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WATER FROM MULTIPLE EXTRACTIONS SPACES OF COMMODITY VS HUMAN TERRITORY OF POLITICAL CONSTITUENCIES

LONDON UK

THE GEOPOLITICS OF WATER EXPORTING

MARSEILLES FR - WATER IS EXTRACTED UNDER PRIVATE MANAGEMENT WATER PIPED ACROSS LAND UNDER GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND SHIPPED TO UK UNDER PRIVATE REGULATION

Transnational Spaces of Water

LIQUID INFRASTRUCTURE
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BOOK
Timothy Gale Fall 2010 Thesis Preparation liquidinfrastructure.info Advisors: Brendan Moran Julia Czerniak

1

ABSTRACT
Transnational Spaces of Water

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FLOWS
A Hydropolitical Morphology B Infrastructural Space of Water C Water as Commodity D Territorialization E Methodology

The physical infrastructures of the twentieth century - those of roads, rail, sewage, water, air, data, amongst others - have tended to operate as singular and independent systems. The infrastructures of the twenty-first century must investigate relationships and transparencies - to the pairing of infrastructure and landscape, infrastructure and public amenities, infrastructure and architecture.

Liquid infrastructure utilizes water to illustrate and examine the flows that administer the this process: flows of social power, labour, information, capital, and resources that produce the contemporary urban landscape.

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TERRITORY XXL
A Politics: Corporation + State + Citizenry B Infrastructure: Water Tower C Space: Human + Water D Site: EU + London

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SPECULATIONS
A Urban Water Territories C Water Embassy D Water Vault

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NOTES
Glossary Bibliography

4

The ownership of water supply systems by transnational privatized consortia are radically changing cities and the way we live. Therefore, contemporary urbanisms and the water infrastructures which support them are becoming complex due to geopolitical power relationships. But the public is basically unaware. The political and physical realities of water infrastructural management are creating conflict between governments, corporations and urban citizenry. Urban water systems are becoming contested territories of public access/ ownership and city municipalities are becoming marginalized by private interest. By investigating the dialectic between territories of water and urban need, one can study it effects at a local and transnational condition, enabling geopolitical forces to manifest in a productive rethinking of urban form and public infrastructural access.

The project produces an architecture that does not attempt to solve the conflicting conditions that exist in London and the greater European Union. The project explores the ramifications of a continuous infrastructural network linking the fragmented urban fabric of private infrastructural enclaves within urban form. When it is possible to imagine what is happening in the extended matrix of connectivity every time a tap is opened, it is possible to see the opportunity at each junction and to imagine private ritual and public life enhanced through the process. Thus the project proposes a new radical programmatic hybrid institution which redefines the government as an institution no longer exclusively dedicated to the representation of politics, but as an information store where all potent forms of flows are presented equally and legibly. In an age where the territory of water resources are transnational, the curation government and corporation interaction and their content [infrastructure] is vital for public awareness. This new coupling of architecture, infrastructure and politics is vital. The form becomes the action.

6

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HYDROSPATIAL LANDSCAPES OF WATER
The 21st century will be defined by our collectively growing need for water. Paradoxically, impending water shortages and crises are changing the rapid patterns of urbanization by requiring urban form to simultaneously adapt to water need and water defense. Increasingly required is elaborate infrastructures/systems to source, divert, collect and transport this liquid substance to our urban centres. How can the infrastructural complex integrate in accordance with the urban landscape to create a balance between infrastructure, social program, and ecological existence to develop a new productive urban paradigm in an increasingly de-public realm? Cities relationship to water has existed since the urban form prevailed. Water is conceptualized in the human experience in cultural, societal, ritualistic, and need basis. New forms of water production are occurring due do increasing urban densities and geologically changing environments. Globalization and urban need have created prolific political situations between private corporations and pubic states which serve the urban citizenry. The combination of the existing and new infrastructures is creating new territories of water control and in turn producing new spatial relationships between these emerging/existing spaces of water.

“Total Design has two meanings: first, what might be called the implosion of design, the focusing of design inward on a single intense point; second, what might be called the explosion of design, the expansion of design out to touch every possible point in the world.” - Mark Wigley from “What Ever Happen to Total Design?”
Resources are complex in relationship to human beings. Water is said to be the next oil. Water can not only be viewed as a resource and precious life force on our planet. It needs to be discussed in the context of a greater global complexity based on the political, social, economic, and situations of crises are constantly the multiple contingencies that direct and control how urban societies think and physically manifest their infrastructures. How, where, and why can architecture intervene in this complex system? It is the assertion of this document - it is imperative that architecture and the role of the designer not only understand the forces shaping this discourse, but to provide agency in highlighting issues. What design potentials exist, in this expanding liquid landscape? The European Union present a clear example of water infrastructural management and ownership. The landscape of water that this project deals with is territorial - the XXL. Infrastructural management of water across continent, country and city boundaries is complex and not understood. The opportunity for design analysis, critique, connection and intervention to highlight the absurd flows of water informed by virtual/physical containment of the infrastructural and geopolitical. This allows for new pairings of program, infrastructure and resource.

Redrawn Buckminster Fuller Map of Earth Land Network Connections

30% of the Earth is Land

70% of the Earth is Water

100% of the Cities Import Water

Redrawn Buckminster Fuller Map of Earth Water Network Connections. The ‘water map’ representation of the world demonstrates the connectivity of water based transit - the movement of resources. It also is a different way of viewing the networks - water based connectivity differs in spatial interpretation of flows. Vectors of connection demonstrate flows of proximity.

8

1

ABSTRACT OF WATER TRANSNATIONAL SPACES
“If politics means making decisions that divide, then nothing divides quite like the kilometres of concrete and steel that make up a freeway or rail line. By understanding infrastructure as the ‘structuring of access’ we foreground the way it unevenly redistributes opportunity (and cost) in accordance with power. As such it forms a crucible for political activity.” - Kazys Varnelis from “The Infrastructure City: Network Ecologies”
The effects of transnational privatized consortia are radically changing water supply systems in relation to cities and the way we live. Contemporary urbanisms and the water infrastructures which support them are becoming complex due to geopolitical power relationships. The political and physical realities of water infrastructural management are creating conflict between governments, corporations and urban citizenry. Urban water systems are becoming contested and situations of public access/ownership and city municipalities are becoming marginalized by private interest. Within the water supply system, storage of freshwater become the most important moment of public intervention. This project contends that water storage are places where solved conflict and political ambiguity can manifest to highlight the absurdity of this situation in the most cogent form. By investigating the dialectic between territories of water and urban need, one can study it effects at a local and transnational condition, enabling geopolitical forces to manifest in a productive rethinking of urban form and infrastructural access. Design and architecture need to position the discourse in emergent opportunities. This project contends that design and architecture can insert itself into the infrastructural landscape and can take on new roles of influence. Territories of water importation and exportation are absurd. This project explores how new forms of water storage tower infrastructure might be extrapolated from geopolitical contention – in this case, materializing architectural form from the political interstices of the World Trade Organization General Agreements on Privatizing Urban Services. The water tower is an access point to represent the greater territory. London, as other countries situated in the European Union, locates resources needed for its urban inhabitants often within other countries. The General London Council’s [GLC] termination in the 1980’s and the beginning of the Greater London Administration [GLA] in the 2000’s provides a shift for how the city thought about water storage for the urban environment. The function of storage was until 1990 solved with the construction of water for other usages. From 1990 water structures have been exclusively built for storage. The water tower as symbol and physical storage in the urban environment is traditionally historically - the new tower represents the territory of flows and operation.

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The project produces an architecture that does not attempt to solve the conflicting conditions that exist in London and the greater EU: water supply access riots, power control marginalization, and infrastructural territory. Rather, architecture will be a vehicle to spatialize these forces, bridging the gap between what is a jarring reality, and an “architectural reality” that suspends judgement in order to juxtapose and highlight absurd reality, producing a reconceptualization of the current political, social and urban relationship to water storage as a space of productive infrastructural influence in revealing and exposing. The project highlights the absurd - making it the situation transparent. The project explores the ramifications of a continuous infrastructural network linking the fragmented urban fabric of private infrastructural enclaves.
If architecture and urban design can be more closely integrated with complex natural and anthropogenic processes of water extraction/movement/utility, then water in all its forms and modes of operation can be valued in its many relationships to human existence. Politics, privatization and institutionalization of natural resources infrastructure of water in cities is hidden and inadequately understood by the citizenry. However, the buried or hidden relationships are vital to the successful functioning of the contemporary city. Public rights of ownership and access are misunderstood, pushed aside or ignored. The realities of human existence have become increasingly abstracted, complex, and conflicted by global systems, which blind us from their true nature and consequences. It firstly has to be recognized that crisis occurs when existing models fail. What is at stake for architecture in the geopolitical organization and management of water? This project contends that architectural design can highlight the marginalization [invisibility] of transnational private consortia through revealing and exposing place and agency in the infrastructural landscape. The relationship between the political state and corporation further mystifies the complexity of physical space. This dynamic can be termed hydrospatiality. The European Union presents a clear illustration of current crippling and contentious effects of water infrastructural privatization on various urban territories. Examples range from the rapid deterioration of infrastructure and politics in Paris’s urban core in the last ten years; Belgium’s public complete appropriation of water filtration facilities in order to eradicate private ownerships of water supply; and the use of water pipelines in Germany and Spain to surreptitiously divide urban communities.

Ultimately, this thesis questions the potential absurdity of symbol and hidden strategies within London by attempting to realize them. The project explores the ramifications of a continuous infrastructural network linking the fragmented urban fabric of private infrastructural enclaves within urban form. When it is possible to imagine what is happening in the extended matrix of connectivity every time a tap is opened, it is possible to see the opportunity at each junction and to imagine private ritual and public life enhanced through the process.

ZONE OF CONTENTION

SOURCE / EXTRACTION INFRASTRUCTURAL TRANSIT STORAGE FOR TREATMENT FILTRATION STORAGE FOR DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION

ZONE OF JUXTAPOSITION ZONE OF CONTENTION
14

CONTEXT EU WATER+INFRASTRUCTURE
With water infrastructure privatization in the late 1980’s in the EU – new geopolitical agreements between countries and corporations influenced the management of design and urban services as well resource agreements. For example, the function of water storage until 1990 was solved with the construction of water for other uses. With new commodification of infrastructure and the water within it, design of water structures exclusively for storage began. Through the re-appropriation of architecture in a metaphorical sense, a re-imagining of the disciplinary and professional commitments of ‘capital A’ Architecture to include traditional externalities of political, social, environmental, and various other mediated contents. In doing so, infrastructures becomes the site and subject. Seeking to re-animate architectural discourse with urban relevance. The twentieth century was witness to both an infrastructure boom and bust. It is the twenty-first century that will need to determine not only how to address ineffective infrastructures, but also new geopolitical and transnational situations and how to position new infrastructures and program that confront urgent issues of climate, sustenance, and politics. The opportunity for projecting a future infrastructure lies in bundling multiple processes with spatial experiences. This project aims to declare infrastructures as open systems, adaptive and responsive to environments and occupation of water territories. Operating at a territorial scale, the project creates new moments of social production and speculation. The design of infrastructure is therefore open and anticipatory. It has nothing to do with a specific message; rather, it is the design of the system that makes it possible to send any number of messages. It is for this reason that infrastructure is broadly democratic. It represents the investment by the state into systems that allow the movement and exchange of information, without specifying the content of that information or the range of movement. This is not to say that infrastructures are utopian; infrastructures are systems of control as well. They can be easily regulated by switches and checkpoints, and shut down when required. And the operation of infrastructural systems depends as much on maintaining separation as it does in establishing connections. Yet we know there is always something slightly out of control when infrastructures proliferate. The physical infrastructures of the twentieth century - those of roads, rail, sewage, water, air, data, amongst others - have tended to operate as singular and independent systems. The infrastructures of the twenty-first century must investigate relationships and transparencies - to the pairing of infrastructure and landscape, infrastructure and public amenities, infrastructure and architecture.

LONDON WATER SOURCE GEOGRAPHY

RWE VEOLIA SUEZ

EU COUNTRIES PRIVATE WATER EU COUNTRIES PUBLIC WATER

EU COUNTRIES

16

2

FLOWSjust a resource. Water is not
It is also a force of manipulation and control.

1

ABSTRACT
Transnational Spaces of Water

2

FLOWS
A Hydropolitical Morphology B Infrastructural Space of Water B Water as Commodity D Territorialization E Methodology

3

TERRITORY XXL
A Politics: Corporation + State + Citizenry B Infrastructure: Water Tower C Space: Human + Water D Site: EU + London

4

SPECULATIONS
A Urban Water Territories C Water Embassy D Water Vault

5

NOTES
Glossary Bibliography

18

2A

FLOWS HYDROUNDERSTANDING

POLITICAL SPATIALIZATION
“If politics means making decisions that divide, then nothing divides quite like the kilometres of concrete and steel that make up a freeway or rail line. By understanding infrastructure as the ‘structuring of access’ we foreground the way it unevenly redistributes opportunity (and cost) in accordance with power. As such it forms a crucible for political activity.” - Kazys Varnelis from “The Infrastructure City: Network Ecologies”
Infrastructurally is inherently political. Water is political. Human beings love to be political. Thus this project deals with the political. The extension of power dynamics of distribution have been conflated with the rise of the private corporation. This began as with the state power failing state administering separate councils to oversee urban services. With massive economic restructuring in the 1980’s the cities began turning their urban service councils into private companies. The European Union in the 1990’s gave birth to the first transnational water corporations. This changed the political dynamics of water distribution at all scales. But this transformation occurred under governmental valences unknown to the public. In the early 2000’s the public citizens in European Union countries such as France and Switzerland commenced a process of riots, protests, political engagement, and infrastructural appropriation as a way to reclaim what is considered public domain. A new theoretical framework for understanding how decision-makers arbitrate the distribution of urban resources and in doing so become key agents in the governance and control of the populations they serve. The interaction of the state/citizen/corporation transformed through public services. Politically, the project specifically examines nation states in relation to each other [London, France and Wales], the World Trade Organization’s [WTO] services council, General Aggreement on Trade Services [GATS] backing by private transnationals in marginalizing cities and people’s access to water as an urban right. The General London Council’s [GLC] termination in the 1980’s and the beginning of the Greater London Administration [GLA] in the 2000’s provides a shift for how the city government of London view of water infrastructure services predicated on the WTO mandate to privatize water infrastructures. London is currently controlled, operated and owned by Thames Water, which is a subsidiary of RWE [the largest water corporation in the world]. The current political landscape situates in extracting water in France by private means and distributing it to London for public means.

Citizenry

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Water Infrastructure is the lens through which to understand the political, social and urban - the physical territories created by geopolitical powers between private and public constituencies. The territory of water infrastructure is a complex power play of the political. Nature, The State, Corporation and The Citizen are four entities which influence transnational water flow. These icon symbol representations follow the structure of the book as understanding which of these bodies is functioning in the creation of the image, diagram, concept and territory.

1 ‘Private Transnational Consortia’ refers to conglomeration of five main Private Water Corporations: Suez, RWE, Vivendi, Veolia, and BiWater. These corporations are own all of the worlds private water supply through subsidary names. They act transnationally independent of national government resource regulations. 2 Source: “The Services Council, its Committees and other subsidiary bodies”. World Trade Organization. 2010.

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20

CONTEXT POLITICAL MORPHOLOGY
In 1850, the Great Stink occurred in London. A complete awareness that the infrastructure in the city was not working. With this came a new establishment of councils and boards to oversee the development and large scale management of water systems in London. Before this, it was done at a very local level not leaving large planning processes to design the system.
1855 - 1890 Metropolitan Board of Works The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889. Its principal responsibility was to provide infrastructure to cope with London’s rapid growth, which it successfully accomplished. The MBW was an appointed rather than elected body.
1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1800 2020

1960 - 1990 Greater London Council The Greater London Council [GLC] created new responsibility for public transport, road schemes, housing development and regeneration, as well as creating new systems of potable water to the now increased London metropolitan area. It established new pumping stations and reservoirs to the west of London.

The Great Stink

Privatize Water

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1970 The Thames Water Authority was founded, under the terms of the Water Act 1973, and took over the following water supply utilities and catchment area management bodies 1990 Thames Water was privatised as Thames Water Utilities Limited, with the transfer of its regulatory, river management and navigation responsibilities to the National Rivers Authority, which later became part of the Environment Agency.[6]. The company was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. 2001 Thames Water was acquired by the German utility company RWE. Following several years of criticism about failed leakage targets, RWE managed to buy the company for 8.0 billion pounds and invest 1 billion in infrastructural development in the first year.
1890 - 1960 London County Council The London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London, throughout its 1889–1965 existence, and the first London-wide general municipal authority to be directly elected. It covered the area today known as Inner London and was replaced by the Greater London Council. The LCC was the largest, most significant and ambitious municipal authority of its day. 1990 - 0000 Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority [GLA] is a strategic regional authority, with powers over transport, policing, economic development, fire and emergency planning. Four functional bodies— Transport for London, Metropolitan Police Authority, London Development Agency and London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority —are responsible for delivery of services in these areas. The planning policies of the Mayor of London are detailed in a statutory London Plan that is regularly updated and published.

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At each transition of the government, ‘Thames Water’ also change. Firstly it was a public council becoming an agency with private interest and recently becoming a private company bought and traded transnationally by RWE, a German water and utility corporation.

2020

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2B

FLOWS SPACE OF INFRASTRUCTURAL
WATER
“If we term everything Infrastructure, then we have defined infrastructure as nothing ... This raises the question as to what isn’t infrastructure. The answer to this would be to say that the property of something being infrastructural or not, does not properly belong to the object itself, it emerges through the relation said object has with other objects. If this relationship is a dependent one, in which one object relies on the other for its functioning, then we might say that the second object plays the role of infrastructure. However if the relation between the objects is characterized by autonomy – that is to say independence – then we could not say that the object operates infrastructurally.” - Adrian Lahoud
The infrastructural space of water in this project situates itself in the context of extraction or sourcing, the flow of transit [pipeline/tanker] and then the storage of water for distribution into complex connective system of taps and faucets. London grew tremendously in the hundred years between 1860 and 1960, and infrastructure was the foundation for that growth. Trains, streetcar lines, streets and highways allowed inhabitants to rush around with relative ease. As infrastructure filled past capacity and congestion became bad, the public had faith that the experts would solve the problems by constructing new infrastructure - always more capacious and more technologically advanced. But ofcourse, this is not true. Water Infrastructure was idealized by modernist architects. Take Vers une Architecture, for example, in which Corbusier extolled the societal transformations that would take place if only the people were to listen to the architect and the engineer. It was, after all, a matter of architecture or revolution. For modernists, a plan and the capacity of a clear idea would bring order to the chaos of the metropolis. In implementing the plan, modern architecture relied on infrastructure above all else. A city’s modernity became nearly equivalent to its infrastructure, as evident in Haussmann’s reconstruction of Paris, the ultra-real technological landscapes of Tony Garnier’s Cite Industrielle, or the wild, electric fantasies of Antonio Sant’Elia’s Citta Nuova. Modern architecture would be nothing but pastiche without engineering to support it - merely new clothes for an old body. The engineer, Le Corbusier concluded, ‘puts us in accord with natural law.’ Only after the engineer laid down a foundation could the architect start to create beauty through form. The space of water is infrastructural. The infrastructural space of water vast - designed as spaces for commodity - not spaces for the human.

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London Beckton Water Filtration Treatment Plant. The largest facility in the EU. The security is as high as a maximum security prison. Water is unloaded from France/Wales and England. This is a transnational space of water. A private infrastructural enclave mixing water from multiple geographic locations

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London Beckton Water Filtration Treatment Plant. The largest facility in the EU. The security is as high as a maximum security prison. Water is unloaded from France/Wales and England. This is a transnational space of water. A private infrastructural enclave with

24

2C

FLOWS WATER AS COMMODITY
“If politics means making decisions that divide, then nothing divides quite like the kilometres of concrete and steel that make up a freeway or rail line. By understanding infrastructure as the ‘structuring of access’ we foreground the way it unevenly redistributes opportunity (and cost) in accordance with power. As such it forms a crucible for political activity.” - Kazys Varnelis1
For historical reasons, three private companies grew up in France over the last century, operating water concessions for a number of local authorities. This happened nowhere else in the world, and these three French companies – Suez- Lyonnaise, Vivendi, and SAUR – were the only water companies in the world which were private, used to operating across a number of different public authorities, and with the size and capital resources to take advantage of the fashion for privatization which started in the 1990s. Today, about 5 percent of the world’s water is in private hands. The water sector thus has enormous potential for the few multinational corporations that dominate this market. A report, Water Justice for All, released in March 2003 shows that water privatization has had negative impacts on communities in many countries and threatens to affect an increasing number of people. It reports global and local resistance to the control and commodification of water. Civil society demands that access to drinking water be recognized as a universal human right, in order to ensure that everyone can benefit from water resources. At the same time, it raises its voice against leaving water exploitation in the hands of private corporations whose only concern is making a profit from such services. Signed in Lisbon, Valencia (Spain) in 1998, the Water Manifesto is intended to demonstrate symbolically, politically and technically the urgent need for a ‘water revolution’. The globalizing effect and commodification of water is largely due to the spatial commodification of property and infrastructure. The way in which people understand water is inherently a commodification of substance and resource. Water is a human need and want. Thus everyone needs it, especially the difficulty of urban centres. With the commodification of water infrastructure into private interest, water became an economic good, a commodity. In the past, governments unanimously believed access to basic human services such as water, healthcare and education should not be included in trade agreements because these were essential components of citizenship. However, the World Trade Organization [WTO] and the General Agreement on Urban Services [GAUS] erodes these basic human rights.

WALES

FRANCE

ENGLAND

SECTION TROUGH WATER TANKER

26

2D

FLOWS TERRITORIALIZATION
In the context of the state public power, Foucault’s conception of governmentality in analysing the relational dynamics of power within a decentralized landscape of water governance. Modes of governmentality refer to ‘forms of calculated practice [internally and externally] in the government structure to direct categories of social agency.5 The practice of the everyday is normalized to conform to a particular political frameworks, both public and private. Foucault refers to this diffusion of government control via a range of practices as the ‘governmentalization of the state’. Political power in this instance is located beyond the state as governmentality does not confine political activity to central executive activities or formal law-making bodies.6 In the instance of PP’s, power assumes some degree of reciprocity, sublimating opposition forces through ‘persuasion’, ‘incentives’ with the aim of earning consent.
Globally, cities water supply systems operate in three systems of management. The first being a completely public system operated by public government agencies. The second system becomes a step between completely public governance to completely private governance. With the expansion of cities and industrial growth, cities sought to charter private government institutions to manage specific public functions of the urban water system. ‘Private partnerships‘ were established the growth of Public-Private Partnerships [PPP’s] in the delivery of essential services to urban residents which has been articulated as a form of decentralized service delivery that makes the water services more efficient and ultimately tries to bring governance structures closer to the people.1 The third and more recent phenomena is the complete privatization of water supply infrastructure which renders the governance of the system separate from the citizen and the urban municipality. These three systems of urban water governance are linear in their respective developments. Currently due to the multiple systems of management and the development of how we consider water’s role in the urban environment, water is being revalued and re-presented as a scarce economic good. With this shift, the triangular relationships between the external provider, the state and the citizen - the three critical agents in the delivery of water - spatially provide new forms of political action with the ascent of the neo-liberal paradigm. In this discussion the external provider is the private transnational consortia operating out of self interest and transcending governmental/political boundaries of resource extraction and distribution. When the corporation is given the leading role in fostering connection between the citizen instead of the government, to mode of interaction is one of ‘customer management’ in order to alleviate and resolve the economic constraints facing the state as well as educating users

Central London Storage Facility

Abbey Mills Water Processing Plant

Croyton Water Import/Filtration

Hyde Park London

Beckton Water Import/Filtration/Storage

Territories of water storage, filtration and import infrastructure.

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FLOWS METHODOLOGY
“The object of art - like every other product - creates a public which is sensitive to art and enjoys beauty. Production thus not only creates an object for the subject, but also a subject for the object.” - Karl Marx “I find it more interesting to understadn the city no longer as tissue, but more as mere coexistence, a series of relationships between objects that are almost never articulated in visual or formal ways, no longer ‘caught’ in architectural connections.” - Rem Koolhass

A part of my process as an architecture student, artist and designer I feel the need to briefly explain the methodology I use and is being deployed in this thesis. I will be candid. I am interested in concept and the ability for representation to express concept. Mapping and juxtaposing internal relationships to the thesis is pertinent in understanding territory. The rigor of working through concept and artistic vision allows for graphic interpretation of place and site.

Overlay of water scaffolding.

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3

TERRITORY

The global absurdity of our cities and lifestyles depend on absurd situations and landscapes of infrastructure.

1

ABSTRACT
Transnational Spaces of Water

2

FLOWS
A Hydropolitical Morphology B Infrastructural Space of Water B Water as Commodity D Territorialization

3

TERRITORY XXL
A Politics: Corporation + State + Citizenry B Infrastructure: Water Tower C Space: Human + Water D Site: EU + London

4

SPECULATIONS
A Transnational Public Water Embassy B Reclaiming the Water Tower/Storage C The Transnational Water Tower D Re-Drawing Water Territories

5

NOTES
Glossary Bibliography

32

3A

TERRITORY + POLITICS: CORPORATION
STATE + CITIZENRY
“The object of art - like every other product - creates a public which is sensitive to art and enjoys beauty. Production thus not only creates an object for the subject, but also a subject for the object.” - Karl Marx “I find it more interesting to understadn the city no longer as tissue, but more as mere coexistence, a series of relationships between objects that are almost never articulated in visual or formal ways, no longer ‘caught’ in architectural connections.” - Rem Koolhass
A part of my process as an architecture student, artist and designer I feel the need to briefly explain the methodology I use and is being deployed in this thesis. I will be candid. I am interested in concept and the ability for representation to express concept.

The surveillance of public behaviour in readying for March against Private Services; London 2008.

MAPPING  GLOBAL  WATER  SUPPLY  CORPORATISATION
CITIES  SERVED  BY  TRANSNATIONAL  CORPORATIONS

MAPPING  GLOBAL  WATER  SUPPLY  CORPO
CITIES  SERVED  BY  TRANSNATIONAL  CORPORATIONS

151 106 151 106

32

32 countries  /  resisted  privately  owned  water  supply countries  /  private  owned  water  supply  Suez/Veolia/RWE countries  /  private  owned  water  supply  ENDED countries  /  private  owned  water  supply  MAJOR  ISSUES cities  /  private  owned  water  supply  ENDED cities  /  private  owned  water  supply  MAJOR  ISSUES countries  /  resisted  privately  owned  water  supply countries  /  private  owned  water  supply  Suez/Veolia/RWE countries  /  private  owned  water  supply  ENDED countries  /  private  owned  water  supply  MAJOR  ISSUES 34 cities  /  private  owned  water  supply  ENDED

CONTEXT EU WATER+INFRASTRUCTURE
With water infrastructure privatization in the late 1980’s in the EU – new geopolitical agreements between countries and corporations influenced the management of design and urban services as well resource agreements. For example, the function of water storage until 1990 was solved with the construction of water for other uses. With new commodification of infrastructure and the water within it, design of water structures exclusively for storage began. Through the re-appropriation of architecture in a metaphorical sense, a re-imagining of the disciplinary and professional commitments of ‘capital A’ Architecture to include traditional externalities of political, social, environmental, and various other mediated contents. In doing so, infrastructures becomes the site and subject. Seeking to re-animate architectural discourse with urban relevance. The twentieth century was witness to both an infrastructure boom and bust. It is the twenty-first century that will need to determine not only how to address ineffective infrastructures, but also new geopolitical and transnational situations and how to position new infrastructures and program that confront urgent issues of climate, sustenance, and politics. The opportunity for projecting a future infrastructure lies in bundling multiple processes with spatial experiences. This project aims to declare infrastructures as open systems, adaptive and responsive to environments and occupation of water territories. Operating at a territorial scale, the project creates new moments of social production and speculation. The design of infrastructure is therefore open and anticipatory. It has nothing to do with a specific message; rather, it is the design of the system that makes it possible to send any number of messages. It is for this reason that infrastructure is broadly democratic. It represents the investment by the state into systems that allow the movement and exchange of information, without specifying the content of that information or the range of movement. This is not to say that infrastructures are utopian; infrastructures are systems of control as well. They can be easily regulated by switches and checkpoints, and shut down when required. And the operation of infrastructural systems depends as much on maintaining separation as it does in establishing connections. Yet we know there is always something slightly out of control when infrastructures proliferate. The physical infrastructures of the twentieth century - those of roads, rail, sewage, water, air, data, amongst others - have tended to operate as singular and independent systems. The infrastructures of the twenty-first century must investigate relationships and transparencies - to the pairing of infrastructure and landscape, infrastructure and public amenities, infrastructure and architecture.

LONDON WATER SOURCE GEOGRAPHY

RWE VEOLIA SUEZ

EU COUNTRIES PRIVATE WATER EU COUNTRIES PUBLIC WATER

EU COUNTRIES

36

CONTEXT [EU] EUROPEAN UNION
The EU is a Nation State. The nation state is a state that self-identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a country as a sovereign territorial unit. The state is a geopolitical entity. The nation is a cultural entity. The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmentally made decisions negotiated by the member states. Because of this arrangement and scale proximity of the countries politics, resources, infrastructure, economics directly effect each regions based on other regions.

1

2

2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

London [United Kingdom] Copenhagen [Denmark] Stockholm [Sweden] Helsinki [Finland] Tallinn [Estonia] Riga [Latvia] Vilnius [Lithuania] Warsaw [Poland] Prague [Czech Republic] Vienna [Austria] Ljubljana [Slovenia] Bratislava [Slovakia] Budapest [Hungary] Bucharest [Romania] Sofia [Bulgaria] ATHENS [Greece] Rome [Italy] Madrid [Spain] Lisbon [Portugal] Paris [France] Brussels [Belgium] Amsterdam [Netherlands] Berlin [Germany] CAPITAL CITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

18 19

4

3

5

6 2

Copenhagen

7

22

23

8

21 9 10 12 13 11

20

14

17

15

16

38

CONTEXT WATER PRIVATIZATION
Over 75% of EU countries have privatized water infrastructure by transnational corporations. Under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Urban Services, cities with privatized urban services/infrastructure or water supply infrastructure control is dictated by the owning corporation. Due to the privatization and the ability for trans-national consortia to operate resources independent of government boundary. This is the new territory of urban water. Water from France imported to London completely bypass’s the French government. The corporations owns the spring, the corporation exports the water.

EU COUNTRIES PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY EU COUNTRIES PRIVATE WATER SUPPLY CAPITAL CITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

Copenhagen

40

CONTEXT WATER PRIVATIZATION
The most contested cases of anti-water privatization have occurred in four countries; Germany, France, Spain and England. Just a year ago Paris went through a long twentyyear de privatization process. The public demanded to take back their urban infrastructure. Recently cities such as Madrid and Barcelona have experienced droughts and needed to further privatize in order to provide adequate urban water infrastructures.
£ $ € ¥

re ctu tru ras

Inf ras tru ctu

Inf

Infrastructure

EU COUNTRIES PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY EU COUNTRIES PRIVATE WATER SUPPLY EU COUNTRIES PRIVATE WATER SUPPLY CONTESTED BY PUBLIC CAPITAL CITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

re

Copenhagen

42

CONTEXT WATER PRIVATIZATION
With failing economic states in the late 1980’s - urban water privatization provided a sound opportunity fir cities to improve and provide better services. Certain corporations have agreements and have drawn water boundaries between each.
£ $ € ¥

re ctu tru ras

Inf ras tru ctu

Inf

Infrastructure

re

RWE VEOLIA SUEZ CAPITAL CITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

Copenhagen

44

CONTEXT FLOWS INFRASTRUCTURE
The territory of water infrastructure also opens an expanded political repertoire. The most powerful players [governments/corporations] have the capacity to make water infrastructures, but equally important these infrastructures can escape nominative designations or documented events. As an action, it can remain undeclared and discrepant, and as a medium, it can determine what survives. The indeterminate space of water infrastructural flows can offer insight into understandings of how water, politics, and socialility can reprogram workings of our current society.

+

MAJOR TRASNNATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE FLOWS CAPITAL CITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

46

CONTEXT SPHERES OF INFLUENCE
London has one of the largest spheres of water space of EU capital cities. The sphere of water influence describes the geographic area of water need and thus invisible governance of water.

400 Miles 200 Miles 100 Miles 50 Miles

SPHERES OF PRIVATE WATER IMPACT SPHERES OF PRIVATIZATION IMPACT CAPITAL CITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

48

3B

TERRITORYWATER INFRASTRUCTURE:
TOWER
Curiously, infrastructure is a new word. The Oxford English Dictionary identifies its first use in 1927. The word only achieves real currency in the 1980s after the publication of a scathing public policy assessment entitled America in Ruins: The Decaying Infrastructure, which raised many of the issues raised here. To understand the technical systems that support a society roads, bridges, water supply, wastewater, flood management, telecommunications, gas and electric lines - as one category, it was first necessary to see it fail.is inherently architectural and design based. These should be the new issues of the architect in the urban environment, as these are the design questions that are emerging currently.

Control Point/Access Point

Infrastructure Border Condition

Although infrastructure has the inherent ability to understand itself as a continuous global complex and unchanging in physical disposition based on place, the typologies within the system change varying on environmental, social, and political conditions. These conditions stipulate how the water is transported, where the water and infrastructure need to be spatially placed in relation to source and urban area, and the differing policies which regulate the cleansing of water differently throughout the globe.

Water importation and filtration facility. Germany.

Thames Water Corporation main office. It also acts as a water tower.

50

3C

TERRITORY WATER SPACE: HUMAN AND
Globally, cities water supply systems operate in three systems of management. The first being a completely public system operated by public government agencies. The second system becomes a step between completely public governance to completely private governance. With the expansion of cities and industrial growth, cities sought to charter private government institutions to manage specific public functions of the urban water system. ‘Private partnerships‘ were established the growth of Public-Private Partnerships [PPP’s] in the delivery of essential services to urban residents which has been articulated as a form of decentralized service delivery that makes the water services more efficient and ultimately tries to bring governance structures closer to the people.1 The third and more recent phenomena is the complete privatization of water supply infrastructure which renders the governance of the system separate from the citizen and the urban municipality. These three systems of urban water governance are linear in their respective developments.
Currently due to the multiple systems of management and the development of how we consider water’s role in the urban environment, water is being revalued and re-presented as a scarce economic good. With this shift, the triangular relationships between the external provider, the state and the citizen - the three critical agents in the delivery of water - spatially provide new forms of political action with the ascent of the neo-liberal paradigm. In this discussion the external provider is the private transnational consortia operating out of self interest and transcending governmental/political boundaries of resource extraction and distribution. When the corporation is given the leading role in fostering connection between the citizen instead of the government, to mode of interaction is one of ‘customer management’ in order to alleviate and resolve the economic constraints facing the state as well as educating users to appreciate water as a ‘scarce ecological resource’. The relationship between town and nature - a key focus of political ecology - is significantly recast with the naturalization of scarcity and commodification of water.2 The outcome of this mode of governance when examined at a urban level deepens the struggle for ‘access to water’. Urban political ecology can provide useful critical tools for rethinking processes surrounding the politics of distribution and production of water.3 In addition key questions about the sociophysical production of water as socio-nature are often ignored in distributional debates but become more evident in the critical political.4 The triangular relationship between the service user, provider and state is mediated, strategized and routinized.

52

3D

TERRITORY SITE: EU + LONDON
The city has traditionally been analyzed as a contiguous urban space undergoing its own dynamics and problems. Since the mid-1980s, however, authors such as Harvey [1989], Castells [1996], and Sassen [1994, 2001] have started to forcefully include the dynamics of globalization in studying the city, claiming that it is now necessary to embrace a wider societal space to understand urban change. For these authors, globalization can be deconstructed as a worldwide ‘space of flows’, emerging into a network society and allowing a massive dispersal of flows of capital, information, and other physical streams around the world. And cities, conversely, have become sites where these new dynamics are re-centralized, serving as agglomeration centers where the space of flows is coordinated and managed. Sociologists claim that with globalization, major cities such as London, have become ‘nodes and hubs’ at the crossroads of global circuits of people, information, capital, and the goods that traverse them.
The site of this thesis is simultaneously the transnational territory of water infrastructure in its forms of extraction/movement/utility. The site is also that of the water tower. The place of operation in the urban environment. The site is the representation of a manifestation with a representation of the hydrological territory.

Water Imporatation by Tanker Water Imporatation by Pipeline

Wales Coryton

London Windsor

Paris

Arcachon

Marseilles

54

London’s Water Supply piping system. 11,360 Miles of Pipe from the Reservoir to the Tap.

1600 1400 1200 Length [miles] 1000 800 600 400 200 000 1800 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2 Inch Pipe 600 Miles

Decade Installed

252 Inch Pipe

2950 Miles

72 Inch Pipe

165 Miles

60 Inch Pipe

140 Miles

54 Inch Pipe

110 Miles

48 Inch Pipe

260 Miles

36 Inch Pipe [For Scale: Just so you know, this continues 1.5 In off the page]

175 Miles

30 Inch Pipe

150 Miles

24 Inch Pipe

220 Miles

20 Inch Pipe

550 Miles

16 Inch Pipe

220 Miles

12 Inch Pipe

1950 Miles

8 Inch Pipe

2600 Miles

6 Inch Pipe

600 Miles

56

Helsinki Stockholm Tallinn Riga Copenhagen Vilnius

London

Amsterdam Brussels

Berlin

Warsaw Prague Bratislava Vienna Budapest Bucharest

EU Country with Public Water Supply EU Country with Private Water Supply Countries Infrastructural Issues Due to Private Consortia

Paris

Ljubljana

Rome

Sofia

Lisbon

Madrid

Athens

London is simultaneously a city facing crisis due to continual growth of urban existence without recognition of the ecologically changing environment and contains strong political denial towards the social infrastructure of the city at various scales. Using London one can begin to understanding the conflicting impacts of human occupation and the situations sought to be subverted. Intertwining social and infrastructural functions would reveal invisible processes into the public realm and ability to humanize the lifeblood of our urban existences. The ironicism of London’s water supply is evident. Firstly, due to de-industrialization in London the city has to pump out 60 million gallons of ‘grey water’ a day to keep the city form flooding. Secondly due to the local geological composition, water does not filtrate far into the ground, thus a high water table. Thirdly, imported water come from three locations geographically, Wales, France and the Thames Estuary. The fascinating juxtaposition in this situation is that water come from these places due to the private corporations who own the aquifers subjected to transnational law, and upon arrival in London’s outer filtration plants the water is subjected to local law.

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.-/!, 0/1,-3!

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*,9-7)4*54673):-26;6/<

Importation happens by two means - taker ship and pipeline. The complexities of hydrospatiality are exemplified in this situation of convergence.

58

Managed by a Transnational Corporation

100%

Circular water retention fields in the desert. Egypt. NASA

Water Import within England Water Import from Wales Water Import from France

32%

66.5%

12.5%

Source: The 2010 Envoronmental Agency London Water Report

60

Current Ring Lines around London and their location to water towers.

62

64

4

SPECULATIONS The situations of urban water

are complex. Speculative discourse for design is great.

1

ABSTRACT
Transnational Spaces of Water

2

FLOWS
A Hydropolitical Morphology B Infrastructural Space of Water C Water as Commodity D Territorialization E Methodology

3

TERRITORY XXL
A Politics: Corporation + State + Citizenry B Infrastructure: Water Tower C Space: Human + Water D Site: EU + London

4

SPECULATIONS
A Urban Water Territories C Water Embassy D Water Vault

5

NOTES
Glossary Bibliography

66

CONTEXT CENTRE / PERIPHERY

68

PROGRAM CONCEPT
15% COR POR ATE P 15 singularity and autonomous enclave of The concept of the project is to first break the% 100 GO % orpo ERN water infrastructure importation at the LondonVBeckton Water Filtration Plant. CSecondly PRO ratio MEN n Ch GRA T PO am M: W Tham WE make a commentaryaton the political dynamics between theRcorporation, government and ber es W er E ater mba 30% ss public citizenry. This is doneyby mixing waterCimportation, filtration, and storage infra- Offices Publ E O i L G ICAL structure with public and political program. TheOconcept of a Water Embassy M c Meeting S best deTER inist pa RA fines new political contexts the project seeks to give to the IN public constituency. ry of Wate ce L OWE R r iving Mus eum Filtra tion/ 4 % An Embassy us usually denoted as the office0of a country’s diplomatic representativesoin Flo d Su Ecol INFR r ogci A T include the demanded transparency face the capital city. This embassy twists the programSto U al La R C ndsc Publ TUR ic W E and shift from governmental control to the actual situation - a control administered byr ape ate Acce ss the government but controlled by the corporation. Urba n Wa ter M eter Wate The form becomes the action. r Sto rage

The public citizenry infiltrate.

Beckton Filtration / Storage Plant Greater London Authority Offices Thames Water Corporation Offices

City of London

Greater London Airport BECKTON WATER PLANT LONDON UK GREATER LONDON AUTHORITY / THAMES WATER

1 Existing

2 Existing

Blank City Canvas

Add Programatic Elements to City

3 Existing

4 Existing

Elements become Secure / Private Functions

Enclave Condition and Non-Transparent

5 New

6 New

Break Enclave + Programmatic Seperation

Mix Program in Urban Centre + Create Public Awareness

GOVERNMENT COMPLEX TRANS-NATIONAL CORPORATION COMPLEX INFRASTRUCTURAL COMPLEX

70

OMA

CENTRALIZED WATER STATION AT BECKTON

THAMES BARRIER PARK

72

PROGRAM HYBRID PROGRAM
15% COR POR 15% GOV ERN 100 % PRO GRA M: W ater

ATE P

OWE

R Corp

orati on C ham Tham ber es W Emb ater 30% assy Offic es Publ ECO ic M L ee The Water Embassy redefines the embassy as an OGICAL TE no longer exclusively dedi-ting Sp institution Mini RRA ac stry of W cated to the representation of politics, but as an information IN store where all potent formsater e Livin g Mu of flows—new and old—are presented equally and legibly. In an age where resources seum Filtra tion/ 40% and larger territorialities of infrastructure are transnational, it is the simultaneity of gov-lood F Surf Ecol INFR ace ogci A curatorship of their content through ernments and corporations, more importantly, the STRU al La ndsc Publ CTU c Wa E public means that make this new redefinition of embassyRvital - a new coupling of iinfra-r A ape te cces s structure and architecture. Urba n Wa ter M eter Wate r Sto rage MEN T PO WER

Beckton Filtration / Storage Plant Greater London Authority Offices Thames Water Corporation Offices

City of London

Greater London Airport LONDON UK

Blank City Canvas

Add Programatic Elements to City

3 Existing

4 Existing

Elements become Secure / Private Functions

Enclave Condition and Non-Transparent

1

15% COR POR

5 New

100 % PRO GRA

M: W ater

Emb

assy

OWE R 15% 6 New GOV ERN MEN T PO WER 30% ECO LOG ICAL TER RAIN

ATE P

Break Enclave + Programmatic Seperation

GOVERNMENT COMPLEX TRANS-NATIONAL CORPORATION COMPLEX INFRASTRUCTURAL COMPLEX

orati on C ham Tham ber es W ater Offic es Publ ic M eetin g Sp Mini ace stry of W ater Livin g Mu seum Filtra tion/ 40% Fl Public ood Sur INFRMix Program in Urban Centre + Create Ecolo Awarenessc fa e gcia AST l Lan RUC Publ dsca TUR ic W pe E ater Acce ss Urba n Wa ter M eter Wate r Sto rage

Corp

B

3

Beckton Filtration / Storage Plant Greater London Authority Offices Thames Water Corporation Offices

74

PROGRAM URBAN CONCEPT

NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY VS CORPORATE SOVEREIGNTY

76

SITE LONDON CENTRAL

SITE + GLA

THAMES WATER

BECKTON FILTRATION PLANT

78

SITE LONDON CENTRAL

TANKER CAPACITY IN THAMES

CITY HALL RAIL TO PARIS

S

S RIVER

MARKETS

L

SITE

80

SITE LONDON
1 LONDON’S HYDROLOGY 50 Million Gallons a day are pumped out of London’s subterranean

2 LONDON’S WATER London imports 3 Billion Gallons of water per day

ENGLAND

FRANCE

WALES

82

84

4A

SPECULATIONS URBAN WATER TERRITORIES
En lieu of the framework and parameters set up in previous sections, the first of three speculative projects in the redefining of political and corporate boundary based off water tower locations. The water tower not only represents a typology within the water infrastructure system - it also acts in territorial fashion - an access node of the larger system which represents a place within the territory of hydrospatiality. What if architectural exploitation of the water tower typology could provide a framework to rethink districting urban environment based off water locations and proximity thus informing the citizens of greater knowledge about the infrastructural system and political processes.

86

4B

SPECULATIONS WATER EMBASSY
The water embassy is possibly the most cohesive speculation considering the complex framework and parameters set up in this project. This speculation creates and architecture which allows the public to undermine the corporate flows of control. Working with the transnational spaces of London’s water sources this construct would appoint water diplomats from all regions were water is extracted. These diplomats are public citizens. The water tower becomes architectural precedent. The embassy would create a verticality of program commenting on power structures while simultaneously working horizontally to represent the flow of liquid infrastructures.

88

4C

SPECULATIONS WATER VAULT
The water vault is the essential absurdity of transnational private consortia’s interface with public governance. The speculation proposes an architecture which completely embraces the wall condition - instead of in the ground or within city fabric - it hovers above the city for all to see. Importing daily the freshest water, it is transparently imported into the architecture delving in into an unclear ambiguous, but completely total control of the water system. The vault becomes an airlifted enclave. It becomes absurd and rude - yet completely beautiful in our current condition.

90

5

NOTES are the modern Liquid flows
city. Design for the absurd.

1

ABSTRACT
Transnational Spaces of Water

2

FLOWS
A Hydropolitical Morphology B Infrastructural Space of Water C Water as Commodity D Territorialization E Methodology

3

TERRITORY XXL
A Politics: Corporation + State + Citizenry B Infrastructure: Water Tower C Space: Human + Water D Site: EU + London

4

SPECULATIONS
A Urban Water Territories C Water Embassy D Water Vault

5

NOTES
Glossary Bibliography

92

5

NOTES GLOSSARY
Access The ability to inhabit an area/space granted by an individual or group. Activism Action by groups, agencies or individuals using processes to influence change by disrupting the status quo and revealing better visions for society. City The physical fabric of ‘urban’ processes embodying the geographic, political, cultural, social and economic. Community The ability for a collection of individuals to form a cohesive grouping supported by other systems, networks, infrastructures. Control The ability to manipulate access and direct movements/flows within every aspect of society. When control fail, crisis takes over. Corporatism The aggregation of non-human systems of management into a collective body Crisis A decisive moment when tensions or instabilities peak and change becomes inescapable. Crisis demands adjustment in perception and in modes of action. Dehumanization The process of stripping away human qualities, such as denying others their individuality and self-esteem.

Ecology Relationships between living organisms and their non-living counterparts. Emergent In the process of coming into being. A pattern or condition of new significance. Citzenry The many people on our planet who exist in urban environments. Event A moment in time which defines place. Globalization The making possible of international influence. Spatial Relating to space or a network of spaces. Network A series of dependent systems of environmental, land-use, communication and service directories. Networks consists of nodes [communities] and vectors {routes]. Nonhuman Upon treating human characteristic as a product, the result is a reduction, thus nonhuman. Territory An area of knowledge, activity or land which is governed by a jurisdictional entity or institution. A political situation which has physical manifestations. Urban The process which support, govern and run the ‘city’. Water A flowing substance consisting of two elements, hydrogen and oxygen. It is also a term full of ambiguity and illustrates the complexity of modern day existence - both psychologically and physically.
94

5

NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY
Boelens, Luuk. The Urban Connection: An Actor-Relational Approach to Urban Planning. 010 Publishers, 2009. Print. Berman, Marshall. All That is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity. Simon and Schuster, 1982. Print. Cauter de, Lieven. The Smithsons: The Independent Ensemble of an Urban Model, the Rise of the Mobility Society, from Utopia to Heteroptopia. Archis 2, 2000. Print. Czerniak, Julia and Hargreaves, George. Large Parks. Princeton Architectural Press, 2007. Print. Ghosn, Rania. New Geographies 02 Landscapes of Energy. Harvard University Press, 2010. Print. Gould, Stephen. The Pandas Thumb: More Reflections on Natural History. New York WW Norton, 1980. Print. Kemp, Petra. You Are The City. Lars Muller Publishers, 2001. Print. Knechtel, John. Alphabet City : Water. MIT Press, 2009. Print. Kolind, Hanne. Nature Strikes Back: Man and Nature in Western Art. Narayana Press, 2009. Print. Lefebvre, Henri. Critique of the Everyday Life. Verso Publishing, 2008. Lefebvre, Henri with Rabinovitch, Sacha. Everyday Life in the Modern World. The Athlone Press, 2000. Print Maria, Kaika. City of Flows: Modernity, Nature and the City. Routledge, 2005. Print. Mendez, Ana. UrbanAccion. Impresores, 2009. Print.

Escobar, A. [1995] Encountering Developments. Princeton NJ. Princeton University Press. Print. Dean, M. [1999] Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: Sage. Print. Starr, P. [1988] The Meaning of Privatization. Yale Law and Policy Review, 6: 6-41. Print. Lefebvre, H. [1996] The Production of Space. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Print Pirie, M. [1988] Privatization, Theory, Practice and Choice. Aldershot: Wildwood House. Print. Harvey, D. [1996] Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Print.t. Swyngedouw, E. [1997] Power, Nature, and The City: The Cnquest of Water and the Political Ecology of Urbanization. Environmental Planning A, 29. Print. Maria, Kaika. City of Flows: Modernity, Nature and the City. Routledge, 2005. Print. Mendez, Ana. UrbanAccion. Impresores, 2009. Print. Mostafavi, Mohsen with Doherty, Gareth. Ecological Urbanism. Lars Muller Publishers, 2010. Ramos, Stephen and Turan, Neyran. New Geographies 01 After Zero. Harvard University Press, 2009. Print. Viljoen, Andrew. CPUL’s: Continous Productive Urban Landscapes. Architectural Press, 2005. Print. Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity, Wiley-Blackwell, London. Print.
96

?

LIQUID INFRASTRUCTURE
Liquid infrastructures aims to examine the emergence of the infrastructural - to articulate it and bring it to bear effectively on the social role and agency within design. Designers are increasingly being compelled to shape larger contexts and scales, to address questions related to infrastructure, urban and ecological systems, cultural and regional issues. These questions which have been associated to the confines of other domains require design engagement and articulation. Analysis in architecture, landscape, urbanism and planning of emergent urban morphologies and global changes on the spatial dimension - comes by way of social anthropology, human geography, economics and political networks. Liquid infrastructures is interested in extending these arguments by asking how design can have a more active role and transformative impact on the forces shaping contemporary urban realities. The delicate relationship between the physical and social, form and context, the very large and very small - it is important to explore the formal repertoire of the architecture and the agency of the designer within the wider contexts which produce the built environment and subsequently shape society.

The physical infrastructures of the twentieth century such as roads, rail, sewage, water, air, data, amongst others - have tended to operate as singular and independent systems. The infrastructures of the twenty-first century, if they are to respond to impending urgencies with respect to resources and global densification of the urban environment, must investigate relationships and transparencies - to the pairing of infrastructure and landscape, infrastructure and public amenities, infrastructure and architecture.

Liquid infrastructure utilizes water to illustrate and examine the flows that administer the this process: flows of social power, labor, information, capital, and resources that produce the contemporary urban landscape.

98

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