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# 13/02/2010

SIMULATOR

INTRODUCTORY TRAINING COURSE

SUMMARY

I General Features
III Introduction on control systems
IV Breakers & Faults
V Switching & Interpolation
IX User Component
X Organizing the Worksheet
XI Matlab Interface
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I General Features

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## Load Flow / Transient Stability

z Each solution based on z Direct time domain solution of
phasor calculations Differential Equations
z Sequential time domain z Trapezoidal integration
calculations

I R L
⎛ dI ⎞
V (t ) = [I ( t ) × R ] + ⎜ L ⎟
⎝ dt ⎠

Selection of
Simulation Tools

(Time Solutions)
(Phasor Solutions)
z Valid only for Steady State z Valid Over a Wide
and Low Frequency Swings Frequency Range
z Simplified Controls z Detailed Analog and Digital
(approximated as S Controls
functions) z Detailed Switching of
z Steady State Equations for Thyristors, Diodes, GTO’s
HVDC z Harmonics
z Efficient for Large Systems z Transient Overvoltages,
Lightning Impulses
z Machine Dynamics

z Transient solution
 Harmonics
 Non-linearities
 Frequency dependent
effects

 RMS Value

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Typical studies

## z Find the over voltages in a power system due to a fault or a

breaker operation
z Over voltages due to lightening strikes
z Find the harmonics generated by Power electronic devices
z Tune and design control systems for maximum performance
z Investigate sub synchronous resonance (SSR)
z Study the interaction between the SVC,HVDC links and other
non linear devices.
z Variable speed drives
z Industrial systems

## Typical studies- Power Quality

• Grounding methods
• Over-voltages due to switching
• Voltage sags
• Iron saturation – inrush
• Performance of FACTS devices
• Ferro resonance
• Active and passive filters
• Distributed generation
• Flicker
• Variable speed drives and related harmonics
• Industrial systems

components

## [i] = [Y] [v]

[i] – Node current injection matrix
[v] – Node voltage matrix

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## Example: How an inductance is modelled ?

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Integration of components
to form the system

z Compiles the circuit draft to form the FORTRAN file
z Defines the Y matrix (map file)

## a given time step

z EMTDC :
♦ Solves for node voltage based on Y and I values
♦ Increments the time step

z FILES :
♦ directory *.emt : contains data file, map file, line.* files, output files

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## PSCAD needs a Fortran Compiler to run:

z Compaq Visual Fortran V5 or V6 (Intel Fortran Compiler v9)
z The free
Th f GNU F77 compiler
il iis d
delivered
li d with
Limitations

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## Professional edition GNU Compaq

FORTRAN Visual
F77 FORTRAN
( V5 ou V6)
Electrical Nodes 200 Unlimited
Electrical branches 2000 Unlimited
Sub-pages
Sub pages 25 Unlimited
T-Lines/Cables 50 Unlimited
Transformers 70 Unlimited

Educational edition
Electrical Nodes 200
Electrical branches 2000
Sub-pages 25

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## Menu « Edit - Workspace

Settings »
z Fortran:
z Matlab:
and the corresponding libraries
Licensing info and installation
z Preferences:….

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## 1) Create or load a project

2) Select the components from the library
3) Define the components and connect them with wires
4) If needed,
d d prepare dynamic
d i control
t l devices
d i
5) Prepare plotting and metering tools
6) Parameterize the simulation => time step,
parameters...

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Create Projects

## z To create a new case: [File][New][Case]

or :

or :

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Activate Projects

## z To activate a project: Click on the project name then

[Set as active]: The project name becomes blue
 Only one project is active
 Only an active project can be run and saved

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## z All the PSCAD components are saved in the MASTER LIBRARY

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Define components

## z Component parameters Window (e.g: Synchronous machine)

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On Line Help

z Or directly click on
the [Help] button from
the dialog box of a
component
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On Line Help

z Detailed
information on:
♦ Master
Library
Models
♦ Solver
structure
♦ Index, etc.

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Measurement

## z In component parameters window, define a

name to measure internal variables:
(eg: Output voltage of 3 phase voltage source)

## z «Multimeter » component to measure:

v,i,P,Q,Vrms,theta…. anywhere in the model

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Plotting Devices

z Overlay Graphs

z Polygraphs

z Meters

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Plotting Curves/Metering

• Step 1 : Measurement

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Plotting Curves/Metering

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Plotting Curves

## •Step 3a : [Right Click] on the « Output channel » and :

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Plotting Curves
•Step 3b ( if the graph is already created) :

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Metering

## •Steps 1 & 2 are the same: Prepare the output Channel

•Step 3 : Select the « Control Panel » component

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Metering

## Then [Paste] on the

control Panel

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Plotting Curves/Metering

## •The « Output channel » component allows to define

characteristics for the display of the measured value : (Title, Scale
Factor, Unit,etc...

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## z Duration of the Simulation

z Solver Time Step
z Plotting Time Step

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## z In the project settings menu

« Save Channels to disk »:

## z Output files (text files) will be created in the *.emt directory

z Associated *.inf files can be directly opened in Livewire

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## •Possibility to change dynamically (during the simulation) the

values of parameters owing to several dynamic control devices:
•Slider:
•Switch:
•Push Button:
•Dial:

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control Panel

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Snapshot

## A Snapshot allows to launch a simulation having initial

conditions given by a previous simulation

## 1) Run a first initialization simulation until to reach the steady

state and save results in a snapshot file
2) Launch transient simulations starting from snapshot files

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## 1) First simulation: Standard Startup Method

2) Define the snapshot time & File and run the initialisation simulation

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## z To run several times consecutively one case with different values of

parameters
z To find the best parameter values or the « worst case » (fault study)
z Insert the following component directly in your project:

Measured values
Parameters of the
which will be
project which are
recorded in the
monitored in the
multiple run output
multiple solution
file *.out

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## Specify the parameters variation law of the monitored parameters

Type of variation:
list,sequential or random
Boolean, Real or
Integer ?
List of values

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## Specify the recorded quantities

Number
N b off recorded
d d
quantity Recorded quantity:integer,
real or boolean ?

## Data allowing to find the

optimal run
Possibility to record
Max(x),Min(x) or « x » itself

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## III Introduction on control

systems

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Variable parameters

## z Variable parameters in PSCAD:

♦ Control signals for Power electronic devices
♦ Control signals for Breakers and Faults
♦ Electrical quantities externally controlled
( eg: Voltage Source Magnitude, RLC values,…)
z Possibilities to design control systems with:
♦ mathematical function blocks
♦ sequencers
♦ user interactive control tools

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Control Blocks

## z Control system is defined by connecting:

♦ Constants and Time inputs
♦ Sinusoidal functions
♦ Comparators
♦ Transfer functions
♦ Min, max…
♦ Look up table
♦ Filters
♦ …..

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Control Blocks

z Example:

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Sequencers

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Breaker model

Low
o voltage
o tage display
d sp ay High
g Voltage
o tage display
d sp ay

## Low voltage display High Voltage display (single line)

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Breaker: Parameters

## Possibility to define pre and post insertion resistances

Single pole operation: possibility to operate each phase separately

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Breakers Control

## z Predefine the initial state and operation time in

the « Timed Breaker Logic » component:

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Fault model

## Three phase fault:

= 2 state switching resistors
RON,ROFF

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Fault control

## z Define the fault duration ant the time to apply

fault in the « Timed Fault Logic » component:

z Sequencers:

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Fault control

## If the option «external» control is selected,

the fault type can also be externally monitored:

## Fault type table :

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V Switching
g & Interpolation
p

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Semi-Conductors Models

Available Semi-conductors
Library :

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Semi-Conductors Models

Common representation of
semi_conductors: RON/ROFF
with parallel snubber circuit or
not

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Diode characteristic

Parameters:
z Ron/Roff values
z F
Forward
d Voltage
V lt Drop
D Value
V l
z Snubber Circuit Resistance & Capacitance

## Note: The reverse recovery time of the diode is assumed zero

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Thyristor characteristic

Parameters:
z Ron/Roff values
z Forward Voltage Drop Value
z The Forward Break-Over Voltage:
Device will be forced into conduction if this
voltage is exceeded (with or without a gate pulse) [kV]

## z The Reverse Withstand Voltage:

Device will be forced into conduction in the reverse direction
if this voltage is exceeded [kV]
z The minimum extinction Time (min of δt between Roff and Ron)

## z Snubber Circuit Resistance & Capacitance

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GTO/IGBT characteristic

## z Same characteristics as for the thyristor

z TURN OFF signal
i l to
t be
b monitored
it d

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& Time step

## z Control system need a small time step to switch at exact

instant :
=> « Interpolation method »

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Interpolation Method

y −y y
1 2 1
:=
y1 dt t
t1 1

t- dt t

y2

## Current crossing time t1 can be estimated

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Interpolation Method

4 6 5 7
1
t1
3 t

2 t

## 1 – ON 4 – OFF (new G matrix)

2 – ON (wrong) 5 – dt ahead from 4
3 – ON (interpolate 1 &2) 6 – interpolate 4 & 5

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Interpolation Method

## z Accuracy: Switching is made at the ‘exact’ instant

z F t Can
Fast: C b
be run att a llarger time
ti step
t and
d maintain
i t i
accurate results

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## Available in the PSCAD Master Library:

z Two different models for power Voltage Transformer:

##  «Classical» models: single and 3phase

 «UMEC» models: single and 3 phase

## z Current Transformers (JA Model, Lucas Model)

z Coupled capacitor voltage transformer
z Coactively coupled voltage transformer

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Classical Models

Classical models:

## z Single phase: 2 or 3 windings

z 3p
phase: 2,3
, or 4 windings,
g , autotransformers
z No mutual coupling between the 3 phases
=> equivalent to 3 single phase units

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Classical Models

## Representing transformers as coupled coils

z Self inductance: Leakage inductance & Magnetizing
inductance

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UMEC models

## Unified Magnetic Equivalent Circuit:

z Take the geometry of the core
into account (ly,lw,Ay,Aw)

## z Mutual coupling between the

different phases are
considered

## Equivalent to classical models but the inductances are

dependent of the core dimensions: Lij(ly,lw,Ay,Aw)

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UMEC models

## z Single Phase Models:

2,3 or 4 windings

## z Three Phase models:

2 windings/phase with
3 or 5 limbs

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Equivalent Circuit

## L1,L2: Positive Sequence Leakage reactance

L12 : Magnetizing Inductance
R1,R2: Copper Losses
Iron Losses : Shunt resistance with L12

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Parameters

## z Voltages levels at the primary and secondary side

( not only a ratio ! Important for p.u computations)
z Apparent Power (MVA)
z Wi di types
Winding t ( Y or )
z Possibility to modify dynamically the turns ratio during
simulation as a « Tap changer »

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Parameters

p test))

(i.e / Zbase ) :
Zbase=V1*V2 / Sn
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« Ideal Model »

## 'Ideal' means that the

magnetizing branch has
been eliminated in the
equivalent circuit:

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## 1) Very small magnetizing current ( << 1%)

=> numerically more efficient and stable to neglect the
magnetizing inductance in the equivalent circuit

## 2) To consider non linearities in the core, useful for:

 Harmonic distorsion studies
 Transformer inrush studies
 Ferroresonance phenomena studies

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Representing saturation

## In PSCAD, saturation is represented with a compensating

current source injection across the selected winding

## The magnetizing branch is

replaced by a non linear
magnetizing current source

λ

Mag. Current

Im1 Im2 79

Saturation in Classical
approach

## User define parameters for the curve V (Is):

z Knee voltage (generally 1.15 to 1.25 pu)
z Slope: Air core reactance (generally
2*leakage reactance)
z Dynamic
y a c pa
parameters
a ete s ((Timee co
constants)
sta ts)

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VII Rotating

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Introduction to Electric
Machines
• Induction Machine:
• 2 models: Squirell Cage and Wound Rotor

Magnet model

## • Full model of exciters and power system stabilizers can be

associated to synchronous machine

## • Turbine and Governors ( Steam, Hydro, Wind) models can be

connected to the machine :
• To compute precisely the mechanical effects
• Multi-mass Model: to model Shaft Torsional effect
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## Electric Machine Simulation

Represented as a system of coupled coils
z eg: Salient pole synchronous machine – 6 coils

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## [i] = [Y] [v]

=> Requires that [L] be inverted at each time step
=> Slow and computational
p inefficiency
y

## The inductance matrix is converted from the ‘a-b-c

phase reference frame’ to d-q-0 frame: Park Transformation
z Mathematical transformation

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## z In a form suitable to be used in d-q based models:

 “Generator
Generator data format
format”:: Classical parameters :
Reactances and Time constants:
D axis: Xd,X’d,X’’d,T’d0,T’’d0

Qaxis: Xq,X’q,X’’q,T’q0,T’’q0

## “Equivalent circuit data format”: Reactances and

Resistances for d-axis and q-axis equivalent circuit

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## z Interaction of the electrical and mechanical systems

=> Multimass model connected to Synchronous generator

## w1 + D1⋅ w1 + D12⋅ ( w1 − w1)

d
T12 − Te := J1⋅
dt

T12 := k12⋅ ( θ 2 − θ 1)

## k12⋅ ( θ 2 − θ 1) − Te − D1⋅ w1 := J1⋅

d
w1
dt
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Synchronous machine
initialization process
• To quickly and smoothly reach the steady state at a desired working point,
user can :
♦ Start the machine in « normal mode » but user has to set the proper
inital conditions: P0,Q0,Ef0,Tm0

## ♦ Or use the initialization process implemented in PSCAD:

1) Start the machine as a voltage source:
Define V0 and 0 corresponding to the desired working point
(P = 3*E*V* Sin /X), the corresponding Ef0 is computed by PSCAD
2) Then, enable the machine at locked rotor: Ef0 is now an input for
the machine exciter, the corresponding Tm0 is computed
3) Then, enable the machine in « normal » mode, Tm0 is now an
input, the machine mechanical dynamics is enable

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## VIII Transmission Lines & PSCAD

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Transmission Lines

## Selection of a suitable model:

z Available data: Geometric data or Parameters
z Speed of simulation: Time step
z Li length:
Line l th From
F severall meters
t to
t hundred
h d d off Kms
K
z Type of study: Fast transient, Low transient, RMS
z Accuracy

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Representing
Transmission Lines
Equivalent circuit model:

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R,L

## Travel time became small

To use for very short lines (compared to time step)
up to several Kms
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## Travelling wave models:

z Propagation delay between sending end and receiving end
z From several to hundred of Kms

## z Bergeron Model: Accurate at a single frequency

=> for Rms or low transient studies (fault analysis)

## zFrequency dependent models:

accounts for the changes in line parameters due to frequency
- Phase model : Most accurate model available
- Mode model: Older model (available for PSCAD V2
compatibility)

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## Travelling wave models

User represents:
z The geometry of the corridor
z Sag, ground wires
z Conductor
Co ducto resistivity
es st ty
z Ground resistivity

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## Before the global simulation of the system, the parameters of the

lines are computed : Line Constans Programs
z Compute equivalent Shunt admittance Y and Series impedance Z
z Reduced to Nth order Transfer functions
z Curve Fitting for the frequency spectrum chosen by user

## For Bergeron model,

Manual entry is possible:

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IX User Component
p

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EMTDC:
Simplified Solving Process

t0
Master DYNamics Subroutine DSDYN

Network Solution

t1 =t0+δt
OUTput Subroutine DSOUT

## Output plots (meters, graphs)

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EMTDC:
Simplified Solving Process

## DSDYN: Solves control systems which will be used for the

electrical network drive at the same time step

## DSOUT: Same structure as DSDYN but specific use:

z Solves control systems which will be used for the electrical
network drive at the following time step
z Computes quantities to be displayed in Meters & Graphs

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structure

## 1) Possibility to solve cases even if there is no electrical circuits

(only control blocks): only DSDYN& DSOUT subroutines are
used

2) User
U code
d directly
di tl inserted
i t d in
i DSDYN or DSOUT sections:
ti
possibility to use all the existing EMTDC subroutines in order
to design custom components easier

## 3) With the judicious use of DSDYN or DSOUT, user can decide

to calculate control dynamics using pre or post solution
quantities and avoid unnecessary time step delays

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Create a component:
General Steps

1) Create a library
2) Define the interface of the component
4) Define the Code

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## Then save it, open the

file and create your
components

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## The component wizard is opening:

Indicate:
z The name of the component

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## Create the component

Indicate:
z The connection name
z The type of the
connection: Electrical or
C t l quantity
Control tit (input
(i t or
output)
z The type of the data:
Logical, Real, Integer
z The dimension (can be an
array of several values)

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Confirm...

## ... then you obtain something like this:

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« Edit Definition »

the « component workshop »,
then select the tab « parameters

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## Define « New control »

Then, choose the type of variable that the user will have
the possibility to enter:
z Text
z Input Field (one value)
z Choice Box

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Specify:
z The elements to be
displayed in the parameter
box (size, title, default
value…..)
z The data type

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## If several parameters are created, it is possible to edit or

modify each ones in selecting the corresponding name in
the drop list

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syntax
script)

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Segments

## z Fortran: Design code or call subroutines defined in external *.f files

z Branch: To design electrical branches containing R,L or C
z Computations: for precomputations (compiled only at the first time step)
z DSDYN: Fortran code forced in the DSDYN sections,
z DSDOUT Fortran
DSDOUT: F t code
d forced
f d in
i the
th DSDOUT sections
ti
z Transformers: Syntax adapted to simply design mutual impedance matrix
z Checks:
z T-Lines:
z etc….

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## The STORx arrays are storage vectors allowing to store

variables at a precise location:

## z STORI,STORF,STORL,STORC for integer, real, logical or

complex
p data

z Useful if :
• A variable needs to be available for another time step
• A variable needs to be used in another subroutine

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## To use STORx arrays need to increment the corresponding

NSTORx pointers:
z NSTORI, NSTORF, NSTORL, NSTORC
z Example:
Retrieve values from STORF: Xa = STORF(NSTORF)
Save values in STORF : STORF(NSTORF) = Xb
Increment the pointers: NSTORF = NSTORF + 1

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X Organizing
g g the Worksheet

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Create sub_page

## When the project becomes enough large, it is interesting

to sudivide it into several pages organized in an
arborescent structure:

Main Page

Subpage 1 Subpage2

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Create sub_page

## Operating Mode: Step 1

[Right Click] in the main page, the following menu
appears:

component »

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Create sub_page

## Step 2: The component wizard is opening:

Indicate:
• the name of the sub-
page

•The number of
connections between the
sub_page and the main
page
•Tick « Page Module

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Create sub_page

Step 3:
Indicate:
•The connection name
•The type of the connection:
Electrical or Control q
quantity
y
(input or output)
•The type of the data:
Logical, Real, Integer
•The dimension (can be an
array of several values)

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Create sub_page

Step 4 :
Confirm and …….that ’s finished !!

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Create sub_page

## The electrical connections

between a sub_page and the
maini page are realized
li d with
ith the
th
following component called
External Electrical Node :

Note : This electrical node must have the same name as the one
declared during the sub_page creation

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Create sub_page

## Control quantities defined in

the main page (declared as
input during the connection
d fi iti ) has
definition) h to
t be
b imported
i t d
in the sub_page with the
«IMPORT» component

Notes:
1) Above, the imported value is an array of 4 reals
2) Similarly, we use the « export » component to export outputs
in the main page
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g

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General features

## •Cosimulation: Possibility to integrate Matlab files and all

project
•General organization:
•1) Call Matlab files (*.m) or Simulink files (*.mdl) from
•2) Need to define a user_component to interfacing
•3) Both Matlab 5or 6 and a Digital Fortran 90 compiler
should be installed on your PC

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## Need to define a user_component to

Variable
defined in the Output of the
PSCAD circuit *.m file, sent to
PSCAD data to a *.mdl file project

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Operating Mode

## Step 1: Design the title & connections as any other user

component with the PSCAD component Wizard
Step2 : Good Advice ! Parameterize the Name of the Matlab
p
file and the correspondingg path,
p , then,, the user_component
p
will be more flexible & able to call other files

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Operating Mode

## 2) Allocate Memory : Exemple with a case with 2 real

inputs A&B and 1 integer ouput C:
#STORAGE REAL:2 INTEGER:1

## 3)Transfer the input variable to STORF (real) / STORI

(integer) arrays :
STORF(NSTORF) = \$A
STORF(NSTORF+1) = \$B

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Operating Mode

## 4) Call the Matlab Subroutine:

CALL MLAB_INT (« \$Path », « \$Name », « I R(31) », « R »)

## 5) Transfer Output variable from STORF/STORI arrays into

\$C = STORI(NSTORI)

## 6) Increment the NSTORF & NSTORI index pointers:

NSTORF = NSTORF + 2
NSTORI = NSTORI + 1

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## Need to define a user _component to

Variable
defined in the Output of the
PSCAD circuit *.mdl file, sent to
PSCAD data to a *.mdl file project

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Operating Mode

## 2)You do not need to transfer Output variable from

STORF/STORI arrays

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