The Apollo and Soyuz Spacecraft | Soyuz (Spacecraft) | Apollo (Spacecraft)

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NASA TECHNICAL TRANSLATION

NASA TT F-16371

THE SOYUZ AND APOLLO SPACECRAFT I. Yudin

_ g? _:: _-

(NASA-TT-F-16371) SPACECRAFT HC $3.25 (Kanner

THE

SOYUZ

AND

APOLLO 22 CSCL p 22B G3/12

N75-23622

":_. ":

(Leo)

Associates)

Unclas 22151

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Translation of "'Soyuz' i 'Apollon' Korabli," Nauka i Zhizn' No. 3 March 1975, pp. 36-43

;_ '_ _: _

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20546 JUNE 1975

i, i

j,

STANDARD TITLE PAGE
|. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Reciptent's Catalog No.

NASA
i

TT..F-i6_71
5. Report Dote

4. Title and Subtitle

THE
7. Autborls)

SOYUZ

AND APOLLO

SPACECRAFT

June_ 1975 6. eerforoingOrga.i.ationCod.
8. Performing Organization Report No.

I. Yudln
:_ " _ 9. Performing Organization Name and Address

10. WorknltNo. U
11. Co'Director Grant No.

NASw-2481
,3. Type ofReportend PeriodCovered

Leo Kanner Associates
Redwood
12. Sponsoring

City,
Name and

California
Address

94063 Ad20546

Translation 14. _...o.i.0 Cod. A,.ncy

Agency

National ministration,
15. Supp|ementary

Aeronautics and Space Washington, D.C.

Notes

Translation of "'Soyuz' i 'Apollon' Korabli" l_auka i Zhizn' No. 3 March 1975, pp. 36--43

16. Abstract

The Soyuz and Apollo spacecraft as well as the docking module are extensively described by Correspondent I. Yudin. The exterior structure and interior design of the Soyuz spacecraft are described section by section. The Apollo and the docking module are described in similar detail. A twopage cutaway drawing illustrating both spacecraft and the flight program is included; six detailed cutaway diagrams of the Soyuz and Apollo interiors are also included. All diagrams include dozens of nomenclature designations.

17. Key Words(SMe©ted by Author(s))

18. Distribution Statist

Unclassified

._ .' 19. Security Clestif. (of this rape,t) _[0. Security Cle|sif. (of thil page) 21. No. of

,,

Pages

22.

Price

Unc las sified

Unc lass ifled

22
,.

NASA.HQ

"/

THE _

SOYUZ

AND APOLLO I. Yudin

SPACECRAFT

_i _i _
e

On July 15, 1975, a Joint experimental flight of the Soviet /36* spacecraft the Soyuz and the American Apollo spacecraft is planned. It is conducted on the basis of an agreement between the USSR and the USA on coordination in research and use of outer space for peacefu] purposes. This is the first joint flight of spacecraft from different countries. The technical director of the Soyuz-Apollo project on the Soviet side, Associate Member _ of the AN SSSR [Akademiya nauk USSR, Academy of Sciences of tDe USSR], Konstantin Davydovich Bushuyev, has already d_scussed in _ Journal the requirements which must be met by the craft for carrying out the joint space experiments and for giving help to each other (see the article "Cooperation in Space," in Nauka i zhizn, No. 4, 1973). Here we offer to take the reader on a tour of the Soyuz and Apollo to become f_mi!ar with their devices, and also with those changes which are being made in their structure in connection with the coming experiment.

_ _

i

) joint

Very

little

time

remains

before

the

beginning in the Soyuz

of the meantime

first the

Soviet-American which

space

experiment.

But

spacecraft

are to meet taking

in space--the

and

the Apollo, at the

are on Earth. spacecraft and

And,

advantage

of this, closely

let us look with them.

acquaint

ourselves

more

Before on the general
J

our excursion principles

begins,

let us say a few words, manned spacecraft.

literally,

of planning

The " parts,

structure

of the entire by conditions

spacecraft, of space

and

each

of its

is determined

flight.

On board,

the artificial atmosphere must be constantly meteor and radiation protection, dissipation _ of the vehicle. In orbit, the spacecraft

renewed, must provide of heat from the surface due to inertia

flies

*Numbers [, r

in the margin

indicate

pagination

in the

foreign

text.

1

//

'

?

]_

without for not This

loss

of energy,

comparable

to a weightless of flight

body.

However,

changing only

its trajectory energy

or velocity but also must and

it is necessary mass. jet
-r

to expend that the

to discard have

a certain

means

spacecraft

adequately from

powerful it.

engines

for maneuvering the position

in orbit

for exit

In order it

to change

of the spacecraft

in space, or to put necessary

another way, to orient it, jet engines are also J.n truth, with considerably smaller thrust •

though, _

The :

shape

of the spacecraft in space to the and

is determined in the ship,

by the conditions In truth, part the _

of its flight latter will applies

both not

atmosphere. but only

whole

to that

which ¢

rotate

around

the Earth.

The re-entry possible. surface flows

unit

of the this

spacecraft permits from

mu_t

be as compact the area of large

as

:

In particular, which must

decreasing the effects must

of the heat

be protected The

during

re-entry.

spacecraft parachutes of all

be as light for

as landing• of the of volume cross from

possible : Beside

if only when

for the giant the shape try

necessary

selecting

the compartments a maximum ratio of the

spacecraft, to area section meteors

the designers

to obtain

of the mid

section,

that This

is, to the area permits

of the module. in orbit.

decreasing

danger

There weight

also

exist due

certain to For one

general the

limitations energy

in ratio

of

to volume into

large

losses

on putting

the units to have and the
(

orbit.

kilogram

of weight

it is suitable weight, around

a load

of approximately each

25 kilograms kilogram data

of starting into

the cost Earth

for putting

of weight as 1500

orbit

is evaluated

by American

dollars•

<

The It replaced

Soyuz the

spacecraft legendary

is a multipurpose Vostok and Voskhod

space and

orbital its

craft. own new

marked

:

7
i

J

J_

_r

stage

in the development have completed

of manned many

spacecraft.

The

Soviet including such as /37

cosmonauts

flights

on the Soyuz

group flights and have search, program tests approach

also

worked

out complex have

elements fulfilled

and docking research multiple the

in orbit, and

a broad have basis in the made

of scientific and developed together with the

technical

experiments, was the

systems.

The Soyuz space

for putting world; and

first

experimental

station

creation for

of the Salyut equipping

station

is utilized crews. of spaceand an i

as the transport

craft

it and delivering type ship

The Soyuz was developed by designers as a special craft combining in it the elements of a transport orbital and station. And now with it has still another from

task--rendezvous country. . ,

docking

in orbit

a spacecraft

another

We are at the test-installation called for short the MIK The

command

at the spaceport, korpus, test-in-

[Montazhno-ispytatel'nyy Soyuz stands other. vertically. There are

stallation appear

command].

Its modules three of them.

to be stacked

one on the

Slowly around the

moving

upward

along our

the

forest

of the assembly

stand

ship we begin

excursion

on the Soyuz.

Before cylindrical into three

us is the instrument-system shape with an end skirt and smaller of the sections: transfer most transfer, section, of the

module. It has a the structure is divided instrument and of the system. center

!

On a girder of mass
r

in the area

of the

ship, are

engines

fcr mocring

and orientation

located.

The supply

aggregate

of systems and

of temperature radio telemetry

regulation, equipment,

electrical in-

radio

communication

struments thing 1 i ditions which that

for the orientation is needed

and movement with

control

systems--everysuitable con-

for operating

particularly scaled

is included the shape

in the hermetically of a cylinder.

instrument

section

has

3

i

:

' I

-4-

o

_

In the in orbit and

systems braking

sections during

is an engine re-entry hydraulic batteries. of the

unit

for correction

.

engines systems

for mooring for temperature and duplicate set-up of the "
2

and orientation, _ regulation, gine Soyuz. Ing and with

fue] tanks, storage

on_oard thrust

A basic engine

en-

400 kg are part there thrust

On the

spacecraft with

are

14 engines

for moorand 8 for of the

orientation with

of 13 kg each

orientation _ransfer and

thrust

1.5

kg each.

On the outside one sees

instrument-system system heat for

sections heat

a large

ribbed It and < ._

radiator-emitter "throws by the off"

regulation by the

of the vehicle. equipment on board

excess

generated

elements

of the

structure.
q

Solar _ are attached storage ment

batteries to the

with

useful

area

of a_out module.

9 square Along with

meters the

instrument-system provide The

batteries the

they

electrical voltage

energy

to the

equipon board is

on board about

Soyuz.

for the circuits

direct,

27 volts.

Outside

the instrument-system radio systems:

module

are mounted

antennas of

for the various the crew with

radio-telephone wavP and short

communication wave ranges, the

Earth

in ultrashort radio is used

trajectory optical At the flying used

measurements, which

telemetry during solar

systems.

Here

equipment edges lights

approach batteries

is located. are mounted which are the

/38

of the

panels

of the

for orientation, alongside

white, and

red

and green, of ships.

during

coming

docking

Several module which

sensors come

are

also mounted system "for

in the

instrument-system movement of the

into

the

for controlling (a second

spacecraft: "for boost" ' constructing o_ Earth and

an ion sensor is located the local

braking"

ion sensor for

in the vertical

orbital

module), to

a sensor infrared

according

radiation

a solar

sensor

for orientation

by the

Sun.

4

" i

6

V''_

I L

I

_ _" i i_ I I

_

(_ . A!/

_ / /

_

We continue to go up along the stand and come to the re-entry unit which often is called the cosmonauts' the command cabin. room, This the is

operating

place for the crew trolling the craft / _

when conin flight.

i _ i _. I__

going into orbit and rotating around Earth, and here the basic control panels are ioThe crew is located i_ere when cated.

_° ! _ ' _ _

In the re-entry Figure i. Re-entry Unit of the Soyuz Spacecraft: 1--Optical vlsual-orientor; 2--Instrument panel; 3--Tele-camera; 4--Command signal device; 5--Television lamp; 6--Hatch access; panel 7--Hatch control; 8--Control for radio s_ations; 9--Port hole; 10--Instruments and systems for life support; ll--The cosmonaut's armchair; 12--Control sticks, of the "run ve].ocity vector of Earth" surface are comparatively

unit

there

few parts:

two portholes with heat-resistant glass, an optical viewfinder with which one can observe another spacecraft during rendezvous docking, and also termining according the and for devertical

._ _

i i

local

and direction Earth." ooints example,

to the

"run of of for

By the

we mean

the visible

movement if,

of the Earth's they move

on the viewflnder this

scrpen; means

strictly

up and down, forward. are the

the vehicle part for around of the re-

is oriented entry ,_ unit,

with

the nose

part

In the lower six engines

around they

its circumference operate when

orientation; Earth.

only

snip

is in oroit

,_

Turn

your

attention,

if you please,

to the different

shapes

of

the re-entry units of the Vostok in which Yu. A. Gagarin flew and the Soyuz: the first has a spherical shape, the second is in a shape which reminds one of a headlight. Making this is not

¢ J

! simple: gravity, lift / ! rotation is made by the same engines for orientation which are mounted in the housing of the launch unit. All this, besides a more load precise factor landing, permitted a considerable (from decrease _--i0 to in the 3--4 units)

such

a shape,

with

a certain unit

position

of the center with

of

_

provides during

the #e-entry flight

of the

Soyuz

aerodynamic is regulated The ! : i

force

in the atmosphere around

Its size

by the rotation

of the unit

its longitudinal

axis•

for the #e-entry

trajectory

_

On the entire exterior of the re-entry unit, a heat high-strength coating is applied, and the lower part, ible ing, to the greatest is protected after intensity of aerodynamic shield. heat during

resistant susceptlaunchis Jetunit in place propellant the there are are _

_t _ ,! _ • ; ,

by a heat-protective opens, shield

This

shiela

tisone_ during at the engines touchdown

the parachute When the

lightening

the re-entry been mounted solid

landing. bottom

has not yet one can

of the re-entry landing In the over the

unit

see the

for a soft itself. covers main

which upper

are part

switched

on before unit

of the re-entry where the

2 ejection located--the

sections and

narachutes

parachute

the reserve.

Let us go still modules crew From and spherical

higher. fairly

Now we come impressive

to a ser_es dimensions.

of orbital Here the /39

with

rests this during

and also same

carries the

out certain crew transfers

scientific

experiments• spacecraft,

section

to the other and

flight

of the Soyuz-4 and

spacecraft use_

the Soyuz-5 locking hemisphere

cosmonauts '; chamber of the i
k

Yu. Khunov going out

A. Yeliseyev open space.

it as the

when

into is the

On the upper the new

orbital

module

frame

on which

androgynous

docking

equipment

is mounted.

i ! li

hatch

The orbital module has two observation portholes, a side for landing the crew in the spacecraft and a lower hatch to the re-entry unit.

for transfer

lr

!

L

r

w_

I
z

Figure 2. Orbital Section of the Soyuz Spacecraft. Left side: 1--Docking unit; 2--Control block for the docking system; 3--Control wheel for the lock cover; 4--Directional probe of the docking unit; 5--Telecamera; 6--Television lamp; v--Circulating ventilator; 8--First-aid set; 9--Food rations; 10--Heater for food; II--A split flap for controlling the hermetic seal of docking and sections of the ship; 12--Orbital module panel; 13--Equipment for personal hygiene; 14--Container for instruments; 15--Grlll on the opening for output of air from the heat exchange-condenser; 16--Folding table; !7--Manual pump for evacuating the condenser; 18 and 22--Hatches for access to the sewage disposal device;

19--Drinking device; 20--Safety block; 21--Manual pump for the water supply system; 23--Handrail; 24--Movle camera; 25--Telecamera of the Apollo. Right side: 26--Lamp for working illumination; 27--Gas analyzer; 28--Recording tape; 29--Stowage for space suit hoses; 30--Container for waste; 31-Cover of the landing hatch; 32--Protective grid; 33--Handle for opening the hatch cover; 34--Container for flight documentation; 35--Bracket for the Apcl!o telecamera; 36--Foldin_ _h_t_r; 37--Container for scientific equipment; 38--Distribution box; 39--Porthole; 40--Stowage for space suits.

', _ !

_

_ i

The

cosmonauts after

can be in the orbital the craft _oes into

module--whlch orbit. unit, This there when the

its name module are nb h@atthe ship

explains--only does not have

the strength in it. Earth;

of the re-entry This the

resistant is rotating system, • , dense

portholes around

is not required module, unit

orbital

like

instrumentinto the

is separated

from the _e-entry up.

and upon

entry

atmosphere

burns

Having craft will hatch walls with

completed look

our exterior

inspection

of

the Soyuz Here

spacewe

we will move into from the

now at its working down and we'll Here

accommodations. go first there are through light

the top orbital

the entrance

module. this word

spacious covered

(if one can use soft decorative are

for shperical Along

surfaces)

material. attached

the walls, which the

approximately cosmonauts can on which

at head hold

level,

handrails

in order

to move rest,

in weightlessness. with belts attached

Here almost

is a couch like and

the cosmonauts Inside

an airplane. purifying the _'
m

the couch

is located

a unit

for renewing

atmosphere, ment

instruments On the with

for the left si_e

orientation we

system

and stand;

for movein with

control.

see a small (30 liters)

it is a container food, Radio tances the flight

drinking kit,

water

a container hygiene. dis-

flrst-ald for voice

equipment

for personal and

equipment between

communication is also

for measuring A small

spacecraft

located

here. Here

fold-

ing table will greet

is attached their

to the from

stand. the Apollo.

the cosmonauts

guests

In the orbital camera, mission) Directly can go lights, deviccs

module and

there

are

a television

camera,

movie

basic

supplementary food,

(for television with

trans-

for heating

containers

instruments. which the one of

overhead--is into the

the hatch

cover,

the door docking. ransfer

through Under manhole

neighboring screen,

sh_p after protected

feet

the protective It leads

is the unit.

hatch.

to the re-entry

\

T

I

We raise ourselves somewhat into of a

the screen, th_ command pilot's (in the

open room

the

cover

of the

hatch

and

lower one are _"

of the Soyuz. in an airplane. chair

It reminds Here

cockpit center

there

two armchairs

is the

for the

commander,

the right of it--for the flight of them--an instrument board.

engineer),

and directly

in :_ont

To the cal KSU command with

rJght

and

left

of the

instrument

board

are

two

identl-

[Komandno-signal'nyy signal devices.

ustroystva, manual commands

command

signal

devices]-"_

Under

control are

of the given

spacecraft

their

help,

the necessary equipment, the both and

for operation commands can be or with of the ship, is of "" /40 is L

of the automatic ,ontrolled. done

the passage of the

of these spacecraft devices

Controlling with

systems

simultaneously one of them. commander

command-signal control

either

For manual

of movement

the crew

has two levers

on his chair:

the right the

for control for orientation its mass, during the left--for

of the spacecraft forward

around

center

changing

speed

of the spacecraft

maneuvering.

The re-entry modations. range flight 160--270 Here

unit the

and the

orbital

module

are

the living

accom-

temperature general

of the air

is maintained during

in a

of 20_5 ° C, the 760_i00

air pressure with

autor_atlc pressure,

mm, mercury

column,

partial

oxygen

mm, mercury

column.

The total meters. The

volume

of the habitable in them which

section

in about

l0 cubic unit

atmosphere module after re-entry unit.

is cleansed

by a purifying basic.

in the orbital on immediately for

is considered Foes

It is switched In the works in

the

spacecraft landing,

Into orbit. unit

sections the

and

a purifying

re-entry

The through

air

in the

purifying

unit

goes

from

the

living

sections

a ventilator'.

It is pur_fled

of carbon

r,_onoxlde, dust,

9

• o!_'_f

k

.

l

°

and off

is enriched the unit are

with given

oxygen. by the

The gas

signals analyzer

for

switching

on and

which monoxide of

continuously and water these vapor

measures in are the

the content atmosphere of

of oxygen, the craft.

carbon The

results

measurements

fea to the

cosmonauts'

control

panel.

:

The

temperature

and humidity

of the

air

in the by the

living

sections

of the Soyuz condenser. placed moisture out

are maintained

at given

limits

heat-exchanger pipes are

It is a llquld-alr wicks into for

radiator

between From

whose

porous goes

sampling

moisture.

the w_ )ks, the pumped ._ .-

a moisture For

sampler;

it is periodically with

by a manual through

pump.

cooling

the air

the ventilator

it goes

the llquid-air

radiator.
J:

The flight

American

spacecraft

which

will

participate

in the

Joint _"

with

our Soyuz created block

spacecraft,

is a modified astronauts modules:

basic

Apollo moon. and frame /_

spacecraft The

earlier combines

for landing two basic the

on the command

spaceship

service.

In the present additional

model, plug

structure have

of the dockin_ been mounted compartments'.

is modified;

connection of flight at this

on it, cnanglng location docking developed this

tne postition cabin

stowage

The

of the lunar cabin or_to

time

is replaced

by a new

put

it another by the

way, a transfer American side

section especially for

and manufactured

flight.

In distinction osmonauts the same breathe

from the air

Soviet

manned

spacecraft pressure American

where

the

_

(its composition

and

approximately spacecraft oxygen _ to not /41

as on Earth) the

the atmosphere Mercury, Gemini,

for all

is artiflcial--on with • gas pressure agreed

Apollo,

it is pure

0.35--0.38 that with

atmospheres. manned

Recently equipment

the American it is best ThlS

specialists have only

for future the

_natmosphere decreases for the

compositiCn of fire

of that

on Earth.

the danger crew of

but also from

makes

it considerably countries

easier

spacecraft

different

i0

a

, _

/

Figure 3. Basic Block of the Apollo Spacecraft: 1--Braking parachutes; 2, 3, 5 and 13--Orientation engines; 4--Storage compartment; C--Block for auxiliary engines; ?--Fuel tanks for crulsin_ propulsion unit; 8--Cruising propulsion unit; 9-Service module; 10--Tanks wlth hydrogen and oxygen for fuel elements; ll-Hydrogen-oxygen fuel elements in the service module; 12--Tank with drinking wator; 14--Flre extinguisher; 15--Fuel tanks for the englne_ of the orientation s_stem of the command module; 16--Sectlon for storage of food products; 17--Locatlon of the spacecraft commander; 18--Baslc parachutes; 19--Locatlon of the pi±ot of the basic block; 20--Location of the pilot for the docking (transfer) module; 21--Docklng plntle.

_

to cooperate in the first

i_ space. Joint

However,

this

Is work of the will out

for the

future from

and one

flight

for transfer chamber

cosmonauts be needed by the

s_acecraft Izlng

to another

a special will

for equal-

_ressure. module

Its role in the

be carried

docking

(transfer)

Apollo.

Thus, of three

the

spacecraft modules:

;pollo command,

In this service

flight and

w111

be made (*ransfer).

ut,

basic

dockln_

11

OR!G AL PAO
OP POOR QUALIT_
, o_'e X =

I

t

If one presents command module There module of is the no

an analogy

with

our Soyuz

spacecraft,

the

of the Apollo Soyuz, the for

will

correspond with the module

to the re-entry

service our orbital

instrument-system. on the Apollc.

analogy

;

For our excursion command entire rest module. flight

on the Apollo

,,,e will will

begin

with

the

The American start

astronauts

be here

for the work and out of

from

to rotation will

around the

Earth, will spacecraft,

here.

From

here

they

control

carry shape

scientific _ a cone smaller with

research

and

experiments. top;

The

module actually

has the consists the

'k

a rounded

off the

its frame

of three

compartments:

forward

compartment, compartment.

compartment

for the crew

and the rear,

or bottom

i

The through craft.

forward which the

compartment American

is built astronauts

around will

the

hatch to our space-

transfer

At the entrance unit with of the p2n-cone

to this type

hatch

is mounted the

a removable module

docking

connecting is on

transfer but the

the Apollo. Tnepintle module.

the Apollo

cone--on

the

transfer

During part

re-entry

before compartment

opening

the parachutes

the

upper the and which

of the forward located

is separated, for

disclosing

equipment pilot keep i after

here: the

dischargers

firing

the braking balloons,

parachutes, the command landing

basic and

parachutes, other devices

inflatable

module

in a vertical

position

on the water.

The sealed

center

part

of the command A row of three chair

module chairs folds

contains are

the hermetically on shock the

crew

cabin.

suspended

absorbers ! start and 12
P

in it; the center

so that before the

it is easier

for the astronauts operate with optical

to check

equipment, The American

in flight--to

instruments.

L
! 8

astronauts
J

take

turns

sleeping hammock.

in the left In the

armchair chair,

which

is outtne

fitted joint pilot ' docking

with flight

a suspended will

left

during

be the ship block and

commander,

and in the middle--the pilot for the

for the main module.

in the right--the

In the crew's

cabin

there

are

several

control

panels:

the

main panel--in front of the commander's chair, the auxiliary-to the right and behind. Control of the spacecraft in flight carried out using the panel of instruments. Checking

is

the oper-

ation of the systems before starting and in flight instruments from one of the auxiliary panels. The equipment of the food is located chairs at the and base of the them center

is done by navigational To the reserve side

_

chair. are

outside

behind

in cupboards

and

scientific

equipment.
<

As in the re-entry module of the Soyuz, all for the command module of the Apollo is arrange_ that certain the Using

of the equipment so _

the center of mass of the compartment lies at a distance from the longitudinal axis. As a result, when module enters the atmosphere the a specified module lift force occurs.

the orientation

motors,

command

rotates

around per-

its longitudinal axis, changes its angle of attack, and this mits carrying out the necessary maneuvers for leaving orbit.

Usually But measures land. when :

the command have been

module

of the Apollo in case side

enters

the

water. on dry which

} _

adopted

the module it has the

lands

In order hitting

to do this

on one and

probes shock

the Earth

crumple

decrease

loads.

And

i

so that the module will hit on these straps are attached unsymmetrically.

projections,

the parachute
} c

!

The an escape module

8stronauts hatch

enter

the

crew

cabin

and

leave

it through (locking) a tunnel

_

in the side flight

wall. they

In the transfer will move through

during

the Joint

I

13

i

:

_

and

lock

in the upper two

part

of the cabin. and

_here

are

four

windows

it the cabin:

in front

two on the side.

Under _

the

crew's

cabin,

in

the

rear

or

bottom

ccmpartment, the are

there are i0 of the 12 Jet engines mounted, which control spatial position of the craft during re-entry (two engines the and forward compartment) and here the cylinders with compressed for the drinking water. are gas

in

i

located the tanks with fuel from all 12 engines, the
.J

containers

The windows _ are

entire

surface

of the

command

module

(except

for the systems) plastic with part
t

and nozzles

of the engines

for the orientation made of glass

,,

covered

by heat-protective The greatest

shields

removable

filling.

thickness

is in the bottom

more than 6 cm.

Using , ,

the transfer

structure,

the command

module

is Joined !

°
)

with the cylindrical service (or as it is called engine) module. The distribution of the command and service modules occurs before entry into the dense which layers of the the atmosphere elements using of the exconnective

plosive

charges

simply

destroy

structures.

In
;
t

the

service
batteries

module
which

are

mounted
the

the

cruise

propulsion
with electrical

unit

fuel

tanks,

provide

Apollo

:

: i _ i< !

energy, and the the spacecraft. aluminum liquid alloy.

system of Jet control of the spatial position of The housing of the module is laminar, made from R_dlator pipes heat are from mounted in the walls in which

circulates, removing

the operating housing

equipment. provided a high by co/42

Regulation painting efficient tion with

of the temperature part of the surface and

of the with part

is also with

a composition of the

of reflection, high coefficient

surface--wlth of solar rays.

a composiThe

of absorption

bottom part of the service module is cover with a shield which
I % protects the equipment placed here from the heat of exhaust gases

; 4

].4

F;

1 f
from the nozzle.

_

Looking

at the

service

module

of the

Apollo

we undoubtedly

:

turn our attention to the huge nozzle engine. This engine creates a thrust in velocity velocity of flight. But each in the

of the cruise propulsion force for all large changes or decrease When thls of orbital velocity be-

increase orbit.

leads

to a change than The

comes smaller and descends. f ! zation The tem

the first space velocity, orientation of the Apollo in flight Is provided

the craft in space,

leaves orbit its stabilicontrol. a syscontrol from re-

i _

of position

by a system

of Jet parts: of Jet module before

latter of jet

is divided into two completely independent control of the service module and a system module. Before you and that separating the the command occurs of the

of the command the service the

_ _

(we remind orientation

separation small control identical shifts

entry) are This

all the of Jet

spacecraft module. engines, time, than on And in ._ _

carried

out by a system control

in the bands

service of Jet this less

is a final

element--4

,

symmetrically placed around the module. the cruise propulsion unit of the Apollo flights this to the Moon, the fuel reserve maneuvering of fuel for

Inasmuch as, wlll operate

3

it is decreased.

connection, the Earth, This

where the fuel

more supply

is required

in the orbit engines the down. flight, a will be

around

for auxiliary for bringing unit breaks

increased. out of orbit A new as we have cylinder Its ends Apollo, _

can be necessary propulsion

spacecraft

if' the

cruise

element already

in the Apollo said, will

spacecraft transfer

in the coming (docking) length

be the

module,

with

a diameter

of about

1.6 m and

3.15 m.

On both

are nounted the other--a

docking new

units:

one--a

cone unlt

for Joining for docking

androgynous-_erlpheral

for Joining with the Soyuz. The unique exterior elements of this module are communication antennas and 4 spherical tanks with oxygen and nitrogen systems for life support from which operate during transfer

_

of the

cosmonauts

and astronauts

spacecraft

to spacecraft.

15
(

_

One of the hatches

of the transfer

module

is in the. Apollo.

This hatch is equipped with for equalizing pressure and i ,

a sensor for pressure drop, a valve a mechanism for opening from both the Soyuz f_r and a valve

sides. The hatch of the transfer module converted has anewcover and also a sensor for pressure drop for equalizing pressure.

/43

Now not ;

let us look

inside

the

transfer at the has

module.

Its

volume

is

;

so small:

two men

can be here

same time. systems

The module for life-

special

support oxygen

and heat

regulation; is supplied cosmothe Soyuz

and nitrogen on whether going from

depending nauts are

to the Apollo The indicator

or the reverse. panel and control is lower }

for the inside Figure 4. Docking (Transfer) Module of the Apollo Spacecraft: 1--Androgynous docking unit; 2--Radio communication antenna; 3--Co_Zainers with equipment; 4--System for supplying oxygen; 5--Lamp; 6--Emergency system for oxygen supply; 7--Container; 8-Hatch cover (in closed position); 9--Unit for docking with the Apollo ship; lO--Equipment block; ll--Drainage aperture for reducing pressure; 12--Spherical tank with oxygen; 13--Levers for controlling the lifesupport system; 14--Spherical tank with nitrogen; 15--Panel for indications and control of the equipment block; 16-- Hatch cover (in open position).

life support system the module in its

part. In case of breakdown in the hermetic seal of the compartment swift supply of gases necessary for breathing is planned. oxidegiven The carbon off by the mon-

_

cosmo-

nauts whe': breathing is removed from the atmosphere of the module by absorbers (replaceable llthia mica cartridges) similar to those used in the command module of the Apollo.

Inside

the module, headphone

transmitter-receiver communication spacecraft. is set up for conversing Direct voltage (27 volts) with for the crew

of the Soyuz the system of

supplying

16

ORIGrNAL PAGE/8 _P POOR O[TAr,fTy

#

/

,

"-

,

,k

"

[

I _
L_

c

the module

and

for

illumination

(115 volts) { _L_.__.7 !_J_, _/--_3 [_-4-5 _J_J a %_f"_ /--_ , _. • c The Figure 5. Exemplary Diagram of a Reconstructed Section of the Apollo Spacecraft: a--Jettison of part of the a_aptor 6etween the rocket carrier and the main block of of the basic block (by the spacecraft; b--Turn 180°); c--Docking of _he main block with the transfer module, Jettison of the lower part of the transfer module and separation of the rocket carrier. 1--Basic block of the Apollo spacecraft; 2--Upper part of the adaptor; • 3--Docking module; 4--Lower part of the , adaptor; 5--Rocket carrier,

for the motors

of

the androgynous docking unit and also alternating voltage with the Soyuz, are supplied from on board the Apollo spacecraft.

_

D

electrical

energy

on

,_ <

the Apollo is supplied by batteries of fuel elements which operate on oxygen and water service are

! _i

hydrogen. is pumped module

The drinking over from the

where

the batteries

located,intc the container in in the command module. Besides the fuel has elements, the spacestorage _

craft

silver-zinc which

batteries

are utilized sources loads in :

as additional for short-term

energy peak

flight mand

and as basic during

sources re-entry.

for

supplying

the

system

of the

com_

module

The must

transfer

(docking) part

module

which

in the the

Joint start

experiment is placed ! into

be in the

nose side

of the Apollo the second

during stage

on the opposite carrier orbit, and the

between block

of the rocket After and going

basic

of the plan

spacecraft.

the American

astronauts to the of the

to reconstruct

reattach they will ,_

the transfer separate °, and being

compartment block with

spacecraft. spacecraft the with Apollo it

To do this from

the basic in line

the rocket

carrier to

it turn

by 180 ° approach Then, the final

the transfer ', _ of the

module

and rejoin

separation

transfer

module, it is understood, together

wit_

the spacecraft 17
$

C

!

will ', [ I

separate

from

the

rocket will

carrier be ready euvers Soyuz.

and the

Apollo

to carry

out manthe

in approaching

_

In the coming experiment, the Apollo will be the active spacecraft. /_ radar Therefore, and for -: . < ._. "

detection

guidance

_

on the Soyuz there will be mounted a transponder for the Apollo. Moreover, the Soyuz will be equipped with two pulse markers whose by the light naked can eye

I

I

be observed !
!

for a distance

up to 50 kin.

i

' i _

_

Figure 6. Arrangement of the Main Block and Transfer (Docking) Module of the Apollo Spacecraft During Starting: 1-Service module; 2--Docking module; 3--Adaptor between the spacecraft and rocket-carrler; 4--Rocket-carrier; 5--System for emergency rescue; 6--Command compartment; 7--Nozzle of the cruise propulsion engine; 8--Structure for attaching the docking (transfer) module to the rocket carrier, the crew of the target, spacecraft and also uses viewing

Data on the angle for guiding for the approach module for the Apo)lo crew will be obtained by using a sextant, sighting it on the

'_

Soyuz marker;and information from a distance--from an ultra short wave-responder, also mounted on the Soyuz. In the rendezvous portion, flight devices lights for orientation, Apollo. a ;

i _ < i

docking

on the

Before

touching,

when

especially

precise

orientation

is

i

craft according cosmonauts docking control to the target required, the will

of type the the Apollo of the mounted position space-

i _

on the orbital 18

section

of the Soyuz.

The

latter

was

used

during

ORDINAL PAGE n_ PnOR _UALI'_"
e

|

b

I

L

flight the

of the

Apollo

to the

moon

for docking

the main

block

with

lunar

module.

Soviet : have done

and American

speciallst--scholars, Job in preparation in the world.

cosmonauts, first

workers,

a tremendous space

for the This

Joint undoubtedly, : ?

international

flight

flight,

will be an important landmark in the mastery combined forces of different countries.

of outer

space

by the

2

Soyuz

arid Apollo--the

Space

Vehicles

for the Joint

Flight

/ I
i

/

,

/

\

/

/

The Soyuz Spacecraft: 1--Short wave antenna; 2--Flyin_ lights; 3--Radio-telemetric system antenna; _--Solar battery panel; 5--Engine fo-, _ mooring and orientation; 6--Pulse o_acon; 7--Sensor for so]ar orientation; 8--Anten_a for the command microwave lencth; 9--Reentry unit; ]0--Ultra short wave FM antenna; ll--Exterlor television c_mera; if_--DocI..Inyt_r_'et; 13--Directional probe of the dockln}< module, ]4--Ultra short wave AM antenna; 15--Orbital module; IC--Optica] v!ewf_nderorlentator, 17--Ultra short wave antenna; 18--Pndiator fc, th,:. r thermal regulation system; 19--Instrumen,.-oy_-tem section; 20--ion sensor _for braking" correctin_ _,_vine; 23--Baslc approachin_-correctln_, er,_ir_e; 24--Antenna for radio te]e_etrtc system

01_I¢;i_,;
2o

r"'

!

b

I
Soyuz and Apollo--the Space Vehicles for the Joint Flight, cont.

I

'<'"

f

J

\ '/

:

:

The Apollo Spacecraft: 25--Escape hatch in the side wall of the co.and module; 26--Engines for control during re-entry; 27--Window; 28--Transfer module; 29--Block of auxiliary engines; 30--Antenna for metric range; 31--Jet of the cruise propulsion engine; 32--Heat protecting shield on the bottom of the service module; 33--Heat regulation radiator in the life support system; 34--Service module; 35--Radiator for heat regulation in the electrlcal _upply system; 36-_o_andmodule; 37--Lock between the spacec.raft and the docking module; 38--Dockin_ module; 39--Spherical cylinder with oxygen; 40--Spherical cylinder with air; 41- Hatch of the docking unit; 42--Docking unit.

, _!dG_ M, pACE

_
;r

21

g

A--Launch of the Soyuz; B--Launch of the Apollo after 7 hour_ 30 minutes; C--Entry of the Soyuz into orbit; D--Entry of the Apollo into orbit; E--Maneuvers of the Apollo in the Approach; F--Fllght in docked condltlon--2 days; G--Disconnectlon of the vehicles; H--Reentry of the Soyuz into the atmosphere; i--Reentry of the Apollo into the atmosphere; J--Water landing of the Apollo; K--Ground landing of the Soyuz; L--Days after launch of the Soyuz

22

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