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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1.
1.0. 1.00. .. 1.01. 1.02. 1.1. 1.10. 1.1l. 1.12.
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GENERAL
PURPOSE AND USE OF BULLETI~ Introduction Scope of Bulletin Acknowledgments NOMEN CLATURE __ ~ ~. _ _ _ _ _
Page
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Definitions for Plywood ElementsBeams, Prisms, and Columns in Compression, Strips in Tension __ Definitions for Plywood Panels _ Standard Structural Symbols for Chapter 2 _
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CHAPTER 2. STRENGTH OF WOOD
AND PLYWOOD
ELEMENTS
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2.0. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE STRENGTH OF WOOD. . _ 2.00. Anisotropy of Wood ~ _ 2.01. Density or Apparent Specific Gravity _ 2.02. Moisture Content . _ 2.03. Shrinkage < _ 2.04. Temperature _ 2.05. Fatigue Properties _ 2.06. Plastic Properties _ 2.07. Impact Properties, _ 2.08. Effect of Liquids ... _ 2.09. Miscellaneous Physical Properties  ~_ 2.091. Coefficient of Expansion _ 2.092. Thermal Conductivity  __~ _ 2.093. Ignition Temperature _ 2.094. Electrical Properties _ 2.095. Damping Capacity  _    __             _                            _ 2.1. BASIC STRENGTH AND ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF WOOD _ 2.10. Design Values, Tables 26 and 27 _ 2.100. Supplemental Notes     __                _    2.1000. Compression Perpendicular to Grain       _   _ 2.1001. Compression Parallel to Grain    _   __     2.11. Notes on the Use of Values in Tables 26 and 27 _ 2.110. Relation of Design Values in Tables 26 and 27 to Slope of Grain _ 2.111. Tension Parallel to Grain   __ ~      ~               2.112. Tension Perpendicular to Grain   __   _ _                  2.12. Standard Test Procedures 2.120. Static Bending ~ ~ 2.1200. Modulus of Elasticity (EL)  _                   (     _ 2.1201. Fiber Stress at Proportional Limit (Fbp) _ 2.1202. Modulus of Rupture (Fbu) 2_1203. Work to Maximum Load       __   __                                          _ 2.121. Compression Parallel to Grain      _                            _    _ 2.1210. Modulus of Elasticity (ELc)        _                                                  2.1211. Fiber Stress at Proportional Limit (F ",,)            _                            __ _  _ 2. 1212. Maxim urn Crushing Strength (F" u) _                                                        2.122. Compression Perpendicular to Grain c ~           __                                  2.123. Shear Parallel to Grain (F ...)  _                     ~          ~                         2.124. flardness 2.125. Tension Perpendicular to Grain (F tuT)               2.13. Elastic Properties Not Included in Tables 26 and 27 _
12 14
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14 15 15 15 17 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 27
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27 27 27 27 28 28
28
28 29 29
29 29
29 31 31
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CHAPTER 2. STRENGTH OF WOOD 2.130. 2.131. 2.132. 2.14. 2.15. 2.16. 2.161. 2.162. 2.2. 2.20. 2.21. 2.22. 2.3. 2.30. 2.31. 2.32. 2.320. 2.321. 2.322. 2.33. 2.34. 2.4. 2.40. 2.41. 2.5. 2.50. 2.51. 2.52. 2.53. 2.54. 2.540. 2.541. 2.5410. 2.5411. 2.5412. 2.5413. 2.5414. 2.5415. 2.55. 2.56. 2.560. 2.5600. 2.5601. 2.5602. 2.57. 2.6. 2.60, 2.600. 2.601. 2.602, 2.61. 2.610, 2.611. 2.612. 2.613. 2.614. 2.6140. 2.615. 2.7. 2.71. 2.711.
AND
PLYWOOD
ELEMENTSContinued
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Moduli of Elasticity Perpendicular to Grain (ET, ER)_~_______________________________________ Moduli of Rigidity COLT, GLR• GRT)_________________________________________________________ Poisson's Ratios (jJ.)   _ ______ ________ ______ ____ ______ _________________ Stressstrain Relations     _ _••   .. __ ________ ____ ______ ___________ Strength Under Multiaxial Stress; ..   . .... _.... .. ... " ~ Stress Con cen tra ti ons __  ..   • __     _ __    ____ __ ____________ _____________________ Stress Concentrations Around a Hole in a Tension or Compression MembeL____________________ Stress Concentrations Due to a Hole Which is Not Small Compared to the Size of the Member____ COLUMNS __        _ __   _ __ __________ ______________ _____________________ Primary Fail u re __ _  ______________________ __ ______________________ ___________ Local Buckling and Twisting Failure_~_______ Lateral Buckling ,       .. • . . . __'______ BEAl\1S_           __              . .       _. '_ Form Factors __ • ~ ~__ . __ . . _____ Torsional Instability   __ __ ________________ __ ________________________ ___________ Combined Loadings ._ General • ._____________________________ Bending and Compression;        _      __            .  . __________ Bending and Tension __ • . __________ Shear ~Tebs ~ • ~Beam Section Efficiency  _________________________________ TORSION                                    _ _• __    _ . _      _____ General _________________________________ Torsional Properties __ _________________ ___________________________________________________ BASIC STRENGTH AND ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF PLYWOOD_______________________ General , •   _________ Analysis of Plywood Strength Properties____________________________________________________ Basic Formulas; _ _________ __________________________________________________ _____________ Approximate Methods for Calculating Plywood Strengths; _ ______ __ __________ __ _______________ Moisturestrength Relations for Plywood   __ ___ General_________________________________________________________________________________ Approximate Methods for Making Moisture Corrections for Plywood Strength Properties , _ ______ _ Moisture Corrections for Plywood Compressive Strength (0° or 900 to Face Grain Direction) ______ Moisture Correction for Plywood Tensile Strength (0° or 90° to Face Grain Direction)~___________ Moisture Corrections for Plywood Shear Strength (0° or 90° to Face Grain Direction)____________ Moisture Corrections for Plywood Compressive Strength (Any Angle to Face Grain Direction) ____ Moisture Corrections for Plywood Tensile Strength (Any Angle to Face Grain Direction)__________ Moisture Corrections for Plywood Shear Strength (Any Angle to Face Grain Direction) ___________ Specific Gravitystrength Relations for Plywood  _____ _ ___ ______________ __ ________ Stressstrain Relations for Wood and Plywood_______________________________________________ Mohr's Stressandstrain Circles .   __   Obtaining Strains from Given Stresses ..      ______ Obtaining Stresses from Given Strains______________________________________________________ Experimental Stressstrain Data ..                  Stress Concentrations (See Sec. 2.16 to 2.162)________________________________________________ PLYWOOD STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS_________________________________________________ Elements (6=00 or 900) •• _________________ Elements in Compression (0=0° or 90°) <____________ Elements in Tension (6=0° or 90°)_________________________________________________________ Elements in Shear (8=00 or 90°) ____ Elements (O=Any Angle) ,,' "       __          __• Elements in Compression (0= Any Angle)___________________________________________________ Elements in Tension (0= Any Angle) Elements in Shear (8=Any Angle) __ Elements in Combined Compression (or Tension) and Shear (8= Any Angle) _____________________ Elements in Bending Deflections       __                          Elements as Columns •                      FLAT RECTANGULAR PLYWOOD PANELS____________________________________________ Buckling Criteria   __  _                    General .. ._________ (P=Oo or 900)
__        ~       
31 31 31 31 32 32 34 34 34 34 34 36 36 36 36 36 36 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 45 45 45 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 • 55 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 61 61 61 61 64 64 64 65 66 67 67 67 67 68
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2.712. Compression
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CHAPTER 2. STRENGTH OF WOOD
AND PLYWOOD
ELEMENTSContinued
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2.713. Shear (t!=Oo or gooL_ 2.714. Combined Compression and Shear (05=0° or 90°) _ 2.715. Compression, Shear, and Combined Compression and Shear (,s= Any Angle) _ 2.7151. Combined Compression (or Tension) and Shear .. . . _ 2.72. Strength After Buckling . _ 2.721. General _ 2.722. Compression (tl=Any Angle) _ 2.723. Shear (13=0°, 45°, or 90°) • _ 2.73. Allowable Shear in Plywood Webs _ 2.730. General . . ._ 2.731. Allowable Shear Stresses 2.732. Buckling of Plywood Shear Webs . _ 2.74. Lightening Holes _ 2.75. Torsional Strength and Rigidity of Box Spars _ 2.76. Plywood Panels under Norrnal Loads _ 2.760. GeneraL " . _ 2.761. Small Deflections . _ 2.762. Large Deflections . _ 2.77. Stiffened Flat Plywood Panels _ . 2.771. The Stiffness of a Stiffener Affixed to a Plywood Panel, _ 2.'772. A Single Stiffener Bisecting a Panel; _ 2.7721. Stiffened Panel Subjected to Edgewise Compression, Stiffener Perpendicular to the Direction of the Stress and Parallel to Side A (iJ= 0° or 90°) _ 2.7722. Stiffened Panel Subjected to Edgewise Compression, Stiffener Perpendicular to the Direction of the Stress (,8 = 45 0) _
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69 69 69 32 92 92 92 92
92
92 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 98 98 98 99 99 101 101
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2.7723. Stiffened Panel Subjected to Edgewise Compression, Stiffener Parallel to the Direction of the Stress and to Side B (,s= 0° or 90 c _
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2.7724. Stiffened Panel Subjected to Edgewise Compression, Stiffener Parallel to the Direction of the Stress (p==45°) 2.7725. Stiffened Panel Subjected to Edgewise Shear Stiffener 'Parallel to Edges (or Ends) of Panel and f3 == or 90° 0°  _   . _ 2.773. A Plywood Panel Stiffened with A multiplicity of Closely Spaced Stiffeners Parallel to One of Its Edges (,8 = 0° or 90°) _ 2.7731. Determination of D "'.      _ _ 2.7732. Determination of Du     2.7733. Determination of Dmz• "    _ 2.7734. 2.774. 2.775. 2.8. 2.81. 2.82. 2.82 L 2.8211. 2.8212. 2.8213. 2.822. 2.823. 2.824. 2.83. 2.831. 2.832. 2.84. 2.841. 2.8411. 2.8412. 2.842. 2.8421. 2.8422. 2.8423. 2.85. 2.851. Determination of ~fz"'.                                                            Stiffened Plywood Panels Subjected to Bending in the Direction of the Stiffeners _ Modes of Failure in Stiffened Panels     .      _ CURVED PLYWOOD PANELS  _                                         Strength in Compression or Shear; or Combined Compression (or Tension) and Shear _ Circular Thinwalled Plywood Cylinders       __ _                  . .  .        Axial Com pression         _                  .   .      .                  Compression with Face Grain Parallel or Perpendicular to the Axis of the Cylinder      _ Compression with 450 Face Grain CompressionEffect of Length                             Bending TorsiOll Combined Torsion and Bending                              .                       Curved Panels  _           _ _i_     Axial Compression                         .                             Shear         ..               . .    .     Longitudinally Stiffened Cylinders                     .                    Stresses When Buckling Does Xot Occur _.                                         Axial Compression (or Tension) .  __._Shear Stress Due to Torsion . .Buckling of Stiffened Cy linders                 .                Axial Compression             Torsioll . .. .Bending Stiffened Curved Panels Axial Compression                         
101
101 101 103 103 103 103 103 107 107 107 107 107 107 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109
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CHAPTER 2. STRENGTH OF WOOD AND PLYWOOD
2.8511. 2.8512. 2.852. 2.8521. 2.9. 2.90. 2.900. 2.901. 2.902. 2.903. 2.904. 2.9040. 2.9041. 2.9042. 2.9043. 2.905. 2.9050. 2.9051. 2.906. 2.9060. 2.9061. 2.907. 2.908. 2.909. 2.9090. 2.9091. 2.91. 2.910. 2.911. 2.912. 2.92. 2.920. 2.3.
ELEMENTSContinued
112 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 118 118 122 122 122 122 122 123 125 125 125 126 126 126 126 ] 26 126 126 127 127 127 127 141 144
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Stiffener Axial , ,  . _ _ ____ _ . _.. _ . _.' . ___ Stiffeuer Cir oumferent.ial , . . . . _. . . _" __ Shear . •• •. .. . _. __. ______ __. Stiffener AxiaL . __    .  .. . . _. __. .. _. . __ JOIKTS .•.• __••• .. .. ... __._ .. __ . __.__ Bolted Joints _. • __  . ... _. __ ... __. . __. __.. __ __ . __.. _.. _. Bearing Parallel or Perpendicular to Grain ..   _ _. . . ______ Bearing at an Angle to the Grain . ._____________ Eccentric Loading ,   _. _ __   _          . .... _ Combined Concentric and Eccentric Loadings; Bolt Groups   __.. .. .,___ Bolt Spacings   _ . _. .____ _ Spacing of Bolts Loaded Parallel to the Grain .. ._____ Spacing of Bolts Loaded Perpendicular to the Grain • . ___________________ Spacing of Bolts Loaded at an Angle to the Grain ._________________________________ General K otes on Bol~ Spacing . ... . _.• . ______ Bearing in Woodbase Materials Bearing in Plywood • .. __. _________ Bearing in Compreg • ______ __ __________ ______ _ Bearing in Reinforced Mem bers . . .. _____ Wood Members with Plywood Reinforcing Plates ... . ... Wood Members "WithCrossbanded Compreg Reinforcing Plates; .. ..• ________________ Bushings •• . ._ Hollow Bolts . . ... ___________ General Features of Bolted Joints " . _________________ Drilling of Holes . _______ Repeated Loading of Bolted Joints , ________________________________________________________ Glued Joints . . __. _ Allowable Stress for Glued Joints . .. _.________ Laminated and Spliced Spars and Spar Flanges ______________________________________________ Glue Stress Between Web and Flange . __________________ Properties of Modified Wood . _. __________________________________________________ Detailed Test Data for Tables 216 to 221, Inclusive _________________________ lieferences .______________
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2.4. Bibliography_____________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER 3. METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
3.0. 3.00. 3.01. 3.010. 3.01l. 3.0J 10. 3.0111. 3.1. 3.10. 3.11. 3.110. 3.111. 3.112. 3.1120. 3.1121. 3.1122. 3.1123 . 3.1124. 3.1125. 3.113. 3.1130. 3.1131. 3.1132. 3.1133. 3.114. 3.1140. GENERAL       __       .   .     _      _                                   _ Purpose ._. ._______ Special Considerations in Static Testing of Structures .... _______________ Element Tests . ..______________________ Complete Structures • __.____________________________ Design Allowances for Test Conditions • _.        Test Procedure • . ~__________________ WINGS GeneraL .             ...      ..                      Twospar Wings with Independent Spars     ______ Spar Loadings Chord Loading '  _                                        _ Lifttruss Analysis • . • ~    .  __      ~GeneraL               . ~  Lift Struts              .                        .     Jury Struts ._···... +.Nonparallel '~Vires  • _                     .           Biplane Lift Trusses ..__________ Itigging Loads ._·._____________ Dragtru 88 Analysis  .  _   _   .                            .             Single Dragtruss Systems  _                        •                  Double Dragtruss Systems.  _                 .                      Fixity of Drag Struts ..Plywood Dragtruss Systems                             .      Spar Shears and Moments • __.                       .    .                      Beamcolumn effects (Secondary bending)    . 146 146 146 146 147 l4 7 147 148 148 148 148 149 150 150 152 154 154 154 154 154 154 155 155 155 155 157
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CHAPTER 3. METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSISContinued 3.11·H. Effects of Varying Axial Load and Moment of Inertia____ . __. _ 3.lI5. Internal and Allowable Stresses for Spars ~~ ~ _ 3.1150. General ~__ 3.1151. \Vood Spars~ ~ ~ _ "3.116. Special Problems in the Analysis of Twospar Wings ~ ~ . . _ 3.1160. Lateral Buckling of Spars _ 3.1161. Ribs " _ 3.1162. Fabric Attachment _ 3.12. Twospar Plywood Covered Wings _ 3.120. Single Covering ~ _ 3.121. Box Type ~ _ 3.13. Reinforced Shell Wings    __ 3.130. GeneraL              3.131. Computation of Loading Curves ~ _ 3. 1310. Loading Axis    _  _   _ __  3.1311. Loading Formulas . 3.132. Computation of Shear, Bending Moment, a~d Torsion _ 3.133. Computation of Bending Stresses .          _        3.1330_ Section Properties                          3.1331. Bending Stress Formulas      _    3.134. Secondary Stresses in Bending Elements  _~               3.135. Computation of Shear Flows and Stresses ~  _ _ 3.1350. GeneraL  _     _   _  ~    _                                            3.1351. Shear Flow Absorbed by Bending Elements 3.1352. Shear Correction for Beam Taper.  _ _ _~  ~ ~~   3.1353. Simple D Spar  __    ~                                   3.1354. Rational Shear Distribution    _      .     "         3.13540. Single CellGeneral Method  _ _                                  3.13541. Two CellGeneral Method  _ _   ~                                3.13542. TwoCell FourFlange Wing                  3.13543. Shear Centers 3.136. Ribs and Bulkheads 3.1360. Normal Ribs                                            ~  ~      3.13600. RibCrushing Loads ~3.1361. Bulkhead Ribs 3.137. Miscellaneous Structural Problems                  .                        3.1370. Additional Bending and Shear Stresses due to Torsion                              3.1371. General Instability               c    3.138. Strength Determination                                     "      3.1380. Buckling in Skin ~ 3.1381. Compression Elements                                                             3.1382. Stiffened Panels ~ ~3.1383. Tension Elements 3.1384. Shear Elements  _                                                  ~        3.2. FIXED TAIL SURF ACES                          ~                        3.3. ;\iroVABLE CONTROL SuRF AeES __ _                                                3.4. FUSELAG ES                                                                       3.40. General . "3.41. Fourlongeron Type __  _                                                                3.42. Reinforced 8 heII Type                                                      3.421. Stressedskin Fuselages                         ~   _                          ...      3.422. Computation of Bending Stresses         _                3.423. Computation of Shearing Stresses                              ,                           3.43. Pureshell Type                                                                  3.431. Monocoque shell Fuselages                                                          3.44. Miscellaneous Fuselage Analysis Problems;                                                 3.441. Analysis of Seams  _ _                          ._                               ~   3.442. Analysis of Frames and Rings __                                               ~          3.4421. ~1ain Frames 3.4422. Intermediate Frames  _                   .                       ~                   3.443. Effects of CutOuts 3.444. Secondary Structures Within the Fuselage,                                                 ri . 
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158 158 158 158 159 159 159 159 160 160 160
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160 160 150 162 163 163 165 167 168 168 168 170 172 172 173
173
176 178 180 181 181 181
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182 182 182 183 183 184 184
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186 189 189 189 191 191 191 192 192 192 192 193 193 193 ix
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CHAPTER 3. METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANAL YSI5Continued 3.45. 3.5. 3.51. 3.52. 3.53. 3.54. 3.55. 3.6. Strength Determination. _.... HULLS AND FLOATS Main Longitudinal Girder Bottom Plating Bottom Stringers Frames Strength Determination MISCELLANEOUS References _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
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CHAPTER 4. DETAIL STRUCTURAL DESIGN 4.0. GEKERAL 4.00. IntroductioD 4.01. Definitions 4.010. Solid \Vood . ~ 4.011. Laminated ~7ood 4.012.PJywood 4.013. Highdensity material; 4.1. PLYWOOD COVERIKG 4.10. GeneraL 4.11. Joints in the Covering 4.12. Taper in Thickness of the Covering 4.13. Behavior Under Tension Loads 4.14. Beha v ior Under Shear Loads 4.15. Plywood Panel Size 4.16. CutOuts 4.2. BEA:\fS . __. . __  4.20. Types of Beams 4.21. Laminating of Beams and Beam Flanges 4.22. Shear ~~ebs 4.23. Beam Stiffeners 4.24. Blocking 4.25. Scarf Joints in Beams 4.26. Reinforcemen t of Sloping Grain 4.3. RIBS • 4.30. Types of Ribs . 4.31. Special Purpose Ribs 4.32. Attachment of Ribs to the Structure 4.4. FRAMES AKD BULKHEADS 4.40. Types of Frames and Bulkheads 4.41. Glue Area for Attachment of Plywood Covering 4.42. Reinforcement for Concentrated Loads 4.5. STIFFENERS 4_50. General Stringers •
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199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 201 202 202 203 203 203
205

  
4_ 51. Attachmen t of
4.52. 4.6. 4.60. 4.61. 4.62. 4.63. 4.64. 4.7. 4.70. 4.71. 4.72. 4.73. 4.74. 4.75.
       _ _
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Attachment of Intercostals  _          _• _                  GLUE JOIKTS General .Eccentricities     _    _   _i Avoidance of EndGrain Joints   • Gluing of Plywood Over WoodPlvwood Combinations c Gluing of High Density MateriaL     MECHANICAL JOIKTS • General Use of Bushings              Use of High Density Material, Mechanical Attachment of Ribs                __   Attachment of Various Types of Fittings Use of Wood Screws, Rivets, Nails, and SelfLocking Nuts .'

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4.8. )"IISCELLAKEOUS DESIGN 4..80. Metal to Wood Connections
DETAILS_                                                       
205 206 206 207 207 207 207 209 209 210 210 210 210 211 211 211 211 212 212 212 212 212 213 214 214 214 214 215 215 215 216 216
CHAPTER 4. DETAIL STRUCTURAL DESIGNContinued 4.81. 4.82. 4.83. 4.84. 4.85. 4.86. 4.87. 4.88. 4.89. 4.9. Stress Concentrations Behavior of Dissimilar :\Iaterials Working Together Effects of Shrinkage Drainage and Ventilation Internal Finishing External Finishing Selection of Species Use of Standard Plywood Tests EXAMPLES OF ACTUAL DESIGN DETAILS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
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CHAPTER I GENERAL
1.0, Purpose and Use of Bulletin
LOO. IXTRODUCTION. This bulletin has been prepared for use in the design of both military and commercial aircraft, and contains material which is acceptable to the U. S. Air Force, Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, and the Civil Aeronautics Administration. It should, of course, be understood that methods and procedures other than those outlined herein are also acceptable, provided they are properly substantiated and approved by the appropriate agency. The applicability and interpretation of the provisions of this bulletin as contract or certification requirements will in each case be defined by the procuring or certificating agency. 1.01. SCOPE OF BULLETIN. The technical material in this bulletin is contained in chapters 2, 3, and 4, and pertains to three related phases of the structural design of wood aircraft. Chapter 2 presents information on the strength and elastic properties of structural elements constructed of wood and plywood. This information supersedes that contained in the June 1944 edition of ANC~18, "Design of Wood Aircraft Structures." Chapter 3 contains suggested methods of structural analysis for the design of various aircraft components. Although these methods are in many cases the same as those used for metal structures, special considerations have been introduced which take into account the orthotropic properties of wood. Chapter 4 presents recommendations on the detail structural design of wood aircraft and contains some examples of how various manufacturers have treated the solution of specific detail design problems. 1.02. ACKXOWLEDGMENT. The Panel on Sandwich Construction of the Subcommittee on AirForceN avyCivil Aircraft Design Criteria and the Forest Products Laboratory express their appreciation to aircraft manufacturers and others for the valuable assistance given in connection with various parts of this bulletin.
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1.1. Nomenclature
This section presents the definitions of standard structural symbols which are used in the bulletin. In addition, sections 1.10 and 1.11 are presented to clarify the differentiation between the definitions for strength and elastic properties of plywood elements and those for like properties of plywood panels. These sections also outline the use of table 213. 1.10. DEFINITIONS FOR PLYWOOD ELEME","TSBE ..... PRISMS, AND COLU:\INS IN CO}l"PRESSION, MS, STRIPS IN TENSION. A plywood element is any rectangular piece of plywood that is supported, loaded, or restrained on two opposite edges only. In defining the various strength and elastic property terms for plywood elements the face grain direction has been used as a reference; for example, the subscript w denotes a direction parallel to (with) the face grain, while the subscript z denotes a direction perpendicular to (across) the face grain. This is illustrated by figure 11. The strength and elastic properties given in table 213 of the bulletin are for plywood elements. 1.11 DEFINITIONS FOR PLYWOOD PANELS. A plywood panel is any rectangular piece of plywood that is supported, loaded, or restrained on more than two edges. In defining the various strength and related property terms for plywood panels) the
, FACE GRAIN OIRECTION
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£W' cfw,ETC.FROM Tf1BLE 213
Figure 11. Plywood element (supported, loaded, or restrained on two opposite edges only).
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side of length a rather than the face grain direction has been used as the reference. For any panel having tension or compression loads (either alone or accompanied by shear) the side of length a is the loaded side. For panels having only shear loads (with no tension or compression), the side a. may be taken as either side (sec. 2.715). For panels having normal loads, side a is the shorter side. The subscripts a and 1 denote a direction parallel to the side of length a, and the subscripts band 2 denote a direction perpendicular to the side of length a. This is illustrated by figure 12.
E"" Ex,
table 213. figure 13.
e.:
E;x,
This
etc., respectively, in IS illustra ted by
Ea.,~,£TCVALlIE5 FROM COLUMN'S FOREw.lfw,ETC~ RESPECTIVELY, INTI/elf Z/3
S,~.ETC.
VALVE5 FROM
COLUMN5 FOR Ex.~x.£TC'1 RESPECTIVELY, IN TABLE Z13
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a
_.t...,.....,..~~~'7"7"7"77.777777Eb,Ez,f7C.CANNOT EVALUAUD GRAIN BE lINTIL rAC£ EVALUATE.D UIYTIL FACE 15HNOWN GRAIN DIRECTION IS KNOWN
Figure 13. Plywood panel (face grain direction parallel to side of length a).
omar/o«
F1'gure 12. Plywood panel (supported, loaded, or restrained on more than two edges).
(2) When the face grain direction of a plywood panel is perpendicular to the side of lengtb a, the values of Ea, Eb, EI, E2, etc., may be taken from the columns for Ex, Ew, E,x, E,w, etc., respectively, in table 213. This is illustrated by figure
14.
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Since, in panels, the directions in which Ea, Eo, El, E2, etc., are to be measured are related to the directions of the sides of lengths a and b, it is necessary to relate these directions to the face grain direction before the terms can be evaluated from table 213. It may be stated, therefore, that: (1) men the face grain direction of a plywood panel is parallel to the side of length a, the values of Ea, Eo, EJ, E2, etc., may be taken from the columns for
T 1~"7"'7'7'7"'r~~~~,J.....
a
Ca..C,. ETCVI/LVES FRO/'! COLUMNS .E.'X.
RESPECTIVELY, 2.,13
roR~ .
/lJ
TABU
rrc,
Eb.Ez,ETC.VALV£J FROM COLUMNS E.... ETC., RESPECT/Yt:LY, INTABL£ 213
c,....
Figure 14. Plywood panel (face grain direction perpendiculor to side of length a •
1.12. STA.NDARD STRUCTURAL SYMBOLS FOR CHAPTER 2. In general, symbols that are used only in the section where they are defined are not included in this nomenclature. . A area of cross section, square inches (total). a the length of the loaded side of a plywood panel for compression or tension loads, and the length of either side for shear loads (sec. 2.715); subscript denoting parallel to side of length a for plywood panels.
AL AT
L
,
:_
of plies with grain direction parallel to the direction of applied stress. area of plies with grain direction perpendicular to the direction of applied stress (surfaces of plies parallel to plane of glue joint tangential to the annual growth rings, as for rotarycut or flatsliced veneer, fiatsawn lumber).
area
I
I
l..
AR
L
I
L
L.
I
area of plies with grain direction perpendicular to the direction of applied stress (surfaces of plies parallel to plane of glue joint radial to the annual growt ~l rings, as for quartersliced veneer, quartersawn lumber). b length of the unloaded side of a plywood panel for compression or tension loads, and the length of either side for shear loads (sec. 2.715); subscript denoting parallel to side of length b for plywood panels; subscript denoting "bending" for solid wood. subscript denoting "bearing." endfixity coefficient for columns; subscript denoting "cornpression": distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber . distance from neutral axis to the extreme fiber having grain direction parallel to the applied stress (plywood). subscript denoting "critical." depth or height. the
B
I
L
II.
\
c
circumference.
br
c
I
I
L
L
D Dw diameter. depending
c' cr d on direction of stiffeners,
L
(
j
s,» .or12)../
E/xto
12A/
Dwe
L
D"'6
L
L
\
same as Dw except that the stiffener is considered to be an extra ply of the plywood. same as Dw but these are effective values applicable to the stiffened panel as a whole. depending on direction of stiffeners, E,wt3
e» 12)../or
12)../
....
L
L
same as D, except that the stiffener is considered to be an extra ply of the plywood. same as D, but these are effective values applicable to the stiffened panel as a whole.
G/!J:x
t3
12
L
!
\
L
same as Dwx except that the stiffener is considered to be an extra ply of the plywood. same as Dwx but these are effective values applicable to the stiffened panel as !1 whole.
L
3
L
EL
L
)
ER
L
L
i
Er
ELc
!
L
L
I
modulus of elasticity of wood in the direction parallel to the grain, as determined from a static bending test. (This value is listed in table 24.) modulus of elasticity of wood in the direction radial to the annual growth rmgs, modulus of elasticity of wood in the direction tangential to the annual growth rings. modulus of elasticity of wood in the direction parallel to the grain, as determined from a compression test (value not listed in table 23, but approximately equal to 1.1 EL)'
unit
strain (tension or compression) the L direction. strain (tension or compression) the R direction.
ill
lmit
ill
unit strain (tension or compression) the T direction.
in
L
j
I
L..
L L
L
I
strain between Land T unit strain between Land R unit strain between T and R effective modulus of elasticity of plywood in tension or compression measured parallel to the side of length a of plywood panels.  effective modulus of elasticity of plywood in tension or compression measured perpendicular to the side of length a of plywood panels. Ea or Eo as required. effective modulus of elasticity of plywood in tension or compression measured parallel to (with) the grain direction of the face plies. effecti\e modulus of elasticity of plywood in tension or compression measured perpendicular to (across) the grain directi on of the face plies. effective modulus of elasticity of plywood in flexure (bending) measured parallel to (with) the grain direction of the face plies. effective modulus of elasticity of plywood in flexure (bending) measured perpendicular to (across) the grain direction of the face plies. same as E,:z, except that outermost ply on tension side is neglected (not to be used in deflection formulas.)
unit
(shear); the change in angle lines originally drawn in the directions. (shear); the change in angle lines originally drawn in the directions. (shear); the change in angle lines originally drawn in the directions.
L
L L L L L L
E'f%
4
EL of It stiffener.
L L
I"
L
F
L
L
ForI'
efIectin modulus of elasticity of plywood in flexure (bending) measured parallel to the side of length a of" plywood panels, or parallel to the axis of plywood cylinders. effective modulus of elasticity of plywood in flexure (bending) measured perpendicular to the side of length a of plywood panels. allo"rable stress; stress determined from test. allowable bending stress."
j
modulus of rupture in bending for solid wood parallel to grain. fiber stress at proportional limit in bending for solid wood parallel to grain. bearing stress at proportional limit parallel to the grain for solid wood. allowable ultimate bearing stress perpendicular to grain for solid wood (either radial or tangential to the annual growth rings). =allowable ultimate bearing stress parallel to grain. allowable compressive stress. critical compressive stress for the buckling of rectangular plywood panels.
internal (or calculated) stress; subscrip t denoting "flexure" (bending) for plywood. internal (or calculated) primary bending stress.
internal
(or calculated) bearing stress.
i L.
POrT
L
I
For"
L
j
internal stress.
(or
calculated)
compressive
L
Far
internal (or calculated) compressive stress in a longitudinal ply; i. e., any ply with its grain direction parallel to the applied stress.
L
L
1
\
f
L
L L
\
stress at proportional limit III compreSSIOn parallel to gram for solid wood.  stress at proportional limit in compression perpendicular to grain for solid wood (either radial or tangential to the annual growth rings). stress at proportional limit in compression for plywood having the face grain direction parallel to (with) the applied stress. stress at proportional limit in compression for plywood having the"face grain direction perpendicular to (across) the applied stress.
L
5
PcPS
L L
L
Feu
FCUT
I
L L L
1
FculIJ
Fwz
Fcu8
L
F,
Fscr
L L
L
I
P;
Fsu F.Bt
stress at proportional limit in compression for plywood having the face grain direction at an angle e to the applied stress. ultimate compressive stress parallel to the grain for solid wood. compressive strength perpendicular to grain for solid wood (either radial or tangential to the annual growth rings) (sec. 2.1000). ultimate compressive stress for plywood having the face grain direction parallel to (with) the applied stress. . ultimate compressive ~tress for plywood haying the face grain direction perpendicular to (across) the applied stress. ultimate compressive stress for plywood having the face grain direction at an angle e to the applied stress. allowable shearing stress. critical shear stress for the buckling of rectangular plywood panels. modulus of rupture in torsion. ultimate shear stress parallel to grain for solid wood. ultimate shear stress for plywood, wherein e designates the angle between the face grain direction and the shear stress in a plywood element so loaded in shear that the face grain is stressed
ill
internal
(or calculated) shearing stress.
.
compression.
.
L
(
FBi!
\
....
Fs=
L L L
!
F!
ultimate shear stress for plywood, wherein e designates the angle between the face grain direction and the shear stress in a plywood element so loaded in shear that the face grain is stressed in tension. ult.imate shear stress for plywood elements for the case where the face grain is at 00 and 900 to the shear stress. allowable tension stress.
internal (or calculated) tensile stress. internal (or calculated) tensile stress in a longitudinal ply (any ply with its grain direction parallel to the applied stress).
FUi
F!UT
L
L
6
ultimate tensile stress parallel to gram for solid wood. tensile strength perpendicular to ::;rain for solid wood (either radial or tangential to the annual growth rings) ..
L
j
L
L_J
I!
G
ultimate tensile stress for plywood havinz ~ ~ the face gram direction parallel to (with) the applied stress. ultimate tensile stress for plywood havinz ~ eo the face grain direction perpendicular to (across) the applied stress. ultimate tensile stress for plywood having the face grain direction u.t an angle e to the applied stress. mean modulus of rigidity taken as X6 of
EL•
g
L L L
,1
L
!
modulus of rigidity associated with shear deformations in the LT plane resulting from shear stresses in the LR and RT planes. modulus of rigidity associated with shear deformations in the LR plane resulting from shear stresses in the LT and RT planes. modulus of rigidity associated with shear deformations in the TR plane resultinz from shear stresses in the LT and LR planes. a constant, generally theoretical. moment of inertia. polar moment of inertia. torsion constant (I" for round tubes). ·a constant, generally empirical.
length of side of panel and equal to a or b as is required.
h ~
J
height or depth. subscript denoting "ith ply." stiffness factor stiffness factor
k
I EIIP
L
Efw[.i.fxw+2XfG,wz
L
1
L
length; span; subscript denoting direction parallel to the grain.
= ~where
yC
the
l
not
used, to avoid confusion with the numeral 1.
I e.;e;
L
~
L'
M N
c is the endfixity coefficient.
m
n
applied applied
bending moment. load (total, not unit load).
L
P
p
L
I
p8~
L
L
I
Q R
s
T
static moment of a cross section. subscript denoting the direction radial to the annual growth rings and perpendicular to the grain direction. shear force. applied torsional moment, torque; subscript denoting the direction tangential to the annual growth rings and perpendicular to the grain direction.
q
T
number of half waves. number of plies, number of stiffeners. subscript denoting "polar"; subscript denoting "proportional limit"; load per unit area. pounds per square inch. shear flow, pounds per inch. radius; adjusted ratio length to width
!!. (El)
a
E2
}~
8
L.
t
·distance c to C of adjacent stiffeners; subscript denoting "shear". thickness; subscript denoting "tension".
L L
]
thickness thickness
of central ply. of face ply. 7
l
u
L L L L
L
w
x
y
section modulus, Ilc polar section modulus, Ip/c.
x
y
subscript. denoting "ultimate". deflection of plywood panels; load per linear inch; subscript, denoting parallel to face grain of plywood. subscript denoting perpendicular to face grain of plywood. distance from the neutral axis to any given fiber. distance between center of panel and neutral axis of panel stiffener combination. the angle between side of length b and the face grain direction as used in the determination of buckling criteria for panels (sec. 2.71). deflection. usually the acute angle in degrees between the face grain direction and the direction of the applied stress; angle of twist. in radians in a length (L). Poisson's ratio of contraction along the direction T to extension along the direction L due to a normal tensile stress on the RT plane; similarly, fJ.LR, fJ.RT. J1.TR, fJ.RL, and J1.TL· radius of gyration. usually the acute angle in degrees between the face grain direction and the axis of extension.
z
e;
o
e
L L L L
L
I
P.LT
p
cp
L L
I
L
L L L L
8
L L
CHAPTER' 2 STRENGTH OF WOOD AND PLYWOOD ELEMENTS
demarcation between the growth occurrinz in • '=' successive years. The relation between the cellular structure of the wood and the three principal axeslongitudinal (L), tangential (T), and radial (R)is indicated on the sketch. Figure 32 shows the relation between these ,axes and (a) the log, (b) a flatsawn board or rotarycut veneer, and (c) an edgegrain board or quartersliced veneer. 2,01. DENSITYORApPARENT SPECIFIC ORA. ITY. V The substance of which wood is composed is ac~ually heavier than water, its specific gravity , being nearly the same for all species and averaging about 1.5. Since a certain proportion of the volume of wood is occupied by cell cavities, the apparent specific gravity of the wood of most species is less than unity. Relations between various strength properties and specific gravity have been developed (table 21) and are useful in estimating the strsnzth of a piece of wood of known specific gravity. Considerable variability from these general relations is found, so that while they cannot be expected to give exact strength values, they do give good estimates of strength. Minimum permissible specific gravity values are listed in section 2.10. The exponential values shown in table 31 apply to variation within a species, That is, they are to be used in determining the relation between the strength properties of pieces of the same species but of different specific gravity. For expressing the relation between the average strength properties of different species, the exponential values are somewhat lower. Such values are shown in table 14 of U. S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 479 (ref. 257). 2.02. MOISTURE CONTENT. Wood in the natural state in the living tree has considerable water associated with it. After being converted to lumber or other usable form, or during conversion,
i
L
2.0. Physical Characteristics and Factors AFFecting the Strength of Wood
2.00. ANISOTROPYOF WOOD. Wood, unlike most other commonly used structural materials . . ' 1S not Isotropic. It is a complex structural material, consisting essentially of fibers of cellulose cemented together by lignin. It is the shape, size, and arrangement of these fibers, together with their physical and chemical composition that govern the strength of wood, and account for the larze difference in properties along and across the grain (ref. 220). The fibers are long and hollow tubes tapering toward the ends, which are closed. Besides these vertical fibers, which are oriented with their longer dimension length wise of the tree and comprise. the principal part of what is called wood all ., species, except palms and yuccas, contain horizontal strips of cells known as rays, which are oriented radially and are an important part of the tree's food transfer and storage system. Among different species the rays differ widely in their size and prevalence. From the strength standpoint, this arrangement of fibers results in an anisotropic structure, that accounts for three Young's moduli differing by as much as 150 to 1, three shear moduli differing by as much as 20 to 1, six Poisson's ratios differing by as much as 40 to 1, and other properties differing by various amounts. Not all of these wood properties have, as yet, been thoroughly evaluated. Figure 21 shows a diagrammatic sketch of the cellular structure of wood. Each year's growth is represented by one annual ring. The portion of the growth occurring in the spring consists of relatively thinwalled fibers, while that occurring during the later portion of the growing season consists of fibers having somewhat heavier walls. Thus, there is, for most woods, a definite line of
L
L
I
I
L L
l
...
'
I
9
L
....
I
L
~ ~
~
~.
L L
L
L
I
::s
~ ~
"
K.
::s .......
~
"'ci :;,
c c
.
..J
,~l
~ I() ~ ~ ~
'"
~
,~
~,
R. "1:l ~ e ~ C> ~ ...
5 ...
"1::l
;"
c ;>
~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
C)
... .,. '"
"tl
~ ~
L
L
I 0<
~ ... ~
t;
V
\')
"" ~
~
!J
....
",'"
~ ... ~ ~
L
,
"
~
~.
'J ~
/
Q:
~ ~ ~ ~
...
t;:,.
~
..,
I:»
G
Li
\
~
L
L
L
L L l· L L
10
L
L
[
l
L
L
L
r
r
,
L
l L
[
L
I
l
;
C
L
wood is commonly dried so that most of the water is removed. The water is associated with the wood in two ways, either absorbed in the cell walls, or as free water in the cell cavities. During drying, the free water in the cell cavities is removed first, then that absorbed in the cell walls. The point at which all the water has been removed from the cell cavities while the cell walls remain saturated is known as the fibersaturation point. For most species, the moisture content at fiber saturation is from 22 to 30 percent of the weight of the dry wood. Lowering the moisture content to the fibersaturation point results in no changes in dimension or in strength properties. Lowering the moisture content below the fibersaturation point, however, results in shrinkage and an increase in strength properties. . Wood is a hygroscopic material, continually giving off or taking on moisture in accordance with the relative humidity and temperature to which it is exposed. Thus, while the strength of a piece of wood may be increased to a relatively high value by drying to a low moisture content, some of that increase may be lost if, in use, it is exposed to atmospheric conditions that tend to increase the moisture content. While paint and other coatings may be employed to retard the rate of absorption of moisture by wood, they do not change its hygroscopic properties, thus a piece of wood may be expected to come to the Same moisture content under the same exposure conditions whether painted or unpainted. The time required will vary, depending upon whether or not it is coated. It is desirable, therefore, to design a structure on the basis of the strength corresponding to the conditions of use. Moisture content is generally expressed as a percentage of the dry weightof the wood. The percentage variation of wood strength properties for 1 percent change in moisture content is given in table 22. Since this variation is an exponential function (ref. 285), it is necessary that strength adjustments based on the percentage changes given in the table be made successively for each 1 percent, change in moisture content until the total change has been covered. Figure 23 is a chart by means of which the ratio between the adjusted strength and the original strength may be determined approximately if the proper correction factor is obtained from table 22 and the difference in moisture content for which correction is
desired is known. For positive correction factors in table 22, the original strength is multiplied by the strength ratio factor determined from figure 23 for adjustments involving decrease in moisture content, and divided by the strength ratio factor for those involving increase in moisture content, For negative factors in table 22, the original strength is divided by the strength ratio factor for adjustments involving decrease in moisture, and multiplied for adjustments involving increase in moisture.
Table
21.
liariation
of
wood
strength
1
properties
wit.h
specific grav£ty
S =strength at specific gravity g S' =strength at specific gravity g' (usually average
values from column (2) of tables 26 and
27)
Static bending: Fiber stress at proportional limit; ___________ Modulus of rupture Modulus of elasticity ~__~______ Work to maximum load____________________ Tot~work ~ Impact bending: Fiber stress at proportional limit , ___________ Modulus of elasticity ~ Height of drop____________________________ Compression parallel to grain: Fiber stress at proportionallimiL___________ Maximum crushing strength ._________ Modulus of elasticity Compression perpendicular to grain: Fiber stress at proportional limit. ___________ Hardnessend, radial, tangentiaL ______________
1 Values in this table apply only to variations within a species. 2.01.
L 50 L 50 1. 25
n
2.00 a 25
L 50 1. 25
2. 00
L 25 L 25
1. 25 2. 50 2. 50
See section
SHRINKAGE. Reduction of moisture content below the fibersaturation point results in a change in dimension of the wood. Shrinkage in the longitudinal direction is generally negligible, but in the other two directions it is considerable. In general, radial shrinkage is less than tangential, the ratio between the two varying with the species. A quartersawed board will, therefore, shrink less in width but more in thickness than a flatsawed board. The smaller the ratio of radial to tangential shrinkage, the more advantage is to be gained thro ugh minimizing shrinkage in width by
2.03.
i
11
i
L
i
using a quartersawed board. The smaller the difference between radial and tangential shrinkage, the less, ordinarily, is the tendency to check in drying and to cup with changes in moisture content. In general, woods of high specific gravity shrink
3.1 3.0
and swell more for a given change in moisture content than do woods of low specific gravity. 2.04. TEMPERATURE. The strength of wood is greatly influenced hy its temperature, but the magnitude of the effect depends upon the moisture content of the wood and the time of exposure.
L
7
/ / /
7
/. /
C
/ /
/
2.9
/ 77 /
2.8 2.7
2.6 2.5 2.4
I
I
I
/
/ 7
/ 7
I
7
I
7
/
/
/
_/
/
/
II I
// 7/ / 7/ / ////77/
/
77 / / 7
/
/
/
/ /
/
J
/
L
L L L
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
\:)
2.3
2.2
2.1
/J'/ /// / ./ ./ / / V 2.0 I++~+_+_+_++/_AI 1/_ / / / /
f+++++.+I
,C I I / / /
II//" / / /77/7 Lf / / / V / II / I / / / /
/777
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
V
/'
II/I/J/V/
V/ / /
1.9
t+_~+_:+_I+I+,.<.IJ/L.4V ../ V /
ftVJ /7/
..,;/ '7
/V
/ /
/
/
./
I.S
1.7
L
L
ts
V)
~==:==:==:==~==:A'v7,I /IVV/_ ~ //~/ / / t++_++_1~Y/ '/ /
/
_~)'77 V /
V/
V
77 V V /"
1/
7 '7 / 7/
/
V
/./
/"
/'
1.6 /.5 /.4 1.3
~:~71/lr/ / / /:/
/7
/V'
/v
7
/
"/
",
L
1
1.2
L
12
/.1
1.0 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
MOlsrURE CONTENT DIFFERENCE (PERCENT) FOR WHICH CORRECTION IS OESIRED Figure 28. Strength ratio chart jor use in making strengthmoisture adjustments.
..
[
i
L
Toble
£':"2.
Percentage increase in wood strength properties for
Static bending
,
1
percent decrease in moisture content
I'
I
Species
F~~er ~tress tional Iimit
. pr porI.
,L
L
I
II
o
Modulus of rupture
I
I
__________
.__
(1)
!
Modulus i \York to of e.!asticin·1 maximum load 2
i !
lcl to gram,
II
compresl sion paralmnxirr:um
crushing
.
strength
Compres~IOD perpcndicular to gram
!:
I
Sh~aring: strength
parallel to grain
Hardness (side)
0
I •
moo·

00 
~
i
~

i·
,__
~_;_(8)
(11)
m
6. 8 4. 8 6. 6 5. 3 7. 2 I 5. 6 I I 5. 5 I ·5.7
6. 1 6. 6

1
L
:,
L
l
'1
L
Hardwoods: I Ash, black. ________________________ Ash, commercial white ______________ Basswood, American ________________ Beech, American ____________________ sweet ________________________ . Birch, Blrch, yellow _______________________ Cherry, black ______________________ Cott.onwood ________________________ Elm, rock __________________________ Hickory (true hickories) _____________ , Khaya ("African mahogany") ________ Aiahogany _________________________ . Maple, sugar _______________________ Oak, commercial white and red _______ Sweetgum _________________________ : WaIn u t, hlac k ______________________ i Y ellow poplar ______________________ ! Softwoods (conifers): 2 Baldcypress ___~____________________ , Douglasfir. ________________________ Fir, noble __________________________ Hemlock, western ___________________ Incense cedar, California _____________ ; ! Pine, eastern w hit.e __________________ red __________________________ Pine, Pine, sugar. _________________    I Pine, western white _________________ : Redcedar, western __________________ ; Spruce, red and SUka _______________ Spruce, white _________________  __Whitecedar, northern _______________ ! Whitecedar, Port Orford ,     
8. 9
4. 1
6. 8 6. 0
6. 4
6. 0 6. 6 5. 8 4. 7 4. 9 3. 2 2. 6 5. 2 4. 6 6. 7 5. 8 5. 0 4. 6 4. 5 5. 1 4. 7 3. 4 5. 6 8.0 4.4 5. 3 4. 3 4. 7 5. 8 5. 4 5. 7
6. 4 3. 5 I 4. 8 I 4. 7 i p. 0 4. 8 3. {\
4. 1
3. 6
1.4
1. 8
2. 9
1. 8 2. 3 2. 0
I
1 1
I
l. 1
.4 2. 6 2. 0 1. 2 1. 7 1.0
1
3. 8 4. 8 2. 5 1.3 4. 4 4. 4 4. 7 3. 7 4. 6 4.0 3. 7 4. 7 3. 4
2. 1
2. 5 2. 1 2. 8 1.6 .8
1. 4
2. 4 2. 2
1.4
2. 7 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.4 1.8 2.0
!
i
.3 .7 .6 2. q 1.9 1. 7 1.5 2. 6 1.9 1. 8 1.9 3. 2 7 1.4 2. 1 4. 7
1
8. 3 4.7 6.5 G. 2 7. 1 6. 1 6. 0 6.6 5.3 5.9 3. 2 2. 5 5.7 5.9 6. 1 4. 8 6. 7 4. 9 5.5 6. 1 5.0 4. 3 5. 7 7.5 5.4 6. 5 5. 1 5. 3 6. 5 5. 9 6. 2
5. 1 2. 9 4. 2
I I
3. 0 3. 9 7. 1 4. 4 5. 4 6. 3 4. 8
5. 1
3. 8 5. 0 3. 6 3. 5 2. 6 3. 5 3. 9  .4 i 3. 1

4. 1 2. 4 4. 2 3. 6 3. 6 3. 3 3. 1 1. 8 2. 8
1.
3. 9 "3. 5 3. 5 1.0 3. 3 1.7 1.7 2.3 2. 5 .4 2. 2 3. 9 3. 7 2. 5 1.6 2.6 3. 7
2. 8
3. 4 1. 8 2. 4
1.
o o
2. 4 2. 3 2. 9 3. 1 2. o 1 5
2. 4. 1. L 2
5
5. 0
5. 5
3. 7 4. 0 5. 6 7. 2 4. 4 5. 2
1
4. 8 5. 7 3. 9 5. 1 3. 4 3. 9 4. 8 3. 6 5. 2
2. 2 2. 1
2. 2 1.6 1.7 1.9 1.8 1. 6
4. 8 1. 3 2.0 2. 1 1. 5 L7
9 5
3
5.
1
2.
4. 3 5. 7 2.3 6. 7
2. 4
2. 2
3. 3 3. o 2. 8
o
L
0
,
o•
, Corrections to the strength properties should be made successively for each 1 percent change in moisture content until the total change has been covered. For each 1 percent decrease in moisture content, the strength is multiplied by (1+P), wuere P is the percentage correction factor shown in the table, expressed as a decimal. Foreacb 1 percent increase in moisture content, the strength is divtded by (1+P). 2 Negative values indicate a decrease in work to maximum load for a decrease in moisture content. ~ For tension values see section 2.5411.
L L
exists relating to permanent strength reductions resulting from pro1 longed or cyclic exposure to temperature extremes ' (ref. 246, 2~57, 284) few investigations have been made with respect to transient or reversible effects resulting from differences in temperature (ref. 22, 226, 228, 236, 258, 273, 276,
281).
L Although considerable literature
!
Broadly, it would appear from data now available that prolonged exposure to temperatures
above about 1500 F. may result in a permanent loss of strength, and that within the range 00 F. to 1500 F. the reduction in static strength properties (excluding modulus of elasticity) with increase in temperature for wood at about 12 percent moisture content, will approximate onehalf percent per degree Fahrenheit. The effect on impact properties is variable and cannot be generalized. Some data on the mechanical properties of wood of different moisture contents over the tempera13
I
I.
ture range of 328° F. to +392" F. are given in NACA Technical :.\Iemorandum No. 984, reference 237. 2.0.5. FATIGUEPROPERTIES. The fatigue characteristics of wood have been explored to only a limited extent (ref. 238, 239, 241). Tests of the Forest Products Laboratory indicate that wood is less sensitive to rapidly repented loads than are the more crystalline structural materials, resulting in a higher endurance limit in proportion to the ultimate strength. Tension paralleltograin and glue joint shear tests of Douglasfir and white oak, and tension perpendiculartograin tests of Douglasfir showed an endurance load for 30 million cycles of about 40 percent of standard test strength for both solid wood and scarfjointed specimens when the minimum repeated load was 10 percent of the maximum repeated load for each cycle. These tests were conducted at about 12 percent moisture content, at a temperature of 75" F. Tests of small cantilever bending specimens of solid wood and plywood, subjected to fully reversed stresses under the same temperaturehumidity conditions as above, indicate an endurance load of about 30 percent of the modulus of rupture of standard static tests after 30 million cycles of repeated stress. Very little data are available on the effects of notches, bolt holes, or connectors in fatigue. Some data on the effect of notches on fatigue properties of rotating beam specimens are given in reference
287.
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2.06. PLASTIC PROPERTIES.Though it is known that wood, in common with other materials of construction, exhibits plastic as well as elastic properties, quantitative evaluations of the plastic characteristics of wood are limited in scope (ref. 234). Thus, while recognizing that when load is applied to a wood structural member the immediate or elastic deformation subsequently will be increased by plastic yield or creep, there is, at present, no accurate means of evaluating the rate of progress of such plastic yield, nor of predicting the time at which failure may be expected to occur. Preliminary investigations at the Forest Products Laboratory (ref. 266, 286) involve creep tests with stresses up to 3,000 pounds per square inch in tension and compression, up to 400 pounds per square inch in shear, and at stress levels approaching the shorttime ultimate strength in bending. They indicate creep characteristics very 14
much alike in these strength properties at the lower stress levels. There is reason to believe t ha t (T('C'p properties differ between tension and compression as stress values approach the shorttime ultimate strength in compression, but the difference has not been fully explored. From these considerations, supported by a few test results, it is believed that joints and fastenings have similar creep properties insofar as their strength is controlled by the strength of the wood. . It is evident from the studies thus far completed that creep under constant load is quite rapid at first, and continues for long periods at a decreasing rate, depending upon the ratio of the applied load to that which would cause immediate failure. No critical point in time has been found at which the rate of creep suddenly changes or at which all creep ceases. N either has there been found a stress threshold below which no creep takes place. The studies in bending and compression have indicated that with stresses at, or less than, 60 percent of the strength in a standard laboratory test, the ratio of creep to initial strain is approximately constant. Since strain in this range is proportional to stress, it may be said that creep is proportional to stress. Both in compression and bending, creep at 5 minutes is generally less than 2 percent, and at 1 hour is about 4 percent of the initial strain or deflection. Where stresses in bending exceed 60 percent of laboratory test strength, creep percentages are higher than the above values. It is known that temperature and moisture changes influence plastic properties, but the extent of such effects is not known. When load is removed from wood, the elastic strain is recovered immediately. There is, in addition, a recovery of a portion of the plastic strain, relatively rapid at first, and continuing more and more slowly for considerable periods of time. Little is known of the nature and extent of recovery, or of permanent set characteristics, hysteresis, or damping capacity (see sec. 2.095). In bending, successive repetitions of the same load separated by periods of recovery cause successively increased deformations which finally lead to failure. From data now available it appears that the sum of the periods under intermittent load, until failure occurs, is somewhat greater than the duration to failure under constant load at the same stress level. 2.07. IMPACTPROPERTIES. The rate at which
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load is applied to a wood member, as well as the time during which it acts, has an important effect on its ability to carry load (sees. 2.06 and 2.10). Under extremely rapid loading conditions, such as are obtained in impact tests where failure may occur in a fraction of a second, a wood member would be expected to withstand a force much greater than in a standard test. Exact relationships of failing stresses under static and impact loadings are not well known as, in impact tests, measurement is generally made of the absorbed energy rather than the stress imposed, A beam subjected to impact loading in the standard drop hammer impact bending test (ref. 257) may deflect about twice .as much before failure as under static test conditions. The stress required to produce failure under such impact conditions is, therefore, correspondingly, about twice as great as for static conditions. The shock resistance of wood may be measured by a singleblow impact test such as the "toughness" test described in USDA Tech. Bul. 479 (ref. 257) where average toughness values for common species are listed, together with minimum acceptance requirements for a number of aircraft woods. Recent data of the Forest Products Laboratory (ref. 210, 214) show that the toughness of wood is considerably influenced .by its moisture content. Above the fibersaturation point, approximately 30 percent moisture content, toughness is apparently independent of changes in moisture. For drier material the toughness, in general, decreases slowly from the green value to a minimum at about 12 to 18 percent moisture content, and then increases substantially with further decrease in moisture. These conclusions are in general agreement with extensive toughness and Izod tests by the Australian Forest Products Laboratory (ref. 235) but it has been found that results vary greatly among species, and no adequate general formula can be devised to represent toughnessmoisture relations for all species. 2.08. EFFECT OF LIQUIDS. Some liquids, when absorbed by wood, adversely affect the strength properties, others do not. In general, nonpolar, nonswelling liquids that do not react with .wood chemically do not affect the strength (ref. 219). For example, saturated, straightchain hydrocarbon oils, such as gasoline, kerosene, and most lubricating oils, and aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene and toluene, have no significant effect
on the strength of wood and they do not raise the grain. Turpentine, mineral paint thinners, and linseed oil will by analogy cause practically no effect upon the strength properties nor will cleaning fluids such as carbon tetrachloride. Low molecularweight, simple alcohols such as methyl (wood alcohol), ethyl (grain alcohol), and propyl alcohol and polyhydric alcohols such as ethylene glycol (antifreeze) and glycerine swell wood appreciably and cause a considerable loss in strength properties, varying from half to almost the full strength loss caused by water. In general, the crushing strength is decreased somewhat less than it would be if swollen to the same extent in water (ref. 219, 260). Lacquer solvents, such as acetone, methyl and ethyl acetates; and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether will reduce the strength about half as much as water. Low molecularweight organic acids, such as acetic acid, will reduce the strength about threefourths as much as water. The high molecularweight fatty acids will have a much smaller but positive effect. These various liquids reduce the strength of wood only while they remain in the wood. Volatile liquids, hence, have only a short, temporary effect upon the strength. Low volatility liquids like glycerine will reduce the strength over considerable periods of time. These are apparently the only liquids with which the aircraft industry need be concerned. Some hydraulic fluids containing glycerine or ethylene glycol have an experimentally demonstrated. detrimental effect upon the strength of wood (ref. 211). Another group of liquids, strong mineral acids and bases, have a permanent effect upon the strength of woods as a result of chemical degradation of the wood. This degradation varies with species. The only comprehensive data available on the subject are given in the tables 23 and 24. Coefficient oj expansion. The isotropic nature of wood results in differing coefficients of thermal expansion (a) along its radial, tangential, and fiber axes. This anisotropy, modified by the treatments involved, remains a basic property of all the derived structural products of wood, in which the fiber arrangement is not destroyed. The thermal expansion of wood is so small as to
2.09. 2.091.
:NlIsCELLANEOUS PHYSICAL( PROPERTIES.
15
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Table 28. Deterioration due to four weeks soaking in acids and bases at room temperature measured by the modulus of rupture relative to thai for matched watersoaked specimens. Concentrations, 2 to 10 percent (ref. 236)
Species Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid l\itric add
,
I.
i Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium hydroxide
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Larch Pine Spruce Beech Oak Basswood
) Values greater than unity due
_ _ _ _ _  to
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1. 090. 81 1. 08 .84 1. 00 .82
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.96 .55 i .93 .52 : .88 .48
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1. 111.00 1. 130. 84 1. 02 .94 .97 .87
1. 070. ss L 07 .93 .98 .96 .83 .71
O. 960. 52
. 96 .51 .93 .44
.59 .31 .58 .29
1. 0&0. 92
1.
.97.87
.82 .81
.83.76
.65 .57
.55
. 21
00 .79 .98 .75 .67 .43 .65 .36 .61 .33
the [act that acid is more slowl~' absorbed b~' the w ood than water . ..
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Table 24. Loss in breakiru; load in percent due to soal:ing in acids at room temperature specimens (ref. 21)
Hydrochloric acid 82 days Species
5 percent concentration 15 percent eoncen tra tion 10 percent concentration 20 percent concentration
relative to matched watersoaked
Sulfuric acid 82 days
Acetic acid ]35 days
50 percent concentration
80 percent concentration Pereent
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Teak Oak Pine
_ _ _
Percent
Pereent
Percent
Percent
31 54 18
1
50 76 46
17 48
11
31 40 16
43 39 20
39 26
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be unimportant in ordinary usage, for example, a 1 percent increase in moisture content swells yellow birch as much as does an 80° C. thermal expansion. Only meager data are available on the coefficients of thermal expansion of wood and woodbase materials, and investigators are not in close agreement in their values although there is general agreement that the expansion across the grain is much greater than that along the grain (ref. 220). A comprehensive study of the thermal expansion of wood and woodbase products has been completed recently at the Forest Products Laboratory, and the results have been published (ref. 282). In this work the variation of the coefficients of linear thermal expansion with specific gravity was determined on a series of solid, ovendry specimens of 9 different species of untreated wood. The effects of radial compression, resintreating, and crossbanding on the values of the coefficients were determined on birch laminates. The values of the coefficients for papreg and hydrolyzedwood plastic were also det.ermined. The average coefficients of linear thermal expansion (0:) per 0 C. of nine species of solid wood (ref. 282) from +50 to _500 C. for the average specific gravity of t.he species are given in the following tabulation:
16
Species
Averaze specific I!'rayity )
a,Y10'
<>,Xl{l"
",lX10'
Yellow Birch ____I Sugar Maple;   y ellowpoplar, ____: Cottonwood. _____ Balsa ____________ Douglasfir 3_______ Sitka spruce _______ White fir _________ Redwood _________
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O.66 .68 .43 .43 2 . 17 .51 .42 .40 .42
38. 3 35. 3 29.7 32.6 324. 1 42.7 32. 3 32.6 35. 1
30.7 3. 36 ·26.8 3. 82 27. 8 3.17 23. 2 2. 89 3 16. 3 27.9 3.16 23.8 3. 15 21. 8 3. 34 23.6 4. 28
J Average specific j!Tayity (based on weip:ht and volume when oven dry) taken from tables of properties in U. S. D. A. Tech. Bull. No. 479 (ref 257) or for specimens included in this study. ~ Specific gravity average of values for two specimens tested. Sa measured from +50 to 0" C. only.
The coefficients of linear thermal expansion 111 the tangen tial (0: t) and radial directions (O:T) may be calculated for specific gravities other than those tabulated by use of the following equa.tion:
(2: 1)
where o:=c.oefficient of linear thermal expansion (a: or 0:(7) at specific gnlyity G
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a.=coefficien t of linear thermal (ar or aT) listed Go=spC'cificgra vity listed G=specific gravity desired The coefficient of linear thermal parallel to the grain (al) is independent gravity, and is unaffected by radial or compression. The dependency of the coefficient thermal expansion on resin content in a is expressed by:
ac=Ev:U'u:onr)+iruTnT Ew(l nr)t TnT
expansion
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expansion of specific tangential of linear solid piece
(2:2)
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where ac=coefficient of linear thermal expansion (a) of the woodresin system O!tD===of wood alone aTof resin alone. E==modulus of elasticity (subscripts have the same meaning as for U') nT=fraction of solid crosssection of sample consisting of resin General formulas were developed at the Forest Products Laboratory that permit calculation of the coefficients of linear thermal expansion of wood laminates in any grain direction of the specimen, from the original and final specific gravities, the percentage by weight of resin and glue present, the percentage of crossbanding, and the slope of grain relative to any three axes of reference. Solution of the formulas, however, should be attempted only after reference to the original publication (ref. 282). 2.092. Thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of wood is dependent on a number of factors of varying degrees of importance. Some of the more significant variables affecting the rate of heat flow in wood are the following: density and moisture content of the wood; direction of heat flow with respect to the grain; kind, quantity, and distribution of extractives or chemical substances; relative density and proportion of springwood and summerwood; defects, like checks, knots, and crossgrain structure. The Forest Products Laboratory has made careful determinations of the thermal conductivity of wood at various moisture contents. These tests, which covered 32 species, have furnished sufficient data on the relationship between conductivity, specific gravity, and moisture content to make it possible to compute the approximate
thermal conductivity for any wood for which the specific gravity is known and for which the moisture content can be determined or assumed. Such conductivities have many practical applications, such as in estimating the thermal resistance or insulating value of various woods ; thermal resistance being the reciprocal or inverse value of conductivity. It is common engineering practice to express heat conductivity, represented by K, as the amount of heat in British thermal units that will pass in 1 hour through 1 square foot of the material 1 inch thick per degree Fahrenheit temperature difference between the faces. Although it is not practicable (ref. 245) to compute the exact conductivity of wood of given density and moisture content because of the number of variables involved, the following equations permit calculation of conductivity closely enough for practical purposes: For wood having a moisture content under 40 percent: K=S(1.39+0.028M)
+0.165 (2:3)
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For wood having a moisture content of 40 percent or more: K=S(1.39+0.038M") +0.165 Where K=conductivity S=specific gravity based on volume at current moisture and weight when ovendry M=moisture content Conductivities of wood aircraft parts will ordinarily be computed by means of equation (2 :3) using 15 percent for the moisture content of aircraft to be used in the continental United States and 20 percent for the moisture content of aircraft to be used under tropical conditions (sec. 2.10). The use of species average values of specific gravity may be considered sufficiently correct for most purposes. Experiments on Douglasfir plywood with veneer 7'inch or more in thickness (ref. 245) indicate that the thin film of glue between the wood surfaces has no important effect on conductivity, as would be expected, because of the very slight thickness of the glue coating in comparison with the total thickness.
17
(2 :4)
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Tests (ref. 245) indicate there is a small increase in conductivity with increase in temperature difference but, for temperature conditions normally encountered, the variation in conductivity is not significant. 2.093. Ignition temperature. Limited data are available concerning minimum temperatures required to produce charring or ignition of wood. Results obtained by different investigators for ignition temperatures show wide discrepancies. The different values reported may be due to the specific test conditions associated with the methods employed, and also to the different interpretations among investigators 'as to what constitutes ignition temperature (ref. 24). Assuming conditions favorable to the completion of the ignition process, the ignition temperature has been defined (ref. 24) as the temperature in the combustible at which the rate of heat de"eloped by the reactions inducing ignition just exceeds the rate at which heat is dissipated by all causes, under the given conditions. It is thus obvious that, unlike flammable liquids, which have reasonably definite ignition temperatures, the ignition temperature of wood, even if a standard interpretation of the phenomenon were determined upon, would vary widely depending upon the size, density, moisture content, and type, distribution, and quantity of extractives present in the specimen under test, and upon the time and rate of heating, the amount of air available, and the rate of air flow. The importance of the time factor has been emphasized by the Forest Products Laboratory (ref. 249) but no specific tests have been made relating ignition temperatures to long exposures at the lower ranges of elevated temperature. The Underwriters' Laboratories (ref. 280) have cited an example of ignition occurring after longcontinued exposure (about 15 yrs.) to a temperature of approximately 1900 F. 2.094. Electrical properties. The resistance that wood offers to the passage of direct current depends primarily upon the moisture content of the wood (ref. 272). In the green state the resistivity of wood is relatively low and increases slowly with decrease in moisture until the fibersaturation point is reached at about 30 percent moisture content, and all free water has been removed. The change of resistivity within the green range is about 50fold. When wood is dried below the fibersaturation point, however, its resistivity increases rapidly, about a millionfold from the fibersatura18
tion point to the oven dry condition. The logarithm of resistivity is approximately inversely proportional to moisture content. At values of moisture content approaching zero the resistivity becomes very great, of the order of 1016 ohmcentimeters (ref. 283), and dry wood is a very good electrical insulator. In conditions of use, however, wood will not remain dry, but will absorb moisture until it reaches a condition of equilibrium corresponding with the ambient atmosphere. The resistivity of wood at a typical moisture content of 9.3 percent is 1010 ohmcentimeters. When alternating voltage is applied to wood the effects depend upon both moisture content and frequency. At frequencies up to a few hundred cycles per second the behavior of wood is practically the same as for direct currents. At much higher frequencies, from a million cycles per second upward, the electrical properties of wood are essentially its properties when acting as a,dielectric material. In this role it is interposed between two metallic plates or sheets to form a condenser. Wood is an imperfect dielectric and, therefore, some of the electrical energy required to. charge the condenser will be lost to the wood where it appears as heat. Losses in the wood depend principally upon its moisture content and the frequency of the applied voltage, and the losses increase with both moisture content, especially above about 10 percent, and frequency. "Toad is a very poor insulator or dielectric at high frequencies. The alternating current electrical properties of wood are concerned principally with highfrequency dielectric heating for gluing purposes (ref. 25, 274). 2.095. Damping capacity~ Damping capacity may be defined as the ability of a solid to convert mechanical energy of vibration into internal energy. This causes vibrations to die out. Published information on the subject (ref. 233) is mainly concerned with metals, and only occasional references are made to wood. The damping capacity of timb~r has been investigated by Greenhill (ref. 229). His investigations indicate that Ii if a truly elastic material is subjected to a cycle of stress, the stressstrain curve will be a straight line. If, however, the material undergoes reversible plastic deformation during the cycle, the stressstrain curve will be a hysteresis loop. The area enclosed by this loop represents the amount of energy expended during each complete stress cycle. Specimens subjected to cycles of stress below the fatigue limit can dis
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sipate an unlimited quantity of energy as heat without any damage. "When It solid is subjected to a periodic force, the damping capacity prevents the amplitude of vibration from becoming infinite when the frequency of the applied force approaches a natural frequency of the solid. Damping capacity is of considerable importance in certain branches of engineering and, consistent with other properties, it is generally agreed that materials of high damping capacity are superior to those of low damping capacity. Take, for example, the wings of aeroplanes. Under certain circumstances these are subject to resonant vibrations, the amplitude of WIDch depends essentially on the damping properties of the materials of construction. The same thing applies with special force to the blades of aeroplane propellers which are liable to vibrate violently at certain critical speeds of rotation. .The amplitudes of vibraTable 25. Damping capacitylogarithmic
In vestigator
tion are great or small according to the material of which the blades are made. It is stated by experts that the endurance of the blades depends far more on the damping capacity of the material than on its fatigue strength." Damping capacity has been expressed numerically in various ways. Greenhill and Kimball (ref. 229, 233) have used logarithmic decrement (0), and Kimball has summarized various formulas used by different investigators for determination of this factor. Briefly, if A W is the energy dissipated per cycle of vibration, and VV the maximum energy of the cycle, the ratio /1 TV/W, called the "specific energy loss" or the "damping capacity," gives a measure of the damping characteristics of the material. The logarithmic decrement a is equal to onehalf the damping capacity, or AWj2W. Values of the logarithmic decrement a for wood and a few other materials are given in table 25.
decrements (Ii) fOT internal friction in solids
Method
Material
stressI, percent of
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Forest Products Laboratory WoodParallel laminated birch _____ do _____ do ~ _____ do StaypakYellow birch___ ___________ __ _____ _____ do _____ do _____ do ___ CompregYellow birch, highimpact
i maxImum
rithmic decrement
Loga
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Do_ _ _
Compression____ do_________ do_________ Flexure I Compression., , __ do_________ do_________ Flexure !
8o! 88
93
_
_
86 89 92 83
Do_ __
type , , __ Compression
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Do_ _
Do_ _____
______
_ Compreg Yellow birch, lowimpact type____ _ Compresslon , , __ _____ do do_________ _____ do do_________ _____ do _________ __________________________ Flexure Compreg+Maple.L; , ______________________ Compression__ __ _____ do do_________
_____ do _____ do , _ do_________ ____ __ ________ ______________ _ Flexure
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Fl~~:;e ~~~~~~1 _~
~~ _
87 90 _ 89 94
93 7±
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: _____ do do ; Greenhill (Ref. 229)  ___ WoodSitka spruce_              Flexure ,       _:_, _____ do , _____ ____ ____ _ ___ ___________ Torsion Kimball and Lovell; , ___________ Wood:.rIaple_ ___ _____ _______________ Revolving defl.
1
_ _ _
_
_
_
O.002 .012 · 063 .073 .0013 .0465 · 1435 · 128 · 173 .232 .238 .045 .157 .172 .108 .0002 .149 .218 · 121 .239 .035 .0521 .021 · 0023 .0049 · 0034 .0032 .0450 .027 .0017 .0032
(Ref. 233).
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Nickel steel ,
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Aluminum Nickel A. Gemant , W. Jackson (Ref. 233) _ Wood Nickel steeL 1
Celluloid
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_1_    .do ,              ,
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Data other than those from Greenhill and the Forest Products Laboratory are from a compilation included in reference 233. Greenhill (ref. 229) found that the effect of increasing the moisture content of wood is to increase its damping capacity, the relation being practically linear within the range of 8 to 19 percent moisture content examined. Upon removal of stress, full recovery of strain does not take place in most materials even though the stress imposed may be less than that corresponding to the apparent elastic limit of the material. Tests at the Forest Products Laboratory have shown that, with a compression load applied repeatedly to a specimen of papreg, thfl set or permanent deformation was increased, but the amount of set added for each load cycle diminished. A straightline relationship was found when accumulative permanent set was plotted on an arithmetical scale against the Dumber of load cycles plotted on a logarithmic scale. It was found that the higher the load, the greater was the permanent set after the first and all succeeding load cycles.
2.1. Basic Strength and Elastic Properties of
Wood
2.10.
DESIGN VALUES, TABLES
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26
AND'
27.
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Strength properties of various species for use in calculating the strength of aircraft elements are presented in tables 26 and 27. Their applicability to the purpose is considered to have been substantiated by experience. The assumptions (see footnotes to tables 26 and 27) made in deriving the values in tables 26 and 2~7 from the results of standard tests (sec. 2.12) have been reexamined in the light of recent data with respect to the distribution of strength values in wood for aircraft construction and the moisture content of airplane parts, together with data relating to "duration of stress" in order to clarify the basis of design (ref. 212, 213). The values in table 26 are based on a moisture content of 15 percent and are considered applicable for design of structural parts of aircraft that are to be used in the continental United States. Values in table 27 are based on a moisture content of 20 percent and should be used for design of structural parts of aircraft to be used under tropical conditions where high relative humidity, approximately 90 percent or over, is prevalent 20
for long periods of time, or more or less continuously. "llen tests of physical properties are made on additional species or on specially selected wood the results may be made comparable to those in tables 26 and 27 by adjusting them to 15 or 20 percent moisture content, respectively, in accordance with table 22, together with the appropriate use of the factors described in the footnotes to tables 26 and 27. For notes on acceptable procedures fo~ static tests and the correction of test results, see sections 2.12 and 3.01. 2.100. Supplemental notes. 2.1000. Compression perpendicular to grain. Wood does not exhibit a definite ultimate strength in compression perpendicular to the grain, particularly when the load is applied over only a. part of the surface, as it is by fittings. Beyond the proportional limit the load continues to increase slowly until the deformation becomes several times as great as at the proportional limit and the crushing is so severe as to damage the wood seriously in other properties. A "probability" factor was applied to average values of stress at proportional limit to take account of variability, and the result was increased by 50 percent to get design values comparable to those for bending, compression parallel to grain, and shear as shown in tables 26 and 27. 2.100 1. Compression parallel to grain. A vailable data indicate that the proportional limit. for hardwoods is about 75 percent and for softwoods about 80 percent of the maximum crushing strength. Accordingly, design values for fiber stress at proportional limit were obtained by multiplying maximum crushingstrength values by a factor of 0.75 for hardwoods and 0.80 for softwoods, and adjusting for a difference in the factors for the "rate and duration of load."
2.11. NOTES 26 AND 27.
ON THE USE OF VALUES IN TABLES
2.110. Relation oj design values in tables 26 and 27 to slope oj grain. The values given in tables 26 and 27 apply for grain slopes as steep as the following: (a) For compression parallel to grainl in 12. (b) For bending and for tension parallel to grainl in 15. When material is used in which the steepest grain slope is steeper than the above limits, the design values of tables 26 and 27 must be reduced according to the percentages in table 28.
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Tension parallel to grain. Relatively few data are available on the tensile strength of various species parallel to grain. In the absence of sufficient tensiletest data upon which to base tension design values, the values used in design for modulus of rupture are used also for tension. While it is recognized that this is somewhat conservative, the pronounced effect of stress concentration, slope of grain (table 2~8) and 'other factors upon tensile strength makes the use of conservative values desirable. Pending further investigation of the effects of stress concentration at bolt holes, it is recommended that the stress in the ar.ea remaining to resist tension at the critical section through a bolt hole not exceed twothirds the modulus of rupture in static bending when crossbanded reinforcing plates are used; otherwise onehalf the modulus of rupture shall not be exceeded. 2.112. Tension perpendicular to grain. Values of strength of various species in tension perpendicular to grain have been included for use as a guide in estimating the adequacy of glued joints subjected to such stresses. For example, the joints between the upper wing skin and wing framework are subj ected to tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain by reason of the lift forces exerted on the upper skin surface. Caution must be exercised in the use of these values, since little experience is available to serve as a guide in relating these design values to the average property. Considering the variability of this property, however, the possible discontinuity or lack of uniformity of glue joints, and the probable concentration of stress along the edges of such joints, the average test values for each species have been multiplied by a factor of 0.5 to obtain the values given in tables 26 and 27.
2.111. Table 28. Reduction in wood strength for various grain slopes
value. percent of value in table 2<; co~pres'l sion parallel to grain Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength Tension parallel to grain Modulus of rupture
2.12.
STAJS'DARD
TEST PROCEDlJRES.
2.120. Static bending. In the staticbending test, the resistance of a beam to slowly applied loads is measured. The beam is 2 by 2 inches in cross section and 30 inches long and is supported on roller bearings which rest on knife edges 28 inches apart. Load is applied at the center of the length through' a hard maple block 31%6 inches wide, having a compound curvature. The curvature has a radius of 3 inches over the central 21~ inches of arc, and is joined by an arc of 2inch radius on each side. The standard placement is with the annual rings of the specimen horizontal and the loading block bearing on the side of the piece nearest the pith. A constant rate of deflection (0.1 inch per minute) is maintained until the specimen fails. Load and deflection are read simultaneously at suitable intervals . Figure 24 (a) shows a staticbending test setup, and typical loaddeflection curves for Sitka spruce and yellow birch. Data on a number of properties are obtained from this test. These are discussed as follows: 2.1200. Modulus oj elasticity eEL)' The modulus of elasticity is determined from the slope of the straight line portion of the graph, the steeper the line, the higher being the modulus. Modulus of elasticity is computed by
(2:5)
Corresponding design
L
L
L
I
\
,
Maximum I slope of grain in the Fiber member , stress at propertiona! limit
Static bending
!
Modulus of rupture
1 in 15___ 1 in 12___
1 in 10___
L
I
1 in 8____1
100 98 87 78  
100 88 78 67
.._
100 97 91 84

I
I
100 98 94
t
I
100 85 75 60
_
I
The standard static bending test is made under such conditions that shear deformations are responsible for approximately 10 percent of the deflection. Values of EL from tests made under such conditions and calculated by the formula shown do not, therefore, represent the true modulus of elasticity of the material, but an "apparent" modulus of elasticity. The use of these values of apparent modulus of elasticity in the usual formulas will give the deflection of simple beams of ordinary length with but little error. For 1 and box beams, where more exact computations are desired, and formulas are used that take into account the effect of shear deformations, a "true" value of the modulus of elasticity is necessary and may be had by adding 10 percent to the values in tables 2~6 and 27. 2.1201. Fiber stress at proportional limit (FbP)' The plotted points from which the early portions of the curves of figure 24 (a) were drawn lie approximately on a straight line, showing that the 27
L
L
deflection is proportional to the load. As the test progresses however, this proportionality between load and deflection ceases to exist. The
MO!JULUS Wit
MAXIMUM
SPRUCE
SJ.I.KA.
point at which this occurs is known as the proportional limit. The corresponding stress in the extreme fibers of t.he beam is known as "fiber stress at proportional limit." Fiber stress at proportional limit is computed by
(2:6)
LOAD
l
L
YELLOW BlRC/{
L
L
I
PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
!JEFLECTION (a) STATIC
(INCHES)
BENDING LOAD
MAXIMUM
SPRUCE ,~
suss
L L
PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
....
_
....
 ..
YELLOW
u
8.J.B.£t!..
2.1202. Modulu« of rupture (FbU)' Modulus of rupture is computed by the same formula as was used in computing fiber stress at proportional limit, except that maximum load is used in place of load at proportional limit. Since the formula. used is based upon an assumption of linear variation of stress across the cross section of the beam, modulus of rupture is not truly a stress existing at time of rupture, but is useful in finding the loadcarrying capacity of a beam. 2.1203. n"ork to maximum load. The energy absorbed by the specimen up to the maximum load is represented by the area under the loaddeflection curve from the origin to a vertical line through the abscissa representing the maximum deflection at which the maximum load is sustained. It is expressed, in tables 26 and 27, in inchpounds per cubic inch of specimen. Work to maximum load is computed by Wor k to P max. = area under curve to Pmax. bXd XL
(2:7)
L L L
L L
L
I
DEFORMATION {b}
'Z;'
(INCHES)
COMPRESSION
PARALLEL
TO CRAIN
i
S
~
§ ~~
~
NO MAXIMUM
LOAD OBTAINED
PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
suss
SPRUCE
_ PROPORTIONAL
NO MAXIMUM LOAD OBTAINED
LIMIT
YELLOW BIRO'
DE FORMATION
(C) COMPRf j310N
(INCHES)
TO GRAIN
L
PERPENDICULAR
Figure 24. Standard
test methods and typical loaddeflection curves
2.121. Compression parallel to grain. In the compressionparalleltograin test, a 2 bj7 2 by Sinch block is compressed in the direction of its length at a constant rate (0.024 inch per minute). The load is applied through a spherical bearing block, preferably of the suspended selfaligning type, to insure uniform distribution stress. On some of the specimens, the load and the deformation in a 6inch central gage length are read simultaneously until the proportional limit is passed. The test is discontinued when the maximum load is passed and the failure appears. Figure 24 (b) shows a test setup, and typical loaddeflection curves for Sitka spruce and yellow birch. Data on a number of properties are obtained from this test. These are discussed as follows: 2.1210. Modulu» of elasticity (ELC)' The modulus of elasticity is determined from the slope of the straightline portion of the graph, the steeper
28
the line the higher the modulus. elasticity is computed by
The modulus of
The principal property determined is the stress at proportional limit (FcpT) which is calculated hy
l ....
ELO=A
PP
eX,
(2:8)
F
Load at proport.ionallimit CpTWidth of plate X "vidth of specimen
(? 0) _:1
L
I
L
L L ·L L
, ·1
L
The value of the modulus of elasticity so determined corresponds to the "true" value of modulus of elasticity discussed under static bending. Values of the modulus of elasticity from compressionparalleltograin tests are not published but may be approximated by adding 10 percent to the apparent values shown under static bending in table 26. A multiplying factor of 1.1 has been inserted in various formulas throughout this bulletin to convert EL values, as shown in tables 26 and 27 to ELo values required in formulas involving direct stress. 2.1211. Fiber stress art proportional limit (Fcp). The plotted points from which early portions of the curves of figure 24 (b) were drawn lie approximately on a straight line, showing that the deformation within the gage length is proportional to the load. The point at which this proportionality ceases to exist is known as the proportional limit and the stress corresponding to the load at proportional limit is the fiber stress at proportional limit. It is calculated by
Fcp=~ 2.1212. Maximum crushing strength (Feu).
(2:9)
Tests indicate that the stress at proportional limit when the growth rings are placed horizontal does not differ greatly from that when the growth rings are vertical. For design purposes, therefore, the values of strength in compression perpendicular to grain as given in tables 26 and 27 may be used regardless of ring placement. 2.123. Shear parallel to grain (F.,,). The shearparalleltograin test is made by applying force to a 2 by 2inch lip projecting % inch from a block 2X inches long. The block is placed in a special tool having a plate that is seated on the lip and moved downward at a rate of 0.015 inch per minute. The specimen is supported at the base so that a Ysinch offset exists between the outer edge of the support and the inner edge of the loading plate. The shear tool has an adjustable seat in the plate to insure uniform lateral distribution of the load. Specimens are so cut that a radial surface of failure is obtained in some and a tangential surface of failure in others; The property obtained from the test is the maximum shearing strength parallel to gram. It is computed by
L
L L
.J
L L
L
I
L
;
The maximum crushing strength is computed by the same formula as used in computing fiber stress at proportional limit except that maximum load is used in place of load at proportional limit. 2.122. Compression perpendicular to grain. The specimen for the compressionperpendiculartograin test is 2 by 2 inches in cross section and 6 inches long. Pressure is applied through a steel plate 2 inches wide placed across the center of the specimen and at right angles to its length. Hence, the plate covers onethird of the surface. The standard placement of the specimen is with the growth rings vertical. The standard rate of descent of the movable head is 0.024 inch per minute. Simultaneous readings of load and compression are taken until the test is discontinued at O.linch compression. Figure 24 (c) shows a test setup, and typical loaddeflection curves for Sitka spruce and yellow birch.
93n770·514
F <U =Pmaz. A
The value failure is in greatly from is in a radial combined to of tables 26
(2: 11)
of F.'II. as found when the surface of a tangential plane does not differ that found when the surface of failure plane, and the two values have been give the values shown in column 14 and 27. 2.124. Hardness. Hardness is measured by the load required to embed a 0.444inch ball to onehalf its diameter in the wood. (The diameter of the ball is such that its projected area is one square centimeter.) The rate of penetration of the ball is 0.25 inch per minute. Two penetrations are made on each end, two on a radial, and two on a tangential surface of the specimen. A special tool makes it easy to determine when the proper penetration of the ball has been reached. The accompanying load is recorded as the hardness value. Values of radial and tangential hardness as
29
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determined by the standard test have been averaged to give the values of side hardness in tables 26 and 27. 2.125. Tension perpendicular to grain (FWT)' The tensionperpendiculartograin test is made to determine the resistance of wood across the grain to slowly applied tensile loads. The test specimen is 2 by 2 inches in cross section, and 2% inches in overall length, with a length at midheight of 1 inch. The load is applied with special grips, the rate of movement of the movable head of the testing machine being 0.25 inch per minute. Some specimens are cut to give a radial and others to give a tangential surface of failure. The only property obtained from' this test is the maximum tensile strength perpendicular to grain. It is calculated from the formula (2: 12) Tests indicate that the plane of failure being tangential or radial makes little difference in the strength in tension perpendicular to grain. Results from both types of specimens have, therefore, been combined to give the values shown in tables 26 and 27. 2.13. ELASTIC PROPERTIES NOT INCLUDED IN TABLES 26 AND 27. Certain elastic properties useful in design are not included in tables 26 and 27. The data in tables 26 and 27 are, in general, based on large numbers of tests, while the data on the additional elastic properties are based on relatively few tests. Available data on these properties are included in table 29.
rigidity as it is called, must be associated with shear deformation in one of the three mutually perpendicular planes defined by the L, T, and R directions, and with shear stresses in the other two. The symbol for modulus of rigidity has subscripts denoting the plane of deformation. Thus the modulus of rigidity GLT refers to shear deformations in the LT plane resulting from shear stresses in the LR and RT planes. Values of these moduli for a few species are given in table 29. The ratios of GLT, GR, and GRT to EL vary among species and appear to be considerably affected by differences in specific gravity and moisture content. For species not listed in the table, it is recommended the approximate ratios
GELT =0.06,
L .
GELR=
L
0.075, and <;;;=0.018
be used in evaluating
the
L
L
L L
L
1
2.130. Moduli of elasticity perpendicular to grain (ET, ER). The modulus of elasticity of wood
perpendicular to the grain is designated as ET when the direction is tangential to the annual growth rings, and ER when the direction is radial to the annual growth rings. Tests have been made to evaluate these elastic properties for only a few species (table 29). The ratios ~: and ~: vary
various moduli of rigidity. The two letters of the 'subscript may be interchanged without changing the meaning of G. 2.132. Poisson's ratios Cu.). The Poisson's ratio relating to the contraction in the T direction under a tensile stress acting in the L direction, and thus normal to the RT plane,is designated as ~LT; ~LR, )J.RT, J.LRL, )J.TR, and )J.TL have similar significance, the first letter of the subscript in each relating to the direction of stress and the second to the direction of the lateral defonnation. Thus, the two letters of the subscript may not be interchanged without changing the meaning. The Poisson's ratios appear to be independent of specific gravity but are variously affected by differences in moisture content. Information on Poisson's ratios for wood is meager and values for only a few species are given in table 29. 2.14. STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS. For most practical purposes wood can be considered to be an orthotropic material having orthotropic axes L, T, and R (see sec. 2.00). If the directions of the applied stresses are parallel to a plane containing two of these axes, the methods described in sections 2.56 to 2.5602, inclusive, can be applied. The general equations for stresses (applied in any direction can be obtained from reference 25,1. 2.15. STRENGTH UNDER ~.f ULTl~XIAL STRESS. If the directions of the applied stresses are parallel to a plane containing two of the orthotropie axes, the methods described in section 2.610 to 2.613, inclusive, for plywood can be applied. The ultimate shear stress associated with relative shear displacements of the Land R axes and the Land T axes are each equal to the ultimate shear stress 31
L L
I
L L L l
I
greatly among species and are considerably affected by differences in specific gravity and moisture content. For species not listed in the table, a rough approximation of the values for ET and ER may be made by assummg
.
va ues
1
0
f ET an d ER EL EL
EL
as 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. given in tables 26 and 27. modulus of elasticity
Values of
are
2.131. Moduli of rigidity (GLT, GLR, GRT).
The in shear, or the modulus of
i
l..
L L
parallel to the grain (F.u). The ultimate shear stress associated with relative shear displacements of the Rand T axes is for hardwoods approximately onehalf and for coniferous woods onethird of F.u (ref. 248). The ultimate compressive stress
associated with the T and R axes are each equal to the compressive strength perpendicular to the grain (FsuT) and the ultimate tensile stress associated with these axes arc each equal to the tensile strength perpendicular to the grain (Fad.
L L
L L
The general equation defining the condition of failure for stresses applied in any direction is similar to equation (2:51) except that its left hand member contains six terms instead of three. If the ultimate stresses are given the values indicated in the preceding paragraph this equation can be written in the following form:
(2: 13)
are the. three internaldirect stresses in the directions of the axes L, T, and R, respectively, andjLT,jLR, andjRT are the three internal shear stresses associated with shear displacements of the Land T axes, the Land R axes, and the Rand T axes, respectively. Also FL, FT, and FR are the three ultimate stresses associated with the directions of the L, T, and R axes, respectively, and may be tensile or compressive; thus FL is tensile iffL is tensile and compressive ifjL is compressive and similarly for FT and FR' Thus FL is equal to Feu or FlU; FT is equal to FeuT or FlU"'; and FR is equal to FeuT or FIUT' The value of K is 2 for hardwoods and 3 for coniferous woods. Equation (2:13) can be handled in the manner described in section 2.613 and in reference 267 using the transformation equations for three dimensions given in reference 253. The methods described in this section have not been verified by test but their verification for plywood indicates that they probably will yield reasonable values. Also equation 2:44 has been compared with results of tests on solid wood in which the specimens were constrained by the testing equipment and good agreement was found, however, shear stress associated with relative shear displacements of the Rand T axes was not involved in these tests. 2.16. STRESS CONCENTRATIONS. Wood has plastic as well as elastic properties (see sec. 2.06 on creep) and, therefore, stress concentrations in tension, compression, or shear are greatly relieved with the passage of time. In compression and shear, creep is very rapid for stresses near the ultimate value and, therefore, values of stress concentration calculated by means of the' mathematical theory of elasticity are rarely attained. Creep at high stress in tension, however, is not nearly so rapid and calculated values of stress concentration may be approximately correct if the load is suddenly applied. This fact should be given careful consideration in the design of wood and plywood tension members, and stress concentrations should be avoided.
in which L:
i, and fR
L L
L
L L L L L
l L
L
2.161. Stress concentrations around a hole in a tension or compression member. Figure 25 shows a panel of wood pierced by an elliptical hole which is small compared to the size of the panel. Axes y and z are orthotropic axes of the wood as well as axes of the ellipse. 'ifhen a tensile stress (ja) is applied as shown in the figure, tensile stress concentrations occur at the ends of axis a. The value of the stress at these points is given by equation (2:14):
(2: 14)
in which fa denotes the value of the applied stress, subscript y denotes the orthotropic axis which is parallel to the stress, and subscript z denotes the other orthotropic axis which lies in the plane of the panel, These subscripts may represent the L, T, or R directions depending upon the directions of the grain and annual rings in the panel. Equation (2: 14) applies also to a compressive stress.
32
L L
L
L
", 1 :j :
y
L
L L L L L
\
"
b
+I__,..,..... ..
Z
a +ilo4
U
L
L
L L
L
Figure £5. A wood or plywood panel pierced by an elliptical hole.
33
I
L
L L L L L L L L
y
The shear stress on the periphery of the ellipse associated with relative shear displacements of axes and z is given by equation (2:15): a IE;; _ b ,IE. cos [s= fa ( %) E E:
\2 2
(J
ll
COS
4
[/Ep 'G;,~IJ' + 2 [E ] e+ G;' 2~lIz sin"
<)
IE; "VJf;+abJ'sm
O+COS 2
2
(1 (1
•
0 (a)
b
2
sin!
sin
(1 COS
e
(2:15)
By use of equation (2: 15) the shear stress can be plotted against e and its maximum value found. For a plane sawed Sitka spruce panel pierced by a circular hole (a=b) a maximum value of 0.71 fa was found at 0=78° (see ref. 2'69). Equations (2 :14) and (2:15) can be used for plywood if the subscripts y and z are replaced. by the subscripts b and a, respectively. 2.162. Stress concentration due to a hole which is
not small compared to the size oj the member.
where
L L L
L L L
L
Stress concentra tions in isotropic materials around holes that are not small compared to the size of the members pierced by them have been determined by photo elastic methods and are well known. It is impossible to use such methods in connection with wood, however, an estimate of the stress concentrations can be obtained by use of equation (2:14). For an isotropic material equation (2 :14) reduces to equation (2 :16)
(2: 16)
These formulas are reproduced graphically in figure 26 for solid wood struts of a number of
species.
2.21. LOCAL BUCKLING AND TWISTING FAILURE. The formulas given in section 2.20 do not apply when columns with thin outstanding flanges or 10'" torsional rigidity are subject to local buckling or twisting failure. For such cases, the allowable stresses are given by the following formulas: Local buckling (torsionally rigid columns) Fc=0.07 EL
(~y
psi (when
f
>6)
(2:19)
Twisting failure (torsionally weak columns) An approximate corrective factor for use with the stress concentrations obtained for isotropic materials to obtain those for wood, or plywood, can be obtained by dividing values obtained by equation (2:14) by those obtained by equation (2:16). Of course such corrections do not apply to the shear stresses such as those obtained by equation (2:15). Fc=0.044 EL
(iY
psi (when
f >5)
(2:20)
2.2. Columns
2.20. PRIMARY FAILURE. The allowable stresses for solid wood columns are given by the following formulas: Long columns
L L
(2: 17) Short. columns (ref. 297) (2:18)
34
When the widththickness ratio (bit) of the outstanding flange is less than the values noted, the column formulas of section 2.20 should be used. Failure due to local buckling or twisting can occur only when the critical stress for these types of failure is less than the stress required to cause primary failure. For unconventional shapes, tests should be conducted to determine suitable column curves (ref. 27.9). 2.22. LATERAL BUCKLING. When subjected to axial compressive loads, beams will act as columns tending to fail through lateral buckling. The usual column formulas (2 :17 and 2 :18) will apply except that when two beams are interconnected by ribs so that they will deflect together (laterally), the total end load carried by both beams will be the sum of the critical end loads for the individual beams. The column lengths will usually be the length of a drag bay in a conventional wing. A restraint
L.
L L
.... /NOBLE FIR
L
L L L
4,000
~
/DOUGLAS FIR L_WESTERN HEMLOCK I ~PORT ORFORD WHITECEDAR
,
I
"'S/TKA
9'R~ I~ i
I
I~
~
_/YELLOWPOPLAR
I
'''E~STERtv ... WHITE PINE _

s,
~
r, \,~
L
L
.\ \\
\\~
~
~
I
I
\1
,
I
I
,
\1\
\
I
I
I
L
L
\l\ \ ~\ \
\~~
I
L
L L L L L
l
t ,
I
\ \~
'\\ \ ~
~
.WESTERN HEMLOCK ~OUGLASFIR NOBLE FIR
'\~
YELLOWPOPLA> EASTERN WHITE PINE'
I
I
~~r
VSITKA
""FORO
SPRUCE
WHITECEDAR
<,
~ ~
I'
~ ~ ~ ~
~
i
o
o
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Z Ii 75270 F
Figure 26. Allowable column stresses for solid wood struts.
L
35
I
~
L L L
coefficient of 1.0 will be applicable unless the construction is such that additional restraint is afforded by the leading edge or similar parts. Certain rules for such conditions will be found in the requirements of the certificating or procuring
agencies,
2.3.
Beams
L
L
L L L L L L L L
2.30. FORM FACTORS. 'When other than solid rectangular cross sections are used for beams (Ibeams or box beams), the staticbending strength properties given in table 26 must be multiplied by a "form factor" for design purposes. This form factor is the ratio of either the fiber stress at proportional limit or the modulus of rupture (in bending) of the particular section to the same property of a standard 2inch square specimen of that material. The proportional limit form factor CFF.J is given by the formula: (2:21) and the modulus of rupture form factor (FF,,) by the formula: bb' FF,,=O.50+0.50 ( K + bb
bl)
(2:22)
L
L L
where b' = total web thickness b =t,otal flange width (including any webts) K =constant obtained from figure 27 Formulas 2:21 and 2:22 cannot be used to determine the form factors of sections in which the top and bottom edges of the beam are not perpendicular to the vertical axis of the beam. In such cases, it is first necessary to convert the section to an equivalent section whose height equals the mean height of the original section, and whose width and flange areas equal those of the original section, as shown in figure 27. The fact that the two beams of each pair shown in figure '27 developed practically the same maximum load in test demonstrates the validity of this conversion (ref. 256 and 262). Tests have indicated that the modulus of rupture which can be developed by a beam of rectangular cross section decreases with the height. Sufficient data are not available to permit exact evaluation of the reduct.ion as the height increases, but where deep beams of rectangular cross section are to be used, thought should be given to the 36
reduction of the value for modulus of rupture given in tables 26 and 27. 2.31. TORsrOXAL INSTABILITY. It is possible for deep thin beams to fail through torsional instability at loads less than those indicated by the usual beam formula. Reference 263 zives formulas for calculating the strength of such beams for various conditions of end restraint. However, in view of the difficulty of accurately evaluating the modulus of rigidity and end fixity, it is always advisable to conduct static tests of a typical specimen. This will apply to cases in which the ratio of the moment of inertia about the horizontal axis to the moment of inertia about the vertical axis exceeds approximately 25 (ref. 262 and 263). 2.32. COMBINEDLOADINGS. 2.320. General. Because of the variation of the strength properties of wood with the direction of loading with respect to the grain, no general rules for combined loadings can be presented, other than those for combined bending and compression given in section 2.321, and those for combined bending and tension given in section 2.322. When unusual loading combinations exist,' static tests should be conducted to determine the desired information. 2.321. Bending and compression. When subjected to combined bending and compression, the allowable stress for spruce, V\ estern hemlock, and noble fir beams at 15 percent moisture content can be determined from figure 28 and that for Douglasfir beams from figure 29. The charts are based on a method of analysis developed by the Forest Products Laboratory (ref. 263 and 278). The curves of figures 28 and 29 are based on the use of a fourthpower parabola for columns of intermediate length. On these figures the horizontal family of curves indicates the proportional limit under combined bending and compression' , . the vertical family, the effect of various slenderness ratios on bending. The allowable stress, Fbc, under combined load is found as follows: (1) For the cross section of a given beam, find the proportional limit in bending and the modulus of rupture from the ratios of compressionflange thickness to total depth and of web thickn sss to total width, locating such points as A and B. (2) Project points A and B to the central line, obtaining such points as C and D.
L
0 10
L L
~~ ~Q. ....II&..!
L&...t::J
I.&.l
20
.30
~...I
'/0
~~
~C)
~"
~~
so
60
70
d
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c
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~= ~1.15
t
=
t=3.88 FFu~ .68
~= la40 FFu= .65
TFu f::'6.71 FFuf:=5.76
Figure 27. Formfactor curve and equivalent beam sections,
37
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(3) Locate a point, such as E, indicating the proportional limit of the given section under combined bending and compression. This point will be at the intersection of the curve of the "horizontal" family through C and the curve of the slenderness ratio corresponding to the distance between points of inflection. (4) Draw line ED. (5) Locate point F on line ED, with an abscissa equal to the computed ratio of bending to total stress. The ordinate of F represents the desired value of the allowable stress. . The following rules should be observed in the use of figures 28 and 29: (1) The length to be used in computing the slenderness ratio, Lip should be determined as follows: (a) If there are no points of inflection between supports, L should be taken as the distance between supports. (h) If there are two points of inflection between supports, L should be taken as the distance between these points of inflection when calculating the allowable strength of any section included therein. (c) When calculating the allowable strength of a section between a point of inflection and an intermediate support of a continuous beam, L should be taken as the distance between the points of inflection adjacent to the support on either side. Cd) When investigating a section adjacent to an end support, L should be taken as twice the distance between the support and the adjacent point of inflection, except that it need not exceed the distance between supports. (2) In computing the value of p for use in determining the slenderness ratio, Lip, filler blocks should be neglected and, in the case of tapered spars, the average value should be used. (3) In computing the modulus of rupture and the proportional limit in bending, the properites of the section under investigation should be used. Filler blocks may be included in the section for this purpose. When computing the form factor of box
spars the total thicknesses of both webs should be used. 2.322. Bending and tension. When tensile axial loads exist, the maximum computed stress on the tension flange should not exceed the modulus of rupture of a solid beam in pure bending. Unless the tensile load is relatively large, the compression flange should also be checked, using the modulus of rupture corrected for form factor. 2.33. SHEAR WEBS. See section 2.73. 2.34. BEAM SECTION EFFICIENCY. In order to obtain the maximum bending efficiency of either I or box beams, the unequal flange dimensions can be determined by first designing a symmetrical beam of equal flanges. The amount of material to be transferred from the tension side to the compression side, keeping the total crosssectional area, height, and width constant, is given by the following equation (ref. 262):
L
L L
L
L
where A=total area of the cross section b=total width h=total depth W= width of flange D=clear distance between flanges 13=moment of inertia of the symmetrical section x=thickness to be taken from tension flange and added to compression flange In using this equation, the following procedure is to be followed: (a) Determine the section modulus required. (b) Determine the sizes of flanges of equal size to give the required section modulus. (c) Using equation (2:23), compute the thickness of material to be transferred from the tension flange to the compression flange. The procedure .thus far will result in a section modulus greater than required. To obtain a beam of the required section modulus, either (d) or (e) may be followed. (d) Calculate the ratio of depth of tension flange to compression flange and design a section having flanges with this ratio and the required section modulus, or (e) Carry out steps (a), (b), and (c) starting with a symmetrical section having a section modulus less than that required
40
,
L...
1
L L
until an unsymmetrical section having the required section modulus is obtained. (j) Beams designed according to the foregoing procedure should always be checked for adequacy of glue area between webs and tension flange. This consideration may govern the thickness of the tension flange.
2.4. Torsion 2.40. GEXERAL. The torsional deformation of wood is related to the three moduli of rigidity, GLT, GLR, and ORT' When a member is twisted about an axis parallel to the grain, GRT is not involved; when twisted about an' axis radial to the grain direction, GLT is not involved; when twisted about an axis tangential to the grain direction, GLR is not involved. No general relationship has
Table £10.
Section
been found for the relative magnitudes of GLR, GLT, and GRT (table 2~9). 2.41. TORSIONALROPERTIES. The "mean moP dulus of rigidity" (G) taken as 1/16 of EL, may be safely used in the standard formulas for computing the torsional rigidities and internal shear stresses of solid wood members twisted about an axis parallel to the grain direction. Torsion formulas for a number of simple sections are given in table 2~10. For solidwood members the allowable ultimate torsional shear stress (F.J may be taken as the allowable shear stress parallel to the grain (column 14 in tables 2~6 and 27) multiplied by 1.18: that is, Fsr= 1.18 F suo The allowable torsional shear stress at the proportional limit may be taken as twothirds of Fsc. The torsional strength and rigidity of box beams having plywood webs are given in section 2.75.
Formulas for torsion on symmetncalsections
Maximum shear stress
Angle of twist in radians
Circle              ~           Circular
32TL 8 = G'lT [)4
i
if
1 •
=16T
1rD3
TL tube,                 8=GI
1
J>
TD 1'=2/ %>
: j.= 2Tb2at ends of short diameter I 'lTa (approx.)
Ellipse
Square2
8= TL(a+b) G'lTa3b3
_
()= 2.25Ga4
TL
I
f,= 5a3 (approx.)
40a2b2 f .= T(15a+9b) idpoi at rni pornt
0
31'
Rectangle
3
 __        I
()=
401pTL. A 4G (approx.)
f Iong 81 e id
I
12u=major axis: 2bminor axis. ; 2a = side or square. 3 2a = long side, 2b=short side.
I
L L
2.5. Basic Strength and Elastic Properties of
Plywood
L
L L L
2.50. GEKERAL. Plywood is usually made with an odd number of sheets or plies of veneer with the grain direction of adjacent plies at right angles. Depending upon the method by which the veneer is cut, it is known as rotarycut, sliced, or sawed veneer. Generally, the construction is symmetrical; that is, plies of the same species, thickness, and grain direction are placed in pairs at equal distances from the central ply. Lack of symmetry results in twisting and warping of the finished panel. The disparity between the properties of wood in directions parallel to and across the grain is reduced by reason of the arrangement of the
material in plywood. By placing some of the material with its strong direction (parallel to grain) at right angles to the remainder, the strengths in the two directions become more or less equalized. Since shrinkage of wood in the longitudinal direction is practically negligible, the transverse shrinkage of each ply is restrained by the adjacent plies. Thus, the shrinking and swelling of plywood for a given change in moisture content is less than for solid wood. The tendency of plywood to split is considerably less than for solid wood as a result of the crossbanded construction. While many woods are cut into veneer, those species which have been approved for use in aircraft plywood are listed in table 211. 41
2.51.
ERTIES.
ANALYSIS
OF PLYWOOD
STRENGTH
PROP
L L L
u
L L
L
L
L
The analysis of the strength and elastic properties of plywood is complicated by the fact that the elastic moduli of adjacent. layers are different. This is illustrated in figure 210 for bending of a threeply panel. Assuming that strain is proportional to distance from the neutral axis, stresses on contiguous sides of a glue joint will be different by reason of the difference in the modulus of elasticity in adjacent layers. This results in a distribution of stress across the cross section as shown in figure 210 (c). Simi!ar irregular stress distribution will be obtained for plywood subjected to other types of loading. From this it may be seen that the strength and elastic properties of plywood are dependent not only upon the strength of the material and the dimensions of the member,· as for a solid piece, but also upon the number of plies, their relative thickness, and the species used in the individual plies. In addition, plywood may be used with the direction of the face plies at angles other than 0° or 90° to the direction of principal stress and, in special cases, the grain direction of adjacent plies may be oriented at angles other than 90°. In general, plywood for aircraft use has the grain direction (the longitudinal direction) of adjacent plies at right angles. The strength and elastic properties of the plywood are dependent upon the properties of solid wood along and across the grain as illustrated in figure 211. Considerable information (tables 26 and 27) on the properties of wood parallel to the grain is
available, but the data on properties across the grain are less complete. Sufficient data, are av ailable, however, so that the elastic properties of wood in the two directions can be related with reasonable accuracy to the plywood properties. On this basis formulas are given which will enable the designer, knowing the number, relative thickness and species of plies, to compute the properties of plywood from the data given in tables 26 and 27. The formulas given are only for plywood having the grain direction of adjacent plies at right angles and are applicable only to certain directions of stress. The limitations on the angle between the face grain and the direction of principal stress have been noted in each section. The formulas are intended for use only in these cases, and the interpolation must not be used to obtain values for intermediate angles unless specific information on these angles is given. Computed values of certain of the strength and elastic properties for many of the commonly used species and constructions of plywood are given in section 2.54, based on strength of wood at 15 percent moisture content (table 26). 2.52. BASIC FORMULAS. For purposes of discussion, plywood structural shapes may be conveniently separated into two groups: (a) elements acting as prisms, columns, and beams, and (b) panels. The fundamental difference between these two groups is that, in group (a) the plywood is supported or restrained only two opposite edges, while in group (b) the plywood is supported
on
Table 211. TT eneer species for aircraft plywood
L
Group I (high density)
I
2
Group II (medium density)
2
Group In (low density)
3
L
L
L
L
American beech _______________ Birch (Alaska and paper) ' Basswood. Birch (sweet and yellow) _______ Khaya species (socalled "African maYellowpoplar. hogany") . Maple (hard) , Southern magnolia Port Orford Whitecedar. Pecan Mahogany (from tropical America). Spruce (red, Sitka, and white) (quartersliced). Maple (soft) • _ Ponderosa pine (quartersliced). Sweetgum __• : Sugar pine. Water tu pelo I Koble fir (quartersliced). Black waln u t , . Western hemlock (quartersliced). Douglasfir (quart ersliced) i Redwood (quartersliced). American elm (quartersliced); I Sycamore;  __ I
I
L
: .... ,
I Where hardness, resistance to abrasion, and high strength of fastening are desired, Group I woods should be used for race stock. , \Yhere finish is desired, or where the plywood is to be steamed and bent into a form in which It is to remain. species of Group I and II should be used. 3 Group III species are used principally for core stock and crossbanding, However, where higb bending strength or freedom from buckling at. minimum wrip:h1 is desrr~d. plywood made entirely from species of Group III is recommended.
42
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u U U
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COI?E£
£, O,QE.
(0) .PLYWOOD
(b) STRAIN
(C,) STRESS
Figure 210. Threeply plywood beam in bending.
U
L L
l
L L
L L
L
L L
"
5PLY(/.·2:2:2:1)
Figure 211. Typical plywood constr uctions.
5PLY
(/:1:1:/:1)
Arrows indicate grain direction of each ply.
L~
i
'
43
u
u
L
L
or restrained on more than two edges. It is essential that this fundamental difference between the two groups be kept in mind during the application of the formulas 1 given here and in later sections (ref. 225, 243, and 254). (1) The effective moduli of elasticity of plywood in tension or compression are: Eameasured parallel to side a for panels (sec. 2.712, 2.713) Eomeasured perpendicular to side a for panels (sec. 2.712, 2.713) Ewmeasured parallel to (with) the face grain Exmeasured perpendicular to (across) the face grain, and are determined as
(2:24)
I, =moment
of inertia of the ith ply about the neutral axis of the same total cross section. For svmmetrically constructed plywood, the neutral axis to be used in determining Ii 'will be the centerline of the cross section. For unsymmetrical plywood constructions, the neutral axis is usually not the centerline of the geometrical section, In this case the distance from this neutral axis to the extreme compression fiber is given by the equation:
(2:26)
where
C;
where t=total thickness of plywood t;= thickness of ith ply E;=modulus of elasticity of ith ply measured in the same direction as the pertinent desired E (as s; Eb, e; or Ex). The value of E; is equal to EL~ (1.1 EL from tables 26 and 27), or ET, or ER, (table 29) as applicable. (2) The effective moduli of elasticity of plywood in bending are: Elmeasured parallel to side a for panels Ezmeasured perpendicular t,o side a for panels E,wmeasured parallel to (with) the face grain EJXmeasured perpendicular to (across) the face grain, and are determined as
(2:25)
l L L L L L L
\,_
=distance from the extreme compression fiber to the center of the ith ply, (3) In calculating the bending strength (not stiffness) of plywood strips in bending having the face grain direction perpendicular to the span, a modulus E',x, similar to E/x is to be used, For plywood made of five or more plies, the use of E/x for E' /x in strength calculations will result in but relatively small error. The value of E',x may be calculated in the same manner as that used in calculating E/x except that the effect of the outer ply on the tension side is neglected. The location of the neutral axes used in calculating E/I and E'/x will be different. The value of E' /% may also be calculated from the following formulae. _12t/ET
E' /:r = E fz + 12Ex ( C 1_!:'+t)2/ t2 2
where
t3
(
C
J+~)2 2
(2:27)
where
I When computing the various moduli of elasticity for plywood of balanced construction and all plies of the same specles, the following relationship will bp found helpful:

E,as defined under (1) 1 =moment of inertia of the total cross section about the centerline, measured in the same direction as the pertinent desired E (namely, s; or E/x).
s;
e.;
EL+Er=E.+E.= E,+E,=Ev+E.=E!w+E,.
If the veneers are quartersliced rather than rotarycut, be replaced by ER, the term Er should,
:distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber of the outermost longitudinal ply. ET pertains to the species of the face ply. (4) The modulus of rigidity (modulus of elasticity in shear) of solid wood involves the shear moduli GLT, GLR, and GRT
44
u
(,
U
u
.U
G
"C
L
As men tioned in section 2.131, little information is available on this elastic property, and a "mean" modulus of rigidit.v is ordinarily used for wood. Similarly for plywood, a value of modulus of rigidity based on the "mean" modulus of rigidity for solid wood may be used. For plywood (all plies the same species) having the face grain parallel or perpendicular to the direction of principal shearing stress. the modulus of rigidity may be taken the same as for solid wood. The theoretical treatment of the elastic propert.ies of plywood involves the moduli of rigidity Gw,; and Gtwz. 'They are determined as: (2:28) (2:29) where the summations are taken over all plies in a section perpendicular to either the a or b directions using the modulus of rigidity in each ply in the wx plane. 'When the plywood is made of a single species of wood,
direction due to a tensile stress acting the w direction and thus normal to the xt. plane of the £!ilply. Similarly
(2::31)
"If all plies are of the same species of rotarycut veneer
If all plies are of the same species of q uarter
sliced veneer
L
I
"~
These formulas give close approximations of the apparent Poisson's ratios in these two directions when the stress is simple tension or compression. For more accurate formulas than (2:30) and (2:31) see reference 265. For Poisson's ratio at. an angle to the grain see section 2.56. The Poisson's ratios associated with flexure are
(2:32)
(2:33)
Gtu:x= Gwx= GLR for quartersliced veneer.
L
L
;
L L
, •
Poisson's ration (u): Although there is very little information available on the values of Poisson's ratios for plywood, a brief summary of their significance is given. The effective Poisson's ratio of plywood ill tension or compression (no flexure) is the ratio of the contraction along: the x direction to extension along the w direction due to tensile stress acting in the w direction and thus normal to the xt plane, or
(5)
These equations yield values identical to those of equations (2 :30) and 2 :31) if all plies of the plywood are of the same species of wood. 2.53. ApPROXIMATE :YIETHODS FOR CALCULATING PLYWOOD STRENGTHS. Table 212 gives some approximate methods of calculating the various strength properties of plywood. These simplified methods will be found very useful in obtaining estimates on the strength of plywood, but cannot be relied upon to give results that. are comparable to those obtained with the more accurate methods previously given,
2.54
WOOD. MOISTURESTRE~GTH RELATIONS FOR PLY
L
(2:30) where (Ex),=modulus of elasticity of the i'" ply in the x direction. (fLwx) ,=Poisson's ratio of contraction along the x direction to extension in the w
L
2.540 General; The design values given in the plywood strengthproperty tables 213 and 214 were calculated from the strength properties of solid wood as given in table 26 based on a moisture content of 15 percent; and are applicable for design of 'aircraft to be used in the continental United States. For design of aircraft to be used 45
Table 21£.
Propertv
Approximate
methods for calculating
, !
I,
the .•trerujth and sliffnrs~
0/
plywood
I
Direction of stress ""ith respect to direction of face grain
Portion of crosssectional area to h~ CO!lsteered
Allowables expressed in proportion of streneth values !!"iy~nin table 26
I,
Ultimate tensile___________
L
u u
L L
l L
: Parallel plies 2 only _ _ ______ __ Modulus of rupture, Full crosssectional area ______ Onefourth modulus of rup! ±45°_ _. ture. I I ,{parallel (F ,,,.,) or perpen, Parallel plies 2 only _ Maximum crushing strength or fiber stress at propor' ima t e compressive . dicular (Fc""J_ : i VIt tional limit, as required. , ± 45° (F<v~6C). ., __ • Full crosssectional area _ One third maximum crushing strength or onethird fiber stress at proportional limit, as required .. Full crossse ct ional area _ 1.18 times the shearing. strength parallel to grain. Full crosssectional area _ 2_35 times the shearing strength parallel to grain Shear in plane of plies; ____ Parallel, perpendicular, or Onethird the shearing ±45c strength parallel to grain for the weakest species . •
'1 Parallel dicular
(F iUW) or (F,=)
perpen
i I
1
Load in bending
! Parallel
or perpendicular
_
Modulus of rupture or fiber stress at proportional limit as required.
L
L
Deflection in bending; _____ Parallel or perpendicular _ Modulus of elast.ioity.
L
L L
I
Deformation in tension or compression. Bearing at right angJes to plane of plywood.
Parallel
or perpendicular
_
Modulus
of elasticity. perpendicular
,
Compression to grain.
1 These simplified strength calculations arc to be used only as a rough guide in preliminary design work, and are not acceptable for final design when the results obtained differ considerably from those obtained by the mote accurate methods gh'cn in this bulletin. ~ By "parallel plics" is meant those plies whose grain direction is parallel to the direction of principal stress.
46
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.
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·L··
..
in tropical conditions, for which 20 percent moisture content is recommended, the design values for plywood may be calculated from basic strength properties of wood at 20 percent moisture content as given in table 27, or approximate adjustments may be made as indicated in the following sections. Adjustment factors by which strength properties of solid wood may be corrected for moisture COIltent are shown In table 22. For plywood, moisture corrections are dependent on many variable factors, such as grain direction, combinations of species, and relative thicknesses of plies in each direction, so that any rational method of correction is quite laborious. An approximat.€ method for making moisture corrections to plywood is given in the succeeding sections. 2.541. Approximate methods jor making moisture corrections jor plywood strength properties. A limited number of compression, bending, and shear tests of spruce and Douglasfir plywood of a few constructions at moisture content values ranging approximately from 6 to 15 percent has indicated that use of the following simplified methods of correcting plywood strength properties will be satisfactory (ref. 210 and 214). 2.5410. Moisture corrections jor plywood compressive strength (0° or 90° to jace grain direction). Moisture adjustments to the compressive strength of plywood, either parallel or perpendicular to the face grain direction, may be made by direct use of the correction constants given in column (6) of table 22. When more than one species is used in the plywood, the correction constant should be taken for that species havings its grain direction parallel to the applied load. When plies of two species have their grain direction parallel to the applied load, the plywood correction constant should be determined by taking the mean value of the correction constants for the two species based on the relative areas of the longitudinal plies of each. 2.5411. Moisture correction jor plywood tensile strength (0° or ·90° to jace grain direction). Data on the effect of moisture on the tensile strength of plywood are lacking. Limited data indicate that the effect on the tensile strength of wood is about onethird as great as on modulus of rupture. The suggested procedure for adjusting the tensile strength of plywood is to follow that for compressive strength as given in the preceding section, using onethird of the correction
factors given for modulus of rupture in column 3 of table 22. 2.5412. J10isfure corrections for plywood shear strength (0° or 90° to face grain direction>. Moisture adjustments to the shear strength of plywood, either parallel or perpendicular to the face grain direction, Fswz, may be made by direct use of empirical correction constants equal to those given in column (8) of table 22 for shear. The use of such moisture adjustment to the shear strength of plywood is not applicable when a moisture content of less than 7 percent is involved. When more than one species is used, the correction constant should be determined on the basis of the relative areas of each species, considering all plies. 2.5413. Moisture corrections for plywood compressive strength (any angle to jace grain direction). The compression strength of plywood at any moisture content, and at any angle to the face grain direction, may be found by use of equation 2 :51 after first correcting the compression terms FouU' and Fcur in accordance with section 2.5410. 2.5414. Moisture corrections jor plywood tensile strength (any angle to face grain direction). The tension strength of plywood at any moisture content, and at any angle to the face grain direction, may be found by use of equation 2 :53 after first correcting the tension terms Ftuw and Ftux in accordance with section 2.5411, and the shear term Fsw:r in accordance with section 2.5412. 2.5415. Moisture corrections for plywood shear strength (any angle to face grain direction) .. The shear strength of plywood at any moisture content, and at any angle to the face grain direction, may be found by use of equations 2:55 or 2 :56 after first correcting the various terms in these equations by the methods outlined in the foregoing sections. 2.55. SPECIFIC GRAVITySTRENGTH RELATIONS FOR PLYWOOD. As in solid wood, the strength and elastic properties of plywood increase with an increase in specific gravity. The magnitude of this strength increase, however," cannot be determined by the same convenient exponential equation given in table 21. Specification ANP69a, Plywood and Veneer, . Aircraft Flat Panel, controls the minimum specific gravity of the individual veneers used in the manufacture of the plywood, consequently assuring a minimum final specific gravity of the plywood. The "weight per square foot" column in table 213 for various plywood constructions has
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been based on the average specific gravity values for wood listed in table 26. The strength properties for a piece of plywood are merely the composite strengths of each individual veneer in the direction being considered. Therefore. to make a rational specific gravity correction to plywood strength test data, it is first necessary to determine the specific gravity of each individual veneer and then correct its strength properties to correspond to the average specific gravity value given in table 26 for that species. To do this, of course, is impractical and the problem is further complicated by the effect of glue irn pregna tion. When substantiating the strength' of a plywood structure, or when establishing design values from static tests, the weight per square foot of the plywood used in the specimens should be near the values given in table 213 to minimize the effect of high or low specific gravity values (ref. 222). 2.56. STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS FOR "VOOD AND PLYWOOD. When stresses are applied to wood
or plywood in a direction the resulting strains are obtained in isotropic equations (ref. 252 and to the stresses shown in el=alljl
€z
at an angle to the grain, quite different from those materials. The general 2~53) relating the strains figure 2~12 are:
= QZ]
+ a lzj2+a]3}m I,+ a'Z2}2+
e$12=a31fl
+G3zf2+a
Q23j'12
(2:34)
33jsl2
in which the stresses and strains orthogonal axes 1 and 2.
are referred
to of of
I. and
iz
el are stress and strain axis 1. and e2 are stress and strain
aXIS ~.
in the direction in the direction
.
')
is12
and e.12 are shear stress and shear strain associated with the directions of axes 1 and 2, and in which: sm ~ • cos e 1 ~1J.",x ? ++ Ew ] Ex Etc G=
(j
4 [
all=
S1l1
.
2
(J
cos ()
a2 = sin' e+cos 0
4
.
Ew
Ex
0+[

Gu:x E;
1
2IJ.tCx].? SIn·
e cos
1
ICX
2 II
u
aaa4 [~
w
+
i
+ 2 IJ.u;x] sin" e cos" 8+ G E to r
[cos"8sin2
oJ2
L
L
a~2=aZ3=
G [1
2IJ.wx YE
U'r tD
2].
z
sin
3
(J
cos 0 G
WX
[1
21J.11'x E ~E sin
tc
1['
2] .
e cos
3
() to the direction of
where () is measured positively from the direction axis 1, as shown in figure 2~12. The inverses of equations (2:26) are:
of the face grain
of the plywood
(2:35)
L L
L
L
in which
55
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I I
I
L
L
I
L
L
I
A= 1
~w:z;I'Xtl!
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L
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L
l,\..' \
I
j
I ......
,
L
L
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fs21
L L
L
L
L
56
\.,..
I
Figure 212. General stress distribution
in plywood.
I
L L L
If the stresses are known, equations (2:34) \; completely define the strains. For example, if the plywood is subjected only to a tensile stress t, applied at an angle 0 to the direction of the Iace grain, then }2 }'12=0 and equations (2::::4) reduce to:
I
and er=el cos" 8+ez sin? 0+e.12 sin ()cos 0 sin? O+ez C052 Oe,'lZ sin ()cos () es[ 2e IsinecosO+ 2ezsinOcosO+ esdcos2o sin 28)
en=e,
[J= 
(2:37)
l
If the strains are known, equations (2 :35) completely define the stresses in a like manner. , The usual transformation equations for stresses' I and strains apply. The transformation from the L.,.. arbitrary coordinate system 1, 2 to that of I, II is given by
'1
positively from the 01 axis to the OJ axis, as shown in figure 213. Very often the linear strains in three arbitrary directions are known rather than those given in equations (2 :34) and (2 :35), The required strains can be found by use of the first of equations (2 :37) for each of the directions shown in figure 214. The following equations result: ~~el e'12=
e3 e4
where 0 is measured
L j3i
•'1 .' 1
j,= jl (,OS2 ()+jz sin 2 ()+ 2jm sin ()cos 0 [u= I, sin" ()+ i, <::OS2 82j812 sin (j cos 8
»= 
[cos2 83 ~~ cos (h cos 04 sin 83  sin 84
cos! 84]
i.sius cose] j2 sine
cosO+ j'12 (cos2()sin2())
(2:36)
e3 e4 [cos 63 cos sin 83 cos (j3  sin 84 cos 64el sin (j.  sin ()~ e2= , .. sin 83 sm 84  cos 83 cos 84
84]
(2:38)
L
I
L ;L
L
o
Figure 213. Axes for transformation equations.
L
L
2
4
L
L
L
1
Eiqure 214. Arbitrary
directions in which linear strains are known.
57
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L
L
L
SHEAR STRESS
L
I
L
L
\
L.
\ L.
L L L
1
+
Figure 215. Stress circle for stresees shown in figure 212. SHEAR STRAINS
L
L
L
L
I
L L
58
I
Figure 216. Strain. circle resulting from equation (2:41).
........
I
i
and if
L.
=:»:
f."xU' (2:41)
I£Z
L
'L'
L
'
L
L i
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2.560. Jlohr'g stressandstrain circles. ~I ohr's stressandstrain circles are a means of showing, graphically, the relation of stress or strain in one direction to the stress or strain in any other direction and are an aid in the visualization and evuluation of these relations. Reference 265 treats extensively the general problem of the use of Mohr's circles in connection with wood and plywood. Only a limited general treatment is presented herein. 2.5600. Obtaining strains from. gicen stresses .. Assume a stress distribution in a piece of plywood as shown upon the outer square in figure 212 (direction of arrows indicates positive direction). The stress circle can be drawn by use of the following equations as shown in figure 215, and. the stresses parallel and perpendicular to the face
where /J.",x and f.lz", are given hy equations (2::10) and (2:31), respectively. The strain circle can then be drawn, by t lie following eq ua tions, as shown in figure 216 and the strains in any direction can be determined.
(2:42)
(2:13)
grain direction ca~ be determined. 0=2(fl+ f2)
(2: 3 9) (2:40)
2.5601. Obtaining stresses from given strains. The foregoing process can be reversed if strains are given and stresses required. For this purpose strains are usually measured in the three directions Sho\V11 in figure 217. The strain circle can be drawn, by use of the following equations, as shown in figure 218, and the strains parallel and perpendicular to the face grain can be found.
L
The strains parallel and perpendicular to the face grain direction can be found by use of the equations The stresses parallel equations: and perpendicular to the face grain direction can be obtained
(2:44)
L
from the following (2:45)
L
L
L
,
1
The stress circle can then be dra W'Il, by the use of the following equations, as shown in figure 219, and the stress at any angle to the face grain direction may be found:
ious angles to the face grain. These reproduced from reference 267. 2.57. STRESS 2162.1611)
COXCEXTR.\.TIOKS.
figures
are
(See sections
C=2 (j",+fz) R= .,/(f ",_0)2 + (j.xw) 2
1
(2:46) (2:47)
2.6.
Plywood
Structural Elements
L
L L L
L
2.5602. Experimental. stressstrain data, Figures 220,221, and 222 present stressstrain curves of fiveply yellowpoplar plywood subjected to tension, compression, and shear, respectively, at var
The following formulas for strength of plywood elements are applicable only when elastic instability (buckling) is not involved, except in the case of column formulas. For cases involving buckling, see section 2.71. 2.60. ELE}IEXTS 8= (0° or 90°).
59
L
I
L L L
L
L L L
I
Figure 217.
Directions of measured strains.
L
L
L
i
L
L
Figure 218_ Strain circle [or measured sirains,
L
L L
2.600. Element , in compreseion (8=0° or 90°). '? "~hen a plywood prism is subjected to a direct compression load, the relation between the internal stress (jeL) in any longitudinal ply and the average PIA stress is given by the following equations: (Ref. 243) Face grain parallel to applied load
PI A= jcw= EEw jcL
Lc
(2:4 G)
L L
I
L;
I
Face grain perpendicular
to applied load
(2:49)
The allowable stresses at the proportional limit Fepx or the allowable ultimate stresses Feuw and r.; are obtained from these equations; respectively, when the stress at the proportional limit Fc'P or the ultimate crushing stress Feu from tables 26 or 27, whichever is required, is substituted for feL' When more than one species is used in the longitudinal plies, the species having the lowest ratio of FC1J/EL and FculEL must be used in determining the correct. allowables. For certain species and plywood constructions, the compression allowables for the 15 percent moisture content condition may be obtained from table 213.
F'Pt£ and
60
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,
SHEAR
STRESS
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L..
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,
l
'COl
~c +
Figure 219. Stress circle resulting from equations (2:45)
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2.601. Elements in tension (8=0° or 90°). The allowable ultimate tensile stress for a plywood strip (designated as F1uw when the face grain direction is parallel to the applied load, and FlUX when the face grain is perpendicular to the' applied load) is equal to the sum of the strengths of the longi tudinal plies divided by the total area of the cross section. The strength of any longitudinal ply is equal to its area multiplied by the modulus of rupture for the species of that ply as given in column 8 of tables 26 and 2i. For certain species and plywood constructions, the tension allowables may be obtained from table 213. 2.602. Elements in shear (8=0° or 0=90°). The allowable ultimate stress of plywood elements subjected to shear is given by the empirical formula: (Ref. 288)
(2:50)
2.610. Elements in com.pressum. (8=any a.ngle). Based upon the results of compression tests of a few species and constructions of plywood, the ultimate compressive stress of narrow elements may be given by:
and the ultimate ments, by:
compressive
stress of wide e]e
F<u6= ,Fc"Uw2 cos's} Fcu/ where
sin48+4 f~w/ sin~e cos2(J
(2:52)
in which the factor
n
t 1shall not be assigned values
L
L
greater than 35 and in which ti 'is the thickness of the ith ply and F.Ui is the shear strength of wood of the 'it" ply obtained from tables 26 or 27. For certain species and plywood constructions the shear allowabies for the 15 percent moisture content condition may be obtained from table
213. 2.61.
ELEMEXTS
L
i
......
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(8=":\"y
ANGLE).
the Iace grain and the direction of the applied load. F.u",==ultimate compressive strength of the plywood parallel to the face grain; from formula (2:48). Fcux= ultimate cornpressi ve strength of the plywood perpendicular to the face grain; from formula (2:49). F'ID"I = ultimate shear strength of the plywood when the face grain direction is parallel and perpendicular to the shear stresses, from section 2.602.
61
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63
L
I
L L L L L
I
L..
2.611. Elements in tension (8=any angLe). The ultimate tensile strength of narrow elements is given by the formula:
for failure of plywood elements subjected to combined stresses in the plane of the plywood is given by the following equation. Formulas (2 :53) to (2 :58) are special eases of this general equation.
(2:59)
where and the tensile strength of wide elements, by F:~e="\ F[uu/ cos48+ Flu:/ sin4e+4Fswx sin2e cos2e
(2:54)
L
I
L
L
where F1uw and Frux=ultimate tensile strength of plywood parallel and perpendicular to the face grain direction, respectively, from section 2.601. 2.612. Elements in shear (8=any angle). The ultimate shear strength of plywood in this case is given by equations (2 :55) and (2 :56). When shear tends to place the face grain in tension, equation (2 :55) should be used. 'Then shear tends to place the face grain in compression, equation (2 :56) should be used. When face grain is in tension 1 +cos228 , /( F"2+F ~ sin 28 F2 full' cur
1 1).
2
3WX
jw/F",=ra.tio of the internal tension or compression stress, parallel to the face grain, to the allowable tension or compression stress in the same direction. jx/Fz=ra.tio of the internal tension or compression stress, perpendicular to the face grain, to the allowable tension or compression stress in the same direction. jswx/Fs",:r=ratio of the internal shear stress, parallel and perpendicular to the face grain, to the allowable shear stress in the same direction. In the use of equation (2:59), it is necessary first to resolve the internal stresses into directions that are parallel and perpendicular to the face grain direction by use of the following transformation equations: jw=
L L L L
L
I
(2:55)
t. cos" 6+j2
sin" 6 2j'12 sin e cos e
'When face grain is in compression
1
jz= jl sin" e+j2 cos" 8+ 2j812 sin 6 cos 8 jSUJx=(fI j2) sin e cos 8+ j812 (cos" 8sin2 0)
(2:60)
~( Fc'Uu:· 2+Ft u% 2
1
1)
.2 +cos 28 sin 28 F2
S1D,%:
2
(2:56)
For the special case of the face grain at 450 to the side of the panel, equations (2 :55) and (2 :56) reduce to (2:57)
L L L
L...
Ftux
(2:58)
in which the symbols have the meanings indicated in figure 212 and 8 is measured positively from the direction of the face grain to the direction of axis 1. In order to clarify the use which can be made of the combined loading equation (2 :59), the complete derivation of equation (2 :53) is given. I t is desired to find the allowable tensile stress of a plywood element which is loaded as shown in figure 223. Thus in equation ("2:60) jw=jzw, j%=}I%, }1=}1 and j2= j812=0; and the equations reduce to:
2.613. Elements in combined compression (or tension) and shear (8=any angle). The condition 64
jsUJx=}[ sin 8 cos
(J
I
L
L
'L L
L
.'
Figure
223.
Orientation
of plywood
element for derivation
of formula
(2:53).
Substituting these terms in the combined loading equation .' sevenply; the following is obtained:
2 COS2 sin [It r.; 8]2 +[It r.: fJJ2 +[1! sin fJ cos eT = 1 r.: J (2:63)
L
nineply;
L
l
I
Dividing through by 11 and setting its value equal to the allowable tensile stress, FlUfJ, gives equation (2 :53), or
(2:64)
L.
it
,
L L
L
L L
1
Equations (2 :51), (2 :55), and (2 :56) may be derived in exactly the same manner. Equation (2 :38) is derived in a similar manner in which 12 and .fm are not equated to zero but are allowed to assume values which make i. a maximum. Equation (2 :37) also may be derived in this.manner, These equations were taken from reference 267. 2.614. Elements in. bending. The apparent moduli of elasticity (EfuJ and Efr) of plywood beams in bending are given by the general formulas in section 2.5. When all of the plies are of equal thickness and one species, these general formulas reduce to the following forms: For rotarycut veneer,
(2:61)
For quartersliced veneer, Er/EL should be replaced by ER/EL (sec. 2.13). The bending stress in the extreme fiber of the outermost longitudinal ply is given by the following formulas: Face grain parallel to span
(2:6.5)
Face grain perpendicular to span
(2:66) lWe' io= 1.11 [
E'
EL
jr
(all other)
'
(2:6i)
where
c/
L
._
,
fiveply;
Efw= ~L5
(26 i:+99)
(2 :62)
from neutral axis to extreme fiber of outermost longitudinal ply. E' fx=same as Efx except that outermost ply in tension is neglected. Erz may be used in place of E' fz in formula (2 :6i) with only slight error. EL is taken for the species of the outermost longitudinal ply. 65
= distance
>
L
L
The allowable bending stress at proportional limit. (FbP) and the modulus of rupture in bending (Fbu) are given in tables 26 and 27. (Ref. 225) 2.6140. Deflections. The deflection of plywood beams wi th face grain parallel or perpendicular to the span may be obtained by using Erw or Erx in the ordinary beam formulas. E'rx is used only for determining strengths in bending and not the deflection. For plywood beams with face grain at an angle e to the direction of the span, the effective modulus of elasticity to be used in the deflection formula is given by the equation:
when the grain direction of the face plies is other than parallel or penpendicular to the span. 2.615. Elements as columns. The allowable stresses for plywood columns are given by the followiing formulas: Long columns
O'~l,/;~!tJ;
O.857r
2
(face grain parallel to length)
(2:69)
Erx . (L' / p)2 (f ace gram perpen dilCU 1ar to Iengt 11 )
r;
[Efu
<'OS4
e+ EJ!r. sin' e+
sin"
(L'/ P)CT= 3.
L
L
(2 Eru:Jlrxu
+ 4 "rGrwx)
e cos" OJ (2:68)
Short columns
55,IEErw
CUID
(2:70)
in which when
",= 1 l'!wx)J.!XW
of the beam at any point in its span.
or 3.55
V r.:
I E.rx
respectively
(1) The loading is constant across the width (2) The beam width is sufficient to cause the
defiection to be constant across the beam at any point in the span. (3) The beam is held so that it cannot leave the supports. There are no methods available by which the strength of plywood beams may be calculated
where
K=(L'/P)er Feu = Fe when face grain is parallel to length = Feu:!: when face grain is perpendicular to
Ute
length
L
L
6.0
5.0
L
L
I
1\
4.0 ~
,
./ r,
 V t'..... r~ ~ l\'" r... 3.0 ~ I~ r, ,~ r, r~ , <,
~~
r,
!"""
_..
L L L
66
2.0 ..
i'0 .....
08
'.......... ,..._. V
1.2
'V
""" r1.6
I
_..
2.0

......
K=I.O K:O.8 K:o.6 K:o.4 K:0.2
2.8
3.2 3.6

K:O
4.0
1.0
as
r
2.4
Figure 225. Plot oj equation (:8:74).
1
l...
I
2.7. Flat Rectangular Plywood Panels
2.71. B1;CKLING CRITERIA. 2.711. General. When buckling occurs in plywood panels at loads less than the required design loads, the resulting redistribution of stresses must be considered in the analysis of the structure. The buckling criteria in this section are based on mathematical analyses and are confirmed by experiments for stresses below the proportional limi t. Visible buckling may occur at lower stresses than those indicated by these criteria, due to the imperfections and eccentric loadings which usually exist in structures. Experiments have indicated, however, that the redistribution of stresses due to buckling corresponds more closely to the degree of buckling indicated by these theoretical criteria than it does to visible buckling. These criteria can, therefore, be used in various parameters for plotting test results or design allowables against the degree of buckling, and to compute the degree .of buckling in a structure. This is done in sections 2.72 and 2.760.
L
I
Since the mathematical analyses fire based on the assumption of elastic behavior , these {'riterin· cannot be directly applied when the stresses art' above proportional limit. The behavior at such stresses has been investigated experirnentu lly for some cases, as described in sections 2.72 and 2.760. Because of the low modulus of elasticity of wood across the grain it is difficult to approach clampededge conditions. 2.712. Compression (/3=00 or 900). The critical buckling stress of flat rectangular plywood panels subjected to uniform compressive stress is given by the following formula (ref. 2~55).
,L
'[
'[
F
 H ,/E/rf;E~
UTC
Af
(i)2
a
(2:72)
in which He depends upon the edge conditions of the panel and other considerations in the following cases. Case r. All edges simply supported. (2:73)
L
L L L
,
7.0
6.0
\ h../
~
/\ II!,
~
:::r::(.)
5.0
l\ 1\ UVA'
~\
~
U
f\.'  / V fA i\.'
v 7~
as ....
~~
'IIIiiiI
~,
~
..... .....
t.>
./
l/ r,
~~
r,
.....
i....

L
I
4.0
L L C L
1
,r_',
,
'~
....

:;/' ..............
~~
..
<,...._
.

 ~Io..
Kz 1.0
K=0.8 K=O.6 K=O.4
~
~
10...
.~
~
__,;'
...............
LZ

K~O.2
K~O
~
3.0
as
iO
i2
i4 i6
r
is ~o
L4 ~6
Figure 224.
Plot of equation (2:73)
67
;
1
'
6.0
L L
7.0
r
It
6.0
\~\\
~
~\\
~ ~
5.0
\\'\
l\
~.O
, " ~" r,,
3.0
~"
~
<,
........
<,
r,
<, , '..... ,
........
<,<,..._
<,
<, " ~
..._
'....~
r....
......_

L
2.0
~ 2.8 3.2
3.6

 K=0.8
K:0.6 K:0.4 K:0.2 'K=O
K: 1.0

L L L
1.0 0.5
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
r
2.4
4.0
Figure 226. Plot of equation (2:75).
in which
k= Efv:Jlfxw+ 2)..fGftbZ
Hc 60 r
For three halfwaves
_,,2(241 +;:zt1 Ok .)
~O
.» (El)l!4
a Ez
,(EfwB~x
,,2 r +? H<120 (2+136r2
k)
(2:75)
m=the
L
L
L
\
number of halfwave lengths in the shape of the buckled panel defined by the inequality, ,1m (mI)
For four halfwaves
Hc= 2~24 (r2+
~:23.+34k)
<r'<, ,1m (m+
1)
Case II.' Loaded edges simply supported. maining edges clamped.
_ He 4,,2 [( 9 m.), ~,/ m emI) ,/3
Re(2:74)
r)2 + (m)2 +3  kJ 16 2
r
The value of He that is least for the particular panel involved, should be used. Case IV. .All edges clamped. For one halfwave
if c =1T2(3r2+l+2k) 9 r2
For two halfwaves
H =180
C
L
<r< ~ .Jm (m + 1) ,/3
Re
r (0 16r2+
L L
Case III. Two loaded edges clamped. maining edges simply supported.
For one halfwave
rr+40k
123
)
For three' halfwaves tt,» ,,:(2r2+ 51 + 10k) 4D r2 . For foul' halfwaves H, =~ 612
Hc= :~
For two halfwaves 68
(3r +
2
~~+8k)
(16r +
2
I 059 r2
+ 130k)
12:76)
\
i
L
17.0
L L L
.1
15.0
/3.0
III
\\
11.0
L
9.0
"
~ ~
~
,
7.0
'\ ~
~
~\\ ......_
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
<;
.....__
....._
.....
5.0
/.6
........ ........_ 'i'"'.
_2.0
.........
"2.4
K=I.O K=O.8 K=O.6 K=O.4 K=O.2
K=o
L
3.0 0.5
as
1.2
;L L ·L L L L
,
,
L
Figure 227. Plot of equation (2:76~.
r
2.8
The value of H. that is least for the particular panel involved, should be used. 2.713. Shear (~=Ooor 90°). The critical buckling stress of fiat rectangular plywood panels subjected to uniform shear stress is given by the following formula (ref. 250).
(2:77)
lowing interaction formula (ref. 250)
(1,cr)2
FSCT
+ feo. = 1
r.:
(2:78)
in which values of H. are obtained from figure 228 for panels having simply supported edges and from figure 229 for clamped edges. The symbols a and b are assigned to the dimensions of the panel in such a way that r:=1) equal to unity. 2.714. Combined compression and shear (~=O° or 9 a 0). The critical buckling stresses of flat rectangular panels subjected to combined compression and shear may be obtained by use of the fo11
a(E)li4 E:
is less than or
•
L
in which the ratio of jw to jccr is given by the particular problem to be solved. This equation is accurate only for isotropic plates, but is not greatly in error for plywood if ~=Oo or 90°. 2.715. Compression, shear, and combined compression and shear ({3=any angle). When the direction of the face grain of the plywood makes an angle other than 0° or 90° with the edge of the plywood, accurate methods of calculation are extremely complicated, and, therefore, an approximate method is resorted to. The curves of figures 230 to 241, inclusive, apply accurately only to Douglasfir plywood. but their use is extended approximately to other species by the method described. Curves for the cases in which {3=Oo or 90° are included for the sake of comi pleteness.
69
I
L
,
By this method the critical buckling stress of
flat rectangular plywood panels subjected to either uniform compression or uniform shear stresses is given by the following general formulas.
(2:79)
(2:80)
L
L L L L
L L L
Kc and Ks are factors depending on the type> of loading, the dimensions of the panel, the edgefixity conditions, and Poisson's ratio. Kc and K, are determined by the following methods.
where
24
22
20
K
/8
16
/
./
L
L
/4
/2

L
L L L L • L
.
10
v./ 1.//V/ / 7/ L 0./ r_:.::;V V/ 1 l..,L" c: .V /' '" / o _.,..., V l'" L"i> __.... / .....
~ ~ ~ ~
~
V V V,V/ V/
V/
V/ V/./ V/ //
/
V/ V/ : 0.5
0.4
Y// 0.7 1// / V/ '// 0.6
0.3
/ L/
/J
/ 0.9
0.8
1.0
r>:V/ // V/ V/
~
Q2
 I"
~
r:
~
~

~
 l'" L"
0.6
~
~
8
,
0.2
0.4
0.8
1.0
/ r
Figure 228. Curves for calculating the buckling shear stress in orthotropic rectangular plates, with simply supported edges whose axes oj elastic symmetry are parallel to the edges. (Taken from paper by E. Seydel, Zeiischrift [ur Flugtechnik und LuftschijJahrt 24, 7883, 1933.)
I
70
L
38
36
K
L L
L
j
34
32 30 28 26
L
:c
CI)
24
22 20
18 16 14
o
./'" "..,.,
~ ~
VV/
v
/ ".;
.
V/
~
v
/~
./.
/
~
~ ~
»> .>
~ ~ ~
/" /
v
// / L 0.4 v/ V V.I 0.2 vV Vo ./ v VV /'
,/
7/v/
/
VI
7
1.0
0.8
0.6
v
0.4
r
/
,.. /
~
v
:
,,
./ io"""
V
~
0.2
0.6
0.8
lO
L L
_f_
Figure of in of '229. Curves for calculating the, buckling shear stress in orthotropic rectangular plates, with clamped edges, whose axes elastic symmetry are parallel to the edges. (Taken from report by R. 'C. T. Smith" The Buckling of Plywood Plates Shear," Report S tVi. 51 of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Aer01wutics Common wealth. Australia.) .
L L
1
L
1
Let a be the width of a rectangular panel of infinite length of which a portion of finite length b is being considered. The mathematical treatment of buckling constants presented in this section has been based on the assumption that the compression load is always placed on the edge having dimension a. In a panel loaded only in shear a dimension of either edge may be taken as a, and the panel
shall be considered as a {3=Oo case when the face grain is perpendicular to the edge having dimension a and as a {3=90o case when the face grain is parallel to the edge having dimension a (fig. 242). One method of obtaining K, or K, is by the use of figures 230 to 236 as explained in section 2.7151. Approximate values of K. or K, suitable for ordinary purposes may be obtained by cor71
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L L L
L
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I
!
, 7;!~
I;
3
II
1+++:+'
! i'
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r., ,
,
~!
i
I
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I
II
':oJ
'1
:I I I I
i
<,
I~c
<, ......,,/
0
~t /
/
"
'f
L L L
L
11
I,ll
1
~
;\
L+ I
..\ ~ .1\
,
I'
~I
0
~~=
\
.~ !
!
Iii III
tI +...l.___;IL....;'.t
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I
+_,..__,_,~ I I I i~, , I I "i.........,1 2lr+ _+_I
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1 I"
3
,I
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~
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I++++I+l0
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L L L L
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ij,
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t V
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j.1!4.I
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Y VI
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l!rl'(J';'" ,
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1.
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°IT

~
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sc~u ~OR ,llIib
7'
scat {e)
2PLY (1:I)fj~ 30'
l
0, / fOil ~ ANO 'Y I
e
(d)
2:PL Y (I :1) 13':45'
Fiqure 230 (a, b, c, d). Curves of critical buckling constants [or infinitely long rectangular plywood panels under combined loadinq. Edges 81"mply supported. {J=angle between face grain and direction. of applied stress. Twoply construction.

72
L L L
I
rr
h 171
.
"
y
tj
~
~L
~~ ~
II
IlT
~
'/
'.....
...........
l
I
I y
l
~
Ol~ J
X
14
e
' IIIIt I
Y
I r
I
"..1
0

i:
j
l}(
r\ ~;
/ y
I
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(Kc)~

l
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~o/ff;:\
;\
~lL
o~ ~/
=: t:7
2
~
~l
O~: l l'ftH

x
J
4
I
1
I
5
I 0 l SCALE FOR >fa liND 1"
e
I
I
(e)
ZPLY
(I)
2PLY(J:/)I375"
(f:I)/J.·'O· Figure 230 (e,f)Continued.
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~/'~I
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~ ~
:7
_  f ~II .~~I
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recting K. co values or K, co values in table 214 for panel size by means of figure 237. In using these figures b' fa is first obtained from table 214 and bib' computed. For a more exact determination of K, or K~or to determine these buckling constants for a plywood construction different from those specified in ANNNP511 b or figures 230 to 236, calculate
_
of E E;E ' of the buckling constants for two plywood constructions whose values of the ratio
JI1' Jz
E E;E
JID
E EtE
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111
ac
cordance with section 2.52, read K, 0:> or K; co and b' (a from figures 238 to 241 and correct for panel size by means of figure 237. 2.7151. Combined compression (or ieneion) and shear, The analytical method of determining the critical buckling stresses for rectangular panels subjected to combined loadings is quite complicated, and only the graphical solutions for a few types of plywood construction are given in figures 230 to 236. Wben the plywood construction being used is not the same as any of those illustrated, its buckling constants may be obtained by a straight line interpolation (or extrapolation), on the basis 82
under consideration. The values of these ratios for the plywood constructions considered in :figures 230 to 236 may be calculated with sufficient accuracy by assuming Er=0.05 EL• These figures apply to panels of infinite length and values of the buckling constants from the curves must be. corrected for actual panel length. Values of the shear constant K"oo and the cornpression constant K, 00 are indic~ted on the vertical and horizontal axes, respectively. The points at which the curve crosses these axes give the values of K. 00 or K, 0:> at which buckling will just occur in a panel of infinite length in either pure shear or pure compression. The particular combination of stresses represented by each of the four quadrants is shown by the small stress sketches. Buckling will occur under these combined stresses whenever the location of a point K, co, K, 0:>, lies on or outside the curve.
fz
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Table 214.
Buckling
constants for plywood
1
._
i
THREEPLY
Shear
45° D· 90°
LI
L
Face grain angle
,
if
Compression
L
Nominal thick
, i
(K,la, b']a (K,)..,
Face grain in tension
Face gruin in compression
I,
I
and
O·
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90°
90°
I
(K,)",
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450
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b'fa
(K,)
0>
b'[a
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(K,)..,
ness
(l)
(2)
I
(3)
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(4)
L L
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Inch.
0.035 .070 I .100 I! . 125 .155 .185
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O. 60 .80 .75 .88 .94 .95
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2. 13 1. 79 1. 85 1. 70 l. 65 1. 64
i
2.05 2. 11 2. 10 2. 13 2. 14 2. 14
I I
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(5)
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(6)
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b'/a
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O. 60 I .661 .71 .72 .73
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(12)
. 58' :,
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O. 57 .78 .73 .87 .93 .94
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O. 95 1. 06 1. 03 1. 10 1. 12 1. 13 FIVEPLY
3. 50 3. 34 3. 38 3. 27 3.22 3. 22
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
1.
74 72 I 72 71 70 70 I I
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
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88 62 67 55 50 L 50
(ll) I  I I 0.71
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IO. 81 .91 .9 a .9 3 .9 4 .9 4
(14)
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O. 53 .62 .60 .65 .67 .68
O. 86 1. 08 1. 03 1. 17 1. 23
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1. 24
i
,
1.29 1. 41 1. 43 1. 35 L 34 1. 57
1. 26 1. 30
\ 0.160 L... . 190
.225 .250 .315 .375
L 25 L 35 1. 37 L 30 1. 29 1. 48
I
II
L 42 1. 36 1. 35 1. 38 1. 39 1. 28
I
2. 13 2. 12 2.11 2. 12 2. 12 2. 08
O. 83 .87 .88 .85 .85 .92
I
L 31 1. 28 L 28 1. 36
I
I
2.91 2.81 2.79 2.86 2. 87 2.66
1. 66 1. 64 1. 63 1. 64 1. 65 1. 60
1. 31 1. 26 I 1. 25 1. 28 ! 1. 29
I
I I
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1. 19
I
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
02 04 05 04 03 08
0.77
. SO
.81 .79 .78 .84
1. 49 1. 56 1. 57 1. 53
52 1.64
1.
[
O. 9 7 .9 8 .9 8 .98 .9 8 . 99
I
SEYENPL Y (all plies of equal thickness)
Any
1.40
I
i
i
1. 32
2. 10
0.89
I
I
1. 46
L 32
I
2. 75 !
I
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L 62
L 23
1. 06
I
!
O. 82
i
1. 59
O. 9 9
I
NIXEPL Y (all plies of equal thickness) 1. o ~2
Any
I
I
I
1. 26
2. 06 I
O. 94 ,I
L 63
1. 37
2. 60
I
I
I I I
1. 59
1. 17
1. 09
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i O. 86
i
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1.
66
I
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I
O. 99
L
\....
ELEVE:fPL Y (all plies of equal thickness)
I.
i.
I
Any
1.
59
I
I
,
L 22
2. 03
O. 96
L 72
L 40
2.52
I
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i
1. 58
L 14
1. 10
O. 88
f
L 70
I
I
I
O. 9 9
I
1
I
\"..
Nary
The buckling constants listed in this table correspond only to the plywood thicknesses and constructions listed in table 213 that e6rrespond to Armyspecification A::;[NNP511b (Plywood and Veneer; Aircraft Flat Panel). The values in this table were computed as follows: For each construction
given in table 213 a value of E
E
~~
f1D
/;r;
was computed
from columns 5 and 6 of table 213.
These values for each thickness were averaged and the average values
I . constants
L:
were used in entering figures 238, 239, 24Q, and 241 from which the values of this table were cbtained. For a more exact determination of these buckling or to determine the buckling constants of a plywood construction different from those specified in AN NNP511b, see section 2. i.
L
('
The curve marked b' fa is the ratio of half the wave length (b') of a buckle in an in.:finitely long panel to its width (a). This ratio is to be used ill conjunction with figures 237 to 241 in obtaining
the correction factors for panels of finite length to be applied to K, en • The curves in figures 230 to 236 marked 'Y give the slope of the panel wrinkles with respect
91
......
I I
to the OX axis indicated on the stress sketches.
The procedure in the use of these figures is as follows: (1) From the analysis the shear stress Us) and the compression (f,) or tension stress ( je) acting on a particular plywood panel will have been calculated. (2) Determine the ratioj.lfc and, on the figure giving the same plywood construction and angle /3, draw a line through the origin having a slope (positive or negative) equal to this ratio. When the plywood construction is not the same as that given in the figures; this procedure for determining the buckling constant will have to be run through on the two most similar constructions and an interpola tion of the results made on the basis of
L L
L L
\
~
the ultimate value. The load at failure is obtained from empirical curves in which the ratio of the average stress at failure to the ultimate strength of the plywood is plotted against the ratio oj the width of the panel to the width of a hypothetical panel that will fail at its buckling load. 2.722. Compression ((3=any angle). The abscissa of figure 243 is obtained from the equation
s: jF
a; \
r.;
C116
(2: 81)
Erw
(3) The point at which the constructed
in which Fcu6 is obtained from equation (2:51) or (2:52) and Feet from equation (2:77) or (2:79). The ordinates give the ratio of the average stress at which failure 'will occur to the ultimate compressive strength (Fcue) of the plywood. 2.723. Shear ({3=O°, 45°, or 90°). The abscissa of figure 244 is obtained from the equation
(2:82)
J
L'
I'
'
L
1.
(4)
L.
(5) (6)
L
1 ....
(7)
L
I.
I
line crosses the curve gives the critical buckling constants K.ao and Kc'" at which an infinitely long panel will just buckle when subjected to the same ratio of shear to compression that exists on the panel in question. Read the value of b'{a for the point on the b'{a curve which is obtained by projecting horizontally from K.oo determined in step (3). From the panel dimensions compute b' and bib'. Figures 237 to 241 will give the ratio of K.IK.<r> from which the value of K. can be computed (Kg is always taken as positive). The critical buckling shear stress (Fm) may then be determined by equation (2: 80). This represents the maximum allowable shear stress which the panel in question can sustain without buckling when subjected simultaneously to a compressive stress equal to that given in step (1).
AFTER BUCKLING.
in which F. is obtained from equation (2:50) (2:57), or (2:58) and Fscr from equation (2:77) or (2:80). The ordinates gi ·e the ratio of the average stress at which ailure will take place to the ultimate shear stress (F.) of the plywood.
2.73.
ALLOWABLE
SHEAR IN PLYWOOD WEBS.
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j
2.72.
STRENGTH
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1
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2.721. General. Plywood panels may sustain greater loads than those sufficient to cause buckling. When buckling takes place the stresses within the panel are redistributed, the maximum stresses occurring at the edges. The panel will continue to accept load until these stresses reach
2.730. General. Beams are required to have a high strengthweigh t ratio and, therefore, they are generally designed so that they will fail in shear at about the load which will cause bending failures. A higher strengthweight ratio is usually obtained if the beams fail in bending before shear failure can occur. Plywood when used as webs of beams is subjected to different stress conditions from those when it is used in simple shear frames. It. is essential, therefore, that tests to determine the strengths of shear webs be made upon specimen beams designed with flanges only sufficiently strong to hold the load at which shear failure is expected. Plywood webs tested in heavy shear frames with hinged corners will give shear strengths that are too high for direct application to beam design. In any case where buckling is obtained, the stiffeners must have adequate strength to resist the additional loads due to such buckling, and the webs must be fastened to the flanges in such a manner as to overcome the tendency of the buckles in the web to project themselves into this fastening and cause premature failure (ref. 223 and 242).
92