2

:A

Any discussion of future space initiatives must start with the Space Shuttle, the key to opening up near space to quick, easy, and economical access With the Space Shuttle. operations to and from lowaltitude Earth orbit for both manned and unmanned exploration, science, and applications will become routine and relatively inexpensive James C Fletcher Admrnistrator National Aeronautics and Space Administration January 14, 1976

NASA

SP-407

SPACE SHUTTLE
Prepared by

LYNDON

B. JOHNSON

SPACE

CENTER

Scientific

and

Technical

Information

Office

1976

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS

AND

SPACE

ADMINISTRATION
Washington, D. C.

For U.S. Price

sale

by the

Superintendent Printing Stock Office, Number Catalog

of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402 033-000-00651-9 Card Number 76-600045

Government $3.40

Library

of Congress

FOREWORD

On lasted

December sustained only

17, flight

1903,

Orville

and

Wilbur aircraft.

Wright

successfully which is

achieved

in a power-driven over a distance

The first flight that day (120 feet),

12 seconds

of 37 meters

about the length of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The fourth and final flight of the day traveled 260 meters (852 feet) in 59 seconds. The initial notification Sixty-six estimated television Historic of this event to the world was a telegram to the Wrights' years later, a man first stepped on the lunar surface 500 million people throughout the world saw the or listened events to it on radio as it happened. The space program, however, has father. and an event on

ARE spectacular.

always been transportation expect this. A whole the advent

much more than a television spectacular. Today, space is working in many ways for us all, and we have come to will come into being in the 1980's with to inexpensively transport a

new era of transportation of the Space Shuttle

and its ability

variety of payloads to orbit. It is designed to reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness of using space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs.

With itsversatility andreusability, theSpace huttle ill ruly S w t open the doortotheeconomical androutineseofspace. sa transportation u A system Earth to orbit,t willoffertheworkhorse i capabilities such of earthbound carriers astrucks, ships, airlines will easvflalothe and and b t nation's inspace future asthemore conventional eltoday carriers areto thecountry's economic lifeandwelt-being. Sooften theman-machine have relationships inspace proven been to behighly ffectwe theSpace e that Shuttle isbeing designed andbuilto t take advantage oflhemost fficrent e characterislics humans ofboth and complex machines combination, This coupled iththeflexibleharacw c teristics ofShuttle, providenefficient will a system forourfuture nationai space program activities he T Shuttle illtruly w provide ournation with routLnepaceoperations near-Earth that can contribute s in orbit subslant_ally to_mproving wayoflifeforallthepeoples the ofourworid The Space huttlerawillbeg_npproximately S e a 20years fterhefirst a t US venture space _nlo thelaunching ofExplorer IonJanuary 1958 31,
Since reaches surface that date of space and expand unmanned Manned satellites systems have probed the near and d_stant thelunar have been used to explore the present knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, and the

a(iaptabfl_ty of man to e×tended space flight in near-Earth orbit To serve the future _eeds of space science and applications, the technoiog_cal and operational applied element expener_ce underlying of Ihe Space these accomplishments This vehicle that will open a new Esbelng is the basic era of to Ihe development _n a space Shuttle

transportation

system

routqne operabons Lr_space The pnrnary dk_s_gn ail(J op_r_t_ons

goal for the Space

Shuttle

Pr,:-_qram

_s to prowde roullne ,_tc(:et_,_; space Spacelabs to w_ll be earned _-_lof_by the 5hultle _n support of m_nned orbital operations Free lly_ng or a_to malud salell_tes will be depk)yed Automated fr()r'n lhe _;)proa('h
(]rounds

and recovered

from

marly types c_f_rbkts will be depl('yed lraie(;lones; l-h_s tot (;ondtJ(:t_ng diver_" back oper _t_d:>r_; (_f

satellites with I)r(>pulswe stages attached Space Shultl_., _:_r]d placed in high energy Io space operat_()ns k4any will provide participants, routinely many _n space represenl_ng in these

avenues space

_nveshgat_ons th(} future

and oapabilih_. _'- vv_ll work

Contents
A New Era in Space ......................................................................... Space Shuffle Syslem and Mission Profile ..............................................
PROFILE OF SHUTTLE MISSION ............................................................. GROUND TURNAROUND .................................................................... _PACE SHUTTLE VEHICLE .................................................................. CREW AND PASSENGER ACCOMMODATIONS ............................................... WIDE VARIETY OF MISSIONS ................................................................ PLACEMENT AND RECOVERY OF SATELLITES ............................................... PLACEMENT OF FREE-FLYING SCIENTIFIC LABORATORIES IN SPACE ........................ DELIVERY OF PAYLOADS THAT USE PROPULSION STAGES .................................. ON-ORBIT SERVICING OF SATELLITES BY THE SPACE SHUTTLE ............................. SPACELAB AND ORBITER--INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SPACE .......................

Page

v 1
2 4 6 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 19 19 30 37 37 38 39 40 43 44 46 48 50 52 54 58 60 62 66 68 70 72 74 75 75 76 80 82

Space in Everyday Living

..................................................................

EARTHLY BENEFITS TODAY ................................................................ EARTHLY PAYOFF TOMORROW .............................................................

Space Shuttle Vehicle

......................................................................

SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER .................................................................. EXTERNAL TANK ........................................................................... SOLID ROCKET BOOSTERS ................................................................. ORBITER MAIN PROPULSION ................................................................ ORBITER REACTION CONTROL SUBSYSTEM ................................................ ORBITAL MANEUVERING SUBSYSTEM ...................................................... ORBITER STRUCTURE SUBSYSTEM ......................................................... ORBITER THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM .................................................. PAYLOAD ACCOMMODATIONS .............................................................. PAYLOAD HANDLING--INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ..................................... CREW CABIN AND CREW ACCOMMODATIONS ............................................... EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITIES .............................................................. PAYLOAD ATTACHMENTS .................................................................. POWER SYSTEMS .......................................................................... ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ................................................................ AVIONICS .................................................................................. COMMUNICATIONS, TRACKING, AND DATA MANAGEMENT ................................... PAYLOAD POINTING AND STABILIZATION ................................................... GUIDANCE, NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM ...................................... REUSABLE SPACE HARDWARE ............................................................. MISSION KITS .............................................................................. LAUNCH SITES, OPERATIONAL DATES, PERFORMANCE AND INCLINATION LIMITS ............ U.S. MANNED SPACE-FMGHT OVERVIEW ............... .....................................

Economic Impact of Space Shuttle Space Shuttle Participants....

86

itTip
#

!_ _

.r _,

_,._= :

:;

t t_JBBZL.:

The Orbiter,

Space an

Shuttle external

flight tank

system (ET) that

is composed contains the

of the ascent

propellant to be used by the Orbiter main engines, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB's). The Orbiter and SRB's are reusable; the external Shuttle tank mission is expended begins on each payload before items and launch. of The Space with the installation

the mission payload into the Orbiter payload will be checked and serviced and will be activated on orbit. payloads will be monitored system. The SRB's and the Orbiter recovered external by means of by

bay. The installation for some warning

Flight safety a caution

main engine

will fire in parallel and are large Orbiter system. The

at lift-off. The two SRB's are jettisoned a parachute before tank is jettisoned

after burnout Shuttle

the Space

goes into orbit. The orbital maneuvering the Orbiter is used to attain the .desired any subsequent mission. When maneuvers the payload bay doors

system (OMS) of orbit and to make during top the in the of the

that may be required

Orbiter fuselage open to expose the payload, are ready to begin payload operations. After initiated horizontal the orbital Reentry of attack operatrons, is made At low deorbil_ng altitude, into the Earths type approach

the crewmen maneuvers are al a _nto A

atmosphere goes and landing

high angle

the Orb_ler

flight for an aircraft turnaround duration

2-week ground Shuttle Orbiter The nominal slon duration necessary

is the goal for reuse of the Space of lhe missions are added is 7 days The mLs if the

can be exlended

Io as long

as 30 days

consumables

PROFILE

OF SHUTTLE

MISSION

SEPARATION

OF SOLID
i telghl 45 6 km (24

ROCKET

BOOSTERS

6 n fill)

V_;tOC_ty 1391 msec (2704 kn}

SHUTTLE (Values Length System: Orbiler: Hetght Systern: Orbiter: Wingspan Orbiter: We,ght

CHARACTERISTICS are approximate)

56 m (184

ft)

37 m (122 I1)

23 m (76

ft)

t7 m (57 ft)

24 m (78 11)

Gross lift-off 2 000 000 kg (4 [if)[) 000 Ib) Orbiter landing: 85 000 kg

{187 000 Ib) Thrust Solid rocket boosters 11 88(] 000 N (2 685 000 lb) each (3): (2):

Orbiter main engines 2 100 000 N (470 000 Ib) each Cargo bay

Dimensions:

18 m (60 It) long,

5 m (15 11)in diameter Accommodations: Unmanned spacecraft scientific SHUTTLE LAUNCH to fully equipped laboratories

LANDING
Crossrange * 1850 Velocity 112 (From m_sec entry (217 path} kn) krT] (999 rl mi) Misst_l

ORBIT

INSERTION
Height 277 Veloclly 7847

AND

CIRCULARIZATION

SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER RECOVERY OPERATIONS

8 km

(150

n mi)

[ypical

re,see

(15

254

krl:l

\

ORBITAL
Hebgh[ 185 Duration Up io 30 days to 11 I0

OPERATIONS

kr_/ (100

lo 600

r! Tnl)

ATMOSPHERIC
Height 1_>1 !7 kr"_/Z(J

ENTRY

_l qli)

7_t:_4 q_, sac

(14

451

kr_)

GROUND

TURNAROUND

The Space Shuttle Orbiter is designed for a 2-week ground turnaround, from landing to relaunch. About 160 hours of actual work will be required• As soon as the Orbiter must undergo removed and begun I3urglng Saling returns from space, it sating before payloads can be maintenance and refurbishment operahons include leedlines support serviced system, The thermal draining and and removal equipment New main payand protection

auxiliary propulston flight instrumentation, systems necessary, These two-thirds relaunch. must also repaired functions

systems, power units, and communications be will inspected take and, if

approximately time before will be towed

of lhe total processing From there, the Orbiter

ol the propellant

to the assembly building, where it will be lifted to vertical and m_4te(t t()the sohd rocket boosters and external tank. already Space pad in place on the mobile Shuttle will then trip be into launcher platform The integrated moved space.

of explosive actuators Next, the payload-bay must loads system, be inspected will be installed. landing gear and

to the laur_ch

for another

• Move to pad • Inlerface verification • Propel)ant toading • Clew ingress • Systems check 2-hr launch capability • 160-hr total

LANDING • Safety 0nspection • Connect • Connect 9round-support-equipmer_ tow equipment cooting

• Crew exchange

ORBITER SAFING, MAINTENANCE, AND CHECKOUT SHUTTLE ASSEMBLY
• Assemble • Exlernal solid rocket booster (SRB) tank mating to SRB • Sale and deservice • Remove payload • Mainlenance/relurbisrtment • Paytoad installation Functional venficatnon

• Orbiter mating • Interface verifiealion • Ordnance installation/conneclion • Ctoseout

PREMATE PREPARATION
• Retract landing gear • GOf_ect crar_es • Rotate to verftcal

SPACE

SHUTTLE

VEHICLE
to carry into orbit scientific a On a standard mission, the Orbiter can

The Orbiter crew technical

is designed

of up to seven, personnel, system Orbiter

including (SRB's rocket

and fuel

and the payloads

The resl into space. of the or-

remain in orbit personnel and

lor 7 days, return to Earth with payload, land like an airplane,

of the Shuttle The smaller bital neuvering atmospheric

and external engines

tank) is requ+red to boost the Orbiter maneuvering fhght system during (OMS)

and be readied for another flight in 14 days. The Shuttle can be readied for a rescue mission launch from standby status within 24 hours after rescue, the cabin as many as 10 persons; of a disabled Orbiter could Shuttle. notification For emergency

provide

maby

and control

space flight; during is controlled and by

the Orbiter

can accommodate thus, all occupants be rescued

the aerodynamic surfaces the vertical stabilizer.

on the wings

by another

TheSRB's, which burnin parallel withthe After RB S separation, theOrbiter ma_n rop s continues toburnuntilheOrt Orbiter propulsion main system, areseparated pulsionystem from theOrbiterexternal atanaltitudef tank o biterachieves velocity shortof orbital a lust approximately kilometers 45 (24nautical requirements. external tank then separates The and falls into a remote area of the Indian or the miles), descend onparachutes, land and inthe ocean approximately kilometers nau- South Pacific Ocean, depending on the launch 278 (150 ticalmiles)fromthe launchsite.Theyare site and mission The OMS completes insertion recoveredy ships,returned land,refur- of lhe Orbiter into the desired orbit b to bished, andthenreused.

CREW

AND

PASSENGER

ACCOMMODATIONS The crew and passengers occupy a two-level cabin at the forward end of the Orbiter. orbital entry, Payload from The crew controls phases is accom the atmoof level flight launch, spheric deck plished payload maneuvering, and landing the upper handling Seating provided maximum minimum flight for passengers lower deck and The a living cabin area will have are a

on the

of utility; mission flexibility is achieved of volume, complexity, and weight. be limited astronauts scientists to intensively

with a Space trained,

will no longer

the mission

physically perfecl date experienced

but will now accommoand technicians.

by crewmen station

at the aft cabin

WIDE VARIETY
The Space ity to conduct Shuttle

OF MISSIONS
has the capabilmissions projected needs and to policy, Shuttle The primary in nathe misis the

space

response to currently tional and worldwide flexibility
3

to respond the Space

discov-

ery, and innovation. sion for delivery of payloads

to Earth orbit. The

P;
2
<

shuttle system can place payloads of 29 500 kilograms (65 000 pounds) into orbit. Payloads can place with propulsion into high or planetary is more stages Earth trajecthan unique a satellites

orbit or into lunar tories.
1

The Space transport
LOAD FACTOR TO ORBIf FROM LIFT-OFF INSERTION

Shuttle

vehicle.

The Orbiter

has the

capability

to carry out missions

I
2

I
4 Ground elapsed

I
6 lime, rain

I
8 10

to the space program: to retrieve payloads from orbit for reuse; to service or refurbish satellites in space: in and to operate orbit. These space laboratories

capabilities

result in a net

2.0

savings in the cost tions while greatly
_11_i_ To u c h d own

of space operaenhancing the of the misuses beyond of the of of The with

t.5

flexibility sions. Among Space life,

and productivity the will multifaceted during extend be a of the of space of satellites,

1.0

Shuttle which

its operational wide range environment platforms. satellites through

D FACTOR .5 (400 _ O00 FT) TO

F ENTRY LANDING INTERFACE

1990's, will applications I
30 35

J
0

I
5

I
10 Time

I
15 from

1
20 entry, min

I
25

space operation

and

applications

can be achieved

propulsion stages, tories,or combinations

space laboraas appropriate

to the specific objectives and requirements. The Shuttle also provides a laboratory capability to do research and to develop techniques and equipment that may evolve into new operational satellites. The Space Shuttle will not be limited to uses that can be forecast today. The reduction in the cost of Earth-orbital operations and the new operational un-

Crewmembers

and

passengers

will

experience

a

designed maximum gravity load of only 3g during launch and less than 1.5g during a typical reentry. These accelerations are about one-third the levels experienced features sea-level space on previous Space atmosphere, manned Shuttle, flights. such Many other of the worker as a standard the nonastronaut

will welcome

of the future.

techniques will enable new and foreseen solutions of problems,

PLACEMENT

AND

RECOVERY

OF

SATELLITES

One important the placement

Space

Shuttle

mission

will be orbit. A

of satellites

in Earth

satellite extends

from the cargo-bay retention structure, it away from the Orbiter, and releases of the satellite will be by by until The Orbiter will stand

satellite launched on a previous mission can be retrieved and returned to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. satellites may be The satellites are loaded into the pilots Upon and As many as five individual delivered on a single mission serviced, checked out, and Orbiter. The crew and mission and reaching payload the specialists

it. The final activation radio command the satellite proceeding To recover dezvous with the satellite place. neuvers, returning be lowered The

is performing satisfactorily before with the remainder of the mission. a satellite, the Orbiter will ren-

will consist of Shuttle payload specialists. orbit, will the mission conduct

with it, maneuver close, and grab it remote manipulator arm. After the is deactivated Orbiter the by radio command, bay and locked perform satellite deorbit and for reuse. will it will into maland, into the cargo enter

desired

predeploy-

merit checks and operations. Alter determining that the satellite is ready, the crew will operate the payload
10

atmosphere,

the expensive

deployment

system,

which

lifts the

PLACEMENT LABORATORIES

OF FREE-FLYING IN SPACE

SCIENTIFIC

The

space

telescope

represents

an

inter-

national facility for on-orbit controlled by the investigating ground. ducted Space Flighl Design studies are

space research scientists on the now being con-

several years later, return the end of its mission.

the facility

to Earth at

The long duration exposure facility (LDEF) is a basic research project being implemented by the NASA Langley is a reusable, structure ments their period on which Research a variety Center. low-cost, to study over The LDEF free-flying experiof long and unmanned,

and sponsored by the NASA Marshall Flight Center and the Goddard Space Center The Space to orbit, the revisits crewmen facility to would Shuttle for the would deliver assist During Space and, and the crewmen operation facilily, service the

of passive a relatively period

lhe telescope _n preparing scheduled Shuttle subsystems,

can be mounted exposure to space

the effects

of time. After an extended

in orbit,

supporting

exchange

scientific

hardware,

the LDEF will be retrieved by an Orbiter returned to Earth for experiment analysis.

DELIVERY THAT USE

OF PAYLOADS

PROPULSION

STAGES

Major activity is forecast for geosynchronous orbits, deep-space missions, elliptical orbits, and higher circular orbits. Payloads with such destinations will require a propulsion stage in addition to the Shuttle Both the satellite and the propulsion stage will be delivered to orbit and deployed as illustrated. Before release, the combined propulsion-stage/satellite system will be checked and readied for launch, and guidance information will be updated. The Orbiter will move a safe distance away before ground control gives radio command signals to fire the propulsion stage engines. The Shuttle payload crew can do both visual and remote monitoring. In the event of a malfunction, the stage and satellite can be retrieved for inspection and possible repair. Should it be determined that repair is beyond the onboard capability, the entire payload (propulsion stage and satellite) would be returned to Earth for refurbishment. Initially, a solid propulsion stage will be adapted for this on-orbit launch. This first desig n, referred to as interim upper stage (IUS), is not reusable but could lead to fully reusable propulsion stages in the future. The Mariner Jupiter Orbiter/IUS will be launched by the Shuttle in the mid-1980's for the purpose of obtaining additional data about the planet Jupiter, its satellites, and the space surrounding it

12

MARINER JUPITER ORBITER SPACECRAFT

An-Flight Configuration

ON-ORBIT

SERVICING

OF SATELLITES

BY THE SPACE

SHUTTLE

The NASA studying

Goddard

Space

Flight

Center

is

will permit

on-orbit

maintenance

and updating with the of the payload and payload servicing

a family

of modular

spacecraft

satel-

of this family

of satellites

Combined

lites to be placed in orbits of various inclinations and altitudes The low-cost standard hardware is expected Among hardware changeout to comprise features, will provide much of each satellite. the design of this by for on-orbit servicing other

large weight and volume capacity Shuttle, this capability provides the designer operating costs Alternative new freedom that in can developing reduce satellites

as well as improve techniques

performance. for on-orbit The approach simulations of modules.

of supporting

subsystem

assem-

blies and applications features, in association equipment
14

sensors. These system with the Shuttle-based operalional techniques,

of satellites are under study. illustrated is based on current prototype hardware

and Shuttle

with replaceable

ORBITAL

SERVICING

AND

CONTINGENCY OF SATELLITES

RETRIEVAL

_

Q

Sun

synchronous orbit e_icing orbit

Q

Launch,

rendezvous,

and

statlonkeep

g

__

Q

Capture

salellite

with

remole

rnanipulalor

Low cost a retention reentry,

refurbishable system and

payloads which

are carried

by

supports This

all boost, type of

landing

loads.

payload, a modular satellite designed for Earth observations, is shown in the cargo bay of the Orbiter. the The retention rotation bay. system pivots away a docking in and out of from the
Q Satellite attached Io positioning platform

ring to allow cargo Orbiter satellite arms module, placement

of the satellite

Deployment

or capture and berthing of a stabilized are accomplished by the manipulator attached to the Orbiter. magazine presents To replace carrying them the at the a rotary rethe

'_

f Module

exchange

[ mechanism

modules

proper time to an exchange mechanism. The exchange mechanism removes the old module from the satellite and stows it temporarily, removes the new module from the magazine and installs it in the satellite, and then stows the old module in the rotary magazine.
_) Sa|ellile servicing_

'_

Retention

cradle

(_)

Deploy

Optian

contingency

relrieval

Deocbit

and

landing

SPACELAB INTERNATIONAL

AND

ORBITERCOOPERATION IN SPACE

EUROPEAN

PRIME

AND CO-CONTRACTORS

SC

EGSE BTM. Belgium

MODULE STRUCTURE AND THERMAL CONTROL t is 0t Aeritalia. Italy Micro, Italy MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, INTEGRATION, AND TESTING ERNONFW-Fokker, Germany

MGSE Sener. Spain INTA, Spain SABCA, Belgium I

._

CIR. Switzerland DMSJEGSE APPLICATION SOFTWARE Kampsax, Matra, France CII, France Denmark /

.• ,e ,'

SEL, Germany

CDMS .

_i_.,,,,,"

,,

SABCA.

.MW Z
' ?._._ _'_'.,.

_,_,_

.....

',,

i

NASA"
ECLS Dornier,

."
Germany

;
; _ e i i i EPDS

,,,.,
OPTICAL SCIENTIFIC WINDOW AIRLOCK

Fokker, Netherlands

t

HSD, United PALLET S AEG-Telefunken, Terma,INTA' Germany Denmark _ Spain

K_ngdom /'""_'

(_5

This is an unprecedented terpnse contribution basic space which represents of the a by the facility European

cooperative most nations one

ento the which

generous

space flight can provide, gravity-free environment, Earth can be viewed

such as a long-term a location from which as an entity,

and examined

1980's,

we can use tn common on either a cooperative or reimbursable basis as circumstances warrant James C Fletcher NASA Administrator

and a place where the celestial sphere can be studied free of atmospheric interference. Several Spacelab system configurations illustrated will be flown. The configuralion a pressurized module can work in a shirt-sleeve includes

where experimenters environment. A tunnel

connects the Orbiter crew compartment with the Spacelab Instruments can be mounted on Spacelab is an international program being Agency module will the be Space labonly a developed by the European Space (ESA). The large pressurized Spacelab with an external payload era. Spacelab experimenter's with the added equipment carrier pallet during frequent Shuttle of the oratories
16

a pallet aft of the pressurized require exposure to the space too bulky to place inside

module vacuum

if they or are in

or for convenience

viewing. The Orbiter may be flown in an inverted attitude to orient the instruments toward Earth for surveys of of Earth resources and and for investigations mental geophysical environ-

will provide qualities

an extension which

ground-based

parameters

Other Spacelab configurations which, in place of a pressurized large pallet on which and station operations numerous from within installed specialist's Pressure-suit practical when Ten member
!

include those module, have a instruments the the are payload Orbiter. bay are

Netherlands, Austria. medical, and

Denmark, applications

Switzerland, investigations

and can

Many types

of scientific,

technological,

controlled

be accomplished with this flight hardware. Each Spacelab is designed to be flown as many as 50 times will provide manned over a 10-year an entirely period. new This system capability for the

in the payload

instrument service is required. nations of the European space to commit almost $500

participation,

which

will increase

community

have agreed

million to design and deliver one flight unit to the United States. Agreements provide for purchase of additional units by the United States. Cooperating France, nations are West Germany, Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom, Belgium,

effectiveness reduce the

of space cost of the

research application

as well as of space for Space w_ll

technology. Some crewmembers lab will be international be provided

and payloads

in ong_n and others

by U S Governmenl

and industry

Space

in Living
EARTHLY BENEFITS TODAY

Everyday

Of what

EARTHLY

benefit

is the space

program?

In the early years of America's space program, men with vision forecast that multiple benefits would someday be derived associated a promise; from the research and Those development benefits activities with this program. they are realities. and flexibility for more and worked than most are no longer

And this is just the beginning. The versatility of the Space Shuttle will open up opportunities longer investigations. Benefits from past their way into daily of people realize. space efforts have

already extent

life, to a far greater Earth. and

We apply life on monitoring and

what we learn in space

to improve

the quality environmental study education, are taken

Advances in medicine, control, meteorology, the communications, peace with the in together and international

of oceans products

Earth These given

resources, benefits

and materials,

for granted. impetus

acknowledged

to our technical

leadership

the world supply overwhelming evidence of value received. Most of these benefits are available to mankind throughout the world and some are in current use in countries other than the United Some However, because increasing. The real extent of Earthly benefits from future space efforts can scarcely be predicted. The space program is an essential element in keeping our nation strong scientifically, technologically, and economically imagery from both the ways and thus it keeps us secure. Photographs and other unmanned Earth. spacecraft specific any the list States. examples is obsolete of as these soon benefits are follow. as it is written, constantly

applications

of technology

manned

and

have changed

we see our

19

Weather
Weather satellite photographs are perhaps 100 000 American lives have been saved of hurricanes as a

the best known applications that affect our daily lives. Since the first weather satellite was launched in 1960, meteorological spacecraft have returned to Earth more information about the atmosphere man first began
20

result of early warnings severe weather

and other

than

had

been

learned

since

to study weather.

An estimated

Mapping

and Charting
photographs much larger than taken areas straight and in the can be photographs Skylab. Boston Harbor taken on of the the East the edge Coast top of through from (with the the

High-altitude down accurately. covered

can help mapmakers Because by spacecraft

work efficiently by aircraft

Massachusetts The mosaic

is at right

photograph).

extends

same amount of time, maps can be changed frequently and accurately. The mosaic shown is part of one that was made from color infrared

New York metropolitan almost to Philadelphia tains extend along

area, New Jersey, and The Appalachian Moun-

the left side.
21

Land Use
Images transmitted from the Landsat satellites are used for a variety of studies, including determining land use patterns, forecasting crop yields, and helping to find land and water resources in hard-to-reach areas. The various spectral bands are sensitive to different colors. the four They can be compared bands otthe same scene to help photointerpreters (for example, combined shown Texas, coverage every to below) area. and Landsat-2 of every combined United in provide States can also block area of the and create This a false-color scene is the image (as

Houston,

Landsat-1 9 days

The data from Landsat displayed

on the page opposite) identify features or

be computerized format

-4-

2:?

Band

4

Band

5

Band

6

Band

7

23

Pollution

The

extent

of water

and

air

pollution

and by

sometimes

their sources

can be established

in the lake; the lighter area north of the bridge is much saltier than the darker area. On the right side of the pholograph body Salt Lake is Lake Utah, a fresh-water the two lakes City lies between in the highlands world's largest

space photography. as fuzziness along near the top railroad bridge of lhe

Water pollution is visible the southern shores of the line across water the lake a photograph represents circulation

Great Salt Lake. The sharp that impedes

The light splotch is the

next to Salt Lake City open-p_t copper mine

24

Water Resources

Water areas, example, along accurate

resources, can be a study prediction

especially monitored of this

in inaccessible from space. For of snow can lead to water will be

available Flagstaff photograph

after the thaw is at and the

to irrigate Desert is visible

the desert of slightly the to is across

bottom Crater

center

photograph

the Painted

the Mogollon

Rim in Arizona of how much

the top, The Meteor the right of the center

of the photograph

25

Geology
Geological graphs tion often graph clearly these possible throughout stand out studies the can be made world. from photoexplorafaults tion, and intensity across the lower of earthquakes. third The dark line is the

such as this to support in space

mineral Geological

of the photograph

imagery.

The photo-

of California just north of Los Angeles defines where three faults meet in a area. If mankind space, can learn to monitor it might become Iocathe time, faults from

San Andreas Fault Angling into the lower right corner and partially hidden by clouds is the San Gabriel Fault The Gadock Fault is the dark area extending up the middle of the photograph. Lake Isabella is in the upper right and the city of Bakersfield where below it. On the right _s being built. is Palmdale, the Orbiter

populated

to accurately

predict

26

Oceanography
Many features of the ocean can be studied more easily from space than any other way The photograph boundary taken from in the Skylab shows Ocean a current south of Atlanti( This trated information because imagery of and in these is important areas. can icebergs to aid using scanner this and be used to to chart the indicate of ships data Skylab would of ocean to safer from charted simplify a to commercial

fishermen Space movement currents areas.

fish are likely to be concen-

Bermuda. Oceanographers able to verify this interaction ocean water pictures provide. Areas plankton, swells patterns that of until only they had in extremely a camera such

had never been of currents and pictures large in space as algae from showing areas could and

routing

A computer multispectral water depths; updating charts.

radiance aboard method

nutrients,

correction

hydrographic

are also

clearly

visible

space.

27

Communications
Because vision of communications satellites, televice has been developed onented are and remote by NASA requirements to private requires scientists These Be no

viewers

all over the world take for granted

because and cause power calions

of s_ace

that they can watch sports and news events as they happen. The communications satellites in stationary orbit transmit educational, governmental, data as well A new light beam a variety of other and commercial de

communications jammln(3 the

_mmune m_crophone

interception

are completely

the syst(;rn offers many possible appli _n industry, at sea. and in air/sea rescue

voice communications

operat_on,_

Health Care r

Many advances from devices astronauts

in health care designed send and

have resulted to data monitor back to

originally in space

Inside systems astronauts

hospqals too. automatic similar to the ones used can collect several

monitoring for Apollo of

channels

Earth. For example, a lightweight batterypowered mobile unit that fits into an ambulance and cians links trained emergency is already medical being techniused by to a physician

physiological and transmit control Spacesuils have insptred a mobile portable station

dala from as many as 64 patients the data in digital for processing form to a central by a computer systems such as and a

some communities; the city of Houston, Texas, has equipped 28 rescue vehicles with these units 28

and portable life-support oth_r medical advances isolation system controlled respirator

biologJoal volume

Materials

and Manufacturing
In industry, new materials have being (including stage can and changed from to covmaterials, improved faoal

manufacturing space-oriented for example, provide better

processes research. are constantly protection

resulted

Fireproof

ering) for firefighters. Still in the experimental of crystals photograph various cated feasible These space of electronic that and in space at left),

is the growing one be in the in used

(such which

as the

applications, devices. this type provide products

including of production data ofthis

the production have indiis in space conditions of the ways lives in after

Experiments on the

under which

kind can be made our daily

are just a few research

examples

is affecting

unexpected ways. And the list lengthens every space venture.

29

ENVIRONMENT

AGRICULTURE

PETROLEUM RESOURCES

MINERAL RESOURCES
EARTHLY Man increase goes PAYOFF into space TOMORROW to explore place the unknown to

our understanding

of the past, present,

and future

of the universe

and humanity's

in it. When the Space

Shuttle becomes operational in 1980, it will be an important tool to provide mankind with irfforrnation to help in managing and preserving system our crowded will ir_clude Earth. Users of the versatile networks, federal Shuttle research
3O

commun_calions observatories,

foundations,

universities,

COMMUNICATIONS

OCEANOGRAPHY

TIMBER

SCIENTIFIC

STUDIES

departments and agencies, state agencies, county planners, public utilities, farm cooperatives, the profession, and power Payloads the fishing generation launched industry, and by the the transportation conservation Shuttle Space will water

and city medical industry,

planners. provide

practical data that will affect both the daily and the long-term future of mankind.

lives of people

/

/ Agriculture

Ser_sor systems

in space

can help

the world solve its food problems. The sensors can identify crops in each field, tell the vigor and probable ),_eld of those crops, and determine. !?ant diseases or insect infestation If is information will help agricJtJo_f specialists predict food a,__i!able on a worldwide total basis.

Petroleum

Resources

Photographs from space explorations aro-_nd the satellites be able

of

the

Earth

taken

have already

supported

of oil and natural gas world. The improved

of the Space Shuttle era wilt to locate new sources of

foss_I luels_

32

Environment

In environmental can send weather

studies, satellites information to the

ground, survey land use patterns, track air pollution and identify its source, monitor air quality, and locate oil slicks• A pollution-mapping satellite can cover the entire United States cameras planes frames in about carried 500 photographs; airin high-altitude

would use about 500 000 to cover the same area• What to monitor by air from space in a

would take years can be monitored few days.

Mineral

Resources

Potentially

large

mineral

deposits

have been identified in many parts of the world as a result of Skylab photographs lites emptaced The advanced satelShuttle more by the Space

are expected to make many valuable mineral discoveries.

I

33

Oceanography

By _T,apping the ocean surface lemper_ture, Earth resources satellites wi!l help oceanographers patterns. This, unin derstand current

turn, will enable fishing experts to predict the movements of schools of fish Ic{ movements in the ocean can also be tracked from space.

Timber

Shult!e-launched help conserve especially cove_ing diseases fires, and in remote by

satellites areas, detecting

can by distree inven-

our forest

resources,

infestations

of pests,

and by providing accurate tories of our timberlands.

34

4 Scientific Studies

Shuttle is capable of taking into Earth orbit completely equipped scientific laboratories manned by scientists and technicians. In the weightless environment of space, researchers can perform many tasks that cannot be accomplished against the gravitational pull of Earth.

!

Communications

Communications satellites have made intercontinental television possible and are reducing the costs of transoceanic telephone calls. The costs will decrease again when the reusable Shuttle takes new and improved satellites into Earth orbit.

3

Space

Shuttle

Vehicle

........

Rudder/speed brake

/ / Payload bay

Orbital

maneuvering propulsion

m (6oft)
.-_" Payload viewing windows \

_ Aft reaction control engines

Crew

cabin

\

Star

tracker

door

'.• ,, ._.

\ •

Forward control

reaction engines

_

"Main • Payload Side Nose landing gear hatch umbilical panel

landing

gear

SPACE

SHUTTLE

ORBITER

The Orbiter payload Orbiter kilograms meters feet). weight weight

spacecraft Space

contains Shuttle with

the crew and system. lengths The to 18 (15 and of 29 500

maneuvering two external units provide change, reaction

subsystem pods thrust for

(OMS)is orbit

contained insertion, to Earth.

in orbit The

for the can deliver (65 000

on the aft fuselage. and and return

These

to orbit pounds)

payloads

rendezvous, control pods

(60 feet) and diameters The orbiter to modern of is comparable transport

of 5 meters in size

subsystem

(RCS) is contained in a module in the

in the two OMS nose section units provide cision velocity rendezvous

aircraft; 68000

it has a dry kilograms

approximately

of the attitude

forward fuselage. These control in space and prefor the final phases or orbit modification. of

(150 000 pounds), a length of 37 meters (122 feet), and a wingspan of 24 meters (78 feet). The crew compartment can accommodate seven crewmembers missions and passengers for some in but will hold as many as 10 persons

changes

and docking

In addition, the RCS, Orbiter aerodynamic vides attitude effect in the providing a speed current control lower,

in conjunction with the control surfaces, produring more reentry dense rs designed (185 knots), aircraft They take atmosphere less to to land at similar

emergency operations The three main propulsion rocket engines used during launch are contained in the aft fuselage. The rocket engine propellant is contained in the external tank (ET), which is jettisoned before initial orbit insertion The orbital

control of 95

of the Orbiter m sec

at speeds

than Mach 5

The Orbiter

high performance

3/

EXTERNAL

TANK
Orbiter all attachment. __-"._"

...;

Propellant leed a_l pressurization lines

Integral

Orbiter forward attachment \

\
Solid rocket booster attachment forward • \

LQ 2 slosh

baffles

_&_%__

°°5
,22.

1
} Interlank

2 tank vent valves

L'_,=

_)2tank

LO

2 ventvalve
and tarring

Length: 47 m (154 ft) D,ameter: 87 m (286 ft) Control weight: 35 000 kg (76 365 Ib) Propellant: 703 000 kg (1 550 000 Ib)

The external the Orbiter

tank contains

the propellants

for (LH2)

main engines:

liquid hydrogen

psia) and t_e oxygen tank 15t 700 N,'m _ (20 to 22 psia). Both tanks skins with are constructed support or

to

137900

to alloy as use The

fuel and liquid oxygen (LO2) oxidizer. All fluid controls and valves (except the vent valves) for operation of the main propulsion system are located in the Orbiter to minimize throwaway costs. Antivortex and slosh baffles are mounted in the oxidizer and to damp tank to minimize fluid motion liquid residuals (three for Five lines

of aluminum stability frames

required. The s,dewalls and end bulkheads the largest avaiiable width of plate stock. skins vide are butt-fusion-welded reliable sealed joints. together The skirt with (SOFI)is and the

to proaluminum

fuel and two for oxidizer) interface between the external tank and the Orbiter. All are insulated except the oxidizer pressurization line Liquid level point sensors loading kilograms control tank contains of usable 703 000 propel(1 550 000 pounds) are used in both tanks for

structure uses skin/stringers frames. Spray.on !gain insutahon to the tank. compiele mclud_n_j outer ;he sidewalls such to these

stabilizing apphed forward to _n struc thermal by

surface ablator

ol the external _s applied causes The

bulkheads tures creased protection by using

Th,s spray-on

At lift-off, the external lant The LH 2 tank volume and the LO2 tank volume These volumes include provision. a range The hydrogen

all proluberances tl_'atr_l the

as attachment areas

becalming shock

,mpingement

is 1523 m 3 (53 800 ft 3) is 552 m 3 (19 500 ft3). a 3-percent ullage tank is pressurized to N./m 2 (32 to 34

symptom (TPS) coverage heat sink approach

is minimized provided

the s_dewal!s and propellants

of 220 600 to 234 400

}8

SOLID

ROCKET

BOOSTERS Nozzleandthrust ector v control

Dimensions Length: 4547 cm (1790 in.)

Four separation otors m 88964 N (200001b)thrusteach .....

" __11_

},
_

Diameter: 371 cm (146 in.)

'_

1
Four separation motors 88964N (20 000,b)thrust ach e _ _/J Aftskirt nd a launchsupport

Drogue chute j

/_ / ..,_¢_._/v

_ _-

f _,}._'-

RBIET attachment ring andswaybraces

¢

a

SRB/ET thrust

' j Nosefairing

"_Separation avionics Operationallight f instrumentation
Recovery avionics

Approximate

Weights and Thrusl (Each)

Gross weight: 583 600 kg (1 286 600 Ib) Inert weight: 81 900 kg (180 500 Ib) Thrust (sea level): 11 800 000 N (2 650 000 Ib)

Forward kirt s

Two solid 2 m_nutes the Orbiter mary forward covery systems 583 600 produces pounds) including

rocket

boosters

(SRB's)

burn system thrust

for of Pri-

with the main to provide of the case,

propulsion

The SRB's are released by pyrotechnic separahon devices at the forward thrust attachment and the aft sway braces Eightseparahon rockets on each SRB (four aft and four forward) separate the SRB from the Orbiter and external tank. (19000 They continue the through then nose SRB a 67 O00-meter at cap 5800 chute meters deploys the the _s deployed (220000-foot) feet) for recovery the drogue SRB. then apogee, initiation

initna/ ascent booster igniter, vector

elements and

are the and control

motor, nozzle: and re sub-

propellant,

aft structures: SRB

separation

avnon_cs: and thrust Each

we,ghs

approximately

kilograms (1 286 600 pounds) and 11 800000 newtons (2 650000 of thrust at sea level. The propellant

The pilot

chute, which, after stabilizing deploys the aft trustrum with

grain is shaped to reduce thrust approximately one third 55 seconds after lift off to prevent overstress_ng maximum control gimbal the vehicle during the period omniaxial 7 ° which, in of dynamic subsystem capability pressure of slightly The thrust over vector

main parachute packs. The three main chutes inflate to a reefed condition at 2700 meters (8800 ters water tisoned recovery inserted dewatering feet) and are fully extended (3400 feet). When the SRB approximately downrange, the tow and 300 kdometers the parachutes pendant at 1000 meimpacts (160 the nauThe

has a maximum

tical miles)

are jet-

conjunction with the Orbiter main engines provides flight control during thp c'ht,ttle boost phase The SRB is attached end of the forward Io the tank at the forward attach

deployed.

ship deploys a nozzle in the SRB to facilitate so that the booster

plug whtch is inflation and will float on the

skirt by a single thrust

ment The pirot, drogue, and ma_n parachute nsers of the recovery subsystem are attached to the same thrust structure

surface horizontally for towing to port for refurbishing and subsequent reuse

;;9

ORBITER

MAIN

PROPULSION

The Orbiter approximately the engines in parallel systems

main propulsion 8 minutes

engines

burn for burn two

For the first 2 minutes. system These motors.

of the main propulsion with the SRB the velocity

provide

increment

neces-

sary to almost achieve the initial mission orbit The final boost into the desired orbit is provided by the orbLtal maneuvering Each of the three main mately produces almost 24 meters (8 feet)in a nominal system engines diameter, is approxiand each thrust of

43 meters (14 feet)long
sea-level

with a nozzle

Disconnect

cover only

door _\

Total Usable Propellant 703 000 kg (1 550 000 Ib)

in air body

LO 2 feedline

- -..,

= LO

pressurizabon

_
! ! ! !

2

! ! / a # Liquid hydrogen pressurization (LH2) _' LH 2 feedline

t L 1 i I LO 2 vent LO 2 tank

LH 2 tank

External tank

1668100newtons (375000 pounds) anda vacuum of2 100 thrust 000newtons 000 (470 pounds) heengines rethrottleable T a overa thrust range f50to109 o percent nominal ofthe thrustevel,so Shuttle l acceleration canbe limited to3g The engines capable of being are
gimbaled boost liquid for flight control during the Orbiter of phase. kilograms (1 1 34 000 pounds) oxygen and 99 800 kilograms (226 000) The 603 300

expended

before

achieving

orbit

and the tank from with the the

falls to the ocean Orbiter. The fluid

after separating lines interface

external tank through disconnects located at the bottom of the Orbiter aft fuselage The hydrogen plate oxygen doors on disconnects the left side openings Ground on both disconnects immediately are mounted of the on the are after sides servicing tank right covered is done on a carrier and by the large from through side These Orbiter

disconnect the Orbiter. umbilicals

separation

pounds) of liquid hydrogen used during ascent are stored in the external tank. The propellant is

of the aft fuselage

Liquid fill/drain

oxygen

(LO

2 ) i

disconnect

30-cm

(12

in.)

feed..,, "_.'_-, • "" Orbiter main "",, _ _ _ engines

20-cm LH 2 fill

(8 and

in) drain

43-cm

(17

in)

feed?

/
Orbiterlowersudace _t __ --,

;
e /

/

/

/ LH 2 LH 2 fill/drain disconnect u q

Orbiler/ET

LH 2 disconnect

External

tank

20-cm LO 2 fill

(8

in} and

Orbiler/ET

LO 2 disconnect

drain

Three Main Engines 2 100 000 N (470 000 Ib) vacuum thrusl each

4 ;

1'_" _'" _

-- !i_!r!! ;l_s,::r:,',r_(,cf bract'e:

"'.//S_::

_

o.. _"i2

\

,.,
; Jel tank ," Vernier

_____./
thruster (2) t

\
i Service well

-._e,,om,a_k
FORWARD RCS MODULE

1 forward 38 main Thrusl Specific MIB 6 vernier Thrust

RCS

module,

2 all

RCS subsystems 12 per aft uo,J) Ib) (vacuum)

_rl pods

thrusters (14 forward, level = 3870 N (870 impulse thrusters level = tll 289 sec (158

= 70.28

N-sec

Ibf-sec) and 2 per aft pod)

(2 forward

N (25 Ib)

Specific impulse = 228 sec MIB - 3.34 N-sec (075 Ibt-sec) Propellants: N204 LJsablepropellanl 1011 kg (2225 (MIB (oxidizer), quantity Ib)forward = minimum impulse b_l) MMH (luel) 2104kg(422__ii)_Wt

_RCS helium tanks /

• RCS propellant manifold valves

RCS

prouel

ar11 larl_s

_

'

_ ii I

/'"

(12

per

all

pod)

.,..,,_,
.,_,_--_,_ f._ .! _"-,_

rA_S;_:_:.;NI,,.. :__
;_. ...... -,P_.,I_., .-

. _ern,er,_ros,ers
{2 per aft pod)

\\

_,,: :_

_"91_.,_., _

lk,

. Ir':i_--'/"

rqCS............... t,on."

_--__

AFT

PROPULSION

POD

42

ORBITER CONTROL

REACTION SUBSYSTEM

The reaction control subsystem (RCSJ has 38 bipropellant primary thrusters and 6 vernier thrusters axis on orbil consists to provide and reentry of three attilude phases conlrol the orbil of fh0ht modules, and Lhree insertion The RCS one tn translation dunng

propulsion

the forward propulsion external orbilaF

fuselage and one _n each of the aft pods All modules are used for separation Only attitude orbit the contro! tetroxide insertion and aft RCS modules

tank

maneuvers

are used for reentry The RCS

propellants

are nitrogen

(N20,,) as the oxidizer and monomethy!hydrazine (MMH) as the fuel The design mixture ratio of 16:1 (oxidizer weight to fuel weight) was set to permit the use of identical propeP lant tanks for both fuel and oxidizer The capacity of each propellant tank in each module is 675 kilograms (1488 pounds)of N20,,and 422 kilograms (930 pounds) of MMH The usable propellant quantity for each location _s 622 k_lograms (1369 pounds) of N20, and 389 kilograms seclion (856 module pounds) and of MMH in the nose (2905 1321 kilograms

pounds) N,O_ and 825 kilogramst in both afl section modules

1815 pounds)

4 3

ORBITAL MANEUVERING SUBSYSTEM
After external tank subsystem orbit separation, (OMS) insertion, rendezvous, tankage for sec) of 29 _s sized the provides orbit and circularideorbit orbital the

maneuvering lhrust zation, The

to perform orbit integral

transfer, OMS capacily

to provide of car-

propellant 305m, ries a

a change when the

in velocity vehicle

sec(1000ft payload

500

kilograms velocity The of

(65000 change 10 852 cakilodelivpods, pod one con-

pounds) pacity_s grams erable on each tains tank a fuel fed a

A porlion used (23 876 during

of this ascent

pounds) is contained

maximum in two Each storage (4) and and

propellant side

of the

aft fuselage helium regulators

high-pressure

bottle: controls:

pressurization tank: an

oxidizer cooled

tank:

a pressure engine of 26 Each 700

regeneratively produces (6000 850 of 313 OMS N

rocket

engine newtons ol861 pulse The

a vacuum pounds) m (125

thrust

al a chamber psia/and

pressure im-

aspecific

seconds and (1) RCS to propellant lines are from on the orbit left interthe and and proin the kit) lines in in

connected OMS (2) right pellant Orbiter terconnect each pod tanks to provide OMSand lines cargo

supply RCS

propellant thruslers between

to the

crossfeed RCS from bay witl" the

systems auxdiary

In addition, OMS tanks

(if carried the OMS

as a mission propellant

_t

-i2
; 4

iii

OMS Engine Characteristtcs Thrust: N(6000 26700 Ib)vacuum Specific impulse: sec 313 Chamber pressure: N,,'m psia) 86t850 2(125 Mixture 1.65:1 ratio: Gimbal capability: 8 yaw { [ 7 pitch

OMSankage T Capacity (lotal-2 podsJ for305 m,,"sec ft,,"sec) Change (1000 Velocdly Fuel (MMH) weighl: 4300g(9475 } usable k Ib) Oxidizer weight:7100g 640 (N204) k (15 Ibi

• t'

OMS

eng_,e

RCS helium tanks

,i

J

OMS

fuel

tank

RCS

ruei

tank

OMS

helium

_ank

45

ORBITER SUBSYSTEM The Orbiter of aluminum insulation midfuselage

STRUCTURE

structure protected

is constructed by reusable structural

primarily surface fuselage, aft fusel• Conventional aluminum structure • Ma×ffnum temperature 450 K (350 ° F) • Protected by reusable surface insulation

The primary module and payload

subassemb-

lies are the crew

and forward bay doors,

age and engine thrust structure, wing, and vertical tail. The crew module is rnacffined aluminum alloy plate with integral st#fening stnngers. module has a side hatch for normal ingress egress, living a hatch deck. into the airlock from from and a halch the airlock The and into

the crew

the payload bay. ture is aluminum frames

The forward fuselage strucalloy sknn stringer panels, The window frames are panCrew module and forward fuselage • Skin/stringer Cabin.floating to the structural

and bulkheads

machined parts attached els and frames The midfuselage structure between it also includes

7

is the primary load-carrying the forward and aft fuselage: structure The frames are conof aluminum panels integral seclion consists stiffeners The upper of and half

the wing carrylhrough

and payload-bay doors structed as a combination with riveted of the or machined center a truss structure

midfuselage

structural

payload bay doors, hinged along the side and split at the topcenterline lhe doors are made of graphite epoxy honeycomb material. The main engnne thrust loads to the midfuselage and external structure. integral tank are carried by the aft is and an infuselage aluminum This structure machined panel

cludes a truss-type internal titanium structure reinforced with boron epoxy. A honeycombbase aluminum rear protects heat shield with insulation the main engine systems. at the

The wing is constructed with corrugated spar web, truss-type ribs, and riveted skin/stringer covers of aluminum alloy The elevons are constructed of aluminum honeycomb. The vertical tail is a two-spar,

multirib,

stiffened-skin box assembly of aluminum alloy. The tail is bolted to the aft fuselage at the two main spars. is divided 4{ The rudder_'speed into upper and lower brake assembly sections.

Aft

fuselage shell

• Skin/stringer • Titanium/boron

thrust structure • Aluminum honeycomb base heat shield h thermal insulation Vertical • Skin/stringer Mid fuselage tail fin covers

• Honeycomb rudder cover • Machined spars • Sheet metal ribs

• Skin/stringer • Honeycomb panels

Wing • Skin/stringer • covers covers

• Web and truss spars Elevon-honeycomb

/load-bay • Two doors • One-piece • Graphite

doors

split al vertical door epoxy honeycomb

4 J*

ORBITER THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM

- LRSL FRS, 'L_ FRS,,, , ', _ /_ .... LRSl

HRSI _

• LRSI

i High-lemperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) Low-temperature reusable surface tnsulation (LRSI)

Reinforced

carbon-carbon

(RCC)

Fle×_ble r_,Jt_:_iie surface , nsLJlarlor, (FRSi Metal or glass

The thermal those materials surface try back these librium 1925 nose 46 temperatures into peak heating rates surface K (3000 and

protection sL,bsystem includes which are Jnslalled on the outer to protect during it from the high launch from and enThe to equifrom on the and tail orbit. exposure when points generated the

down faces

to about,g( surfa{;e

K(600 i_sLJlation window thermal heating

F) on leeward of two (RSI) with panes, seals to types

surof

The 1PS is composed strL_(:ture Ihe_mal felt, a_xJ coupled

of the vehicle

reusable insulation, Nomex against

tiles, a high internal coated protect

temperature

atmospr_e_e during

rates and the longest occur entry temperatures F) at stagnation edges

aerodyr_amFc

may range

The RSI tiles cove_lng olcoatedsiiicafiber differ

the Orbiter

are made of RSItiles protec-

The two types

leading

of the wing

only in SL_rf_ _ coating

to provide

ORBITER CONFIGURATION 102
Insulation FRSI LRSI HRSI RCC MJsc _ Area. 3042 281 4754 37 9 7 m(3 (3 (5 (ft') 275) 032) 117) (409) Weight. 357 845 3812 1371 643 (1 (8 (3 (1 kg (Ib)

(788) 862} 403) O23) 418)

Total alncludes bulk

10992 insulatron

(11

833) barriers

7028 and

(15

494} closeouts

thermal

LRSI

°-RCC,, ,_

HRSI

HRSI

FRSI '_'_

_

. FRSI

FRSI.

\

',._,

Upper surface

LRSI

RCC

"

tion for different temperature consists tiles and

temperature surface

regimes. insulation

The low(LRSI) silica where F).

ture (RCC)

structure is used

of with

reinforced _nternal leading

carbon-carbon insulation edges lor the tern where

reusable covers

of 20-centimeler the lop

(8 inch) square of the vehicle 925 K (1200

nose cap and wing peratures Flexible consisting upper

temperatures

are less than

are greater than reusable surface of coaled door, Nomex lower

1500 K (2300 F) _nsulation (FRSI) felt is used on the aft fuselage temperatures s_des are

The high-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) is 15-centimeter (6-inch) square sil _ca tiles and covers the bottom and some leading edges are below of the Orbiter where temperatures 1500 K (2300 F). A hngh-tempera-

cargo-bay

and upper afl wing where less than 645 K (700 F)

PAYLOAD
The Orbiter handte variety various

ACCOMMODATIONS
systems are being and designed to support _rovide payload scientist can be to a and servicing, inspection deployment, complete repair, payloads retrieval or

payloads functions

tasks, or the crew can use a manipor selected by the and into and

of payload

The payload

mission stations on lhe flighl deck command and control facilities for operations (the user) employed Spacelab mand work required by the cognizant techniques Remote-control

ulator to handle packages. television operator cargo display

The manipulalor to lransfer

arm. complemented system, allows experiment packages

the payload

from the ground when desirable. The payload provides additional comcapability be able plus a into bay for the payload to go for Orbiter or payload

in and out of the Orbiter camed

bay, to place

orbit spacecraft

up by the Shuttle,

and data management area in the payload The crew environment will

to inspect retrieved orbital spacecraft The syslem can also aid in inspection of critical areas on the vehicle shield exterior, such as the heat

specialists the space

PAYLOAD/ORBITER

INTERFACES

OMS/storable payload

propulsive oxidizer panel i / ! _ OMSlstorable paylOad propulsive fuel panel Remote manipulator system

k_,

\\', ....
', i t Cry°g enic payload _'_'\ X_ i

_ i #

Payload ! i

retention

1',, _.

i
I

Payload relaunch p
semmce panel /_

II

a L,
t

foe, pane,s.'.._\

\_,\

:

I

,
I

,

II

//

-

//

_._.-'I
.-'"

I_l'l

a _iJ! l /

-L_-T'L_II==,..__='=_I(_='.-.'::_'"
" .,;-"

_

,, ,, , 1,
,
i1' I I_

_1>-_.///I _'--...1_"_\ -",'_/._.! _/Ji _ /;,"_
,
I II

,
Payload powe_ panel

,
/

;_

i_ Cryogenic payload oxidizer panels

,,
/ Electrical interface ground support flight feedthrough panels, equipment, k=t Forward bulkhead Air revitalization utilities

:"E

PAYLOAD

DEPLOYMENT/RETRIEVAL

MECHANISM

End

eftector

\

Wrist and

pitch,

yaw

roll actuators

pitch acluator Ma_nlDu_ator "" Latch jettison retention latch (3 places) (3 places)

subsyslem

_--/i

..... Shoulder

Shoulder yaw

pitch actuator subsystem

actuator

/K/
Manipulator _''_ Manipulator mm jettison

positioning (679.5 in.)

mechanism

X 0 17 2593

PAYLOAD

HANDLING--INTERNATIONAL

COOPERATION

The deployment accomplished remote _nvolves manipulator

and reirieval the system.

of payloads general Payload

are

on either the left or righ( Iongeron. can be installed payloads ulators. Each arid arm controlled handling has requ_nng

A second separately two

arm for

by using

purpose retrieval of rendez-

with

manipand side

the combined

operations

remotely

controlled

vous, stationkeeping, and control. One manipulator equipment on the Orbiter

manipulator arm arm is standard

television and li#!ht>; 1o provide side viewing depth percept_or" L_ghts on booms and walls prowde appr,,)pr_ate illumination

and may be mounted

levels for

any that ust eperformed task m b inthepayload bay. Theremote manipulator system being is funded, designed, developed, andmanufactured byaCanadian industrial under team the overalldirection the National of Research Council ofCanada.

CREW

CABIN

AND

CREW

ACCOMMODATIONS

The working partment contains
Missbon station

Orbiter and three the

cabin living levels displays

is designed area. volume, The upper the Orbiter,

as a combination crew comft3), and to pilot, Shuttle

The pressurized section,

has a large

71.5 m 3 (2525 used

or flight deck,

contains /
Pilot slation "4 _/_"_

a,,_d controls

monitor,

and control

the integrated

vehicle, and the mission payloads. Seating for as many as four crewmembers can be provided. The midsection contains passenger seating, the living area, an aidock, and avionics equipment compartments. An aft hatch in the airlock provides access to the cargo bay The lower section contains the environmental control equipment
/

and is readily able floor Flight deck

accessibie displays areas: for vehicle for payload

from above and controls

through

removinto

panels are organized (1) two forward-facing and primary for and

Commander

station Docking payload handling stations and

four functional
J

flight

stations one

operations, handling station

(2) two aft-facing the other

Payload

slation

stations, docking,

(3) a payload

for management

FLIGHT SECTION

checkout of active payloads, for Orbiter subsystem/payload communications area. The forward ganized in the seat control lacing usual

and (4) a mission station interface, power, and flight deck are orwith crew-

in the remaining primary flight

stations relationship, by one

Rescue

seats

(3,_ IL_,. Stowage

pilot-copilot

duplicated from either member include rudder station. nearest

controls in an rotation

treat permit the vehicle or returned to Earth

to be piloted

AvionqcSi i

j

__ _'1 Avionics

Fi-ko'
, Stowage' s" I • Galley' /" oj _ ,,/ i, ii, J ii/ - I f Ira ii/ t tt¢ i, # seats (3)" r Prirrlary interdeck access _

emergency Manual flight controls arid translation hand controllers, and speed brake controllers the aft-facing at each station

pedals,

The payload and controls and capture system
_._. Hygiene

handling required payloads

station, station,

to the payload

contains

those displays

to manipulate, deploy, release, The person at this station can bay doors; operate, deploy and the coolant stow the

open and close payload radiators;

deploy,

manipulator arms: and operate the lights and television cameras mounted in 1he payload bay. Two closedSide halch

circuit payload

television

mondors

display

video

from

the

Passenger

bay television

cameras docking mission

for monitoring station, station,

payload

manipulation The rendezvous and station nearest to the the aft-facing contains the

MIDSECTION

displays and controls required to execute Orbiter attitude/translation maneuvers for terminal-phase rendezvous and docking Located at this station are rendezvous crosspointer radar controls for d_splaying and displays (including a pitch and roll angles and

55

rates), flight direction The

rotation control

and mode

translation switches,

hand and

controllers, an attitude

fhghl diate

critical access

and

that

do

not

require

imme-

indicator payload station station, foot) just afl and lo the lett of

A total meters crew inloose mately Loose are not

volurne r-ub,c

of

approximately will be

42 provided and which the

cubic in the payload

(150

feet) for stowage, wdl mc/udes

lhe commanders meter (21 5 square

includes surface unique

a 2-squarearea for

compartment equipment 95 percent

Orbiter of be on those

approximid deck. which The unique Any the exOr-

slalh ng dLsplays payload keyboard with essing terfaces monitor,ng, cooling mg heat The oflhe controls interfaces critica[ caution al this can

and controls

to a specilic displayand

Acathoderaylube(CRT) may be added lhe for

equipment permanently of

items cabin

communication data electrical payload power, Forced-air requirprocin-

mounted Io

in the payload

payloads subsystem are

through

Orbiter

allocation loose cess biter

copdamers _s rn,ssnon capactty may

Standardized provtded for and for

equipment stowage

dependent above for

available be utilized

command be provided

control. equipment

requiremerd,_; loose

stowage

of payload The

equipment. containers will rnid provided to the for the

removal rnission station just contains to rnanage afl and to the right and

standard equipment qn lhe supporling are ol atlached 320

loose

be attached deck stowage

Orbiter The conca(20 kilocubic

pilot'sstalion required and to the and station

the @splays Orbuter'payload thai

structure Orbiler

areas. the rated meter of 480 per

structure has an per with (30

1o which average cubic

payload of the delecl

subsystems Orbiter can alert payload

are

tainers pacity pounds

safely warnmg to

An auxiliary be the provided crew systems. command, or demanto

,<iloglams foot) meter

display and _n the

per per

cut)ic cubic

a rating pounds

grams foot) The can be

crqtical This

malfunchons is equipped communicate

for each size ol

attach packages through area

point. and the equipment side hatch by as which into the

station and

to monitor, with provides

control, tached agement and

attached for the

moved mid-deck deck

payloads. of on

It also orbit

central of mid

is limited as well

placement the openmg

housekeeping lunchons

functions that are not

slructures side hatch.

of Orbiter

subsystem

size

of the

GALLEY

DETAILS

Contingency

food-

.._

"'''''--"_

Trash

...........

__.

i

.......

Beverage

and

........

i

- -I-

-t

'

'

I I _':""

....

" ....

.-"

Trays

I ->ii :-ii
Jlo ©1I
Water dispenser.." ........ "'''" -.I_3114 I F-----_ Condiments

I II

..........

Personal

wipes

--'-4/)___

-r-i=T]-r-lE.]'-.I:

.... "- Ga,,_y.,p.s

._L I I
nohydratables _ !-I

'_

_

Drinking

cups

• Preparat.o_n

device

Ii
117

1,

.....

'--

-

- J'J "" I

""""""

- - Water

storage

crn (46

in )

.*'-[

_7

EXTRAVEHICULAR

ACTIVITIES

A versatile vided units

extravehicular and

capability aids,

is promobility such as

• Operation bly tools,

of equipment, cameras, and

including cleaning

assemdevices storage of

by an airlock, (spacesuits). A variety

two extravehicular mobility

handrails.

of tasks can be performed

• Connection disconnection, and fluid and electrical umbilicals • Repair, replacement calibration,

during extravehicular activity (EVA) to support either the Orbiter or its payloads. Typical tasks are as follows. • Inspection, manual systems, • Installation, cassettes, covers, photography, override of vehicle and and mechanisms, removal, material and and possible payload

repositionequipment. on the

ing, and inspection of modular antennas, and instrumentation spacecraft or payload

components transfer of film

The airtock can be located inside the Orbiter middle bulkhead1 head, outside the of cabin

in several deck on on the adapter

places: the aft aft bulkwhich

samples,

protective

and instrumentation

or on top

a tunnel

POSSIBLE

AIRLOCK

ARRANGEMENTS

EVA

EVA

Common

airlock

EVA

EVA

___ A ilrtoc_.

_

_''_

Docking EOvAti _ u_lemodule._ ___ s""

Tunnel

adapter

j

58

connects with the

the

Spacelab cabin. docking hatches through

pressurized When module are serves located

module docking is as the to allow of

Life support

expendables

are carried

for two or

Orbiter

ptanned, the EVA airlock. The airlock passage

6-hour payload EVA's emergency EVA. Restraints consist for of the Skylab

and one contingency EVA will may

planned

normally often be

foot restraint. no impact to available for moving

Unplanned

straight

to facilitate

transfer

EVA in support

of a payload

equipment. The hatches are D-shaped. The flat side of the D makes the minimum clearance 91 centimeters the airlock is 211 volume package (36 inches). The inside inches) diameter long. (18by of This a 18 is 160 centimeters (83 (63 inches) and it

accomplished with because attachment often aids provide are provided

to a payload, structures will Translation about in the

sufficient

restraint.

centimeters allows

two EVA crewmen through the airlock.

to transport

payload bay. Handrails extend from the airlock hatch, down the hinge line of the door, and into the payload bay, are located and at intermediate points if required, at the aft bulkhead.

45 by 45 by 127centimeters

by 50 inches)

.%9

MIDFUSELAGE

STRUCTURE

,,Upper Door longeron _ #t

wing

carrythrough

Side Electric wiring fray envelope

skins

/ /

Payload

door

hinge

stabilizer

(3)

Sill

Iongeron t

Main

frames

(12)

,,
Stub frames (13)

_Main _ trunnion

landing support

gear structure

Door

hinge

fitting

(13)

• t

IM

• integrally

stiffened

skins

,,
Wing attachmenf interface

/ i Bottom skins Frame stabilizers

Glove

fairing

PAYLOAD Numerous and bottom bay provide accommodated along the sides loads. loads.

ATTACHMENTS attachment of ,he places points along the sides payload to be points lateral

18-meter

(60 foot) attachment

for the many payloads longitudinal design payload

All primary accept along includes

and vertical standard capabildistribu-

All positions The proposed fitting to soecific

the keel take of the weight adjustment

attachment ity to adapt tions
6O

in the bay

PAYLOAD UTILIZATION BAY

® _® ® ®

®®8 ®

@® @

® ®

®

®
28973

30251 (1249) (1191) I_,""'_

3_;'2s<_3o_t I

33198

21920 (919T_--_
(2)
17{02

./1_,\
I, I _'_ f//
I _\

]\\
_999_, __

1
_'

19 mo (roT)
(750) I

_
_"

.f-_M-"f_

I\\
I \\

I \\
I \\

.... 7_.._2.m

x°Sla"°nSmr, (_

,5,

(890; __

_:__

_

"_'_

"-.

\

@_.

®

Airlock (_

module

Spacelab Earth observations Interim upper stage satellite

@

Space telescope Long-duration exposure facilily

Orbital maneuvering Docking module

system kil

dl

POWER

SYSTEMS

The electrical hydraulic by three

Orbiter power power

has

one

system system power

to

supply

and another E/ectrica]

to supply stored

is generated Each fuel ceil independent and average are only two ORBITER ELECTRICAL SUBSYSTEM to Payi_;o_C SuDpotl Fuel cell power plant (FCP) 3 • .:bkW minl 7-kW continuous • 12 kW peak/FCP, 15-mln dural_on once every 3 hr POWER

fuel cells thal use cryogenically

hydrogen and oxygen reactants. Js connected to one of three electrical power used; buses During peak power loads, during all three min_murn buses

luel (:ells and buses loads,

luel cells are used but they are interconnected to lhe three on standby, The third fuel cell is ptaced inslantly but cars be recorsnecled

support higher loads Alternately, the third fuel cell is shut down under the condqion of a 278 K (40 ° F) mlnlnlum temperature environment and can be reconnected within 15 minutes 1o support cells through derived pumps, higher loads Excess heat from the rue/ cooling loop power is hydraulic hydrazineis transferred to the Freon

heat exch_.tngers Hydraulic from Ihree independent each dnven by _ts own

fueled auxiliary its own water hydraulic actuate body flap, fluid the

power unit (APU) and cooled by boiler The three independent syslems eleven.s, pr@wde gimbal the power and to rLJcJder/speed brakes. control

_CP .-:u!)systern • 1,1RW conhntJous_24 kW peak o:},7 !} :o 325 V dc • 19P,0 kWh missiorl el_ergy • P64 kwh abort/surwval energy • 42 kg t92 Ib) hydrogen,'Cank • 3,54 kg (781 liD) _Jx'/ge_l/tank Ais;o
_ Lcltlde(J

maHq engine

systems, landing gear brakes, and steering While on orbit, the hydraulic fluid is kept warm by heat from The payload the the Freon loop power launch-lo requirements a mission phase orbit and of During Ihe a electncal

total luaded quantity

will vary throughout to landing hardware

t0-minute

30-minute deorbil of the experqmenl

phase when most is in a standby walls from operaas to 50

mode or corr_ptetefy turned off, 1000 average to 1500 watts; peak are available the Orbiter t_on on orbit, much as During 7000 payload equipment exfsts the capabrlity watls

• _il k!_ (112 Ib) oxygen lot environrT]ental control and hf(; sut}port system

Io provide average payload,

maximum

12 000 watts peak for major energy-consuming payloads For the el 7-day-mission electncal energy kilowatt-hours are avail-

able. Mission kits containing consumables for 840 kilowatbhours each are available in quantities space Apollo required flight according evolved Io the llight during the plan and The operational Programs use ol luel cells The Space for manned Gemini fuel cells

Shuttle

will be serwced between flights and rellown until each one has accumulaled 5000 hours el online service

j F I lel Product valve water module e J

cell

pow{;rJerlvli'onmenlal an[] heal life support

control system

exchanger

Wator

ver/t

¢ i

I i

i i i 1

i i i i t i

i

i

i I

t

_

t

s e Main bus dlstnbulion lypical (3 ptaces) assernbhes,

• •

! t

• •

Fuel

cell

power

plants

(3)

AUXILIARY

POWER

UNIT

SUBSYSTEM

I
// , ,i_ : . I /s 1 and 2)

APU

&FiLl {;hr{:_eir_dependenl syslems) • !@0 kW (135 hp),,APU • Monol}ropellant: hydrazine (NmH4)

• Hydraulic pump • 0 24 ms,,min (63 gahmin) • 20 700 kN'm 2 (3000 psi)

i,4

ORBITER

PROPULSION

AND

POWER

SUBSYSTEM

Electncal
• Triroo 7 hW fuel _:eil_

Power
Ih/ Jrorjer" o_geq)

I b:tr} k'_dh 27

er er!J/

5 !o :72 5 V _:c

/

i

PAYLOAD

POWER

INTERFACE

CHARACTERISTICS

Mission Inlerface phase range Ground (ground operahon power) Dedicated cell fuel ,_.695 24 27 to 32 to 32 Average 1 7 Peak 1 f:, 12 Normal Orbiter checkout powered down X0 stahon Vollage Power,kW Commenls

ATCS

a payload

heat

rejection configurahon kJ/hr (Blu/hr) Lqm_ted (5200 or tO 5486 Btu/hr) kd:hr with

connector

without

radiator payload connec-

Main

bus

connector

_695

24

to 32

1 5

1 f, 8

Normal Orbiter

checkoul powered down

k_t unless has GSE

Aft

(bus

B)

1307

24

Io

32

1 5

2

May

be

used

tion Ior cooling or Orbiter is powered down

simultaneously Afl (bus C) 1307 24 to 32 1 5 2

Ascenl,descer,

t

Dedicaled cell

fuel connector

_

695

27

to

32

1

1 5

Power total and 2 rain

hmlled of ] kW

1o a average peak for

5486 with

(5200) or wdhout _1

1 5 kW

radiator

Main

bus

connector

_,_-, 95 6

27

Io 32

1

1 5

All

(bus

B}

1307

24

to

32

1

1 5

Aft

(bus

C)

1307

24

to

32

1

1 5

On

orbll

payload

Dedicated cell

fuel conneclor

_695

27

mqn

7 6

12 TBD:

Peak

power once

hmlled every

to

31 22

100 700 (no

(29500} (21 kd) 500)

(kit)

operahons

Max TBD h

15 rain 3 hr

Main

bus

conneclor

_,_.695

27

Io 32

5

8

All

(bus

B}

1307

24

to 32

t 5

2

Power Iron

may DoIh

be

ullhzed

22

700 (21

or 500

31 or

100 29 500)

inlerfaces buses or/ of

Aft

(bus

C)

1307

24

to

32

I 5

2

simultaneously must the the be ,solaled s_de

payload interlace

aActive _To be

thermal determined

control

subsystem

65

ENVIRONMENTAL Cooling the Space provides services Shuttle

CONTROL are provided Ground to payloads equipment range durby is controlled associated maintained by the cabin equipment partial heat exchanger The temperature and is

support

a selectable

lemperature

betv, een 289 and

305 K (61 ° and of 22 065 + and of is

ing prelaunch activities. After the Orbiter lands, ground support equipment similar to airline support hardware is (:onnected to the cabin levels. and payload bay to control temperature

90 ° F) An oxygen 1725 N,r'n 2 (32 nitrogen 101 355 N,m 2

pressure

- 0 25 psia) is maintained, a total pressure The oxygen (14.7 psi).

is ac ded to achieve

The payload bay is purged with conditioned air atthe launch pad until 80 minutes before the start of propellant loading: then dry nitrogen gas is supplied until lift-off The payload bay is vented during lhe launch and entry phases and is unpressurized mission payload aLlow a bay and during the orbital difference structure phase of the between and thus the to an The pressure lightweight

supplied from trle same cryogenic supply the lue cells. Nitrogen operation and emergency from 20 700-kN r_n :_(3000 mounted sphere cooling through and part of heat the by

tanks that for normal

oxygen is supplied psi) pressure vessels The cabin avionic air that atmoequipment is ducted of

in the midfuselage is controlled the cabin system be,, doors

outside

a_r _s minimized

exchanger. located on the inside is the primary on-orbit

The radialnr the payload

economical design for !he payload bay The cabin atmosphere (temperature, sure, humidity, carbon dioxide

pres-

level, and odor)

heat rejection system A water loop transports the excess heat from the cabin heat exchanger

ORBITER

PURGE

AND VENT

SYSTEM
d_sconnect

(T_

//_

,oht -Oi
I /

I/i
_ I"

.(!)

PURGE DUCT SYSTEM e Consists of three separate/dedicated
QForward fuselage, verticalstabilizer Q Q Midfuselage Aft lusetage (payload (dedicaled) and lower equ,pment bays) .,-..._ _ forward .CS, OMS pods,

(_systems
wing, Q"'_ _ _'_ii_ .f _---J'fl _",

...... _,.._..,_ ('f ''_.
\ /

J
......

",'_a'_f _.,:....... k,.."d_ T,,__
.'_/_'_'_______'__

-- '/"'''" "

....

Q

I _",'_, ---_

,,

• Mofureooo,rot s
• Hazardous-gas dilution

Thermal

cond,

bonmg

/_-_'_-_______...,]!_"."_

i
_

",

_'_\_---

:'k
/_ thermal

--

(internal)

conlrol

Pre,aur

L:_ i';_ I :,De'

®

tt.(,rl%

s ecia, for e ,,e,s
",fanslers OP¢ OPF Postlanding and rur_way _o OPF _

VAB :' 1o

Frame bner • • t Temperature _1 1K _ange [t2_'F)
r

Nof,cn/oger_lg

,:_:r (jer,lc _

VAB to pad to VAB

/

Gas

!ype

AIrGN

'

CIN : 280

Air to 311 :,, 1 [){ll 291

Air re 303

14:.:.:

_:lf:l

_,_

!1;

4_

1{:5 10 851

FIo_

rate

_,g r,lm 4!) ( 1i:)<}1 1' i ]_4:1 L_0{111/ 50{1!11

[Ib re,q) Sp=gots (fl :,sed

SDgoIs Splgols Manifold

ope_7 57 (126) 50 l!1(I] :)7 2141 43 (94) !57 ;126) 43 (94)

Tolal

sp,gots

open

1 _81260: '7 235i?' 51

1t;_ i364) _-, q4_) i 1@:

100 (220] 13 788 (2 0)

100 (220) 13 788 (2 0_

Lower

mldfuselage

vent

Supply N,m;' a OPF VAB c Initiate

pressure (pslg} = Orbiter Processing = Vehicle Assembly gaseous nitrogen Facility Building (GN 2) purge 80 min before cryogenic tanking to inerl payload bay

VENT SYSTEM

66

and remaining plates)

avionic

equipment cooling

(through

cold

ATMOSPHERIC

REVITALIZATION

to the Freon

loop by way of the Freon cooling with heat from plates of the Functions
• Carbon cab,rl ql Cat)rn • Cabin • Cabin pressure almosphere and aft secbon d_oxlde

SUBSYSTEM

cabin heat interchanger. The loop delivers this heat, together the fuel cells, aft avionic (1220 square payloads, foot) and cold equipment,

otter

arlJ

waee_

vap_3r

centre

irl pressurized

to the 113-square-meter (effective area) baseline

qqa_n_eF, ance therr"ial

and control

coqlro

a,. OqlCS

lherrrial

control pay earls (when requ red)

radiators, where the heat is radiated into space. The water flash evaporator is used to supplement radiator payloads the radiator with cooling loads capacity. Extra panels can be added high heat to accommodate

• Atmospheric • Oxygen • Oxygerl ani outlets

rev,tal,zalaon coohr/,@ water

for habtable irl SL;pport the Cabl,/

Ot EVA for emergency {)re,3PiJl g

ttlroughoul

Design performance
• Mlss_ot: Nom_rlal Extravehtcular Conbngencles rnabntaln "Personnel pressHre (crew and 42 "nat/ days

requnrements

During the ascent and descent (down to an altitude of 30 500 meters (100 000 feet), when the cargo bay doors are closed and the by radiators are ineffective), cooling is provided

acb'vay 16 rran w_th

3 two da_,s cab

mar] or

pen_)ds 1 (:al)l,, re{_reSSl;rzator/ ,:J

r/ leak

passengers) operahon 3 Io 7 6 lo 10! 10 354 N m: 22 T_dro{jer] 114 065 7 ;;"s,al N m 2 (3 2 psla) o._ig@' 3 1o 10

the flash evaporator.

From the altitude

of 30 500

Des_gr_ Cabin ,,_ Normal I Cabin Rescue

meters (100 000 feet) to landing and connection with the ground support equipment, the ammonia boiler provides the required cooling.

pressure

A1r'nospher_c 79 980 Nm*'

composhon ( ; 1 6 {_sla)

ORBITER

ENVIRONMENTAL

CONTROL

Conlrole

and

displays

...

__ Air and cold-plate cooled awonics: ......

Optional

payload

radiators

I _

Hydraulic

healers

t

....
,_._ .....
sec ,on , ;'I , ; r----iL----

Base,ne radiators J

J_
/
I I I I rl,

/

'

/

t
II

Deployed

radiator

"tt-

'.__,

"-i , _ I r I I1._ _ _..'-1

",

,

, I II__lE._..--I

"

..

_/

_,,r-lr-q,_lllf-7;,;,If'_!!i,I

_L-----,'I_I'II

14,._
I_ "_,*" _ Y heat ............. exchangers ......

'
$'1-;r,q--,'

......
Ill I I _- /-----J

i
_i Cabin heal interchanger "" High-pressure

.-"

S_

"'" I I ;I, L'-JIL

I,

J "'

,,,,

, FI I I I

I-- J '

' ' '

''

-------_-_--'

_I F-J
I I

II

'

''''

_----.---.--J

_II
I I

' i_/_/...., I

,' .;l_.'
/ / ,'

'

!," !
I

I_,;,'I,

gas

tanks

]_/

,,.,

......

-J

\
//,1 l'

,1 ,'

(4 n,trogen FLIGHT Prelaunch Launch On Enlry Postlanding orbit PHASE Selectable 1 8 kW 6 3 kW PAYLOAD range lhermai thermal Ihermal supphed from ground 8 5 kW COOLING using ground

and

1 oxygen) SUPPORT support

"'

\,,,,,:,' I. I -,,.' ,,
I;'_,,',,,,,,,,,,,,,_ t

equrpment

/
cooled boiler avionics and tanks (2)

thermal

w,th

rn_ss_on

k,t

//; '_ Cold-plate • Ammoma

1 8 kW Coohng

supporf

e(lu_pmer_l

• Water • Ground heat

flash evaporator supped equipment exchanger

{ i ,7

ORBITER

SUBSYSTEM

SUMMARY

ST[_[N [DRS

Si_a,_-

lrssl_:_' I, 3 _T',I 3,¸:4 I,ll,il

_:_t_t _!!_l_'_/;r_ _I_, ¸ _l'_!il_! * Fwe digital

lr4c-1'7_:)

Data Processing
computers dedicated reconfigurable and One performance to G&N (G&N or payload Three One

monitoring) and

dedicated performance

to payload monitoring

Mass

memory and CRT displays

Communication
• • • • • • • i • • • SGLS-compatible STDN/TDRS Payload Tacan Radar compatible S-band inlerrogator altimeter and

and Tracking
transceiver (S-band) transceiver

Keyboards

(S-band)

interrogator

microwave

scab

beam

landing

system

Rendezvous Black Audio Signal Doppler and

radarlKu-band while and color

communications television

c6_ter processors extraclor activity UHF transceiver

Extravehicular

Guidance,
• • • • • Star

Navigation,
sensors measuremenl Inertial

and Control
units

Rate gyros Accelerometers Air data sensors

Operational
• • * PCM data Recorders Maste_

Flight Instrumentation
acquisition and distribution • •

Displays and Controls
Two primary flight stations station Payload Mission Paylced Subsystem power handling station station management distribution and panels

timir',g

unit

• • '*

AVIONICS
The Shuttle awon_cs subsystem provides all electrical an(s electronic equipment is installed i,_ three_ areas ol the Orbiter: the flight deck. the 1orwa_d ;t_,_or-_c equipment the aft awon_c (_ob pment The Orbiter in-llight and groJ_,d hazardous s(r_,_,r-,g control except is t,_<,,..it_{_ do(:kir_:_ bays ol t)oth except during vehicle flight phases are options bays. and

commands: and control: displays and

guidance and navigation (G&N) communications: computations: controls: ir_strumentation; and

electrical power dislribuhon and control for the Orbiter the external tar_k, and the SRB The awontcs checkout, equipment is arranged to facilitate access, and replacsement with mind_o olher subsystems. Almosl

11_1 t _Jeck is lhe cenler activities Automatic for all

mission

mat disturbance

r;_a,/_Jal conlrol

availabPe atalltimes. Side-stick rotation controllers,rudder edals, ndtrimcontrols llow p a a manual control,and a computer rovides p commands forautomatic flightcontrol tothe aerosurfaces propulsive or elementss rea quired. Attilude information isobtained the from inerlial measuring Airdata unit. areprovided by redundant probes eployed lower d al altitudes Gimbaled inertial measuring provide units the

navigation re[erence ith starsensors w for autonomous alinement andstatevector update. uringctive D a rendezvous, a rendezvous radaris usedto obtain range and bearing
information. is by frequency tion (PCM) Orbiter-to-ground modulation modes and pulse communication in both code modularadiofrequency Iransmpssion

COMMUNICATIONS, AND DATA
The flexibility payload to

TRACKING,

MANAGEMENT
communications, baseline accommodate changes will most be tracking, has payloads required and so only data that infre-

management between-flight

configuration

sufficient

quently for special missions. Voice, television, and data-handling capabilities support onboard control or remote on-orbit control from the ground facility when desirable system must The be and ground handling

very efficient to support The communications Orbiter supports as well as the transfer commands, networks The furnishes support data processing and voice

the many payloads to be flown and tracking subsystem in the communicalions telemetry, uplink data of payload signals and digital

Orbiter-to-payload

to and from lhe space software and handling subsystem required to Functions

the onboard payload

computation

management

in the computer are controlled by the crew through main memory loads from the tape memory Flight deck stations equbpped monitoring operations supplied for payload by the management crew and and handling are fur whth data displays, on a flight-by-flight as part of the payload CRT's, and keyboards for controlling basis using

payload equipmer_t

//i

ORBITAL

COMMUNICATIONS

AND TRACKING

LINKS

Tracking

and

data

relay

satellite

(TDRS)

,,,

Telemelry

(TLM),

voice

Detached

payloacJ

t
• Transmit: Commands and • • Receive: Radar TLM tracking or digital TLM voice voice S-band commands and digital Ku band _,

,q

"_ One-way

Doppler

extracbon

S-band • • PM PM uptink downlink (32 kbps) (96 kb.ps Ku-band • • • S-band + 192 kbps) / PM PM FM uplink downl_nk downlink (72 kbps (< ( < + 1 Mbps) + + < < 50 Mbps)

2 Mbps 2 Mbps

4 2 MHz

S-BAND • Phase modulation (PM) uplink (72 kbps) voice (2 x 32 kbps), commands 6,4 kbps (2 kbps information encoded), and 1.6 kbps synchronized interleaved • PM downtink (192 kbps) voice (2 x 32 kbps) and 128 kbps Orbiter PCM TLM with interleaved frequency payload data (64 kbps maximum) • Frequency modulation (FM) downlink time-shared, wide-band payload data (analog or digital), television, dump recorded data, to 4.0 MHz or 5.0 Mbps \
_._ I way Doppler exlracbon --''_

i i TDRS ground stahon

'_Space

_racklng (STDN)

and ground

dala

network

sta1_on

Orbiter pointing bias
Orbitertolal pointing capability ± 05 °

/
Orbiler stability poinbng capabfl_ly

Payload pointing

sensor accuracy

approaching +_ 01 degiaxis

+- 0 1 deg_axis

+

1 arc-sec

stability

_'Orbuler line-of-snghl vector

Payload

sensor

slaved vector _ ""

..-

line-of-sight

\ \
Closed-loop payload Orbiter data sensor GN&C interface Typical three axis pointing concept expenmen! base for

Orbiter-provided

Payload-provided

PAYLOAD

POINTING

AND

STABILIZATION

The desired

Orbiter vehicle

is capable attitude

of

achieving

any

mounted payload

sensor poinbng

are operated accuracies

in a closed

loop,

and initiating

a pointing

approaching

vector defined any ground accuracy

in _ts sensor-fixed axis system to or celestial obiect within an vector accuracies

+0 ldegaxisare[)ossible Orbiter can be slabilized t001 stnngent provide system guidance, interfaces these types deg_sec Payloads

In either case, the at a rate as low as requiring more

of _+05 :' Pointing

with respect to an open loop payload sensorfixed axis system are not as exact as the vehicle pointing acc_Jrac_es because large misalinement and structural deformation error sources exist between the sensors However, when control the Orbiter and guidance, a more navigation, accurate and system payload-

po_nt_r_g and stability accuracies must their own stabihzation and control lor that p_rt_cular experiment. Orbiter nav,:_at_on, and control system data a_e _ls_ previded to accommodate of pa_,ioad requirements

GUIDANCE,

NAVIGATION,

AND

CONTROL

SUBSYSTEM

Right deck
• Manua_ conttots • Indicators

Forwardcabin area
• Star trackers • Inertial measurement unit

• D4splays J Backup o_t_cal unit

Drivers _

actuators

• Aerosudacee • Propulsive element

Aft avionicsbays Forwardavionics bays
• Tacans • Rate gyrOs • AerosurlaOs $ervoan_oli§er * Reactor'= _et OMS dr_ver (aft) • Multiplexer/demultiplexer scan beam units

Nose
• Air data ¢on-,p_er • Nose boom (Orbiter 101 only)

• Radar altimeters • Microwave landing system (MSSLS) reosivers • Air data transducer • General-purpose • Mass menlorie_, assembly

• RCS jet driver LffonNard) compLders

• Mutt iplexerldemultiptexer • UHF recewer • Rendezvous sensor electronics • Accelerometer$ • One-way Doppler extractor

74

The Orbiter trol (GN&C)

guidance, system

navigation,

and conof providing

REUSABLE
The Space ational reuse

SPACE
Shuttle of flight

HARDWARE
operwill reon is

is capable

guidance, navigation, and control er through all phases of orbital from launch through flight entry, odynamic phases, port modes During

for the Orbitspace flight aerthe on-orbit of the Orsupcomputer payload initializathe informaand spacecapability to

era will emphasize hardware, which

and for aircraft

sult in low cost per flight to the users. Low cost was and continues which the total being developed. operational phase the developmental support biter, equipment, is being to be the basic concept transportation system Shuttle In addition, will last phase. the Space space

the guidance

and navigation the GN&C to the vector

biter can be independent Information from subsystem tion will

of direct ground

can be transferred As a minimum, timing, state include

much longer than Multiuse mission Shuttle Or-

bay via hardwire.

like the Space

readied

and will also be reflown of payloads.

tion and extrapolation (if desired), craft attitudes and attitude rates. The Orbiter has the onboard

in support

of a wide variety

rendezvous with an in-plane cooperative target up to 560 kilometers (300 nautical miles), and is the active and other vehicle the during Orbiter retrieval rendezvous, ground is capable of a passive dockfacilities of renstabia and an unA group extended when involved in pointing are consystems of mission services and kits to provide will be special to or be for payloads will be added designed The major cell usage

MISSION

KITS

ing, and undocking aids, with dezvous and

By using

lized orbiting element. The dominant errors payload tributed thermal by the distortions. structural

required

with the spacecraft

quickly installed and easily removed mission kits are as follows. • • • • • • • • • • Oxygen and hydrogen electrical for extended for fuel energy missions for special to generate Life support

misalignments errors, including due to navigation (1 sigma). deadband to the stated

The guidance

and naviga-

tion (G&N) subsystem equivalent angular error certainty, system are less at 0.2 errors (i.e.,

Control excurerror

Added propellant tanks mission maneuvers Extra or specialized Airlocks, transfer modules A second remote

on-orbit

attitude

sions) must sources.

also

be added

attachment fittings tunnels, and docking manipulator arm and lines heat an

The Orbiter is capable of pointing load continuously for one orbit every bit for one ground, Payload ity should ment 24-hour period per mission object within celestial, or orbital

the payother orat any ±05'.

extra high-gain Fill, vent, drain, Additional rejection Additional Electrical

antenna purge, and dump panels

radiator

for increased

requirements be provided

in excess

of this capabilor experi-

by the payload

systems.

storage tanks harnesses

75

KSC SHUTTLE

SYSTEM

GROUND

FLOW Orbiter cycle

La'l d q q

Sa fl qg

I

or', pad

So_d

ro,:;kel

boosler

{SRB

retr,e_al

SRB cycle

LAUNCH
Space two Space denberg Present Shuttle Center program flights the (KSC) will be launched John (VAFB) calls and the from Van-

SITES,

OPERATIONAL
1980's.

DATES,

to be available Launch bly Building Skylab Shuttle doors use approx Corqp

in the early at KSC, used will

locations,

NASA Base

F. Kennedy in California. for a gradual into

ex 39 and the Vehicle be modified includes 122 meters

Assemand the to un-

in Florida

for the Apollo widening

Air Force

Programs,

for Space (40 feet) will

planning

Modification mately the Orbiter launch pads changes

buildup of 40 to 60 total flights per year many varying orbits and inclinations. To attain Shuttle begin from operational test KSC during status flights orbital are scheduled

by 1980, Space to

accommodate The KSC dergo for the major

wingspan. themselves launch on the

Whereas were

towers mobile

1979: VAFB is planned

Apollo/Saturn

Z/_'ll
i I_

Pa 'load Malnlena_ce checkou[ ant;

operaIioes

SRB

refurbishmenl

PERFORMANCE

AND

INCLINATION

LIMITS

launcher

platform,

the towers

for Shuttle will be

will be

site. known

Together, future

these

capabilities Payloads

satisfy

all

fixed at each launch pad. The solid rocket boosters processed, bished in arrive existing stored, buildings. nearby. by barge

requirements.

as large

received, and refurwill be will

disassembled, The external basin.

as 29 500 kilograms (65 000 pounds) can be launched due east from KSC into an orbit of 285 ° inclination. (32 000 pounds) orbiting Payloads can of 14 500 kilograms from VAFB Polar kilograms from VAFB inclination 18000 be launched up to

Most of this work at the turning

space

tank

Payloads their

into an orbil as high as 104 capabilities (40 000 pounds)

will be processed in various locations. The various orbital inclinations and related launch azimuths are illustrated

can be achieved

for each

ORBIT INCLINATIONS ANDLAUNCH AZIMUTHS KSC FROM AN[)VAFB p,,,_,,,,,_l_ :i:iSi:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:i
_ I i )r_)lT :if:,

KENNEDY SPACE ENTER C

-

Z

Latitude,

deg

N

?i:

p o Q

I
4

q'"_""
82

1
Longitude,

I
80 deg W

I

I
78

l
76

VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE
m

Lahtude,

deg

':

Orbit _rIclirqallorl deg 10,1 :-:. , ..... ,

LaJrqch azimuth deg D

201

/

]

,

t
124

I
122

I
Longntude,

I
120 deg W

i

1
118 110

Ingress arm egress

LAUNCH PAD SERVICE AND ACCESS TOWER

79

• Orbital flight

U.S. MANNED

SPACE-FLIGHT

OVERVIEW

15 000 Hours 10 000 5 000

Program Program man-hours in space Number flights Crew size of manned

Mercury 54

Gemini 1940

6 1

10 2

Cumulative 80

Man-Hours

in Space

.......

Apollo 7506 11 3

Skylab 12 351 3 3

Apollo/Soyuz 652 1 3

.......

22 503 hours, 49 minutes, 50 seconds
81

,pact
There evidence is abundant of the and well-documented benefits flowing

widespread

from the space program to the nation and, indeed, to lhe world. The fields of medicine, communications, navigation, meteorology, Earth resources exploitation, and many others have been enriched The Shuttle will increase these benefits However, the and bring others space program economic in the future. also spawns that are

many less apparent

benefits

potentially as significant as the direct contributions These indirect economic effects are not widely primary recognized, justification nor do they for the space constitute program. the Yet

several recent studies strengthen lhe nation's important our basic contributions economic

have shown that they economy by making in our efforts to solve

problems.

Economists ical advance productivity research contributor technology space and

have long known that technologis the primary source of higher and economic growth, (R&D) What evidence potent and that is the highon development ol recent is the chief is new that

of technology. efforts

preponderance programs

such as the Shuttle have a more

and other effect

DIRECT

BENEFITS

INDIRECT

BENEFITS

the

economy

than

most

other

forms

of R&D

stimulative intensive high contribute dollar

effects industries volume directly

activity. The reasons for the high technological leverage of the space program are straightforward. One is that the government-industry developed mechanisms space and for space team implemented identifying has consciously highly effective and transferring

on those technologythat are depended on for a of exports And it will by launching and servicing

the satellites of other nations. The ability of the Shuttle to provide launch services at lower costs and to offer orbital maintenance services never crease ration nology, National past before foreign available should markedly inparticipation in space in science, Earth the goals benefits explotechof the the the the of of

technology

to other sectors of the economy for subsequent nonspace applications. Another reason is that industries performing space research are and the U.S. among the most technology-intensive -innovative in the economy;they generate all-important technology stimulus the

and exploitation. exploration, Aeronautics The and applications Act during

The U.S. accomplishments attest to our success 16 years. in meeting

and Space ancillary

economy must have for improved productivity rates and expanded output. These same industries are the ones the United favorable tional States trade negative fuels, relies on in its efforts Expanded will offset in to maintain exports of raw the tradimanufacbalances. products balances and

space program its ability to stimulate economy; its applications to the solutions earthbound national thousands tists, further problems; of jobs its contributions and its creation for our highly and technicians success. These skilled cooperation;

to interof tens of scienprovide accom-

high-technology materials,

minerals,

engineers, proof

low-technology

of this

tured goods. In this regard, the Space Shuttle Program will contribute favorably to the U.S. trade pace posture of in two ways. It will help speed of its the technology because highly

plishments and benefits should weigh heavily in the determination of the level of resources to be allocated loads to the Space Shuttle decades. and the payin this and coming

83

SPACE Trends

SHUTTLE of the 1980's

ERA -Integrated Space Operations

MANNED PROGRAMS Manned UNMANNED SATELLITES and Unmanned Space Systems

1959

1960

1970

84

• Spacelabs • Satellites • Propulsion for • Applications • Technology • Science stages

Reusable hardware

NASA

used by Centers agencies

• Other Government • Universities • • Industry International

1980

1990

85

The Space is prime inlegrahon

Division of Space

of Rockwell to NASA Shuttle

International

contractor

for total systems

/_ Orb,re: _,j k..'"

..;--

Main eng,nes RR°::*K:t':_:::e _U::; Z'

R[X

," A.eH I'H_rl

4, ......

_L__

_

.....

:_...

[]_-"

t"

External
"Marlin

tank
Marietta

/
"Associate contractors (other NASA contracts)

The Space is also prime

Division

of Rockwell to NASA and

International

contractor

for designing, developing, the Space Shuttle Orbiter

building

"Fairchild-Republic

Vertical

tail ..

"_

_

n

, Orbital

maneuvering subsystem °McDoFneil
Douglas

"-. Payload
! <,-,I ..... Rockwell

_
"', /".? 2_'_ / _f / o'

doors.
":', \ ", International _

/ ,,"
,'

"TulsaOivision

,-eouh,u

e,.,u=,

. •

..,,"-_/

'\_

"

i

,

Wing
Aerospace

_L_'_ __,,./____1

_

Rockwett

lel ......

hOqal

q

_

'_"_(

!
i
'1 _

',,,
' Mid
"General

..........
..... Main landing
"Menasco Manufactunng

fuselage
Dynamics/Convair

gear

Nose
"Menasco

landing

gear /

' Forward
Space Rockwell

fuselage
Division International

Reusable
"Lockheed

surface
M_ssites

insulation
and Space

Manufacturing

*Orbiter

sut:x;ontractors

(contracts

with

Space

D wlslor)

86

Shuttle
Overall direction of the Space Shuttle

Participany ,
Program is at

NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. The Space Shuttle Program Office, a part of the Office of Space Flight, is responsible for the detailed assignment of conto the responsibilities, basic performance requirements, trol of major milestones, and funding allocations various NASA field centers. The Lyndon is the lead management systems overall those B. Johnson Center responsibility and and [oral Space as and such has control, integration, for that definition interact

Center (JSC) in Texas program overall and of with

for program systems authority system

engineering responsibility elements of the

other elements, such combined aerodynamic for development, Shuttle Rockwell Orbiter and International

as total configuration and loads. JSC also is responsible and delivery contract of the with manages the Space Division. Space Center of launch

production,

The John F. Kennedy is responsible facilities for the operational direction. in Alabama Space and will serve Shuttle missions

(KSC) in Florida and flight recovery site for and and landing

for the design

as the launch development

requiring

launches

in an easterly (MSFC)

The George production, the solid propellant

C. Marshall is delivery booster,

Space

Flight Center for the

responsible

development,

and rocket tank.

of the Orbiter main engine, and the hydrogen/oxygen as the manufac-

The contractor team is still growing tured hardware takes form.

PROGRAM
To establish

OBJECTIVE
a national space transportation capability operations a wide that will and range and

• Substantially • Provide

reduce

the cost of space designed to support

a capability

of scientific international

applications, uses

defense,

commercial,

88

/

J

89

-_r US

GOVERNMENt

pRiNTiNG

OFFICE

: 1976

O

2_7-700

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful