered a lot of ground in this informational handbook. We also learned carnosine may be increased in skeletal muscles by both intense weight training and—according to Tallon. Harris. and better performance in high-intensity cardio intervals. Chapter 6 | Supplementation and What to Expect 87 . more intense muscular contractions and enhanced muscular fullness. You have learned what carnosine is and how it assists high-intensity exercise performance by soaking up the hydrogen ions that are produced through anaerobic glycolysis.

they were the very same things I was asking myself. that H+Blocker is a new breakthrough supplement you’ve absolutely. and Mark Tallon. combined with a unique and comprehensive formula. before I first tried the “beta”-formu- las of what would later become H+Blocker. such as: G What should I expect. In fact. what can I really expect?” The truth is. perhaps even fully con- vinced. which actually contains a host of smaller ques- tions. I will try to answer all of the important questions about what to expect from your experience with H+Blocker in this chapter. we just walked through how to get the absolute best results from H+Blocker with proper dosing and a complementary diet and training plan. To make it as realistic as possible. after taking my first dose of H+Blocker? G Will taking H+Blocker make me “feel” different? G How soon will I begin to experience the benefits you’ve been talking about? G How long will it take until I begin to “see” results? G Will the benefits of H+Blocker continue as long as I take it? These are all really good questions and valid concerns. By now. which is the only supplement that contains the patent-pending beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine. my guess is. you have also learned what constitutes the ultimate carnosine-boosting sup- plement: H+Blocker. Finally. I’ve 88 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . you ought to be strongly considering. this is a big question. positively got to try… Only one question remains: “When I do try H+Blocker. And.

Actually. But. which will tell you to mix one heaping scoop with eight ounces of water. the first time or two you drink it. most users find that the taste does grow on them over time. Follow the label instructions. though. Chapter 6 | Supplementation and What to Expect 89 divided the H+Blocker user experience into four distinct phases: the first dose. I’ve never quite figured out what all of the fuss has been about! Once I got past the first dose. but I will be honest: H+Blocker’s “Spiked Fruit Punch” flavor is an acquired taste. but beta-alanine is perhaps one of the most pungent and bitter nutrients of all. Most com- pounds of this nature are hard to work with from a flavor standpoint. days 22-70. Note that H+Blocker dis- solves more easily when you use cool or lukewarm water rather than ice-cold water. let’s take a “sneak peek” at what you can expect in each phase… Your First Dose: Prepare for Takeoff! Take your first dose of H+Blocker 20 to 30 minutes before a workout (whether it’s training with weights or cardio exercise). That said. I have to forewarn you: when you first open your H+Blocker canister. we worked extremely hard to create a drink mix that peo- ple will find palatable. simply because I learned what followed… the experience I am about to share with you. I continued to look forward to drinking it. This is due to the beta-alanine content. . I’ve come to enjoy drinking it every morning. I can assure you. Now. It’s not something the average person would drink on the front porch for refreshment on a hot summer day. and days 70 and beyond. it might taste a little bitter. As for me. you may notice it has a fairly pungent aroma. days 1- 21. and we made a lot of progress.

when you train like I do. By the time I get to the gym and am ready to hit the weights. Some people like the tingling sensation because they take it as a sign the product is “working. an elevation in mood. chest. within the first five minutes after I gulp down a serving of H+Blocker. I begin to feel like there’s electricity flowing through my veins. But bond beta- alanine and L-histidine and aspartic acid (beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine) greatly contribute to these sensations as well. either because they find it uncomfortable or because they fear it is unhealthy. my muscles feel fuller. It usually lasts only a few minutes and is nothing to be concerned about. The truth is that the tingling sensation some 90 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . and upper arms and hands—during the workout following H+Blocker use. In all my years of studying muscular performance (which is well over 15 now). See. and a growing eagerness to work out intensely. Literally. which we experience in our bodies as a tingling sensation. by the time I start working out. and the contractions from lifting the weights are much more intense. and it usually happens in the upper extremities—especially the face. I’ve never felt any type of supplement that works quite like H+Blocker—and so quickly. You will feel the muscle-stimulating effects almost immediately. at 6:00 in the morning!) From there. shoulders. as well as what we know about parathesia. You will proba- bly notice a surge of energy. this totally harm- less side effect of H+Blocker is believed to be due mainly to beta-alanine’s actions as a neurotransmitter. These effects are attributable in small part to the caffeine. thereby increasing synaptic activity (i. (This is help- ful.e.” Others do not like the sensation. About half of H+Blocker users notice a tingling sensation. According to Tallon.. communication between neurons). beta-alanine is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to neurotransmitter receptor sites. and you will absolutely feel it by this point. I find it really cranks up my workout intensity. Twenty to 30 minutes after you take H+Blocker. the active nutrients will reach peak levels in your bloodstream. It’s technically referred to as parathesia.

Another great benefit is. You will also experience a greater than normal muscular “pump. you will also experience increased vascularity (characterized by more visible blood vessels underneath the skin). they feel they could do the whole thing again.” and if your body- fat levels are low enough (typically less than 10 or 12%). These “cosmetic” benefits are primarily due to carnosine’s effects on blood flow and to the citrulline malate content of H+Blocker and its production of nitric oxide. after you start your workout and begin to lift weights. If you’re like most H+Blocker users. Even though they have taken advantage of the immedi- ate fatigue-delaying effect of H+Blocker to do an unusually tough workout. . Chapter 6 | Supplementation and What to Expect 91 H+Blocker users experience is neither an indication that it’s working (H+Blocker works on everyone. explosive increase in strength and/or anaerobic muscle performance… that is. but only a portion. full. Combined with the insane “pumps. in your very first workout after your very first dose. Some people might theorize that perhaps a portion of this ben- efit can be attributed to a psychological effect. you will notice an immediate.” your muscles. The most remarkable immediate effect of H+Blocker comes after the first workout. especially in the arms. In any case. feel so engorged—so tight. whether or not they experience parathesia). the fact that the tingling goes away is not an indication that H+Blocker has “stopped working” any more than the tingling sensation is an indication that the product is working while it lasts. they still feel uncommonly “fresh” afterwards. you’ll notice that muscular contractions become more and more intense. A high percentage of new users testify that after completing the workout. whereas the explosive strength gains you get from H+Blocker only increase as time goes on. this effect tends to diminish and eventually disappear after a couple of weeks of contin- uous use. it feels like they’re going to burst. Again. and hard. nor is it unhealthy. because make no mis- take: psychological effects almost always dissipate.

This means you will notice a “rapid accu- mulation” of the benefits that come from carnosine loading. Carnosine loading will continue at this incredible rate for at least another week to two weeks before it settles into a more casual pace but continues upward as long as you’re using H+Blocker to supply it. steady carnosine loading in the muscles. 92 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . you could wind up injured or overtrained. but I caution you to not go overboard and actually return to the gym for another go-round! H+Blocker has some incredible effects. the ability to train D Fig. “set the stage” for its full effects. including greater strength and power. While it most certainly will allow you to increase your training work- load. Days 1-21: Setting the Stage The immediate effects of H+Blocker represent only the tip of the proverbial iceberg. This is the period of rapid. 9: Well-trained individuals experience over 50% greater carnosine stores in muscle fibers than harder. if you push it too hard too soon. and so forth. In the study he presented for the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. faster recovery between sets and untrained individuals reps. The first three weeks of H+Blocker usage. This is a great feeling. Mark Tallon showed that supple- mentation could increase muscle carnosine 1 stores by more than 50% in just two weeks . following the first dose. but it won’t make you superhuman.

Chapter 6 | Supplementation and What to Expect 93 During this period.” synthesis in the muscles. as they approach failure. Well. In other words. and you feel less and less fatigued after completing your normal workouts too. it’s time to leave your “normal” workouts behind! Your muscles can do more now. You will certainly notice you need less and less rest time after sets or hard cardio intervals to recover. many users report a feeling they describe as “peak” muscle con- tractions. But seriously. . That’s what I do. or failure sets into your workouts. thanks to H+Blocker. Because you don’t need as much recovery time. and as H+Blocker continues going to work in your muscles. it’s time to start adding weight. In fact. like supersets. and all of the benefits that come along with it. is now absent. this is the time to fully load your muscles with carnosine and take full advantage of its “rapid accumulation. you can squeeze more work into the same amount of workout time. You may need to experiment a little to adapt your workouts to your growing capabilities. I hardly ever rest at all between sets now. I almost always perform “supersets” and other techniques to combine lifts to make the most of my time. This doesn’t necessarily mean you have to spend more time in the gym. you will enjoy dizzyingly rapid gains in muscle size and strength. This may be due to the fact that the burning feeling they are used to experi- encing with such contractions (caused by muscular acidosis). when you hit this stage. and/or throwing new exercises or advanced training techniques. doing more sets and reps. as well as rapid fat loss. drop sets. but these variables are a great place to start. and if you take advantage of their capacity to do more. my workouts last about 35 to 45 minutes at most (not including cardio). because of these incredible benefits taking place.

the more these larger carnosine stores will go to work for you. the better they work. But the full benefits of H+Blocker are only really achieved between weeks three and 10. You may do the same exercises and the same number of sets and reps. less fat and more muscle). And. research suggests that your muscle carnosine levels will be in the neighborhood of 75% greater after 10 weeks of supplementation than they were at 16 the time you started .. There are not many sup- plements (if there are any at all) that can truthfully claim the harder you train. positively lift 94 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . what’s so great about H+Blocker is. To support this fact. the harder you train.g. Days 22-70: The “Payoff” Period Let’s get something straight: muscle growth is not an overnight process. but you will absolutely. it takes several weeks to generate measurable gains in muscle mass. you will get greater benefits from the same workouts because your workouts really won’t be the same. We know from research and anecdotal evidence that H+Blocker produces immedi- ate gains in strength and muscle performance by preventing muscular acidosis and increasing ATP availability during intense training. I think of days 22 through 70 of the H+Blocker experience as the true “payoff period. Even when you create the “perfect” conditions for muscle growth. you can undoubtedly agree with that state- ment. If you’ve been training for any length of time now.” This is when you will bust right through your training plateaus. But with H+Blocker. set new maxi- mum lifts. when your muscles have had time to grow in response to the higher training loads that H+Blocker has enabled them to handle. it’s a fact! Even if you don’t take advantage of the increased work capacity that H+Blocker gives you by taking your training up a notch. or achieve personal best performances in sports and observe measurable improvements in muscle mass and body composition (e.

doing more sets. the real mind-blowing breakthroughs will happen when you “reinvest” the bodybuilding “dividends” you get from carnosine loading by training harder and heavier. has yet exceeded 10 weeks. You may do the same number of cardio intervals. measuring muscular performance. Interestingly though. lifting heavier loads. You might be resting less. the existing research does strongly suggest that the benefits will continue to pile up long after 10 weeks. or challenging yourself in other ways. Chapter 6 | Supplementation and What to Expect 95 heavier loads (i. If you begin to experiment with workout modifications from the very beginning. So while we have solid proof of the amazing benefits that carnosine-boosting supplementation will produce from the first dose through day 70. From the sounds of these reports. working out more often. Any way you look at it. as I suggested earlier. by this point. more weight). But as I’ve said before.e. Day 71 and Beyond: The Sky’s the Limit No study of carnosine-boosting supplementation. H+Blocker is unlike any other supplement . you’re starting to break into entirely new territory with your personal lifting bests. You will experience drastic improvements in muscle performance and size and body composition that you never dreamed were possible. Until now. your workouts should be fully adapted to your new capabilities by this time. we don’t have any idea just how much farther they can go. but you will do them faster. that is.. and your body is really taking shape with new muscle mass. in places you never thought possible. I’m excited to tell you that anecdotal reports have been extremely favorable as well.

the rate of muscle carnosine loading and anaerobic per- formance improvements is slower between week four and week 10 of supplementation than it is between week one and week four. Although it hasn’t been proven yet. Indeed. every supplement has an ultimate saturation point. from H+Blocker. it appears as if. you are probably familiar with the concept of “cycling. 96 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . that leaves us believing we truly don’t know where the “upper limit” lies.” Basically. with carnosine-boosting supplementation. the sky is the limit. from what we know. But here’s the really good news (from people who have reported using H+Blocker for longer than 10 or 12 weeks): the benefits you experience. Here’s what you.. a point where the muscle is “full” of canosine) lies further out. which makes it ideal for those of us who are continually seeking ways to increase our strength and build new muscle mass. from the first dose through the first few weeks don’t stop there… no. As you may already be well aware. too. However. they keep growing and growing and growing! Clearly. Tallon has theorized there isn’t a saturation point for carnosine supplementation. the gains are still sufficiently rapid so it’s safe to speculate that the ultimate saturation point (i.e. there is no need to “cycle” off the supplement—at least not at 10 to 12 weeks. a “saturation” point is reached. you will continue to experience benefits. until someone proves us wrong. should I say. and some creatine users even begin to slide backward. so as long as you continue to supplement with it.” In contrast. virtually nonstop. ever experienced. they keep going and going and going. The gains in muscle size and performance that were so rapid at first have slowed down and finally plateaued by this point. can expect: See. after 10 to 12 weeks of daily creatine supple- mentation. and if you use or have used a creatine supplement. Or. The only way to make additional gains is to cycle off creatine for two weeks and shake off the “tolerance effect.

But no one. and you’ll keep getting stronger and bigger. so far. Chapter 6 | Supplementation and What to Expect 97 In the future. if you ever had it. groundbreaking benefits you had hoped for. six months or nine months. the best recipe is different for different people. When you do. You will feel different about yourself. do not take this as a sign that H+Blocker has stopped working. you’ll begin to experience all of the incredible. This harmless neurological effect of beta-alanine and L-histidine is totally independent of their beneficial effects on muscles. and as a result. Once more. Hitting Pay Dirt In my opinion. if not gone away entirely. Or you can just listen to your own body and cycle off H+Blocker for a couple of weeks whenever you feel your body has reached a saturation point. say. has reported a plateau of benefits this early. What’s important is that you take full advantage of carnosine loading by taking your training to the next level in one way or another. Most H+Blocker users who do experience parathesia after dosing find the tingling has at least diminished by this point. . One change you may notice around this time is the disappearance of that tingling sensation. How will you know when you’ve hit it? Trust me: you’ll just know. Just keep on using it. you will feel the “H+Blocker experience” at its fullest. Simply stated. we may find that it is beneficial to cycle off H+Blocker at. But it is very unlikely this will happen after only 10 to 12 weeks. you will start to feel completely differently about yourself.

it shows me you really do care about what you put into your body and that you demand the very best for yourself when it comes to supplemen- tation. I’ve been teaching and writing about athletic performance and body- building for over 15 years now. with the exception of the introduc- tion of creatine in 1993. I don’t blame you. I hope you have found the answers you were looking for in the Carnosine Breakthrough book. You know. Because you are holding this book in your hands right now. in that we both value education far above the marketing hyperbole and unfounded claims that run rampant in our fitness and bodybuilding industry. come across a supplement that got me so excited and had the potential to increase strength. More important. and you will feel as strong as an ox. and muscle the way H+Blocker can. You will walk with your chest higher in the air and more confidence in your swag- ger. I call this “hitting pay-dirt” because it’s like winning the “muscle-building lottery”! And it feels damn good. and I haven’t once. In fact. In Closing I want to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to you for hanging in there long enough to make it through this entire book. power. It also tells me you and I are a lot alike. I trust that you now fully grasp the role of carnosine and its significance in muscle-building performance. I feel privileged to be sharing such cutting-edge information with you and knowing that you and I are on the cusp of something big—really big! 98 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . that says a lot about your character.

six. if you will. three. I can’t wait to hear from you! Until we meet again. You can email me at Stephen@iSatoriTech. and keep your head high and heart in the game. nine months from now. enjoy the H+Blocker experience. after you’ve had a chance to try it—and really given it a good “test drive”—please email or call me. By the way. in the next chapter. you can always refer back to it. Chapter 6 | Supplementation and What to Expect 99 When you pick up your first container of H+Blocker. In case there was something you might have missed or weren’t quite clear about. train hard. when you tell other people you were one of the very first to experi- ence the power of H+Blocker… well before anyone else! Getting in on the ground floor of something like this is truly exciting. and let me know what you think of it. . before you gulp it down. the excitement you’re going to have in your voice. you. please have a read through it. stop and imagine for a moment. too. eat smart. and please. #2205) and tell whoever answers that you just tried H+Blocker and you want to talk to me. do me a favor. whenever you have a ques- tion in mind. I’ve answered many of the frequently asked questions about H+Blocker and practically anything else related to carnosine. and I hope after you’ve had a chance to finish this book. if you need to. will be as excited as I am to use it and tell others all about its powerful effects! With that said. Or. I want you to promise me one thing: when you mix up your first or call 1-866-688-7679 (Dept.


Later. Either way. that was a good sign.. All of the questions I am about to share with you have been answered in one way or another in this book. The way I see it.. But just in case you missed something. what had started as a trickle of questions quickly became a flood. Or. This chapter includes concise answers to the most frequently asked questions on these topics below. But to me. my answers can serve as a sort of “quick reference guide” that you can refer to whenever a specific question pops into your head—or when a friend or associate (like your training partner) is marveling at your amazing recent progress and begins asking you questions about carnosine and H+Blocker! Chapter 7 | Frequently Asked Questions 101 . new carnosine-boosting supple- ment. and for some. perhaps a section of the material was too complex. and H+Blocker. asking questions is a natural part of the learning process. Further. carnosine-boosting supple- mentation. Maybe I was unclear. it helps to overcome any initial skepticism. And I continue to answer each new question just like the very first one I received—with utter enthusiasm and passion.Chapter 7: Frequently Asked Questions E ver since my company launched the first pilot test with H+Blocker. I’ve been receiving and answering questions about carnosine. when we released H+Blocker and made it available to the general public for purchase. it showed me there was a high level of interest in our exciting.

found only in H+Blocker. See. where they are used to increase the muscle carnosine stores in your mus- cles. when you’re lifting heavy weights or doing high-intensity cardio intervals. These nutrients are the natural biological precursors for carnosine. and chlo- ride to aid in the rapid transport of nutrients through the gut and into the muscles to improve the absorption and storage of carnosine. increased strength and muscle mass. ■ Q What’s inside H+Blocker? ■A The main active compound. The final active ingredients in H+Blocker are a precise blend of carbohydrates. These hydrogen ions are sort of like the exhaust 102 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . This results in enhanced high-intensity workout performance. and faster recovery. your muscles produce hydrogen ions. Basically. ■ Q How does H+Blocker work? ■ A Simply put. breakthrough benefits. When you take H+Blocker. which stimulates nitric oxide production to enhance nutrient delivery and increase blood flow to the muscles during and after workouts. sodium. is an exclusive bonded form of beta-alanine and L-histidine with aspartic acid called beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histi- dine. Carnosine is a natural compound the muscles use to delay fatigue and increase the intensity and duration of muscular contractions during high-intensity exercise. In addition. healthy diet. a small amount of caffeine has been added to further increase the uptake of carnosine and its proven ability to enhance workout performance. H+Blocker also contains citrulline malate. you can think of these other important ingredients as the “keys” used to “unlock” the doors and let the carnosine into the muscles. so you can maximize your carnosine stores and take full advantage of its exciting. beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine ride a metabolic express lane all the way to your muscles. H+Blocker increases the concentration of carnosine in your muscles. when combined with intense weight training and a good.

the more carnosine you have in your muscles. without being any more effective (simply because your gut destroys most of the carnosine before it ever reaches the muscles. prevented from build- ing up). they lower the pH level of the muscles. . A carnosine-boosting supplement containing actual carnosine would cost a heck of a lot more. which interferes with the muscle’s ability to contract. This phenomenon is known as muscular acidosis because what’s happening is your muscles are literally becoming increasingly acidic. they quickly become the primary cause of complete “muscle failure. ■Q If I’m trying to increase my muscle carnosine levels.” This is where carnosine comes in. And like a car’s exhaust. Therefore. or else they will have a negative effect on your muscle’s performance. these hydrogen ions need to be gotten rid of. explosive strength gains. causing the onset of muscular weakness. Carnosine is able to neutralize the hydrogen ions produced during intense muscle work. and an overall boost in muscular performance. weakness. the longer and harder they can work before muscular acidosis. and as a result. provides immediate. and even exhaustion. more intense muscular contrac- tions. So H+Blocker sets up an environment for the muscles to continue to contract. if these hydrogen ions are not interfered with (i. As hydrogen ions accumulate in your muscles. and complete exhaustion set in.e. allowing you to train harder and more intensely. As Tallon and Harris’ studies have shown us.. why doesn’t H+Blocker con- tain carnosine? ■ A Carnosine is made up of the amino acids beta-alanine and L-histidine. fatigue. Chapter 7 | Frequently Asked Questions 103 that a car’s engine creates—a byproduct that is created when fuel is broken down to release energy. H+Blocker contains these carnosine precursors in a special bond with aspartic acid (beta-alanyl-l- aspartyl-l-histidine) that represents the absolute most efficient way to supplement for carnosine loading. rendering it literally useless). which translates into greater long-term gains in muscle strength and size.

you should consume one serving (a single. positive benefits—will only truly be achieved after at least three to four weeks of continuous use. But. will likely continue to accumulate for many more weeks. and a noticeable delay in the onset of muscular fatigue. according to the latest research. take one serving following your morning or early afternoon meal. you may want to consume two scoops before working out. as long as you keep taking H+Blocker. greater muscle fullness. These benefits will become rapidly more pronounced for three to four weeks. with less recovery time between reps. On non-training days. you can count on continually experi- encing benefits. mixed with eight ounces of water. research involving the active ingredients in H+Blocker shows that benefits are still on an upward slope for as long as you continue to supplement with it. Something to consider. longer. about 20 to 30 minutes prior to any form of intense exercise. significant carnosine storage in muscle cells—enough to impart its full. as we discov- ered earlier. and workouts. although the effects of H+Blocker can be felt immediately. It’s for this reason I think H+Blocker is the most exciting muscle-building per- formance enhancer to come along since the arrival of creatine in 1993. allowing you to train harder. sets. but. heaping scoop) of H+Blocker. ■Q How do I take H+Blocker for optimal results? ■A As the label recommends. 104 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . ■ Q What kind of results can I expect from using H+Blocker? ■ A One thing I can assure you is that you will feel the muscle-stimulating effects of H+Blocker from the very first dose. Even more exciting. Remember. if you’re over 200 lbs in bodyweight or want to magnify your workout intensity. You will immediately experience stronger muscle contractions.

and if so. The same dosage of H+Blocker recommended for initial loading. We need to do more research before we know whether cycling is necessary with carnosine-boosting supplementation. However. loading is not nec- essary. chances are the product label has instructed you to start with a higher dosage (usually 20 grams per day) for several days and then ease back to a lower dosage (usually five grams per day) for continued sup- plementation. Research has shown that cycling prevents creatine users from developing a high toler- ance for creatine supplementation that makes it less effective in the long 12- week “on” period followed by a two. as far I’ve been able to tell.” This refers to the strategy of taking the supplement daily for many weeks and then discontinuing supplementation for a shorter period of time before resuming daily supplementation. taking H+Blocker for any extended period of time. The way I see it. when it comes to carnosine-boosting supplementation. is also recommended for long-term supplementation. cycling should be considered optional with H+Blocker. However. Most creatine users are also familiar with the practice of “ four-week “off” period.” Research has shown that the fastest and most efficient way to increase mus- cle creatine stores is to divide supplementation into separate loading and long-term supplementation phases. what sort of schedule works best. a single serving taken daily. well beyond eight weeks. You can either wait until you reach a strength or performance plateau and then cease H+Blocker supplementation for two or four weeks. as long as . or follow a traditional eight. Taking a higher initial dosage of a supplement such as creatine is called “loading. should continue to produce results that are consistent and keep you satisfied and wanting to continue taking it. Until these questions are answered. Chapter 7 | Frequently Asked Questions 105 ■Q Do I need to “load” or “cycle” H+Blocker? ■A If you have taken a creatine supplement.

in Chapter 5. In fact. like turkey. and considering they are naturally found in certain foods. As you know. It’s produced consistently great results for building muscular size and strength and improving lean body mass to bodyfat ratio (in favor of more lean mass and less fat. in studies. There. As with most supplements. Rather than write out the entire workout schedule and nutrition plan. kidney. while using H+Blocker? ■A Good question. you will find the exact diet and exercise protocol used in our initial H+Blocker pilot trials. ■ Q Are there any known side effects? ■A There are no known negative health effects associated with carnosine-boosting sup- plementation. Short-term sup- plementation lasting one month showed no impact on liver. but based on the known effects of these amino acids in the body. more research is needed to determine the effects of long-term supplementation. of course!). ■ Q How should I eat and work out. then I’d suggest you keep supplementing with it. or heart function or on blood chemistry. I’d suggest you simply turn to page 73. using beta-alanine supplementation of up to five grams per day has revealed no negative effects on a variety of health markers. for maximum benefits. healthful diet along with regular intense exercise are essential to achieve your bodybuilding or fitness goals. a good. there is no reason to anticipate that any problems would ever be discovered. 106 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . you keep getting greater and greater benefits from H+Blocker.

beta-alanine basi- cally “tickles” your brain cells. It usually starts during the workout following H+Blocker supplementation and goes away after a few minutes. which would allow you to get 6. H+Blocker is engineered to work optimally with a single usage each day. Remember.4 grams in total of the active components in H+Blocker. though. producing that tingling sensation in the most extreme nerve endings throughout the body. approximately half of H+Blocker users notice a tingling sensa- tion. Most people feel it in the upper extremities—especially the face. This harmless side effect of H+Blocker is due in part to beta-alanine’s actions as a neurotransmitter. and upper arms and hands. more is not necessarily always better. chest. It’s important to understand that parathesia is totally independent of H+Blocker’s effects on muscle carnosine. or want to magnify your workout inten- sity. as with all supplements. shoulders. ■Q I weigh more than 200 lbs. . In non-scientific terms. Do I need to adjust the dosage for my size? ■A Yes. Nor is the disap- pearance of parathesia after several weeks of supplementation a sign that H+Blocker has stopped working. Taking any more than two scoops a day is unlikely to produce better results. The tingling sensation that some H+Blocker users experi- ence is not a sign that the product is working. Chapter 7 | Frequently Asked Questions 107 ■Q What is that tingling sensation I experience after taking H+Blocker? ■A In my experience. If you’re over 200 lbs in bodyweight. I’d suggest you consume two scoops before exercise. the absence of parathesia in other H+Blocker users is not a sign that the product is not working. Those who do experience parathesia at first gener- ally report that it diminishes or disappears altogether after two or three weeks of con- sistent supplementation. It’s technically called parathesia. Likewise.

may actually increase the overall effectiveness of H+Blocker. 3-XL is a powdered drink mix. You can use H+Blocker before your workouts and 3-XL immediately following your workouts. Most amino acids are hard to work with from a flavor stand- point. engineered to improve the absorp- tion and retention of creatine using a novel form of creatine hydrochloride. and there’s no “cycling” or “loading” required… and best of all. I have to admit. but I’ve certainly tasted much worse. consumed post-workout. can you explain that? ■A Well. In fact. the most advanced creatine for- mula on the market. we’re currently developing a reformulated H+Blocker. I’ve heard of nothing less than spectacular results from people who have used these two research- 108 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . just between you and me. To date. It’s not something the average person would drink on the front porch for refreshment on a hot summer day. What’s great about creatine ester is that it requires a lower dosage than monohydrate. it did take me a few days to “adjust” to the flavor of it. it doesn’t cause the famous creatine “water bloat” either. it is. I recommend 3-XL™. If you are going to use a creatine supple- ment. iSatori. That said. but I actually look forward to drinking H+Blocker each morning before I leave for the gym. We worked really hard to create a drink mix that people will find palatable. but beta-alanine is perhaps the most pungent and bitter amino acid of all. by far.) ■Q Can I take H+Blocker with a creatine product? ■A Yes. supplements such as creatine. I’ll admit. Call me crazy. and we made a lot of progress. with improved flavor. ■ Q I heard the taste of H+Blocker has a bit of a “kick”. but I will be honest: H+Blocker’s “Spiked Fruit Punch” flavor is an acquired taste. most users find that the taste does grow on them over time. and you’ll find they work marvelously well together. (And. Developed by my company.

And.) If you can’t wait and you would like to try using H+Blocker sooner and experience it for yourself completely worry-free. the suggested retail price of H+Blocker is $64. please do me a favor: don’t let them sell you short on some lame. unproven substitute product that they tell you “works just as well” or “this one’s cheaper”… because. and you can visit your favorite supplement retailer—they should have it in stock. It is. with nothing to lose. Simply call us toll-free at 1-866-688- 7679 (Dept. as you know from reading this book. There are many online retailers that carry H+Blocker as to place an order (or to find a retailer near you who does carry it).99 for a 30-serving con- tainer. then you can buy it directly from my company and get a full. unconditional 60-day money-back guarantee. but I’d have a hard time putting a price on those “priceless” benefits.. #2206) or log on to www. Nevertheless. (Keep in mind. . And I don’t know if I’d blow my hard-earned money on something I wasn’t sure would live up to its claims.hblocker. But. if they don’t have H+Blocker in their store yet. If they don’t. when I use them together—watch out… I go into hyper-growth and literally blow up like a balloon! ■Q How much does H+Blocker cost? ■A My answer has never wavered here. as with all supplements. (By the way. please tell them to call Europa (our distribution partner) at 1-800-447-4795 and order you a container. how much would you be willing to pay to be the very first to try a totally new breakthrough in proven muscle-building supple- mentation? And take a supplement that not only promises but also has been proven in a clinical setting to produce muscular strength and size gains for as long as you take it? I don’t know about you. you can find the best deals by shopping around. that’s an entire month’s supply).. there is only one H+Blocker. Chapter 7 | Frequently Asked Questions 109 based supplements together. as for me. This offer allows you to try H+Blocker virtually risk-free. if it even works at all.


John.72 = 110 Appendix 111 . count the beats per minute for one full minute as soon as you rise from bed or when at complete rest. a 38-year-old male. To figure out your RHR. Step 2: Calculate age-predicted maximum heart rate (MHR) 220 . Or.RHR = HRR. Then multiply that num- ber by six. as an example. to be more accurate.38 = 182 Step 3: Subtract resting heart rate from maximum heart rate to get heart rate reserve (HRR) MHR . Step 1: John will need his age (38) and resting heart rate (RHR) to start with. just under the thumb. that’s 220 . John’s resting heart rate is about average at 72. The average resting heart rate for men is 70 beats per minute while women have an average of 75 beats per minute.age = predicted max heart rate (MHR). For John. Let’s go through the four-step process using a hypothetical exerciser.Appendix Calculating Your Maximum/Target Heart Rate Training Zone Using The Karvonen Formula The Karvonen formula is a simple formula to calculate appropriate target heart rates for workouts. For John. with your two forefingers) while counting the beats for 10 seconds. 182 . take your pulse (at the wrist.

50 110 X .60 = 66 + 72 (RHR) = 138 70% Target range is HRR X .70 110 X . There is actually quite a bit of individual variation in maximum heart rate (even among individuals of the same age) and heart rate response to exercise.80 110 X . it is important to complement the use of this heart-rate formula with your own percep- tion of effort to fine-tune the intensity of your cardio workouts. Therefore. Step 4: Multiply your heart rate reserve (HRR) by 50%.80 = 88 + 72 (RHR) = 160 Keep in mind that your target heart rate training zone should be used only as a guideline. 60%.60 110 X .70 = 77 + 72 (RHR) = 149 80% Target range is HRR X . 112 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough .50 = 55 + 72 (RHR) = 127 60% Target range is HRR X . and 80% and add your resting heart rate back in: 50% Target range is HRR X . 70%.

62(4):1392-7. Review. Bakanidze NT. 2005. 2005. Boobis L. J Strength Cond Res. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. J Physiol. 1987 Apr. Takahashi H. Harris RC. Effect on muscle fibre morphology and carnosine con- tent after 12 days training of Korean speed skaters. Wise JA. 2005. Harris DB. Russian. 9 Snimoniia GV. [The effect of carnosine on the activity of Na. 1992 Sep. American College of Sports Medicine Annual meeting. FASEB. Sale C. Fitts RH. O’Farrell A. 2005 Nov. Harris RC. Mehdizadeh S. 2002 Apr.57(9):1343-7. 7 Suzuki Y. Harris RC. Sale C. Dunnett M. MJ. J Appl Physiol. Wise JA. 12 Alaghband-Zadeh J. 4 Sewell DA. 6 Kim HJ.19(4):277-80. Jpn J Physiol. Kim HJ. 11 Hill CA. International Society of Sports Nutrition Annual Conference. Tennessee. Marlin DJ. Muscle carnosine elevation with supplementation and training. Bitensky L. 2005. Harris RC. Boobis L. Tennessee.19(4):725-9. The effect of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supple- mentation on muscle composition and exercise performance. Shiliia DSh. Scientific References 113 . Cho J. Abstract #988. Wise JA. Chayen J. 1998 Aug.30(8):863-8. 5 Tallon MJ. 3 Metzger JM. Khan NS. Boobis LH.455:447-53. 2005. 2 Hipkiss HR. Khachidze MV. Abstract #0301-0028. Takamatsu K. The natural substrate for nitric oxide synthase activity. Estimation of the carnosine content of different fibre types in the middle gluteal muscle of the thoroughbred horse. Ito O. The distribution of carnosine in different muscle fibre types with beta-alanine supplementation. et al. 1992 Sep. American College of Sports Medicine Annual meeting. Sale C. Harris DB.K. anti-ageing peptide? Int J Biochem Cell Biol. Kim HJ. New Orleans.52(2):199-205. 2001 Dec. 8 Harris. Carnosine. Mukai N. Cell Biochem Funct. San Diego. High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Hill CA. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resist- ance-trained bodybuilders. Tatishvili NI. Role of intracellular pH in muscle fatigue. Abstract #1833. Fallowfield JL. RC.ATPase: prospective uses in clinical cardiology] Biokhimiia. and the effects of elevation on exercise per- formance. Wise JA. 10 Tallon.Scientific References 1 Harris RH. a protective. In vivo sarcopenic related changes of carnosine in human skeletal muscle. Kim CK. Tennessee.

Activity of citrulline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Confort-Gouny S. 19 Yeo SE. De La Horra MC. Wallimann T. 1968 Jan. Kavouras SA. 18 Magkos F. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Renal arginine synthesis: studies in vitro and in vivo. 1990 Sep.34(13):871-89. Eur J Biochem. Magnan de Bornier B. 16 Severin SE. Am J Physiol.30:499-504.225(2):617-23. 2005 Sep.99(3):844-50. 21 Callis A. Human. Vulfson PL.41(6):660-3. Ghattas B. Arzneimittelforschung.25(3):203-13. 14 Bakardjiev A. 1994 Oct 15. metabolic and performance-enhancing effects. 13 Aonuma S. Hama T. Serrano JJ. Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. molecular characterization and localization. Cozzone PJ. Le Guern ME. 1999 Jul. Tamaki N. Lamb GD. rat and chicken small intestinal Na+ . The pH-dependent conformational transition in glycogen phospho- rylase b. Wallis GA. 1990. Aoki M. Sports Med. Caffeine and ephedrine: physiological. Mattei JP. Bellet H. 23 Peral MJ.259(3 Pt 1):E437-42. X)] Yakugaku Zasshi. Brosnan ME.Cl. Skolysheva LK. 1991 Jun. Jeukendrup AE. Bauer K.20(2):227-38. Study in the animal and in man. 20 Dhanakoti SN.88(1):1-7. J Physiol. Review. 2004. The effect of carnosine and anserine on its activity. Br J Sports Med. Brosnan JT. 2002 Nov 15. Shur SA. J Appl Physiol. Ilundain A. Saumade R. Jentjens RL.545(Pt 1):133-44. 17 Dutka TL. Effect of carnosine on excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically-skinned rat skeletal mus- cle. 2002 Aug. Herzberg GR. 15 Dunnett M. 2004. 114 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . Transport of beta-alanine and biosynthesis of carnosine by skeletal muscle cells in primary cul- ture. Harris RC. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. Japanese. Equine Vet J Suppl. Duran JM. Garcia-Delgado M.36(4):282-9. Calonge ML. [Examination of beta-alanyl-l-aspartyl-l-histidine as a precursor for carnosine and anserine (Studies on heart. Speer O. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius.-creatine transporter: functional. 22 Bendahan D. Caffeine increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. Biochem Int.

With a burning desire to “know more” about human physiology. most talked about physique development magazine in the world—distributed in 12 countries—with a loyal and growing readership of over 150. Stephen Adelé has always had an intense interest in physique enhancement and muscular performance. Stephen looked for scientific evidence to sup- port his theories (which is the opposite of how this process “normally” works!). straight- About the Author 115 . Real SOLUTIONS magazine. The Carnosine Breakthrough.About the Author As an avid weight trainer and one-time national competitive body- builder. their “tell-it-like-it-is” publication. It was then he was confronted with a world of confusing and oftentimes conflicting information and theories. is yet another exam- ple of how Stephen is able to incorporate his many “inside connections” and bring ath- letes. bodybuilders. Stephen’s newest educational guide. Using real-world applications as a foundation. Stephen has since committed and dedicated his time to continually discovering and reporting the absolute “truths” about such topics as which exercise routines. Stephen began following the latest scientific findings on performance- enhancement aids and their impact on the physique.000 weight trainers. has quickly become the fastest growing. nutrition plans. up-to-date. and fitness enthusiasts alike the most accurate. and supplements work and which ones don’t. Under the direction of Stephen as Editor-in-Chief.

which would inevitably cre- ate our new supplement. who. Matt Fitzgerald. for his liter- ary genius and the enormous contribution to help turn a tiny little research paper into a book. there are several people I am forever grateful to for making this book better and more comprehensive than I ever envisioned. The Carnosine Breakthrough provides evidence-based solutions to build muscle and gain strength the right way! Stephen invites you to visit him anytime online at RealSolutionsMag. muscular physique. for designing his absolute best work yet. scientific journals. for spend- ing countless hours ensuring that every word read just right. our all-star executive editor. James O’Byrne. H+Blocker. forward information on the newest innovations in performance-enhancement supple- mentation and physique development. Sue Mosebar. I am eternally thankful to my wife. my par- ents. once again. 116 H+BLOCKER | The Carnosine Breakthrough . became the spark that ignited me to write this or by email- ing him at Stephen@isatoritech. combined with the many lessons learned over the past 15 years in Stephen’s own pursuit of building a lean. our creative director. H+Blocker™. In today’s world of over-hyped and under-performing “Holy Grail” tactics for building a respectable physique. for believing in me from the very start. providing his expert guidance to help decipher the science behind this breakthrough supplement. for spending many. The Carnosine Breakthrough explores the fascinating science behind the new break- through supplement. and for embracing my passion. patience. Mark Tallon. I must thank Demetri Bassoukos for illustrating the fantastic “cover model” on the front and back of our book. and our two (soon-to-be three) little princesses. for their universal support. and various authors on the previous Acknowledgements: Although there is a comprehensive list of references from textbooks. Julia. In addition. many days and nights discussing the role of carnosine. and Marcus Knodle.


com USA $19.95 .95 UK £ 25.CarnosineBackCover 2/17/06 11:33 AM Page 1 1-866-688-7679 G iSatoritech.95 CAN $11.