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A GUIDE TO LEARNING

HIRAGANA
AND

KATAKANA

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A GUIDE TO LEARNING

HIRAGANA
AND

KATAKANA
Kenneth G. Henshall with Tetsuo Takagaki

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CHARLES E. TUTTLE COMPANY
Rutland, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan

Published by the Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. of Rutland, Vermont and Tokyo, Japan with editorial offices at 2-6 Suido l-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112

© 1990 by Charles E. Tuttle Publishing Co., Inc.
All rights reserved LCC Card No. 90-70374 ISBN 0-8048-1633-8 First edition, 1990 Sixth printing, 1997

Printed in Singapore

ko Practice sa .n Mini Review ra .ko Mini Review a .yo Mini Review rna .to Practice na .to Practice na .ho Practice rna .to Mini Review sa .n Voiced and Half-Voiced Sounds Review of Voiced and Half-Voiced Sounds Review of Double Vowels and Consonants Combined Sounds Review of Combined Sounds Review through Place Names and Period Names General Review PART II: KATAKANA Practice a .n Voiced and Half-Voiced Sounds Review of Voiced and Half-Voiced Sounds Combined Sounds Review of Combined Sounds and Double Consonants Review through International Place Names 7 9 17 19 24 26 31 33 38 40 44 46 50 52 54 57 59 61 63 65 69 71 81 83 96 98 100 102 104 106 .to Mini Review a .yo Practice ra .n Mini Review na .CONTENTS How to Use This Book An Explanation of Kana PART I: HIRAGANA Practice a .ho Mini Review na .

PART TIl: FINAL REVIEW About Japan Food Items Quiz Flora and Fauna Quiz Personal Names Quiz Kana Word Search Quiz Answers Do-It-Yourself Kana Charts The lroha Verse 109 111 113 114 115 116 117 118 120 6 .

as this will allow for erasing and repeated use. on other points to note. and the conventions of usage. Though all the information about kana is grouped together in this one section for ease of reference. Part I of the workbook section then systematically introduces each hiragana symbol. This may be of interest to readers wishing to continue their studies of written Japanese to an advanced level. We suggest working in pencil. (Just ask any Japanese child!) We recommend that the student start work on the hiragana practice pages after reading the first three subsections on the function. and basic sounds of kana. it is not expected that the student will read it all before starting on the practice pages. just prior to the final review. origin. Part II does the same for katakana. Stroke order and a pronunciation guide are also given for each symbol. The final subsection. is mostly concerned with special katakana combinations and can be left until the appropriate point in the katakana practice pages. for each symbol there is an illustration of its graphic evolution from its "parent" character (see Explanation of Kana) and a reference number for that character as it occurs in A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters (Charles E. 1988). and combination. which contains everything the student will need to know about the two kana systems of hiragana and katakana.HOW TO USE THIS BOOK The main aim of this book is to help students achieve competence in reading and writing kana. some of the original characters are no longer commonly used and therefore are not included in A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters. The book starts with a section entitled An Explanation of Kana. In addition. and provides ample practice and review. while Part III provides an overall review. In the practice pages of Parts I and II each kana symbol is allotted half a page. voiced form.) 7 . which is not really the case at all. the phonetic symbols that are fundamental to written Japanese. to do so might give the impression that kana are perhaps rather formidable. Students may modify this order. the difference between the two kana systems. then work through the rest of the hiragana practice pages before moving on to the katakana practice. the various sounds. (However. permitting plenty of writing practice in the boxes given. but we recommend fmishing practice of one kana system before moving on to the next. rather than ink. In fact. It attempts to be detailed and thorough so that it can be used for reference at any stage. the combinations. After fmishing practice of the forty-six basic hiragana symbols the student should go back to the Explanation and read the subsection on additional sounds. Tuttle Company. The Explanation of Kana outlines the function and origin of kana. together with the character's pronunciation.

Part III. practice makes perfect! 8 . Readers will occasionally encounter a semicolon between English equivalents given for a Japanese review word. whenever possible. (Commas between English words simply indicate nuances of the same word. have particular relevance to Japanese culture." for example. About half of the 450 or so vocabulary items in the book fall into this category. this time using whole words. It is beyond the scope of the book to explain these in detail. The English words separated by a semicolon thus refer to different Japanese words sharing the same kana form. contains exercises. Also. Finally. The words appearing in the reviews have been carefully chosen in keeping with an additional aim of this book. as is natural in Japanese texts. the Final Review. In short." which cannot be determined from the kana or romanization. The Japanese "r. or. but when expressed in phonetic kana script or romanization such differentiation is not possible. but we thought it would be helpful to students if in addition these words could. These are cumulative. quizzes. Normally these homophones would be written with different characters. with both speaking and writing. Unlike the reviews in the first two parts it combines the two kana systems. containing symbols not only from the group just completed but from earlier groups. actually falls between the English "r" and "d" But remember that. that is. This indicates that the Japanese word is a homophone.After approximately every ten symbols there are "mini review" pages for further practice. as more challenging writing exercises. by covering the cue kana on the left side of the page. It should be appreciated that the pronunciation guides given in this book can only ever be approximate. rather than simply memorized as isolated vocabulary items. owing to the variety in pronunciation of the same English word in different parts of the world.) It should also be noted that there is sometimes a subtle difference in intonation between "homophones. but students who take the trouble to find out more about them will be rewarded with a broadened appreciation of Japan's society and culture. readers are advised to seek specialist or native-speaker guidance on intonation and pronunciation. which is to expose readers to key words related to Japanese society and culture. The mini reviews can be used purely for copying practice. we intend that these words should be used as a sort of checklist for an exploration of Japan. And for a more natural effect the boxes used earlier in the book to help achieve even spacing and proper stroke lengths are dispensed with in this final part. and "do-it-yourself' charts. some Japanese sounds cannot be precisely represented by English letters. They can also be used as vocabulary exercises. The prime criterion for selecting review words was their suitability for practicing the kana symbols. a word having a different meaning but the same sound as another.

adjectives. and this is usually written with a kanji. 9 . Katakana is now mainly used for words taken from languages other than Chinese. and adverbs. That is. but know the pronunciation. and is used for everything not written in katakana or kanji. And naturally. Kanji show meanings of words. unlike a purely phonetic script. Kana. The student of Japanese should ideally aim to learn all the two thousand kanji in common use. For example. and thereby aid rapid understanding. that is. and. though they also have pronunciations. though in practice the written language uses a mixture of kana and kanji (characters taken from Chinese). they are written representations of pronunciation. kana (hiragana) can substitute for kanji. If you don't know the kanji for a particular word. the verb iku means "go. they have fixed pronunciations." The stem is i-. They playa very practical role in graphically and distinctively conveying the meaning of a written statement." while ikanai means "not go. and other words where kanji are not appropriate.AN EXPLANATION OF KANA The Function of Kana Kana are purely phonetic symbols. while not ideal. with very few exceptions. However. Hiragana is also used to write particles. are much fewer in number. and many have a wide range of meanings and pronunciations. and are rarely mixed within a given word. There are two kana systems: katakana and hiragana. In other words. no one can expect to read unedited Japanese texts without a knowledge of kanji. Hiragana is the more important of the two systems. on the other hand. hiragana and kanji for the rest. while the variable endings -ku and -kanai are written in hiragana. They are simple to write. This means that even beginners can express themselves in functional written Japanese with relatively little effort. Many of them are structurally complex. you can just express that entire word in kana (hiragana. The rule is: katakana for non-Chinese loan words. They can express the entire Japanese language in writing. while hiragana symbols are used for the changing parts (notably endings). with only forty-six basic symbols in each of the two systems. learning the kanji is a time-consuming task. Normally they are used for nouns and the the unchanging part (the stem) of verbs. remember that katakana is for non-Chinese foreign words). To all intents and purposes the two kana systems are not interchangeable.

and the kana systems are therefore syllabaries rather than alphabets." and in this particular case "cursive." Similar cases of convenient but seemingly irregular romanization are found in the s group and t group. the same characters lent their meaning in other contexts). confusingly." Thus hiragana means "ordinary (cursive) kana. but readers should appreciate that there is no direct equivalent in Japanese to an English "f. the kana ~ (pronounced like the "a" in "car") derives from a cursive rendition of the character ~ (pronounced "an"). However. Generally the syllables are crisp and clear combinations of one consonant and one following vowel. For example. !{ (pronounced like "ee" in "meet") is the left-hand part of the character (also pronounced "ee").means "ordinary. these associations have long since disappeared." for the kana symbols are simplified forms of certain borrowed Chinese characters used for their sound (though. Among other things a combination of consonant and vowel in Japanese will not necessarily have the same pronunciation as in English. is found in the h group (see the table that follows)." pointing to the fact that katakana symbols derive from one part of a Chinese character." and indeed hiragana has traditionally been the more commonly used of the two systems. In those early days hiragana was used mostly by women.means "one side" or "partial. There is only one consonant that exists as a syllable and kana symbol in its own right.~.The Origin or Kana The word kana derives from karina. The use of English letters to refer to Japanese sounds and symbols can produce a number of apparent irregularities. The Basic Sounds Represented by Kana Kana symbols basically represent syllables. For example. For example. which transcribes ". The hira- gana symbols are simplifications of whole Chinese characters. n. meaning "borrowed name. The prefix hira. Attempts to express certain loan words in katakana can seem 10 ." with connotations of "informal" and "easy. asfu rather than hu. but in fact correspondence in Japanese between kana spelling and pronunciation is much simpler than in the case of English and its alphabet. This may begin to seem complicated. 1t Both systems evolved around the end of the eighth century. its pronunciation is actually closer to the English sound "fu" than "hu." To facilitate pronunciation the romanization used in this book is a version of the Hepburn system. and the more cursive. or one vowel by itself.~. while ". while men preferred to use the more angular katakana. Kata.

with the katakana written slightly smaller). ne ~ t ~ to Q) mi L:J _L_ ..te ~ LL so _L :J ko h -k.tIJ .. VOWELS a 1 U e u 0 ·ch I -p" k S til 1}\tiL "~. arranged in the same order. rather than to the kana system itself. It 11 . meaning "the fifty sounds order. Each of the two kana systems contains the same basic forty-six syllables. ye. ~ ~ --tJ sa ta ka t n t: ~. ke . he ~1ho ~ It." In fact. Yi.11' "") '-f 0 _2L nu _2_ .. Lt:d- sl shi 4chi ni ki s til ~ 0 o h ~i m y r W i . However. a \.awkward. the symbols for wi and we are still encountered on rare occasions.. na 1\ ha t: ~ ~ »e ya ra rna V J-r ..J_ tb -f.tz se '- .) were officially removed from the list in 1946 since the sounds were considered sufficiently close to i and e to be represented by the symbols for these. rio me vu ~ ru I~rf Wi (~/ h fL ire t mo J: _. I:::: hi ~ t < __!L ku su __L {t *Lt :IJ} e . but that is really a problem relating to the Japanization of non-Japanese words. \ ~ A i ~ .:.~)Hi'J wa cL Yb ~ ~ mu . __Q_ 'ro g '3wo n This order is known as the gojiionjun.L vo J. ) \ fu ~ -:J ~ tsu <. / _:e. there are now only forty-six basic symbols (sounds) officially in use. The gojiionjun is the standard order followed by dictionaries and other reference works.1? t. J/:) and we (j_. and wu do not exist. The basic syllabaries are as follows (combined for convenience...

d/z/j. meaning "half-voiced sound. by Kana In addition to the forty-six basic symbols. by the mathematical symbol "n" indicating the utmost number (in this case 92. t. Ah. The syllable n (Iv) is sometimes called the "independent n" but in fact it can never be used truly independently. may be helpful.(valley) or p:. and a few further special combinations as well. zlj. t:::. the sum of the two kana systems). 12 ." Sounds starting with the unvoiced consonants k. The reader will have taken note of the fact that the first letters of these words follow the gojiionjun consonant headings.is therefore particularly important to remember it. kana signs! Take note bow many you read well (n). The first is the dakuon. The addition of a small circle 0 to the upper right side of the appropriate basic kana symbol changes the pronunciation from h to p (as opposed to changing it to b in the case of the full dakuon ). but in fact it involves only a handful of new points to learn. 52-56. For example. tani Thus t:. b. To avoid ambiguity some romanization systems use an apostrophe after the n that represents Iv. which is a modified version of one taught by Professors Dunn and O'Neill of the University of London. To this end. but its existence does said to vary slightly according to context. the following mnemonic. Note also that in romanization Iv is sometimes written as m before a p. and h are voiced as g. (See also pp.. even the syllable n (Iv) is represented. or whether it is n ( Iv) followed by an independent vowel. and b respectively if the diacritical marks " are added to the upper right side of the basic kana symbol. meaning "voiced sound" or "hardened sound.Iv\l \(unit). n.group. This practice is by no means universally followed (and is not followed in this book). With apologies to mathematicians.) The table also shows handakuon. indicate one of the exceptional cases where the pronunciation of a kana symbol could be Additional Sounds Represented -. as in shimbun for shinbun (newspaper).~ It 1can be romanized as tan'i. This may sound alarming. s. there are sixty-one classified modifications and combinations in each system. Nor can it ever start a word." which applies only to sounds starting with h. When working from romanization it is sometimes difficult to tell whether a non-initial n followed by a vowel is a syllable from the could be either t-:. Context usually makes this clear. or m. as shown in the following table.

...:/ gi 4-" ji e_" bi ji ~i'ba 1J" ~~o P \0 pa J VO CO pi . hanaji (nosebleed.:' and except when they clearly derive from chi (1? ) and tsu (-:::» in compounds or repeated symbols. rvo Note that +' combinations rarely occur.:-~ J+~mya Jt~mvu J-tJ._ 1)J: ~ cho - _.VOWELS a g z/j dlz/j b 1 U e gu Il~'fI" ga -'-- ~ -. ~" . or r.. " 7" It. Full tables are given below..-. a kyo u o ky sh ch ny hy my ry ~~ kya sha ~~ kyu ~j ~3 ....:L ~3 -?~-~ cha L~ 7:1. h. V.~ :. If the J: or loP of our examples were written the same size as the preceding symbols.. n. '- 0 ::l" go zu ~ ::. . ~myo ~.. from tsutsuku ) is ~ /"< .hya V~l:::..:. This second symbol is written smaller. hyo .-v hyu o.l.. ~ct1. F' ->" ~ zu 1" c" do de . Thus kyo is expressed as ~ J: and shu (syu in some romanization systems) as L~ . For example... :l by py V~ t)~ I}"" rva ').. while the i sound is barely pronounced and is dropped in romanization.z.. s.' -s..:ij'._..: a u ~l(1 f I 0 ~::L.4-3chu _::. and tsuzuku (continue. 7-/L A combination of a consonant and y. or yo as appropriate. then they would be treated as uncombined symbols and read kiyo or shiyu respectively. ~ zo pe Ji and zu are written 1..... t.p .~ t::. za .. The symbol that represents these consonants plus i. (See also pp. ---'- '~' ~ da J \" L:' ?" . L~ 5"9 shu sho 17. ~ "' ~ l~o __g "' ) po pu \Q \ r" <" -L ~ tt" ~' ge ~" 're '1" ." Any of the seven basic consonants k.bu be li" bo "" t.. for example! (ki) or l (shi). ~ ..p nyu t=l nyo nya I::::.-tI .. or voiced or half-voiced consonants.r. 59-62.. m.. meaning "contracted sound. from hana [nose] and chi [blood]) is t·. 13 .) .__ l-t 7~ ~::~ L=. ..group .p lJ~ rvu tJet Wb-..is known as a yoon. yu.either ya. can be used. is followed by a symbol from the y.

) Similarly. 57-58. Students should take particular care not to be misled by the common romani0 »." should always be romanized as sou and not so or soo. or \~) in front of them. the verb ~. or appears to combine with it to make a long o. Fortunately. that is.. (u). . as it were. thus) is written ~. (See also pp. ~'-J. (The doubling of a and e actually occurs infrequently in hiragana. ~ Iv. as in uu or for a long u. is romanized as so or soo. with a small r> • The correct way is to use Iv to represent the first n...) A long 0 can sometimes be formed by doubling in the same way as with other vowels.. Thus is not pronounced as such. a barlike symbol . by adding -? (u). I)'). s.. the vow- u els a. especially in the case of the long o.essentially k. The long 0 nounced slightly differently from the long that takes 0 1..~ p). sensei [teacher]. Thus annai should be written . Caution is also needed when transcribing from kana to romanization. and it t These include that takes . u.i.. This combination is known as a sokuon (double consonant). The little -e or lowing vowel. when in hiragana it is usually 'h' (0) plus J.) Students commonly make the mistake of trying to write a double n. zation practice of writing a long as 00. and p . meanthe ing "thus. and not two unlinked vowels. romanization for the verb rot.'IJ\a. but the consonant that follows it is given.or respectively after the preceding symbol. and e are doubled by simply writing ~. Thus okdsan (mother) is written 'J." being a genuine long vowel. These double consonants can never begin a word. as in words like annai (guide). as in adding *- -l:t Ivttlr l. rather than SU.(or I with vertical script) is used. oi 1 (many. h'.but that is no longer true. suu is the t 1(suck). a double amount of time for its pronunciation.1. road. 1J' as opposed to ~. (By contrast. The lengthening of vowels (including the vowel sound of syllables in which a consonant precedes the vowel) can also cause errors.' ~ toi (far. oj . 14 . meaning "go with./". Always check that an apparent long vowel really is a long vowel. Thus rablf (rubber) is written ::. For example. there are only a few common words that require the addition of okii (big. and tori (way..Some consonants . to (ten. t. In hiragana.can be doubled by inserting a small tsu (. It is important to apply this extra time to the consonant only. i. What sounds like a long e is usually e followed by i. and not to the fol'y gakki (school term) is expressed as fJ\'~~. t 1)' L J). A typical case of the latter is a verb whose variable ending starts with the same vowel as the last vowel of the stem..Iv ts: ~'.''-.' was once pro- is necessary to learn each word with a long sound case by case. Thus the word in our example should be pronounced gakki and not gakkii. 11' . In romanization long vowels are usually indicated (if at all) either by writing the vowel twice or by a macron. ~). For loan words in katakana. t. rather than kIte.· ~\). and kiite is the way to romanize suspensive ~ ~) '( (listening). but it is more 0 commonly formed by Thus so (so..

but nowadays are usually written as 1-71 and as .) In similar fashion. i can be followed by a small . The "tu" of "tuba" and the "du" of "due" can be expressed bY::.:. by ~ 7 (a voiced version is also possible). while the "Tou" of "Toulouse" can be shown These combinations have very recently received offtcial approval. -f'1.'. The irregularities result from the failure of writing conventions to keep pace with pronunciation changes over the last century or so. but this has become so associated with the object particle 0 that 17. and tend to be an extension of the yoon principle (~.) seen earlier.:._:I:":"Kduet). Thus "whisky" (uisukl) '7 is usually written 1:c...r is used instead.:q: and 1!. Remarkably.9-(quarter). In cases where a certain usage has become particularly firmly entrenched in the Japanese language the old rendition is favored. and 7.:. "q" can be represented by ku (1) plus a small vowel..-7 if ~ e. the object particle 0.'1'1' JLf<Mozart). is represented by '7 .j. however. the sounds wi and we are still occasionally found expressed by..Other Points to Note There are three common cases where kana usage is distinctly irregular.. f (-1 ) r7:f- in "party") and their voiced equivalents "dy" and "di.. They all involve particles.. such as ~ ) 1. "She" (as in "shepherd"). Le. for example." Thus "Yemen" is an extension of the use of has seen diacritical marks added to it in order to express "v. However. Thus "party" *:1--) " (tuba) and .".. (Wa. *~and Though not a consonant. are now written as ::. A German-style "z" (as in "Mozart") can be shown by tsu (0/) plus a small vowel..-.fe. . "Violin" can be eitherrJ:. namely the topic particle wa.:f (mirukuseki) for 15 .x. to express "ye. _/.1..respectively."respectively.'.._.. "che" (as in "check"). U (17) is used in a similar type of combination. Similarly. and the directional particle e (meaning "to")..(' respectively." Thus "Venus" is fA. as in 7. This means that in practice some words can be written in a number of ways.'1 y. and fo are written as 71'. For example.fJ-I A ~ . 71. These words are written ~cl:. Thus fa. fi..--1and is 1\°-71-. particularly when used in proper nouns such as place names and personal names. it k Certain further usages need to be noted with regard to katakana loan words only. Theoretically ==J could be used for wo. and as might be expected. to produce "w" sounds.-:J-andf"._. These are relatively recent attempts to express non-Japanese words with greater accuracy. and the voiced version "je" are written as 7:t. such as of b for v. "f' sounds can be approximated by following fu (7 ) with a small vowel. 7:r.. That is.. The English sounds "ty" or "ti" (as :V.t etc. and not *... As mentioned earlier... they combine two kana symbols." which were once expressed rather unfaithfully by giving and .f it I) /' or J .and A. there is also offtcial recognition of established usage..£:'. the first one lending only its consonant sound and this fact being indicated by the small size of the second symbol.. 'J:r. respectively..

L. Where more than one syllable is repeated. are written r . -jA tOr). with caution. They are not compulsory. and commas are written \ (ten). Quotation marks (kagt). A kana symbol can be repeated by the special symbol \. Long vowels. in which case it becomes \". such as entries in academic reference works. are formed by adding the appropriate vowel and not by a bar. Katakana is very occasionally used for words other than loan words.. Thus gakkO (school) is tJ':'/ :J \7. if at all. in vertical script 16 .::_ (ni) plus a small s: (e) to express the nye sound of the Russian nyet. they cannot be used where the first symbol of one word is the same as the last symbol of the word that precedes it (as in kuroi ishi meaning "black stone"). Students need to recognize them. In such cases. students should learn the basic Japanese punctuation marks. This can also be used when the second symbol is a voiced version of the first. (or {" if the first of the repeated sounds is voiced} can be used. such as . it is also possible to make up new combinations as appropriate. but should only use them. the student should be prepared for a range of creative and sometimes inconsistent usages. and is also used in telegrams and certain military and official documents. These repetition symbols are known collectively as odoriji (jump symbols}. it can be used to emphasize or highlight words. rather than tJ':y :I -. For example. or where the-first symbol of a variable word ending is the same as the last symbol of the word stem (as in ki-kimasu meaning "listen"). for instance. For example.l in horizontal script and . At the same time. known as kutoten. Some examples of correct usage: I)'" l" < v\ iroiro (various) s ~ Jr mimi (ear) kagami (mirror) < ~ samazama (various) <- Finally. with the symbol covering two spaces. its conventions of usage are identical to those of hiragana."milkshake" (but note that "Shakespeare" is 7:&. Full stops are written 0 (maru). In short. or similarly in compound words where the first symbol of the second word coincides with thelast symbol of the first word (as in tama-matsuri meaning "festival of the dead"). when used for purely Japanese or Chinese-derived words. and have a number of restrictions on their usage. in vertical script only.

I HIRAGANA .

.

) STROKE ORDER I I l~\._ l.\ I I PRACTICE : . I\.lllRAGANA ORIGIN (AN 223) STROKE ORDER &) 1~." but shorter '" 19 .II." but shorter PRACTICE ORIGIN (1 419) IJ-:J.'\ 2 \ • I \ /' I\.3 a as "a" in "car. It.. as "ee" in "meet.> It.

.~ ...::..... 20 .~ 2." but shorter " .. i 1 Itl11 1 ~ 111 PRACTICE 7 11 1 11 ../ / ORIGIN (U 811) U as "u" in "hula.. STROKE ORDER " .. ORIGIN J / 1 (ElI 420) e as "e" in "get" 2fl ~ 3 1:Rlkl~lil STROKE ORDER PRACTICE : . j .. : .HIRAGANA .

'.... 21 ." but shorter PRACTICE I no I VV1 I.') II)' I STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (KA 431) ka as "ca" in "car.HIRAGANA ORIGIN (0) STROKE ORDER o as "0" in "or.~: ." but shorter PRACTICE p/t": -.

.HIRAGANA ORIGIN 3 1~ (Kl 1129) ki as "ki" in "keep. '" ORIGIN "') (KU 647) STROKE ORDER ku as "Ku" in "Kuwait. 22 . ..." but shorter 1< I PRACTICE { »: -.2~ STROKE ORDER PRACTICE "'-:' . a-·: ." but shorter 4~.

\.121 STROKE ORDER 1 ~ 2 ~\. I ...... ../ ko as "co" in "core.." but shorter ~ -: 1 ~ 121 1 1 PRACTICE : : .. . ...HIRAGANA ORIGIN (KEI 105) l~tl11ILEt@ STROKE ORDER ke as "ke" in "keg" PRACTICE : ~ .._.. 23 ... ..' : 'tl ORIGIN (KO 855) IGlc...lz."..

jr) l.: I) ··\ •• I: pond kau buy : 1 eki station iku go koko here I: au meet 1 : I 1 1 24 : 1 : ..:. top 12:tl/>:/>1 oka : Iii l 1 1 1 moss hill 1h' l 1) \ 1... i . ask. chrysanthemum 1 j'.. lIt .\ ii' :.. I~ : l I' I·: l : I < 1. 1 : : : 1 12 : L t I" koke 1. ike kiku hear.r: 1('~..HIRAGANA MINI REVIEW ~- ~ /A- KO ai love ue above.

0': 1)1 : I I It.J\: < I : I I I n·: ttl : I I 1.HIRAGANA I: :I :I :I:I: I:I :I:I :I:I:I:I It.l:. honor house. extended family aki autumn iu say 'akai red aoi blue kioku memory ekaki painter 25 .I : : : : I : : I~: :n': < I : : I : : I : : I : I lit: t)\: ~ I : I : : I : : I : I kao ie I~:.tl : I I I t.tl : I : I Icb: ~ I : I : I kaku oke . koe :I: : VOice I write : :I: wooden bucket face.': 01 : I : I : I : I : I : I IbiJJ\i~ 'I i : I : i I i i I : i I I J?: ¥5: ~ .

" but shorter PRACTICE ..HIRAGANA ~i \... part of 1335) STROKE ORDER shi as "shee" in "sheep. 26 . " "..... as "sa" in "sarcasm..." but shorter liil~It k~I I_'I~ I~ I I STROKE ORDER PRACTICE ORIGIN (SA 22) .... sa •t..." c/ 2 I~ 3 1"-. ORIGIN 1 ~ (SHI.....

" but shorter . 2 su as "Su" in "Susan... . .1..HIRAGANA ORIGIN (SUN 909) Itltltlg-I STROKE ORDER PRACTICE .\... J. . "... ... 2 STROKE ORDER se as "se" in "set" PRACTICE 27 ... ORIGIN (SE 327) 3.

. . 28 .HIRAGANA ORIGIN (SO.:.. ' PRACTICE ORIGIN (TA 164) STROKE ORDER ta as "ta" in "tar..." but shorter PRACTICE : .....: .." but shorter . part of Z6741) STROKE ORDER so as "so" in "sore...

. -.IllRAGANA I*ol!clt 11. .1 STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (au 169) chi as "chee" in "chee k.....' ." " 29 ." I '.. but shorter PRACTICE If ORIGIN (SU 304) 1 'HI 1 ~ 1 V'J 1"'7 1 STROKE ORDER 1 ~ I-:JI I I I PRACTICE tsu as "tsu" in "tsunami .

..HIRAGANA ORIGIN (TEN 58) STROKE ORDER te as "te" in "ten" PRACTICE "." but shorter PRACTICE .. 30 .... J ORIGIN (TO-roaru 129) STROKE ORDER to as "to" in "tore.... ....~ o .....

cough stand. dragon : land I I koto thing. leave. Japanese harp It:11 : I : I suso hem : 31 I:I:I : I . steel :I : : tetsu seki tatsu I:I:I:I:I:I I~: t::1 : I : I : I : I : I : I !2:t! : I : I i ! : I : I : I uta song.:~1 : It:51 : sushi tsuchi I:I I:I 1 : : IiI:I:I I:I outside sake. salmon soil I I I I 1 : : I I I solo sake :I:I:I: iron. poem tochi I:I:I:I:I I: :I:I: I:I:I:I:I I:I:I:I:I 1 1 seat.IDRAGANA MINI REVIEW ~ - C / SA sushi TO II: II : I~: -lSI : I~:tl : I~ :ttl : I(:~I : 11t:~1 : Ir:.

indicate I I I I : : I I I :I:I:I IJ:1t:?1 : : I~: L:r~1 : : I I~: C: ~'I : l I ashilll satoi kisetsu I I:I season untruth : : I I I I sekitei 1{t:~:l:~'1 iIi:I:i :I::I:: !::1l::I clever. sharp (of senses) rock garden (Japanese style) subway 32 tomorrow : :: chikatetsu .HIRAGANA 1 r~:~ : 'I tai sea bream 1 I(:~I 1 L-: ~I teld : : 1 : shichi I 1 I 1 I:I seven enemy : : : 1 : : 1 I I I : ase sasu : : 1 1 : : 1 :I : 1~:1t1 : I I~:tl : 1 11:~1 : I lJS() I 1 I 1 sweat thrust.

'... 33 . I PRACTICE ." but shorter ...It I." but shorter ...:... oa as "na" in "narcotic.: '......r~1 PRACTICE "'. ::"::.:.. : STROKE ORDER 13~ 2 1 '-OI • ~'-- as "nea" in "neat.HIRAGANA l~l5)1J-11l1 ORIGIN (NA) l. It::·1121 ~::Il = I ORIGIN (NI 906) ~ 1 II Il-I ..''' -:" STROKE ORDER 11 J4 2 4 ~ 3 <..

-':: .HIRAGANA ORIGIN (NU/DO 1638) STROKE ORDER nu as "noo" in "noon.. : :..:...::.:::." but shorter 1\ l&'dl PRACTICE ~._ ORIGIN (NE) STROKE ORDER ne as "ne" in "net" PRACTICE 34 .. '.

ORIGIN (HA 367) STROKE ORDER ha as "ha" in "harm.' ..HIRAGANA ORIGIN (NO/NAI) 1J3173lnIOJI STROKE ORDER I (J) I I I PRACTICE no as "no" in "north. . ~ . . .' .. 35 . : ..... ...~ p" ... . •• . :~." but shorter . to.....' ." but shorter PRACTICE .. I 0' • o '. . ...

.. " - _?RIGIN 1 1 - fo as "..e "._ .m "heat " but shorter ' ..<V 3 ~ If I~IJJ IJ).... :-.HIRAGANA hi as "hea ". 4 ~ STROKE ORDER "f" PRACTICE ": '. m "fool " 100 but with softer 3 ). .. .' 'f· ... : '- .. Itt·1~ IL ~ I V I R Is..rORr I I PRACTICE ORIGIN (HI 771) .._I 2 (FU 572) . 36 ....' . . ~ .

ORIGIN (HO 787) STROKE ORDER ho as "ho" in "horn.. . 1· :." but shorter PRACTICE . ~..:. 37 .HIRAGANA ORIGIN (HEIBU 384) STROKE ORDER 1~ he as "he" in "hen" PRACTICE . . :' . .

:nl : I : 17J\: t:.1: 1 L~/ NA - HO 1 ~:L::I : 1 Iwne nom I: bone what I~~:tdl :1 nuno : 1 cloth skin : I:I I~: (/)1 : I hifu I: 1 1:1: 1 1ZI':~~.I :1 heta : : : 1:1:1 1~:r::1 I~~:~I : hana I : 1: I 1 clumsy I 1 I I I I 1 flower. edge I : I : 1 : I : doll.1 :I:I : 1 1 : ~ 1 1 lu: tJI : I I~i:GI : I : kinu 1: I : I : chopsticks.HIRAGANA MINI REVIEW ts. nose :1 June kani 1:1: boat crab : : I~~. bridge. blossom.fledgling hashi I 1 silk I~:~I : 1: 1: 38 1: 1: 1: .

HIRAGANA

hoshi

star

Ivici

hito

iI

Ii
eaves west

person

noki

I~:,:GI i I I iii Ilj:: l ):< I : : I : :
haiku

nishi

I

haiku

I::I::I
curved sword carved figurine

I~\:~: ~I : :·1 : : 1 : : 1 i : 1

katana

ItJ:--?:~tl : : I : : I : : I : iii iii iii:
tanuki raccoon dog

netsuke

seifu

government

I~: ~ l :~~ : : I : : 1 : : I : : 'I

1~':tJ):l:ll

inoshishi

:::I:::I
soldier 39

wild boar

heisotsu

HIRAGANA

ORIGIN

(MATSU

587)

STROKE ORDER

rna
as "rna" in "mark," but shorter PRACTICE

.. ' ': .... . '..

.....

.......

.. .

ORIGIN

(BI 376)

1

~

STROKE ORDER

rm•
as "mea" in "meat," but shorter PRACTICE
r:::••~ ....
.1

.• :: r

_,'

40

HIRAGANA

1j\1~1ttl ~I
STROKE ORDER
PRACTICE
.... :"', . ....

ORIGIN

(MU 781)

2

.1~

3

mn
as "moo" in "moon" , but shorter

".1 .. ... ...
,

··

I

I-£L-k~t Im I I~
STROKE ORDER

ORIGIN

(ME 35)

me
as "me" in "met"
PRACTICE

41

" . . . PRACTICE \... ' ORIGIN (YA.HIRAGANA ORIGIN (MO 210) 1-tltl!ltl STROKE ORDER mo as "mo" in "more.. part of CHI 167) J ya as "ya" in "yard." but shorter ." but shorter 1-t1~I-\OI~1 STROKE ORDER PRACTICE 42 .: .

" 1 43 - .· "'./ yo as "Yo" in "Yor... t • t ." but shorter ---. · ... · ...HIRAGANA ORIGIN (YU 399) 1\331 ~ Itfu IrP STROKE ORDER I yu as "you" in "you th .. k." but shorter PRACTICE ORIGIN (YO 1873) 1~1~IJlll (~°i:tiERI PRACTICE .

hill : I I I I 1 : I :1:1:1:1 yomu :1 let: cGl : momo Ii I :I:I:I:I peach shrine Ititl :1i1:1:1:1:1 miya IJt:~1 : 12: &1)1 l-?iY?1 l~iGI li:-JI I 1 :I: I dew :I uncooked rice I I I I 1 :I kome tsuyu : : 1:1 : 1 : : 1 :1i1i1i1:I:I mushi insect i1i matsu 1 : : 44 Ii pine.ct / MA - YO I~:~I 10J: &')1 yama :I: yume I:I:I dream read mountain. wait I:I:I 1iI :1i ume I I i1i I :I 11:&01 : I : mune Japanese plum : chest.HIRAGANA MINI REVIEW i . breast I:I:I 1cG:tJl :1:1:1:1:1:1 .

HIRAGANA !~:t:t1)1 : : 1 : : 1 : : 1 : : I~: l:JtI : : 1 : : 1 : : 1 : : sashimi sliced raw fish kimono kimono.1 : : 1 : : 1 mikoshi portable shrine :1 !~~:1J:Jt! : : ! : : ! : : ! 11: ~:J:: itl : : : I : : ukiyoe woodblock print I{!::c:tid)! setomono : : : I: 45 It:~:~:~1 sukiyaki ::! :: :1: :: 1 sukiyaki porcelain .t:t:~1 : :. clothing I~:~:cl ::I::1::1 yukata cotton kimono Yamato old name for Japan :1 sumie India-ink drawing 1-g-:Jt:~1 : : 1 : :1 emaki hanami ::1 picture scroll blossom viewing :1 1.

' . .... J ORIGIN (RI 596) / 1 • rl as "ree" in "reek.. .." but shorter : l 2 ~ IflJ It-? I ~ I L) I STROKE ORDER I l I ~) I I I PRACTICE " :.HIRAGANA ORIGIN I ra as "ra" in "mirage..... 46 . ... . ." but shorter ttl ~ I~ I s I (RA/RYO 598) STROKE ORDER PRACTICE : E..

. ' " ....: ." .HIRAGANA ORIGIN (RU 805) STROKE ORDER ru as "ru" in "rule." but shorter PRACTICE .. "' . ORIGIN (REI 413) II It'Ll PRACTICE STROKE ORDER re as "re" in "red" 47 ..- .......

HIRAGANA ORIGIN (RO 256) 1 ro as "ro" in "roar. ORIGIN (WA 416) STROKE ORDER wa as "wa" in "watt" PRACTICE 48 ..... ! ' ..." but shorter STROKE ORDER PRACTICE .:: ... .... . .

..~ .. ORIGIN (MU) STROKE ORDER Iu 49 1 n as "n" in "sin" PRACTICE _ .. :. ::.... .......IDRAGANA ORIGIN (ONIEN 79) STROKE ORDER 3 as "0" in "or...: ." but shorter PRACTICE .. ..:.~ "...:..

~ / RA .HIRAGANA MINI REVIEW !. ' wan tera tsuru I:I:Ii crane. example It::: l~: ~ Nihon It.I : : I : : I : : I cherry blossom sokura 50 . bay . soul. to fish temple kore this I:I:I:I:I furo bath nori edible seaweed. to stretch rei shiro I : I iii castle. white Japan politeness. paste I:I:I:I:I ham spring.:> .N bowl./ : L~:A.

:. :: :: :: wafuku Japanese clothing I::I:: 1 1 I 1 : riron theory I I::I Iv~.HIRAGANA 11:S:t?17:5:/kJl 1 ~ : ':): L uchiwa ::I:: i round fan matsuri I: 1 J 11 : ':) : III : :I:: firefly futon festival : l~i:r:::~ll:z:t.: :1v1/5~ : t i A~1 l: IfL:.G I futon hotaru :: :: I: : : I I I I::I 1 1 history rekishi i: i : 1 \e !( . : I) :. ~.:~ I I~s.-'.Y : l) I : : : IV:d2:1:{..1: ll/h:~t: t_1 1 h:v~': ~:/?~: 1 < ( I ~ : 3:Ivl II) : ~ :.1 Hinomaru : : : I: 51 Rising Sun Flag ::I samurai samurai . / .: ~: L: ~ . 1/). L :J I : : : harakiri harakiri furodJiki cloth wrapper for parcels I I Il~:~:~: l) I L "l: ~ l .

HIRAGANA VOICED AND HALF-VOICED SOUNDS ga as "ga" in "garden" but shorter IIIII gi as "gee" in "geese" but shorter gu as" goo" in "goose" but shorter IIIII II ge as "ge" in "get" go as "go" in "gore" but shorter II I~"I~\I I I I I I I I I L" c'l . ze as "ze" in "zest" zo as "zo" in "Azores" but shorter 52 . . .{t'. . . . zu as "zoo" but shorter ji as "jee" in "jeep" but shorter za as "za" in "bizarre" but shorter . . ~\. . I I .I .

HlRAGANA Ir~lr:"1 I I I I I I I ji as "jee" in "jeep" but shorter da as "da" in "dark" but shorter II zu II as "zoo" but shorter de as "de" in "desk" do as" doo" in "door" but shorter ILi'liL i\1 I I IV"I 7}'11 I I l-v)~'l/s\\\1 II I~I/\\\I I I It i.ol i 1l I I bi bu be as "be" in "beg" ba as "ba" in "bark" but shorter as "bea" in "beak" but shorter as "boo" in "boot" but shorter pu bo as "bo" in "bore" but shorter i I I I I I I I I I I I~111 I~ol I I~~~I I I~I I It aOI I pi pe po pa as "pa" in "park" but shorter as "pea" in "peak" but shorter as "poo" in "pool" but shorter as "pe" in "peg" as "po" in "pork" but shorter I I I I I I I I I I I I I· I I I I I I I I I I II 53 .

HIRAGANA REVIEW OF VOICED AND HALF-VOICED SOUNDS obi waist sash for kimono Jude Zen I writing brush Zen : I : I : 1 soba buckwheat noodles. stroll Kabuki drama :I::I .1 ~ : Iv:tiOI sanpo u~ :)\ : L"11 : : I : : I:: 1 monpe old-style work pants 54 . side I:I:I:I biwa lute. loquat geta wooden clogs I:I:I:I Obon :I::I ' Buddhist festival _ Kabuki ojigi :I:i bow (head) walk.

yakuza gangster : I : : . : : .. believe 55 . : : . tengu long-nosed goblin nigiri Izatulji nosebleed IJt: If::b: ~ I : : : I : : : I J whisky and water mizuwari I~":/v:C': ~I : : : I : : : . : ': . : : .HIRAGANA keigo polite language 1 tt :~ ::"1 ': : : 1 : : 1 : : 1 : mikado old word for emperor manga cartoon mikuji I~:<:~". daibutsu large statue of Buddha zonjiru know. rice ball written oracle I~:: !"i t) I : : I : : I : : Ii: I 11:Iv: <"~I : : I : : I : : I : : . : : .

l senpai 1 : : semor : 1 : : : bonsai bonsai ikebana ikebana 1:t:Iv:~o:-:>1 enpitsu :::I::: sumo grand champion tempura pencil yokozuna I J: :::: ~":~ I : : : I : : : I 11:Iv:v)~: S I : : : senbei hanafuda tenpura 1 : : : rice cracker IL~: ~:v~\:::'1 : : : I: 1 Fujisan 56 flower cards (game) : Mt. Fuji .IDRAGANA kamikaze kamikaze origami ongarm 1 {t: Iv: ~o:~.

nothingness I:I:I:I:I to It:11 : I : I : I : I : I : I It: >. void. pagoda lou ask kappa mythical creature I L: ~:~ I : : I : : I : : I : : I Ir:t:11 : : I : : I : : I : : I sumo sumo 57 shikki lacquerware . I : I : I : I : I : I :. Oh! ii I:I:I: yes good e(ee) I<:~I :I to I:I:I:I:I eat ten sky. I tower.HIRAGANA REVIEW OF DOUBLE VOWELS AND CONSONANTS o'(aa) I:I:I: like that.

: ). jingu l:I:: wind chime Shinto shrine lurin I L : Iv: l::21 : : : I : : : kukO allport 58 shinto .HIRAGANA zijri sandals I~~: ? :~ I :: J suji yugen :: I: numeral tranquil beauty :I gakkO school 12:~lJ::~1 : : : I : : : kOyo red leaves In: 1 n:~: v' 1 1 o/di kendO :::I::: kendo : big L' : Iv: <..

J:.HIRAGANA COMBINED SOUNDS KYA-RYO / ~~ - L)ct I I~!~I I kya kyu kyo I I ~. J: I I I I I my a myu I I myo I I Jtl.~. ~ I I I I I I 59 .• . I • I I I I I I hya hyu I I I I hyo I I V~~ I I I I I 'VI"'" I I I I I (}. ~).H? I 1 I I l_ ~ ~J: I I I • I I nya nyu I I I I t.>t I J I I 1 d-tl '!P_ I _1 I I 1 1c7t ryo I I 1 I I J: I I I rya 111 : ~ I:I ryu t) ~~ I I I I I I .>1::' 'I I I nyo I I I I • I I ~:I*.~ I I sho I I I I L~ct I I I I • I I I I cha chu I cho I I t>~~ I I I I l_ ~.~ I I I I I ~~J: I I I : I • I I sha shu ll~ I I I I l. I I t"l -.

*.()J.' I z:.1 I I I I J:.J: I I I I I I I I I I I I I ja ja Il!~1 : I ~":~ I I I ju l'. vp I 1 I I I I ju jo I IL!~I I 1 jo I I ~".('.': . \1' I I I I 13".'I gyo I I • ~.~ - Zf'~ gya I ~" I gyu I I ~I~ I I -:'-P ~.IDRAGANA VOICED COMBINED SOUNDS GYA-BYO / ~. I • I I I I I I HALF-VOICED COMBINED SOUNDS PYA-PYO / V~ ..{).. I I I I I (. I I J: I I I I I I I I I bya byu I byo .~ I I I I VlvP I I I I V .01 I I I IJ: I I I 60 . pya pyu I Zfo~ ~ I I I I I til pyo I I.

visitor : : 1: shoji : 1: : 1: : IL:~:1:l'l : : : I: V": ~ : ~ :v)~'1 : : : jinja chanoyu byobu 1 sliding screen :: : : folding screen : Ic:~: c':~1 : : : I : : : I~t':\:L :~ I : : : I : : : ~ geisha geisha shrine 12: ~ :(/)hpl : : : I : : : shodO calligraphy tea ceremony l~i1i~i11 iii ?{_:~: L) : Jt enryo : 1 I yakyu baseball reserve.HIRAGANA REVIEW OF COMBINED SOUNDS I~: ~:<1 1 kyaku guest. restraint : : I : : : Iii I eft: J: : :2 : l'l : : : I : : : king yo goldfish 61 myoji family name .

HIRAGANA I~::: 1:II : : : I : : : ~: nyiishi entrance examination I le':~:~:~:11 J ukyo :::: Confucianism I:i::I chOchin paper lantern IZA: ct: 1:2:": ~I : : : : I : : i I t) : ~ : 1: ' : < I : l : : I : : : 1)' ryugaku hyozan iceberg overseas study : I kOjo factory I C': *:'7 : t": 11 I~~'i i s i J: : 01 ) Il i i :2 i<"i Ivl I~:: J:: :2 : ~i': 1 1 I~~: :te: :11 ~ ? jiuJiJ Bukkyo i:::1: iiiiIi iiiiIi ::::I:: announcement wife shogun Buddhism judo :I shOgun j_ i : I nylibO :I happyo J: ::::I:: 62 I .

.:1:~1 : : I : : I : : I : : I Yayoi period c. A.1912 I : I I I I :: I :":~I : : I : : I : : I : 11:-J:l:11::: I::: I~:~':~:lvl : : : I : : : I Heian period 794 . period 1603 .D. 250 I~":~:~"I : : I : : I : : I Ginza place : :I Ili:2:nl : 11d:: Hakone : Meiji I place :: period 1868 . 250 B.c.1185 Showa period 1926 -1989 63 Matsushima place Nagoya place .C. period 710 -794 l.HIRAGANA REVIEW THROUGH PLACE NAMES AND PERIOD NAMES I~:sl Nara :I:I:I:I:I: place.t: t"l : I : 1 : 1 : 1 : I : E do 12.1868 Kobe place place.

1926 01 : Inmon : : : 1 1 : : : : : : : : I IC:ct:'7:t:1v1 :::: 64 period c. 250 B.1573 place &::: ~ : i : 1 -s Muromachi : :: 1 : : : 1~:\.1333 Heisei period 1989 - Honshu place 1 ~: ~ ': l:~: Taishn period 1912 . 8000 .):1±:l 'I : : : I : : : I t)'i 1: : s I : : : I : : : < Kamakura period 1185 .c. I Tokyo place .C.IDRAGANA It::: " ::: :~ I : : : I : : : Sapporo place Nikko place 1~':h:~:v'l : : : I : : : Osaka place l~iJ::~:tl 1 lryo~ : : : 1: : : period 1392 .

HIRAGANA GENERAL REVIEW No sabi Noh Itt: Jt I : I semi I:I:I I: cicada elegant simplicity. octopus divided skirt duty. rust I: I I:I:I:I I~": l) I : I tako girl I: I:I:I:I kite. honor I~1: \:~ I : : I : : I : : I : : I ~ hakama urushi lacquer If::: :: I : I : I : I : I : I : I bonne one's real intent kokeshi stylized wooden doll haniwa clay figurine I? : t":lvl : : I : i I : : I : : I 65 udon wheat noodles .

HIRAGANA 12:~:-:J1 : : I 1~:i:7t1 : : I amae kotatsu :: :: brazier.\:~~"I : I~:b:hl I ~':t~:lvl 17)\": t]\": < I 100:fl:1v1 : 1:v)\ I : : seibo I I I tofu I: I interview for marriage : I :: :: I I tofu : : I::I:: I L :v~~':JtI : : I ::I gohon gagaku aware shibumi I year-end gift I I I :I::I pathos astringency : :I : ] noren I ::I : ::I ::I::I::I : :: meal. cooked rice I I I ancient court music :I ::I: 66 shop curtain : I : :I :: I .\1 : I~: \. I::I::I footwarmer childlike dependence I::I I :: :: :: I I Iill It: (jr':q I : : miai Ebisu I::I::I:: name of god of wealth IJt:1J:l.

HIRAGANA I~~: . shOgi Japanese chess 1n':Iv:-e::/v1 onsen :::I::: miso soup 67 hot spring misoshiru . "face" I C6 : ~t'1:0 : mugicha barley tea kI : : : I: tenna emperor 1.h': ~J I : : I : : I : : I : : me~hi nruneaud haori short coat I I~:v\: ~I : : I : : I : : I : : I 115: ttl: 1 : : 1 : : I : : 1 : : odori dance LJ kaisha company 1&?:Iv:~!':< I:::I::: shinju pearl menboku reputation.

HIRAGANA Il:::Iv: [': ~ I: ninja :I::: decorative alcove abacus nInja . tokonoma .¥:~:~i':~1: : : soroban bunraku bento dantai : : iii ii I::: puppet theater box lunch group shamisen sanusen Shogatsu New Year shakuhachi flute 12.: V \ : d) :Lf': l) . koinobori carp streamer : : : : . : : : : 1 janken "scissors-paper-stone" game 68 .ci2iO)i1.

II KATAKANA .

.

KATAKANA

I fori ~ I 17 171

ORIGIN

(A)

1 _..;,

1"7171
PRACTICE
...... .., ..... , ....

STROKE ORDER

I

I

1

7

7
a
as "a" in "car," but shorter

!

I

11fl11
PRACTICE

ORIGIN

(I)

STROKE ORDER

I
as "ee" in "meet," but shorter

."! .~

,.'

71

KATAKANA

ORIGIN

(U 811)

STROKE ORDER

u
as "u" in "hula," but shorter PRACTICE
........ !' ,

.

",

,

:

ORIGIN

(E 1244)

STROKE ORDER

e
as "e" in "get" PRACTICE
: , .........

..:...

72

KATAKANA

ORIGIN

(0)

STROKE ORDER

o
as "0" in "or," but shorter PRACTICE
~ ::.", .' ~ ,~ :

.. .

ORIGIN

(KA 431)

STROKE ORDER

ka
as "ca" in "car," but shorter PRACTICE ./· .t·.

· · ..

73

" but shorter PRACTICE ORIGIN (KU 647) STROKE ORDER ku as "Ku" in "Kuwait." but shorter PRACTICE 74 .KATAKANA ORIGIN (KI 1129) STROKE ORDER ki as "ki" in "keep.

" but shorter lil:J PRACTICE II I ~ 2-'1 . "...KATAKANA 111'1 1'11-f1'T STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (KAI 1059) I 1 7 ke as "ke" in "keg" PRACTICE ORIGIN (KO 855) Iclcl21:J1 STROKE ORDER 1 :l ko as "co" in "core. .. . ... 75 ....... ..

:j PRACTICE .KATAKANA i 3 Ittl ~14+ l-+tI STROKE ORDER PRACTICE ORIGIN (SAN 492) sa as "sa" in "sarcasm." but shorter IL-l .. I I 1 ORIGIN (Sl-ll.: ~ f j.... ~ ~ shi as "shee" in "sheep.. part of 1335) 1.'. '" .." but shorter .. •••••• .z_1~ " 2~ STROKE ORDER '\.~ ...-" 76 . 3/ I I~ I).

" but shorter PRACTICE ..··r:·'· .. .. ' . ! . ORIGIN (SE 327) 1-ttt1~ltl~1 STROKE ORDER l{: 2 se as "se" in "set" PRACTICE ... J 77 ...KATAKANA ORIGIN (SU) STROKE ORDER su as "Su" in "Susan.... :........... .

': . . " but shorter PRACTICE . 78 . ."...: ". " 1~ljl ta .. "'-. part of Z(741) so as "so" in "sore.KATAKANA 1~111'?Iyl STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (SO.. . ." as "ta" In tar. ". " but shorter PRACTICE ORIGIN (TA 163) II STROKE ORDER .

.. ORIGIN (SU 304) h chi as "chee" in "cheek " but shorter ' STROKE ORDER tsu as PRACTICE ......... ..~ _- 79 .' " .... "'.KATAKANA 1+1+1 1 PRACTICE . IttSU ".: ORIGIN (em 47) I 2 1 IS~T::i+1 I f ... .. . ill " tsunami" .

KATAKANA ORIGIN (TEN 58) 2 te as "te" in "ten" 7 STROKE ORDER I-I_::_I-r-I PRACTICE .. ~ (TO-roaru 129) 1Jt_1~1 r I ~ I 2 to as "to" in "tore...." but shorter f' STROKE ORDER II I ~ I I I PRACTICE "....... """'II . 80 .. ~ I ORIGIN 1 ...

b /A cutlet TO 111:/1 : I : I : I : kotsu 1 :I:I :: :: :: IT:1:AI lIT: -: :\=-1 aim I I I : II.:-:./:-: 1~:1: ./1 tsua :: : tesuto I I I 1 coat. court (sports) : tour :: :: :: 81 test I I I 1 :I::I 1 1 1 1 :: :: :: :1 : I : ::I ::I : : shTtsu sheet (bed) :I::1: : l-I : sekuto : I sect I : :I: I .zl : : I kiki esu I I 1 Ice :: :: I::I I::I I I ace cake :: auto siichi :: I : :I 1 I 17:'7: r 1 : : out (baseball) :: :: : 1 search :: : ::I : : I+J:-:+I 1:1:-:1-1 : : koto IY:T':-I : If:A: rl : 1.KATAKANA MINI REVIEW -p .

skating 82 .KATAKANA kOchi coach (sports) sosu lI :I sauce IAl~:-1 :: sukl ::I::I :: takushl sutiki ski. skiing I::I:: taxi IA:T:-:1-1 : : : I : : : 1~:-:9:-1 : : : I : : : seta svveater steak sakasu circus It:-:fJi-1 l : : I l ILl-li7l-1 : l l I l ITi1J:~:T'1 : : : I : l : eM acre oke okay akashia acacia suketo skate.

ORIGIN (NI 61) 1-==-1...."." but shorter .. . . :..KATAKANA ORIGIN (NA) STROKE ORDER I-Itl PRACTICE " oa as "na" in "narcotic. ~ .:... .. I" 83 ......1...:_ I I I 1 ~ 2 _." but shorter ."".....1 1 PRACTICE . . STROKE ORDER --- 1 1 Ol • as "nea" in "neat.

but shorter PRACTICE 11••••• ... »: .).: . STROKE ORDER PRACTICE ..: ' -..." . .." \ "i "..KATAKANA I~I~ Ix 13<I STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (NU/DO 1638) DO as "noo" in "noon.. ORIGIN 1 ~ 2~ (NE) De as "ne" in "net" /3·'. 84 ... .

" but shorter IJ \_I I I I j\ ORIGIN (HAem 66) 2 I) I I J\ PRACTICE STROKE ORDER J 1 '\ ~ I I ha " as "ha" in "harm. 85 .' no as "no" in "north." but shorter . .KATAKANA ORIGIN (NOINA!) STROKE ORDER I) II PRACTICE .

: t...KATAKANA ~ ..." but shorter : ~t IbtlUlI cit I STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (HI 771) 1--1 t I PRACTICE I I ... 2 hi as "hea" in "heat...".' ORIGIN (FU 572) STROKE ORDER fo as "foo" in "fool." but with softer "f' PRACTICE 86 ....

.KATAKANA I%~I I~I~I S ORIGIN (HEIBU 384) l~rOiER PRACTICE ..... t••• . 1~ 1 1 he as "he" in "hen" 11~1:?.. 1 l 87 . '.. ". .. ho as "ho" in "horn.. . ." but shorter PRACTICE ... 1*\1 1 STROKE ORDER 3 ORIGIN (lIO 787) :.': . . -.. .

" but shorter ORIGIN (MJ 23) 1 2 3 <....... 13-1~1~ 1 'I STROKE ORDER 11 I -.... <.. · ..· 88 .. :: <r " . .....· " ' '.. I ...KAT AKANA ORIGIN (MATSU 587) STROKE ORDER rna as "rna" in "mark." but shorter PRACTICE _ .. . • nu as "mea" in "meat. . I PRACTICE .. <. ..... .

... " .... '... ORIGIN (ME 35) 1-9: l->r 1)<-1) I STROKE ORDER me as "me" in "met" PRACTICE . but shorter PRACTICE .KATAKANA ORIGIN (MU) 1 STROKE ORDER ~ mn as "moo" in "moon".. r-..' 89 ..

part of em 167) STROKE ORDER ya as "ya" in "yard." but shorter PRACTICE 90 . . ..KATAKANA ORIGIN (MO 210) mo as "mo" in "more.. "" ORIGIN (Y A.. ...." but shorter \-L ~~ STROKE ORDER PRACTICE ....... .

.. but shorter . but shorter «»» .... 91 . . . ..... ORIGIN (YO 1873) 131 yo as "Yo" in "Yor kIt . ..... ~ 4 I~I-=t-I::t STROKE ORDER PRACTICE ..KATAKANA ORIGIN 399) I wi J_IJ-I STROKE ORDER PRACTICE (yu 1 2J_ yu as "you" in "you th" .

.. i : : 92 ..." but shorter PRACTICE .r': J~ I J • rl as "ree" in "reek.." but shorter 1 JI t. . 2 IflJ I IJ I [) I I II It) I I I PRACTICE STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (RJ 596) .. ...KATAKANA ORIGIN (RA/RYO 598) 1 :!--'" STROKE ORDER ra as "ra" in "mirage.

f :. .. II I I re as "re" in "red" PRACTICE . I~LiLI LI~I STROKE ORDER ORIGIN (REI 413) I vi .KATAKANA ORIGIN (RU 409) I JffLI J ILI J L I} ~ I STROKE ORDER Jv 2 ru as "ru" in "ru1 " e. but shorter PRACTICE .• ...' . : . I 1 93 .

.." but shorter PRACTICE \ .: ".. ORIGIN (WA 416) STROKE ORDER wa as "wa" in "watt" PRACTICE 94 ..KATAKANA ORIGIN (RO 256) STROKE ORDER ro as "ro" in "roar... ..... . ". ~ .

'.. .... ' 95 . .. ." but shorter PRACTICE ORIGIN (Nl) STROKE ORDER n as "n'' in "sin" PRACTICE . part of 856) STROKE ORDER o as "0" in "or...KATAKANA ORIGIN (KO.

KATAKANA MINI REVIEW +- y /NA helicoprer N I~: I) I : I : I : I : I : I memo memo hen I) :f:1 :1:1:1:1:1 hire 1t:: l/I : I : I : I : I : I : I 1~ : Jlr: 71 : : 1 : : 1 : : 1 : : 1 11J:~:-1 :I : 1: fillet miruku milk kanii i i i canoe 1 '7: --=-: A 1 yl wanisu varnish : ron naifu :1 :1: : 10:-: :: furi It:1:71 : : 17:~:-1 : : I) :-: ~I : : I : niilo I: : 1: : :I:: knife Hooray! note. notebook loan :I: tire (car) :1 ::I taiya 19:1:~1 : :1: 96 i 1::1::1 .

7:-1 1.\:/:11:4-1 hanmii :::1::: yoyo handkerchief hammer yoyo i::I:: I :L:_::_: 11 : : : I : : -: 1.r:7:9:~1 : : : I : : : yunlku umque hankachi nekutai necktie 1 homuran home run 97 . reputation 1~:-:L41 : : I::I::I::I yu~a humor mainasu mmus saran salary 1'\:>:..KATAKANA kamera camera 111:1:=71 ::1::I::1::1 nemu name.

KATAKANA VOICED AND HALF-VOICED SOUNDS ga as "ga" in "garden" but shorter 111"1 IIIIIIIIIIIII as "goo" in "goose" but shorter I~"I I I I I I I I I I I I I I gu gi as "gee" in "geese" but shorter 17"1 I~-I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I:J"I I I I I I I I I I I I I I go as "go" in "gore" but shorter ge as "ge" in "get" IIIIIIIIIIIII l-t'l I I I I I I I I I I I I I ji as "jee" in "jeep" but shorter za as "za" in "bizarre" but shorter Iv'l zu as "zoo" but shorter IIIIIIIIIIIII IA'I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ze as "ze" in "zest" 1-t"1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1/'1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 98 zo as "zo" in "Azores" but shorter .

.KATAKANA 17"1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I ji as "jee" in "jeep" but shorter da as "da" in "dark" but shorter 1+'1 zu de IIIIIIIIIIIII II I~. as" doo" in "door" but shorter I. I I pe as "pe" in "peg" po as "po" in "pork" but shorter 99 . bi bu as "bea" in "beak" but shorter 1t:1 I I . . .. . ./'I I I I I I I I I as "zoo" but shorter If'l I I I I I I I I I ~'I ba as" de" in "desk" do II . pa I "I I I I I I I. . I .t~" I . as "poo" in "pool" but shorter pi as "pea" in "peak" but shorter as "boo" in "boot" but shorter pu 11"1 be bo I~I I I I I I I~I I I I I I I .. I 1if:' I . I I . .\ I I I I I I I J as "ba" in "bark" but shorter as "pa" in "park" but shorter 't'" . .. .... as "bo" in "bore" but shorter as "be" in "beg" I I I I I 17°' I I I .

bath zero :I : I I I I:I:I : : : I I~":~I 19":Y::A1 I gear : dansu dance I I :I : :1::1 game guide. guidebook IJf':-: gemu 1-\1 111": l' :t-: I gaido ::I::I::I :: besu I 1 1 :1::1 golf I :J":)~:71 : : gorufu : I~:-:AI IA':iK':>'1 base I: : ::1::1: zubon :: : 1: :I trousers : 1:: I I::1"[ I) : 71 : gorira I : 1oo iI gorilla :: I :: I .KATAKANA REVIEW OF VOICED AND HALF-VOICED SOUNDS It:':)~1 : I biro I:I:I office building l-ti': 01 IJ\':AI zero : basu giya I I : I I : : I:I bus.

KATAKANA 11": IY':-: /1 7":) t.1 daburu double ::1::I.:~ : /1 : : : 1 : : : plman green pepper 1-<:1:~:-:AI mai pesu :::: 101 at one's own speed (limy pace ") 1 : : : : arubaito part-time job .:1: zan zone ::1::1::1: jiguzagu zigzag repiito report jinzu Jeans wiipuro word processor 1 Iryi-i7iOI iii pachinko 1 : : : iii : : : 1/\:+: Y: :J Japanese pinball 1 deziuo dessert I t:°i ..

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