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SIMULATOR

Copyright 2005

INTRODUCTORY TRAINING COURSE

SUMMARY

I General Features

II First steps with PSCAD

III Introduction on control systems

IV Breakers & Faults

V Switching & Interpolation

VI Transformers in PSCAD

VII Rotating Machines in PSCAD

VIII Transmission Lines & PSCAD

IX User Component

X Organizing the Worksheet

XI Matlab Interface

2

I General Features

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Electro-Magnetic Transients = PSCAD

z Each solution based on z Direct time domain solution of

phasor calculations Differential Equations

z Sequential time domain z Trapezoidal integration

calculations

I R L

⎛ dI ⎞

V (t ) = [I ( t ) × R ] + ⎜ L ⎟

⎝ dt ⎠

Selection of

Simulation Tools

Stability/Load Flow Tools

(Time Solutions)

(Phasor Solutions)

z Valid only for Steady State z Valid Over a Wide

and Low Frequency Swings Frequency Range

z Simplified Controls z Detailed Analog and Digital

(approximated as S Controls

functions) z Detailed Switching of

z Steady State Equations for Thyristors, Diodes, GTO’s

HVDC z Harmonics

z Efficient for Large Systems z Transient Overvoltages,

Lightning Impulses

z Machine Dynamics

z Transient solution

Harmonics

Non-linearities

Frequency dependent

effects

RMS Value

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Typical studies

breaker operation

z Over voltages due to lightening strikes

z Find the harmonics generated by Power electronic devices

(SVC,HVDC link, STATCOM, Machine drives)

z Tune and design control systems for maximum performance

z Investigate sub synchronous resonance (SSR)

z Study the interaction between the SVC,HVDC links and other

non linear devices.

z Variable speed drives

z Industrial systems

• Grounding methods

• Over-voltages due to switching

• Voltage sags

• Iron saturation – inrush

• Performance of FACTS devices

• Ferro resonance

• Active and passive filters

• Distributed generation

• Flicker

• Variable speed drives and related harmonics

• Industrial systems

components

Admittance matrix based

[i] – Node current injection matrix

[v] – Node voltage matrix

[Y] – System Admittance matrix

3

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10

Integration of components

to form the system

PSCAD

z Compiles the circuit draft to form the FORTRAN file

z Defines the Y matrix (map file)

z EMTDC :

♦ Solves for node voltage based on Y and I values

♦ Increments the time step

z FILES :

♦ PSCAD shematics: *.psc file

♦ directory *.emt : contains data file, map file, line.* files, output files

11

PSCAD: Specifications

z Compaq Visual Fortran V5 or V6 (Intel Fortran Compiler v9)

z The free

Th f GNU F77 compiler

il iis d

delivered

li d with

ith PSCAD:

PSCAD

Limitations

12

4

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PSCAD: Limits

FORTRAN Visual

F77 FORTRAN

( V5 ou V6)

Electrical Nodes 200 Unlimited

Electrical branches 2000 Unlimited

Sub-pages

Sub pages 25 Unlimited

T-Lines/Cables 50 Unlimited

Transformers 70 Unlimited

Educational edition

Electrical Nodes 200

Electrical branches 2000

Sub-pages 25

13

14

PSCAD Workspace

15

5

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Settings »

z Fortran:

Select your FORTRAN compiler

z Matlab:

Choose your MATLAB version

and the corresponding libraries

z License:

Licensing info and installation

z Preferences:….

16

2) Select the components from the library

3) Define the components and connect them with wires

4) If needed,

d d prepare dynamic

d i control

t l devices

d i

5) Prepare plotting and metering tools

6) Parameterize the simulation => time step,

parameters...

17

Create Projects

or :

or :

18

6

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Activate Projects

[Set as active]: The project name becomes blue

Only one project is active

Only an active project can be run and saved

19

20

Define components

21

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On Line Help

z [Help][Table of Contents]

z Or directly click on

the [Help] button from

the dialog box of a

component

22

On Line Help

z Detailed

information on:

♦ Master

Library

Models

♦ Solver

structure

♦ Index, etc.

23

Measurement

name to measure internal variables:

(eg: Output voltage of 3 phase voltage source)

v,i,P,Q,Vrms,theta…. anywhere in the model

24

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Plotting Devices

z Overlay Graphs

z Polygraphs

z Meters

25

Plotting Curves/Metering

• Step 1 : Measurement

26

Plotting Curves/Metering

link with the measured value

27

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Plotting Curves

28

Plotting Curves

•Step 3b ( if the graph is already created) :

29

Metering

•Step 3 : Select the « Control Panel » component

30

10

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Metering

control Panel

31

Plotting Curves/Metering

characteristics for the display of the measured value : (Title, Scale

Factor, Unit,etc...

32

z Solver Time Step

z Plotting Time Step

33

11

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34

« Save Channels to disk »:

z Associated *.inf files can be directly opened in Livewire

(offline PSCAD post processor)

35

values of parameters owing to several dynamic control devices:

•Slider:

•Switch:

•Push Button:

•Dial:

36

12

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37

38

39

13

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control Panel

40

Snapshot

conditions given by a previous simulation

state and save results in a snapshot file

2) Launch transient simulations starting from snapshot files

41

2) Define the snapshot time & File and run the initialisation simulation

42

14

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parameters

z To find the best parameter values or the « worst case » (fault study)

z Insert the following component directly in your project:

Measured values

Parameters of the

which will be

project which are

recorded in the

monitored in the

multiple run output

multiple solution

file *.out

43

Type of variation:

list,sequential or random

Boolean, Real or

Integer ?

List of values

44

Number

N b off recorded

d d

quantity Recorded quantity:integer,

real or boolean ?

optimal run

Possibility to record

Max(x),Min(x) or « x » itself

45

15

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systems

46

Variable parameters

♦ Control signals for Power electronic devices

♦ Control signals for Breakers and Faults

♦ Electrical quantities externally controlled

( eg: Voltage Source Magnitude, RLC values,…)

z Possibilities to design control systems with:

♦ mathematical function blocks

♦ sequencers

♦ user interactive control tools

47

Control Blocks

♦ Constants and Time inputs

♦ Sinusoidal functions

♦ Comparators

♦ Transfer functions

♦ Min, max…

♦ Look up table

♦ Filters

♦ …..

48

16

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Control Blocks

z Example:

49

Sequencers

50

51

17

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Breaker model

Low

o voltage

o tage display

d sp ay High

g Voltage

o tage display

d sp ay

52

Breaker: Parameters

Single pole operation: possibility to operate each phase separately

53

Breakers Control

the « Timed Breaker Logic » component:

54

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Fault model

= 2 state switching resistors

RON,ROFF

55

Fault control

fault in the « Timed Fault Logic » component:

z Sequencers:

56

Fault control

the fault type can also be externally monitored:

57

19

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V Switching

g & Interpolation

p

58

Semi-Conductors Models

Available Semi-conductors

models in the PSCAD Master

Library :

59

Semi-Conductors Models

Common representation of

semi_conductors: RON/ROFF

with parallel snubber circuit or

not

60

20

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Diode characteristic

Parameters:

z Ron/Roff values

z F

Forward

d Voltage

V lt Drop

D Value

V l

z Snubber Circuit Resistance & Capacitance

61

Thyristor characteristic

Parameters:

z Ron/Roff values

z Forward Voltage Drop Value

z The Forward Break-Over Voltage:

Device will be forced into conduction if this

voltage is exceeded (with or without a gate pulse) [kV]

Device will be forced into conduction in the reverse direction

if this voltage is exceeded [kV]

z The minimum extinction Time (min of δt between Roff and Ron)

62

GTO/IGBT characteristic

z TURN OFF signal

i l to

t be

b monitored

it d

63

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& Time step

instant :

=> « Interpolation method »

64

Interpolation Method

y −y y

1 2 1

:=

y1 dt t

t1 1

t- dt t

y2

65

Interpolation Method

4 6 5 7

1

t1

3 t

2 t

2 – ON (wrong) 5 – dt ahead from 4

3 – ON (interpolate 1 &2) 6 – interpolate 4 & 5

66

22

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Interpolation Method

z F t Can

Fast: C b

be run att a llarger time

ti step

t and

d maintain

i t i

accurate results

67

VI Transformers in PSCAD

68

z Two different models for power Voltage Transformer:

«UMEC» models: single and 3 phase

z Coupled capacitor voltage transformer

z Coactively coupled voltage transformer

69

23

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Classical Models

Classical models:

z 3p

phase: 2,3

, or 4 windings,

g , autotransformers

z No mutual coupling between the 3 phases

=> equivalent to 3 single phase units

70

Classical Models

z Mutual inductance: Flux linkage

z Self inductance: Leakage inductance & Magnetizing

inductance

71

UMEC models

z Take the geometry of the core

into account (ly,lw,Ay,Aw)

different phases are

considered

dependent of the core dimensions: Lij(ly,lw,Ay,Aw)

72

24

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UMEC models

2,3 or 4 windings

2 windings/phase with

3 or 5 limbs

73

Equivalent Circuit

L12 : Magnetizing Inductance

R1,R2: Copper Losses

Iron Losses : Shunt resistance with L12

74

Parameters

( not only a ratio ! Important for p.u computations)

z Apparent Power (MVA)

z Wi di types

Winding t ( Y or )

z Possibility to modify dynamically the turns ratio during

simulation as a « Tap changer »

75

25

13/02/2010

Parameters

p test))

(i.e / Zbase ) :

Zbase=V1*V2 / Sn

76

« Ideal Model »

magnetizing branch has

been eliminated in the

equivalent circuit:

77

=> numerically more efficient and stable to neglect the

magnetizing inductance in the equivalent circuit

Harmonic distorsion studies

Transformer inrush studies

Ferroresonance phenomena studies

78

26

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Representing saturation

current source injection across the selected winding

replaced by a non linear

magnetizing current source

Flux linkage

λ

Mag. Current

Im1 Im2 79

Saturation in Classical

approach

z Knee voltage (generally 1.15 to 1.25 pu)

z Slope: Air core reactance (generally

2*leakage reactance)

z Dynamic

y a c pa

parameters

a ete s ((Timee co

constants)

sta ts)

80

VII Rotating

g Machines in PSCAD

81

27

13/02/2010

Introduction to Electric

Machines

• Induction Machine:

• 2 models: Squirell Cage and Wound Rotor

Magnet model

associated to synchronous machine

connected to the machine :

• To compute precisely the mechanical effects

• Multi-mass Model: to model Shaft Torsional effect

82

Represented as a system of coupled coils

z eg: Salient pole synchronous machine – 6 coils

83

=> Requires that [L] be inverted at each time step

=> Slow and computational

p inefficiency

y

phase reference frame’ to d-q-0 frame: Park Transformation

z Mathematical transformation

84

28

13/02/2010

“Generator

Generator data format

format”:: Classical parameters :

Reactances and Time constants:

D axis: Xd,X’d,X’’d,T’d0,T’’d0

Qaxis: Xq,X’q,X’’q,T’q0,T’’q0

Resistances for d-axis and q-axis equivalent circuit

85

=> Multimass model connected to Synchronous generator

d

T12 − Te := J1⋅

dt

T12 := k12⋅ ( θ 2 − θ 1)

d

w1

dt

86

Synchronous machine

initialization process

• To quickly and smoothly reach the steady state at a desired working point,

user can :

♦ Start the machine in « normal mode » but user has to set the proper

inital conditions: P0,Q0,Ef0,Tm0

1) Start the machine as a voltage source:

Define V0 and 0 corresponding to the desired working point

(P = 3*E*V* Sin /X), the corresponding Ef0 is computed by PSCAD

2) Then, enable the machine at locked rotor: Ef0 is now an input for

the machine exciter, the corresponding Tm0 is computed

3) Then, enable the machine in « normal » mode, Tm0 is now an

input, the machine mechanical dynamics is enable

87

29

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88

Transmission Lines

z Available data: Geometric data or Parameters

z Speed of simulation: Time step

z Li length:

Line l th From

F severall meters

t to

t hundred

h d d off Kms

K

z Type of study: Fast transient, Low transient, RMS

z Accuracy

89

Representing

Transmission Lines

Equivalent circuit model:

90

30

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R,L

To use for very short lines (compared to time step)

up to several Kms

91

z Propagation delay between sending end and receiving end

z From several to hundred of Kms

=> for Rms or low transient studies (fault analysis)

accounts for the changes in line parameters due to frequency

- Phase model : Most accurate model available

- Mode model: Older model (available for PSCAD V2

compatibility)

92

User represents:

z The geometry of the corridor

z Sag, ground wires

z Conductor

Co ducto resistivity

es st ty

z Ground resistivity

93

31

13/02/2010

lines are computed : Line Constans Programs

z Compute equivalent Shunt admittance Y and Series impedance Z

z Reduced to Nth order Transfer functions

z Curve Fitting for the frequency spectrum chosen by user

Manual entry is possible:

94

IX User Component

p

95

EMTDC:

Simplified Solving Process

t0

Master DYNamics Subroutine DSDYN

Network Solution

t1 =t0+δt

OUTput Subroutine DSOUT

96

32

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EMTDC:

Simplified Solving Process

electrical network drive at the same time step

z Solves control systems which will be used for the electrical

network drive at the following time step

z Computes quantities to be displayed in Meters & Graphs

97

structure

(only control blocks): only DSDYN& DSOUT subroutines are

used

2) User

U code

d directly

di tl inserted

i t d in

i DSDYN or DSOUT sections:

ti

possibility to use all the existing EMTDC subroutines in order

to design custom components easier

to calculate control dynamics using pre or post solution

quantities and avoid unnecessary time step delays

98

Create a component:

General Steps

1) Create a library

2) Define the interface of the component

3) Parameterize your component

4) Define the Code

99

33

13/02/2010

file and create your

components

100

Indicate:

z The name of the component

101

Indicate:

z The connection name

z The type of the

connection: Electrical or

C t l quantity

Control tit (input

(i t or

output)

z The type of the data:

Logical, Real, Integer

z The dimension (can be an

array of several values)

102

34

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Confirm...

103

« Edit Definition »

the « component workshop »,

then select the tab « parameters

104

of your parameter

105

35

13/02/2010

Then, choose the type of variable that the user will have

the possibility to enter:

z Text

z Input Field (one value)

z Choice Box

106

Specify:

z The elements to be

displayed in the parameter

box (size, title, default

value…..)

z The data type

107

modify each ones in selecting the corresponding name in

the drop list

108

36

13/02/2010

syntax

(based on Fortran & PSCAD

script)

109

Segments

z Branch: To design electrical branches containing R,L or C

z Computations: for precomputations (compiled only at the first time step)

z DSDYN: Fortran code forced in the DSDYN sections,

z DSDOUT Fortran

DSDOUT: F t code

d forced

f d in

i the

th DSDOUT sections

ti

z Transformers: Syntax adapted to simply design mutual impedance matrix

z Checks:

z T-Lines:

z etc….

110

variables at a precise location:

complex

p data

z Useful if :

• A variable needs to be available for another time step

• A variable needs to be used in another subroutine

111

37

13/02/2010

NSTORx pointers:

z NSTORI, NSTORF, NSTORL, NSTORC

z Example:

Retrieve values from STORF: Xa = STORF(NSTORF)

Save values in STORF : STORF(NSTORF) = Xb

Increment the pointers: NSTORF = NSTORF + 1

112

X Organizing

g g the Worksheet

113

Create sub_page

to sudivide it into several pages organized in an

arborescent structure:

Main Page

Subpage 1 Subpage2

114

38

13/02/2010

Create sub_page

[Right Click] in the main page, the following menu

appears:

component »

115

Create sub_page

Indicate:

• the name of the sub-

page

•The number of

connections between the

sub_page and the main

page

•Tick « Page Module

116

Create sub_page

Step 3:

Indicate:

•The connection name

•The type of the connection:

Electrical or Control q

quantity

y

(input or output)

•The type of the data:

Logical, Real, Integer

•The dimension (can be an

array of several values)

117

39

13/02/2010

Create sub_page

Step 4 :

Confirm and …….that ’s finished !!

118

Create sub_page

between a sub_page and the

maini page are realized

li d with

ith the

th

following component called

External Electrical Node :

Note : This electrical node must have the same name as the one

declared during the sub_page creation

119

Create sub_page

the main page (declared as

input during the connection

d fi iti ) has

definition) h to

t be

b imported

i t d

in the sub_page with the

«IMPORT» component

Notes:

1) Above, the imported value is an array of 4 reals

2) Similarly, we use the « export » component to export outputs

in the main page

120

40

13/02/2010

XI MATLAB-Simulink interfacing

g

121

Matlab/Simulink Interfacing:

General features

the functionnalities of Simulink toolboxes in a PSCAD

project

•General organization:

•1) Call Matlab files (*.m) or Simulink files (*.mdl) from

the PSCAD workshhet

•2) Need to define a user_component to interfacing

PSCAD & Matlab/Simulink

•3) Both Matlab 5or 6 and a Digital Fortran 90 compiler

should be installed on your PC

122

interface PSCAD & MATLAB :

Variable

defined in the Output of the

PSCAD circuit *.m file, sent to

User_component: Send the PSCAD

PSCAD data to a *.mdl file project

123

41

13/02/2010

Operating Mode

component with the PSCAD component Wizard

Step2 : Good Advice ! Parameterize the Name of the Matlab

p

file and the correspondingg path,

p , then,, the user_component

p

will be more flexible & able to call other files

124

Operating Mode

inputs A&B and 1 integer ouput C:

#STORAGE REAL:2 INTEGER:1

(integer) arrays :

STORF(NSTORF) = $A

STORF(NSTORF+1) = $B

125

Operating Mode

CALL MLAB_INT (« $Path », « $Name », « I R(31) », « R »)

the PSCAD output connection node:

$C = STORI(NSTORI)

NSTORF = NSTORF + 2

NSTORI = NSTORI + 1

126

42

13/02/2010

interface PSCAD & SIMULINK :

Variable

defined in the Output of the

PSCAD circuit *.mdl file, sent to

User_component: Send the PSCAD

PSCAD data to a *.mdl file project

127

Operating Mode

STORF/STORI arrays

128

43

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