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DEVELOPMENT / HUMANITARIAN

NGOs AND CONFLICT

A BIBLIOGRAPHY
& LISTING OF WEB SOURCES

Version 2.1
(Draft)

Andrew Sherriff
asherriff@international-alert.org
Eeva Vaskio

Development & Peace Building Programme


International Alert
1 Glyn Street
London
SE11 5HT
United Kingdom

Tel: + 44 (0) 207 793 8383


Fax: + 44 (0) 207 793 7975

March 2000
INTRODUCTION
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

This bibliography was prepared as part of the Development and Peace Building Programme of
International Alert. The bibliography although extensive is not comprehensive and we welcome
suggestion for additions, updates, amendments and corrections. These and any other feedback should
be emailed to <asherriff@international-alert.org>. We are also happy to receive hard copies of material
for inclusion in the bibliography, and these should be sent to Andrew Sherriff at the address given on the
cover page. In preparing this bibliography material was gathered from a wide variety of sources,
unfortunately though, International Alert can not assist those wishing to obtain non-International Alert
materials listed on this bibliography. Those wishing to obtain such materials are advised to contact the
original publishers, or their organisation’s own library or documentation centre.

This is the draft first version of the bibliography and it is hoped that it will be regularly updated. A version
will also be placed on International Alert’s web-page <http://www.international-alert.org/> during 2000.

The bibliography is sub-divided into various areas, and bibliographic entries may appear twice if relevant
to more than one topic. Where [ ] are used, details enclosed is these brackets did not appear on
original the document.

AUTHORS

Andrew Sherriff is a Researcher on the Development and Peace Building Programme at International
Alert and is a Ph.D. Scholar at the Department of Government & Society at the University of Limerick in
Ireland.

Eeva Vaskio is a Researcher on the Development and Peace Building Programme at International Alert.

OTHER RELEVANT MATERIALS FROM IA’s DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE BUILDING PROGRAMME

Leonhardt, Manuela, Conflict Impact Assessment of EU Development Cooperation with ACP Countries:
A Review of Literature and Practice, London: International Alert & Saferworld, 2000.

©International Alert 2000

This document may be copied provided accreditation to International Alert is given.

2
NGO and Conflict Bibliographic Listing of Material

1. DEVELOPMENT - GENERAL 4
2. CONFLICT - GENERAL 4
3. CONFLICT AND DEVELOPMENT - GENERAL 6
4. NGOS IN CONFLICT - GENERAL 11
5. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN AFRICA - GENERAL 13
6. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN LATIN AMERICA - GENERAL 15
7. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN ASIA - GENERAL 15
8. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN EUROPE / EURASIA - GENERAL 16
9. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - GENERAL 17
10. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - AFRICA 23
11. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - ASIA 24
12. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS -
EUROPE / EURASIA 24
13. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - GENERAL 24
14. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - AFRICA 26
15. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - LATIN AMERICA 30
16. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - ASIA 30
17. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - EUROPE / EURASIA 31
18. MANUALS AND GUIDES FOR PRACTITIONERS 32
19. GENDER AND CONFLICT 33
20. DONOR EVALUATIONS OF AID INTERVENTIONS IN CONFLICT REGIONS 35
21. MISCELLANEOUS 37

On-Line Sources for NGOs and Conflict

A. GENERAL INFORMATION SOURCES 39


B. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH INSTITUTES WORKING ON NGOS and CONFLICT 40
C. NGO CONSORTIA AND UMBRELLA ORGANISATION 41
D. UNIVERSITY BASED RESEACH CENTRES 41
E. ON-LINE INFORMATION CATALOGUES 43
F. RELEVANT JOURNALS 44
G. CITATION OF ELECTRONIC MATERIAL 44

(*) New Items added since First Edition


NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

1. DEVELOPMENT - GENERAL

Buchanan-Smith, M. & Maxwell, S., “Linking Relief and Development: an Introduction and an Overview”,
IDS Bulletin, Vol. 24, 1994.

Cairns, Edmund, A safer future: Reducing the human cost of war, Oxfam: Oxford, 1997.

Collins, Cindy, “Critiques of Humanitarianism and Humanitarian Action”, pp. 12-26 in: Humanitarian
Coordination. Lessons learned. Report of a Review Seminar, Stockholm, April 3-4 1998. OCHA.

Eade, Deborah & Williams, Suzanne, The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief, Vols 1-3,
Oxford: Oxfam, 1995.

Kohlin, Gunnar, Carlsson, Jerker, Ekbom, Anders, The political economy of evaluation : international aid
agencies and the effectiveness of aid, International political economy series, New York, N.Y : St.
Martin's Press, 1994.

Mowjee, Tasneem, and Nyheim, David, “Neutrality and Impartiality in Humanitarian Aid: A Framework for
Analysis”, paper presented at the Third International Conference of The International Society for Third
Sector Research (ISTR), 8-11 July, 1998.

Myllylä, Susanna, Hossain, Farhad, NGOs under challenge : dynamics and drawbacks in development,
Helsinki : Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Dept. for International Development Cooperation, 1998.

*Post-War Reconstruction & Development Unit, A Source Book on the State of the Art in Post-conflict
Rehabilitation, York: PRDU, 1999?

Riddell, R. Hidden assests? Measuring the performance of non-governmental organisations, Helsinki:


Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, 1998.

Ross, J., Maxwell, S. & Buchanan-Smith, M. “Linking relief and development”, IDS Report on a
Workshop, IDS: Sussex, 1994.

*Smillie, Ian, The Alms Bazaar, London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1995.

*Shaw, T.M., “Beyond Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: What Links to Sustainable Development and Human
Security?”, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 3, No.2, 1996, pp. 36-48.

Tvedt Terje, Angels of mercy or development diplomats? : NGOs & foreign aid, Oxford ; Trenton, N.J. :
James Currey : Africa World Press, 1998

2. CONFLICT - GENERAL

Abitbol, Eric & Louise, Christopher, Up in Arms: The Role of Young People in Conflict and
Peacemaking, London: International Alert, 1995.

Augsburger, David W., Conflict Mediation across Cultures: Pathways and Patterns, Kentucky, USA:
Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992.

*Bauwens, W. & Reychler, L., The Art of Conflict Prevention, London: Brassey’s, 1994.

*Brogan, Patrick, World Conflicts, London: Bloomsbury Publishing London. 1998.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Preventing Deadly Conflict. Final Report. New
York: Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1997.

Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, A Framework for Preventing the Re-emergence of
Violence. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York, June 1999.

Cottey, A. The pursuit of peace: a framework for international action, London: Saferworld, 1994.

*Deng, F.M., Kimaro, S., Lyons, T., Rothschild, D., and Zartman, I.W., Sovereignty as Responsibility –
Conflict Management in Africa, Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1998.

House of Commons - International Development Committee, Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict


Reconstruction, Vol. I&II; Report and Proceedings of the Committee; International Development
Committee; London Session. London: HMSO, 1998-99.

*Jabri, V., Discourses on Violence: Conflict Analysis Reconsidered, Manchester: Manchester University
Press, 1996.

Killick, Nick/Higdom, Simon, The Cost of Conflict. London: International Alert/Saferworld, 1998.

*Lake, David, Rothschild, Donald, “Ethinc Fear and Global Engagement: The International Spread and
Mangaement of Ethnic Conflict”, Policy Paper #20 / Institute of Global Conflict and Cooperation, San
Diego: University of California, 1996.

Lederach, John Paul, “Understanding Conflict: The Experience, Structure, and Dynamics”, in: Mediating
for Conflict Resolution. Education for Conflict Resolution, Indiana, 1995.

Lund, Michael S., Preventing Violent Conflicts. A Strategy for Preventive Diplomacy,Washington D.C.:
Untied States Institute of Peace Press, 1996.

Lute, Donald E., Improving National Capacity to Respond to Complex Emergencies, Report to the
Carnegie Commission, April 1998.

*McFarlane, Ian, Understanding Conflict, London: Actionaid, 1994.

*Montville, Joseph V., “The Healing Function in Political Conflict Resolution”, Conflict Resoulution
Programme, Carter Center, Atlanta: Carter Center, 1992.

*Montville, Joseph V., Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies, New York :Lexington Books,
1989.

Nafziger, E. W. & Auvinen, J., Economic development, inequality, and conflict: empirical evidence, a
paper prepared for the UNU/WIDER-Queen Elizabeth House research project on ‘The Wave of
Emergencies of the Last Decade: Causes, Extent, Predictability and Response’, presented at the
conference ‘War, Hunger and Displacement: The Economics and Politics of the Prevention of
Humanitarian Emergencies’, Stockholm, 15-16 June 1998.

Pankhurst, Donna, “Issues of justice and reconciliation in complex political emergencies:


conceptualising reconciliation, justice and peace”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, February 1999,
pp. 239-256.

Rupesinghe, Kumar, Kuroda, Michiko (eds.), Early Warning and Conflict Resolution, New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1992.

Sandole, D.J.D. Capturing the Complexity of Conflict: Dealing with Violent Ethnic Conflict of the post-
Cold War Era, 1999.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Scherrer, C. & Wiberg, H., Ethnicity and Intra-State Conflict: Types, Causes and Peace Strategies,
Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999.

Sisk, Thomas D., Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, D.C.:
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1996.

*Snow, Donald M., Uncivil Wars –International Security and the New Internal Conflicts, Boulder: Lynne
Rienner, 1996.

Stewart, F., The root causes of conflict: evidence and policy implications, a paper prepared for the
UNU/WIDER-Queen Elizabeth House research project on ‘The Wave of Emergencies of the Last
Decade: Causes, Extent, Predictability and Response’, presented at the conference ‘War, Hunger and
Displacement: The Economics and Politics of the Prevention of Humanitarian Emergencies’, Stockholm,
15-16 June 1998.

Stewart, Frances, “Crisis Prevention: Tackling Horizontal Inequalities”, paper prepared for the World
Bank Conference on Evaluation and Poverty Reduction, June 14-15 1999. Oxford.

Stremlau, John/Sagasti Francisco, Preventing Deadly Conflict. Does the World Bank Have a Role?
Washington: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1998.

Wirmark, Bo (ed.) “Government-NGO relations in preventing violence, transforming conflict and building
peace”, Report form a conference in Mariefred, Sweden, 4-6 September 1997; Peace Team Forum,
Sweden, 1998.

UN, Aid under Fire: Redefining Relief and Development Assistance in Unstable Situations, Geneva,
1995.

*United Nations Research Institute of Social Development, Ethinic Violence, Conflict Resolution and
Cutural Pluralism; Report on the UNRISD/UNDP Seminar; [Geneva]: UNRISD, 1995.

3. CONFLICT AND DEVELOPMENT - GENERAL

“Development and conflict”, theme issue; The Rural Extension Bulletin, No. 8, December, Reading:
University of Reading agricultural extension and rural development department, 1995.

“Doing the right thing: development and conflict resolution”; New Routes, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998.

African Rights, “Humanitarianism Unbound? Current Dilemmas Facing Multi-Mandate Relief Operations
in Political Emergencies”, African Rights Discussion Paper, No. 5, November, 1994,

*Agerbak, Linda, “Breaking the cycle of violence: doing development in situations of conflict” in Deborah
Eade (ed), Development in States of War -A Development in Practice Reader, Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.

*Anderson, Mary B., “Development and the prevention of humanitarian emergencies”, in Thomas G.
Weiss & Larry Minear, (eds.) Humanitarianism Across Borders: Sustaining Civilians in Times of War,
London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993, pp. 23-38.

Auvinen, Juha “Aid and conflict: opportunities for Finnish preventive action”; Acta Politica, No. 5, 1997.

Ball, Nicole and Costy, Alexander, Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Perspectives and Prospects for Co-
operation between the European Commission and the World Bank . CPN Discussion Paper. Brussels,
May 1999.

Ball, Nicole with Tammy Halevy, Making Peace Work: The Role of the International Development
Community. ODC Policy Essay No. 18, Washington, DC: Overseas Development Council, 1996.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Belgrad, Eric A., Nachmias, Nitza, (eds.) The politics of international humanitarian aid operations,
Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 1997.

Bennett, J. & Kayetisi Blewitt, M. “Beyond ‘working in conflict’ Understanding conflict and building
peace; Report of a three day workshop organised by CODEP; Relief and Rehabilitation Network Paper,
18. ODI: London, 1996.

Bock, Joseph G. and Anderson, Mary B., “Dynamite Under the Intercommunal Bridge: How Can Aid
Agencies Help Defuse It?” Journal for Peace Research 36 (3): 325-338, 1999.

Brandt, Donald P. “Relief as Development, But Development as Relief”, Journal of Humanitarian


Assistance, http://www-jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a005.htm posted on 4 July 1997.

*Bremmer, Davin & Visser, Philip, “Negotiation, conflict resolution and human needs”, in Patrick
FitzGerald, Anne Mc lennan & Barry Munslow, (eds.) Managing Sustainable Development in South
Africa, Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 222-235.

Bryer, David & Cairns, Edmund, “For better? For worse? Humanitarian aid in conflict”, Development in
Practice, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1997.

Bush, K. “A Measure of Peace: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) of Development Projects
in Conflict Zones”; IDRC The Peacebuilding ad Reconstruction Working Paper Series, 1998.

Carbonnier, Gilles, Conflict, Post-War Rebuilding and the Economy: A Critical Review of the Literature.
WSP Occasional Papers No. 2, March 1998. War Torn Societies Project.

Cockell, John G., “Peacebuilding and Human Security: Frameworks for International Response to
Internal Conflict”, pp. 203-230 in: Peter Wallensteen (ed.), Preventing Violent Conflicts: Past Record and
Future Challenges. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University. Report
No. 48, 1998.

*Commins, Stephen, “In the line of fire: development in conflict” in Deborah Eade (ed.) Development in
States of War -A Development in Practice Reader, Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.

Debiel, Tobias et al., Effective Crisis Prevention. Challenges for German Foreign and Development
Policy. Policy Paper 12. Bonn: Development and Peace Foundation, June 1999.

DeMars, William, “Waiting for Early Warning: Humanitarian Action After the Cold War”, Journal of
Refugee Studies, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1995, pp. 390-410.

Department for International Development, Guidelines on humanitarian assistance, [London] : The Dept
for International Development, 1997.

Department for International Development (DfID), Conflict Reduction and Humanitarian Assistance.
Policy Statement. London: : The Dept for International Development, 1999.

Department for International Development (DfID), Poverty and the Security Sector. Policy Statement.,
The Dept for International Development: London, 1999.

Duffield, Mark R.The symphony of the damned : racial discourse, complex political emergencies and
humanitarian aid, Occasional paper / University of Birmingham. School of Public Policy, Birmingham :
University of Birmingham, School of Public Policy, 1996.

Duffield, Mark, “Humanitarian Internvention, the New Aid Paradigm and Separate Development”, New
Political Economy, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1997, pp. 336-340.

Duffield, Mark, Aid Policy and a Post-Modern Conflict: A Critical Review. Birmingham University, School
of Public Policy paper, 1998.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Duffield, Mark, “Complex emergencies and the crisis of developmentalism”, IDS Bulletin, Vol.25, No. 4,
1994.

Eade, Deborah (ed.) Development in states of war - a Development in Practice Reader; Oxford: Oxfam,
1996.

Eade, Deborah (ed.) “From conflict to peace in a changing world: social reconstruction in times of
transition”, an Oxfam Working Paper; Oxfam GB, Oxford, and Humanities Press International
(distribution), Atlantic Highlands NJ, 1998.

Es, A. van, Development cooperation between war and peace; National Advisory Council for
Development Cooperation: The Hague, 1996.

Esman, Milton J., Can Foreign Aid Moderate Ethnic Conflict? Washington, DC: United States Institute of
Peace, Peaceworks No. 13, 1997.

*FPH (ed.), Paths to Peace; Proceedings of the Paris Conference on Peace in Ethiopia; Paris:
Fondation pour le Progres de l’Homme, 1991.

Ginifer, Jeremy, (ed.) Beyond the Emergency: Development Within UN Peace Missions, Ilford, Frank
Cass Publishers, 1998.

Goodhand, Jonathan & Hulme, David, “From wars to complex political emergencies: understanding
conflict and peace-building in the new world disorder”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, February
1999, pp. 13-26.

Green, Reginald Herbor & Ahmed, Ismail I., “Rehabilitation, sustainable peace and development:
towards reconceptualisation”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, February 1999, pp. 189-206.

Galtung, J., Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization, Oslo:
International Peace Research Institute, 1996.

Gundel, Joakim, “Humanitarian assistance: breaking the waves of complex political emergencies: a
literiture survey”, CDR Working Paper - 0904-4701, Copenhagen: Centre for Development Research,
1999.

Gurr, Ted, Barbara Harff, Early Warning of Communal Conflicts and Genocide: Linking Empirical
Research to International Responses. Tokyo: The United Nations University, 1996.

International Alert, The Impact of Conflict on Development and Priorities for Post-conflict
Reconstruction. Memorandum to the International Development Select Committee, Submitted on the
16th of February 1998. London.

International Alert et al (eds.)., The Lomé Convention and Conflict Prevention. Seminar Proceedings.
London, December 1998.

International Committee of the Red Cross, Protection of the Civilian Population Against Famine in
Situations of Armed Conflict, Geneva: ICRC, 1991.

Jones, Bruce. & Prasad, Satendra, European Union Development Co-operation in the 21st century. A
Conflict Prevention Perspective for Future Lomé Agreements. Policy Analysis. London: International
Alert, 1998.

Kumar, Krishna (ed.) Rebuilding societies after civil war: critical roles for international assistance; Lynne
Rienner, Boulder, 1997.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Leatherman, J., DeMars, W., Gaffney, P. & Väyrynen, R., Breaking the Cycles of Violence: Conflict
Prevention in Intrastate Crises, West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1999.

Lederach, Jon Paul, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington:
United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997.

Lindahl, Claes, Developmental Relief? An Issues Paper and an Annotated Bibliography on Linking Relief
and Development, Sida Studies in Evaluation 96/3, Stockholm: Department for Evaluation and Internal
Audit, 1996.

MacFarlane, S. Neil, Peace support operations and humanitarian action: a conference report, Centre for
Foreign Policy Studies Dalhousie University, 1998.

*Macrae, J., “Aiding Recovery? A Preliminary assessment of the role of international aid in post-conflict
situations”, Forma Valutazione, 1994.

Macrae, J., Zwi, A. & Forsythe, V. “Aid policy in transition: a preliminary analysis of ‘post’-conflict
rehabilitation of the health sector”; Journal of International Development, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995, pp. 669-
684.

*Macrae, J, Bradbury, M. (eds.), “Aid in the Twilight Zone: A Critical Analysisi of the Humanitarian-
Development Aid Linkages in Situations of Chronic Instability”, Report for UNICEF, London: Overseas
Development Institute, 1998.

Maynard, Kim, Healing Communities in Conflict: International Assistance in Complex Emergencies, NY:
Columbia University Press, 1999.

Messer, E., Cohen, M. J. & D’Costa, J. Food from peace: breaking the links between conflict and
hunger, International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, 1998.

Middleton, Neil. Disaster and development : the politics of humanitarian aid, London : Pluto, 1998.

Monney, T. L. (ed.) The challenge of development within conflict zones, OECD: Paris, 1995.

Munslow, Barry & Brown, Christopher, “Complex emergencies: the institutional impasse”, Third World
Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, February 1999, pp. 207-222.

Nafziger, W., Stewart, F. & Väyrynen, R., Weak States and Vulnerable Economies: Humanitarian
Emergencies in the Third World, WIDER, 1999.

Nafziger, W., Stewart, F. & Väyrynen, R. (eds.), War and Destitution: The Prevention of Humanitarian
Emergencies, WIDER, 1999.

Natsios, Andrew S. U.S. foreign policy and the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: humanitarian relief in
complex emergencies, Washington papers ; 170 Westport, Conn. ; London : Praeger, 1997.

*National Intelligence Council, Global Humanitarina Emergencies: Trends and Projections, 1999-2000,
[Washington DC]: National Intelligence Council, 1999.

Nelson, Joan, M., “Poverty, Inequality, and Conflict in Developing Countries”, Project on World Security,
New York: Rockefeller Brothers Fund, 1998.

O'Keefe Phil, Middleton Neil, Disaster and development : the politics of humanitarian aid, London : Pluto
Press in association with ETC (UK), 1998.

OECD, Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation on the Threshold of the 21st Century,
Development co-operation guidelines series, 1998.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Office of Transition Initiatives, Advancing Peaceful, Democratic Change. Washington: USAID, 1999.

*Ozerdam, Alp, Barakat, Sultan, Water Under Fire, Workshop Report, York: PRDU, 1997.

Pirotte, Claire, Bernard Husson, and Francois Grunewald (eds.) Responding to Emergencies and
Fostering Development? The dilemmas of humanitarian aid, London: Zed Books, 1999.

Pugh, Michael, The Challenge of Peacebuilding: the disaster relief model, Plymouth International
Papers No. 3, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: International Studies Group university of Plymouth and
Centre for Foreign Policy Studies Dalhousie University, 1995.

*Pugh, M., “Peacebuilding as Developmentalism: Concepts from Disaster Research”, Contemporary


Security Policy, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1995 pp. 320-346.

Randel, Judith, “Aid, the military and humanitarian assistance: an attempt to identify recent trends,”
Journal of International Development, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994, pp. 329-342.

Reinicke, Wolfgang H., “Can international financial institutions prevent internal violence? The sources of
ethno-national conflict in transitional societies”, pp. 281-337 in: Abram Chayes/Antonia Handler Chayes
(eds.), Preventing conflict in the post-communist world. Mobilizing international and regional
organizations. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

*Reychler, Luc, ”Democratic Peace-building and Conflict Prevention: The devil is in the transition”, CPRS
Working Paper No. 1.1998, Lueven: CPRS, 1998.

Roberts Adam, Humanitarian action in war : aid, protection and impartiality in a policy vacuum,
International Institute for Strategic Studies, Adelphi Paper ; No. 305, Oxford : Oxford University Press
for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1996.

Ross, Marc Howard, Why do they do what they do? Theories of practice in ethnic conflict resolution.
Bryn Mawr College, 1998.

Sandvik-Nylund Monika, Caught in conflicts : civilian victims, humanitarian assistance and international
law, Turku/ Åbo : Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University, 1998

Sherriff, Andrew M. “NGOs and Complex Humanitarian Emergencies - With Particular Reference to Irish
Involvement”, Cox, Michael (ed). National Committee for the Study of International Affairs - Graduate
Seminar Proceedings, Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1997.

Sherriff, Andrew M. “International aid agencies and complex humanitarian emergencies”, Association of
Voluntary Action Research in Ireland Monograph Series, Coleraine: Centre for Voluntary Action Studies,
1999.

Slim, Hugo, “International Humanitarianism’s Engagement with Civil War in the 1990s: A Glance at
Evolving Practice and Theory”, A Briefing Paper for Actionaid [1997], Journal of Humanitarian
Assistance, http://www-jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a565.htm posted on 1 March 1998.

Smillie, Ian, Relief and Development: The Struggle for Synergy, Occasional Paper #33, The Thomas J.
Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, 1998.

Stewart, Frances, “Conflict in developing countries: counting the human and economic costs”, Oxford
Development Studies, Jan, 1998.

Stewart, Frances, “Food Aid During Conflict: Can One Reconcile Its Humanitarian, Economic, and
Political Economy Effects” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 80, No. 3, 1998.

*Stokke, O., “Violent Conflict Prevention and Development Co-Operation: Coherent or Conflicting
Perspectives?”, Forum for Development Studies, No. 2, 1997, pp. 195-250.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Stremlau, John J. “People in peril: human rights, humanitarian action and preventing deadly conflict”, A
report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, New York: Carnegie Coporation of
New York, 1998.

*United Nations Research Institute of Social Development, Rebuilding Wartorn Societies, Report of two
Workshops, [Geneva]: UNRISD, 1993.

United States Mission to the United Nations, Global Humanitarian Emergencies, 1998-99, New York:
ECOSOC Section of the United States Mission to the United Nations, September 1998.

Väyrynen, Raimo, E. Wayne Nafziger, The Prevention of Humanitarian Emergencies: Lessons for the
Policy Community. Helsinki: WIDER, 1998.

Walker, Peter, “Whose disaster is it anyway? Rights, responsibilities and standards in crisis”, Journal of
Humanitarian Assistance, http://www-jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a574.htm posted on 13 August 1996.

*Weiss, Thomas G., “Humanitarian action in war zones”, in Jan Nederveen Pieterse (ed.) World Orders
in the Making, Humanitarian Intervention and Beyond, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998.

Whitman, Jim (ed) After Rwanda : the coordination of United Nations humanitarian assistance,
Basingstoke ; New York : Macmillan Press : St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Wolfensohn, James D., The Challenge of Managing Conflict through Development. World Bank, 1998.

Woodward, David, Economic Issues in Conflict-Affected Countries: A Framework for Analysis. London:
International Alert, 1997.

World Bank, Post Conflict Unit, Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Perspectives and
Prospects. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1998.

4. NGOS IN CONFLICT - GENERAL

*Aall, Pamela, Managing Global Chaos –Sources of and Respnonses to International Conflict,
Washington D.C.: US Institute for Peace, 1997.

*Adams, Mark & Bradbury, Mark, “Conflict and Development: Organisational Adaption in Conflict
Situations”, Oxfam Discussion Paper, No. 4, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I, 1995.

Adiin Yaansah, Edward A. An analysis of domestic legislation to regulate the activities of local and
foreign NGOs in Croatia, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda, Refugee Studies Programme / Centre for Socio-
Legal Studies: Oxford, 1995

*Anderson, Mary B., International Assistance and Conflict: An Exploration of Negative Impacts,
Cambridge MA: Collaborative for Development Action, 1994.

Anderson, Mary B. “Humanitarian NGOs in conflict intervention”, Chester Cocker (ed.) Managing Global
Chaos, Washington D.C.: US Institute for Peace Press, 1996.

*Anderson, Mary B., Do No Harm: Supporting Local Capacities for Peace through Aid, Cambridge MA:
Collaborative for Development Action, 1996.

Anderson, Mary B., Do no harm: how aid can support peace - or war, Lynne Rienner: Boulder, 1999.

Australian Agency for International Development. - Review of the effectiveness of NGO programs,
Canberra : Australia Agency for International Development, 1996.

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Ball, Colin & Dunn, Leith, Nongovernmental organisations: guidelines for good policy and practice,
Commonwealth Foundations: London, 1995.

Barber, Ben, “Feeding Refugees or War? The Dilemma of Humanitarian Aid”, Foreign Affairs,
July/August 1997.

Bastian, Sunil, & Bastian, Nicola, “Development NGOs working in an ethnic conflict”,
Appropriate Technology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1996.

*Beigbeder, Yves, The Role and Status of International Humanitarian Volunteers and Organizations,
London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1991.

Brandt, Donald P., “War work: humanitarian assistance in complex human emergencies”, Journal of
Humanitarian Assistance, posted 23 October 1995.

Bock, Joseph C. “Communal conflict, NGOs and the power of religious symbols”; Development in
Practice, Vol 7, No. 1, 1997, pp. 17-25.

Borton, J. “NGOs and Relief Operations: Trends and Policy Implications”; ODI Briefling Paper, ODI:
London, 1994.

*Borton, John, “Conference Report –Development in Conflict Workshop 1-3 November 1994 Birmingham,
UK”, Disasters, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1995.

Bradbury, Mark, “Normalising the Crisis in Africa”, Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, http://www-
jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a603.htm posted on 19 March 1998.

Bryer, D. & Cairns, E. ”For better? For worse? Humanitarian aid in conflict”; Development in Practice,
Vol 7, No. 4, 1997, pp. 363-374.

*Carter, Matthew, “Power and Conflict: Humanitarian Intrvention in Complex Political Emergencies”,
Dissertation Paper/ University College of Wales, Swansea: University College of Wales, 1995.

Cushing, Christopher, “Humanitarian assistance and the role of NGOs”, Centre for Foreign Policy
Studies Working Paper, Halifax: Dalhousie University, 1995.

*DeMars, William, “Mercy without Illusion: Humanitarian Action in Conflict”, International Studies
Review, Vol. 40, Supplement 1, 1996, pp. 81-89.

*Dobbie, C., “Can Military Intervetion and Humanitarian Action Co-exist?”, World Disasters Report,
Oxford: IFRC, 1997.

*Duffield, Mark, NGOs and the Sub-Contracting of Humanitarian Relief, Oxford: Refugee Studies
Program, Oxford University, 1995.

Forced Migration Projects, Open Society Institute, Protecting Aid Workers: Prospects and Challenges,
New York: Open Society Institute, 1997.

Goodhand, Jonathan, Hulme, David, NGOs and Complex Political Emergencies. Working Paper No. 1.
University of Manchester/INTRAC, 1997.

Goodhand, Jonathan, Hulme, David, NGOs and Peace-Building in Complex Political Emergencies:
Summary Report. University of Manchester, 1999.

*Goodhand, J, Hulme, D, “HGOs and Peace-Building in Complex Political Emergencies: Final Report to
DFID”, Peace Buliding in Complex Political Emergencies Working Paper No. 12, IDPM, Manchester:
University of Manchester, 2000.

12
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*Goodhand, Jonathan, “NGO Responses to Contemporary Conflict: Towards Improved Policy and
Practice”, Conference Report, IDPM, Manchester: University of Manchester, 1999.

*Hybertsen, Bente, Tjore, Gro, Brusset, Emery, Jones, Bruce &Suhrke, Astri, “Humanitarian Assistance
and Conflict: A State-of-the-Art Report”, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Report 2, 1998.

*Irish Mozambique Solidarity, Emergency Aid and the Refugee, Dublin: Irish Mozambique Solidarity,
1993.

James, Wendy, “International NGO's and complex political emergencies : perspectives from
anthropology”, RAI/ESRC Exploratory Workshop, London : Royal Anthropological Institute, 1995.

*Jean, Francious (ed.), Life, Death & Aid, London: Routledge, 1993.

*Keen, David, “Engaging with violence: a reassessment of relief in wartime” in J. Macrae & A. Zwi, (eds.)
War and Hunger: Rethinking International Responss to Complex Emergencies, London: Zed Books,
1994.

Lancaster, Warren, “The Code of Conduct: whose code, whose conduct? ”, Journal of Humanitarian
Assistance, http://www-jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a645.htm posted on 18 April 1998.

LCDNGOSEU (ed.) Conflict, development and military intervention: the role, position and experience of
NGOs; Report on the European conference; Brussels: Liaison Committee of Development NGOs to the
European Union (LCDNGOSEU), April 1994.

*Lewer, Nick, “International non-government Organisations and Peacebuilding -Perspectives from Peace
Studies and Conflict Resolution”, Centre for Conflict Resolution Working Paper, No. 3, Bradford:
University of Bradford, 1999.

*Mawlawi, Farouk, “New Conflicts, New Challenges: The Evolving Role for Non-Governmental Actors”,
Journal of International Affairs, Vol 47, No. 1, 1993.

*Minear, Larry, Helping People in an Age of Conflict: Toward a New Professionalism in US Voluntary
Humanitarian Assistance, Washington DC: Interaction, 1988.

*Mungenast, Henrik, “Peace and Relief: A Seminar on NGOs, Peacbuilding and Humanitarian Aid”
CENDEP Conference Report, Oxford: Oxford Brooks University, 1998.

Natsios, A. S. “NGOs and the UN system in complex humanitarian emergencies: conflict or


cooperation?”; Third World Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1995, pp. 405-419.

ODA, Conflict reduction through the aid programme. A briefing for agencies seeking support for conflict
reduction activities; London: ODA, 1996.

*Oxfam, The United Nations Response to Conflict Related Humanitarian Emergencies, Comission on
Global Governance, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I, 1993.

*Perrin, P., “The Impact of Humanitarian Aid on Conflict Development”, International Review of the Red
Cross, Vol. 38, No.323, 1998, pp. 319-333.

*Refugee Policy Group, Humanitarian Action in the Post-Cold War Era; Report on the RPG Conference;
Washington DC: Centre for Policy Research and Analysis on Refugee Issues, 1992.

*Ritchie, Cyril, “Coordinate? Cooperate? Harmonise? NGO Policy and Operational Coalitions” in Thomas
G Weiss & Leon Gordenker, (eds.) NGOS, The UN, & Global Governance, Boulder: Lynne Rienner
Publishers, 1996.

13
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*Roche, Chris, Oxfam’s Work in Conflict Areas, Policy Department, Oxford: Oxfam, 1995.

Rupesinghe, K. “Advancing Preventive Diplomacy in a Post-Cold War Era: Suggested Roles for
Governments and NGOs”; Relief and Rehabilitation Network Paper ,5 September, ODI: London, 1994.

*Shawcross, William, Deliver Us From Evil: Peacekeepers, Warlords & A World of Endless Conflict,
New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Sorbo, G.M., Macrae, J. & Wohlgemuth, L. NGOs in conflict: an evaluation of International Alert, Chr.
Michelsen Institute: Fantoft, 1997.

*Task Force on Ethical and Legal Issues in Humanitarian Assistance, “The Mohonk Criteria for
Humanitariaan Assistance in Complex Emergencies”, New York: World Conference on Religion and
Peace, 1994.

*Tschirgi, Necla, “The War-Torn Societies Project and Third Party Neutral Models of Conflict
Management”, IDRC Working Paper No. 3, Ottawa: IDRC, 1999.

* Van Brabant, K., “Analysis and Advocacy on a European Policy on Conflict Prevention: a Viewpoint”,
Development in Practice, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1998, pp. 217-220.

*Wallace, Tina, “Strategic Planning in Conflict Emergency Work: Does it have Anything to Offer?”, Paper
for Development Administration Group/ University of Birmingham, Birmingham: University of
Birmingham, 1995.

Weiss Thomas G. Beyond UN subcontracting : task-sharing with regional security arrangements and
service-providing NGOs, International political economy series, Basingstoke : Macmillan, 1998

*Weiss, Thomas G. & Minear, Larry, Humanitarianism Across Borders: Sustaining Civilians in Times of
War, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993.

5. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN AFRICA - GENERAL

*Acord, “Development in Conflict:Policy and Guidelines”, Acord Discussion Paper, October, London:
Acord, 1994.

African Rights, “Imposing Empowerment: Aid and Civil Institutions in Southern Sudan”, African Rights
Discussion Paper, No. 7, 1995.

*Airas, M. (ed.), The Role of International Cooperation in Conflict Prevention in Africa, Helsinki: KATU,
1998.

*Annan, Kofi, “The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and sustainable Development
in Africa”, Report by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on Africa,
<http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/sgreport/report.htm>, Geneva: UN, 1998.

*Atkinson, P, “NGOs and Peace Buliding in Complex Political Emergencies: a Study of Liberia”, Peace
Building and Complex Political Emergencies Working Paper No. 6, IDPM, Manchester: University of
Manchester, 2000.

*Atkinson, P, Mulbah, E, “NGOs and Peace Building in Complex Political Emergencies: Community
Surveys from Liberia”, Peace Building in Complex Political Emergencies Working Paper No. 9, IDPM,
Manchester: University of Manchester, 2000.

*Bradbury, Mark, Rebels Without a Cause? An Expolratory Report on the Conflict in Sierra Leone,
[London]: Care, UK, 1995

14
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*Clapham, Christopher, “The Perils of Peace-Making”, Paper from African Studies Conference of the
United Kingdom, [Bristol]: University of Bristol, 9-11 September 1996.

Colletta, N., Kostner, M. & Wiederhofer, I. The transition from war to peace in Sub-Saharan Africa,
[Washington]: World Bank, 1996.

*Conference of Nongovernmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations,


Ngos For Change: African Nongovernmental Organizations in Development, Equality and Peace, New
York: CONGO,1999.

Deng, Francis M. & Zartman, I. William (eds.), Conflict Resolution in Africa, Washington, USA:
Brookings Institution, 1991.

*Francis D., Peacekeeping or Peace Enforcement? Conflict Intervention in Africa, Cambridge, MA:
World Peace Foundation, 1998.

*Gilson, L., Macrae, J., Zwi, A., “A Triple Burden for Health Sector Reform: ‘Post’-Conflict Rehabilitation
in Uganda”, Social Sceince Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 7, 1996, pp. 1095-1108.

*Kingma, K., Gebrewold, K., Demilitarisation, Reintegration and Conflict Prevention in the Horn of
Africa, London: Saferworld, 1998.

*Leach, Adam, Basic Rights and Conflict in Kenya: the State, the Market, and ’Civil Society’ –What is
Happening in Kenya, Kenya: Oxfam Kenya, 1996.

Line, A. van, & Naylor, R., Building Sustainable Peace, Conflict, Conciliation and Civil Society in
Northern Ghana, Oxford: Oxfam, 1999.

*Lume, William, Environment, Development and Conflict; Development Aid to Target Conflict
Prevention, London: Institute for African Alternatives, 1994.

Magnarella, Paul J. “Preventing Interethnic Conflict and Promoting Human Rights Through More Effective
Legal, Political, and Aid Structures: Focus on Africa”, The Georgia Journal of International and
Comparative Politics, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1993.

*Meeren, Rachel van der, “The Rwandan emergency: causes, responses, solutions?”, Journal of
Refugee Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996.

Murithi, Timothy, “NGOs and conflict resolution in Africa”, Oliver Furley & Roy May, (eds.)
Peacekeeping in Africa, Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

Outram, Q. “Cruel wars and safe havens: humanitarian aid in Liberia 1989-1996”; Disasters, 21, No. 3,
1997, pp. 189-205.

Outram, Quentin, “Cruel wars and safe havens : humanitarian aid in Liberia 1989-1996”, University of
Leeds School of Business and Economic Studies - Discussion Paper Series / University of Leeds,
School of Business and Economic Studies ; E96/20, 1996.

Oxfam International, The Importance of Engagement: A Strategy for Reconstruction in the Great Lakes
Region. October 1997.

Pausewang, Siegfried, “Humanitarian assistance during conflict in a state-less society: The case of
Somalia”, Chr Mihelsen Institute Working Paper, 1999:5, Bergen, 1999.

*Poulteon, Robin E. & Youssouf, Ibrahim, A Peace of Timbuktu: Demographic Governance,


Development and African Peacemaking, Geneva: UN, 1998.

15
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Prendergast, J. Frontline diplomacy: humanitarian aid and conflict in Africa, Lynne Rienner: London,
1996.

Reychler, Luc, “An Evaluation of the International Efforts in Burundi. Draft Conference Paper”. CPN
Annual Conference 1999. Ebenhausen: CPN, 1999.

Saasa, Oliver. The aid relationship in Zambia: a conflict scenario, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet: Uppsala,
1996.

*Spanger, H-J, Vale, P. (eds.), Bridges to the Future: prospects for the peace and security in Southern
Africa, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.

Smock, David R. “Humanitarian Assistance and Conflict in Africa”, Journal of Humanitarian Assistance,
<http://www-jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a016.htm> posted on 4 July 1997.

*Tokpa, A, “Political NGOs and Peace-Building in Liberia: a Historical Perspective”, Peace Building in
Complex Pollitical Emergencies Working Paper No. 1, IPDM, Manchester: University of Manchester,
2000.

Uvin, Peter. Development, aid and conflict: reflections from the case of Rwanda, UNU/WIDER: Helsinki,
1996.

Van Brabant, Koenraad, “Bad Borders make Bad Neighbours - The Political Economy of Relief and
Rehabilitation in the Somali Region 5, Eastern Ethiopia”, Relief and Rehabilitation Network Papers,
London: ODI, 1994.

*Waal, Alex de, Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster relief Industry in Africa, London: African
Rights, 1997.

6. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN LATIN AMERICA - GENERAL

Boyce, James K, Pastor, Manuel, The political economy of complex humanitarian emergencies :
lessons from El Salvador, World Institute for Development Economics Research, WIDER working
papers ; No. 131, Helsinki, Finland : UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research
(UNU/WIDER), 1997.

Brown, T. C. Causes of continuing conflict in Nicaragua: a view from the radical middle, Hoover
Institution: Stanford, 1995.

Eguizbal, C. et al. Humanitarian challenges in Central America: learning the lessons of recent armed
conflicts, Thomas J. Watson Institute for International Studies Occasional Paper, #14, Providence RI,
1993.

*Lent, Tom, Blessed are the Spacemakers: Constructing Peace and Peace Processes in Conflictual
Situations. A Case Study of Guatemala 1976-1996, Cambridge MA: Collaborative for Development
Action, 1996.

*Mahony, Liam, Risking Return: NGOs in the Guatemalan refugee return, Uppsala: Life & Peace
Institute, 1999.

Murray, K. et al. Rescuing Reconstruction The Debate on Post-War Economic Recovery in El Salvador,
Hemisphere Initiatives: Cambridge - Massachusetts & San Salvador, El Salvador, 1994.

*Murray, K. et al. Inside El Salvador, Camridge MA & San Salvador: Hemisphere Initiatives 1994.

7. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN ASIA - GENERAL

16
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Atmar, Haneef, Sultan Barakat and Arne Strand (ed.) From Rhetoric to Reality The role of aid in local
peacebuilding in Afghanistan, York: PRDU, The University of York, 1998.

*Bastian, S, “The Failure of State Formation, Identity Conflict and Civil Society Responses: The Case of
Sri Lanka”, Peace Building and Complex Political Emergencies Working Paper No. 4, IDPM,
Manchaester: University of Manchester, 1999.

*Buwalda, Hans, “Children of war in the Philippines”, in Deborah Eade (ed), Development in States of
War -A Development in Practice Reader, Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.

*Clements, Kevin P, “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in the Asia Pacific region: Culture, Problem-Solving
and Peacemaking”, Pacific Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994, pp. 1-15.

Goodhand, Jonathan, Hulme, David/Lewer, Nick, NGOs and Peacebuilding in Complex Political
Emergencies: a Case Study of Sri Lanka. Peace Building and Complex Political Emergencies Working
Papers No. 2. University of Manchester, 1999.

Goodhand, Jonathan, Hulme, David, NGOs and Peacebuilding in Complex Political Emergencies: a
Study of Afghanistan. Peace Building and Complex Political Emergencies Working Papers No. 3.
University of Manchester, 1999.

*Goodhand, Jonathan, Hulme, David, ”From Holy War to Opium War?: A Case Study of the Opium
Economy in North Eastern Afghanistan”, Peace Building and Complex Political Emergencies Working
Paper No. 5, IDPM, Manchester: University of Manchester, 1999.

Nicholds, Nigel, Borton, John, “The changing role of NGOs in the provision of relief and rehabilitation
assistance : case study 1 : Afghanistan/Pakistan”, Overseas Development Institute Working Paper, No.
74, 1994.

Rotberg, Robert (ed.), Creating peace in Sri Lanka: Civil war and reconciliation, Washington DC:
Brookings Inst. Press, 1999.

*Van Brabant, K., “NGO-government relations in Sri Lanka”, in J. Bennet (ed.) NGOs and Governments:
A Review of Current Practice for Southern and Eastern NGOs, Oxford, INTRAC, 1997, pp. 161-172.

Youssef, Nadia H., The Demographics of Ethnicity: Implications for Project Support in Central Asia.
World Bank, 1998.

8. AID, CONFLICT, NGOS IN EUROPE / EURASIA - GENERAL

BoHeMSA. Final Report from the International Workshop on Medicine, War and Peace - the Bosnian
Experience, Sarajevo: Bosnian and Hezegovinian Medical Students’ Association, 1997.

Forced Migration Projects, Open Society Institute, Eurasia's Dispossessed: NGOs and Human Security,
New York: Open Society Institute, 1999.

*International Centre on Conflict and Negotiation, Restoring the Culture of Peace in the Causasus: A
Human Solidarity Document, Georgia: ICCN, 1999.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Repatriation, return and Integration
to/in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: position paper, Geneva:
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 1997.

Mercier, Michele, Crimes without punishment : humanitarian action in former Yugoslavia, London ; East
Haven, Conn. : Pluto Press, 1996.

17
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Trier, Tom & Hansen, Lars Funch (eds.) “Conflict and Forced Displacement in the Caucasus:
Perspectives, Challenges and Responses”, International Conference on the Caucasus Region,
Copenhagen: DRC, 1999.

Volkan, Neu J., Developing a Methodology for Conflict Prevention: The Case of Estonia, Atlanta, GA:
The Carter Center, Special Report Series, 1999.

9. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - GENERAL

Actionaid (ed.) “Understanding conflict”, Report from an Actionaid Workshop, Jinja, Uganda, 17-23 July
1994.

Actionaid (ed.) “Understanding peace and conflict management”, Report from an Actionaid Workshop,
Ghana, 22-26 May 1995.

Adams, M. and Bradbury, M. Organisational adaptation in conflict situations, Oxfam: Oxford, 1995.

*Anacleti, Odhiambo, Successful Emergency Response, Then What? Learning from the Past to Work
in Post-Emergency Situations, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I Africa Desk, 1996.

*Anderson, Mary, B., A Framework for Considering the Role and Impact of International Assistance in a
Post-Conflict Situation, Cambridge MA:Collaborative for Development Action, 1995.

Anderson, Mary B. & Woodrow, Peter J. Rising from the ashes: Development strategies in times of
disaster, Lynne Rienner: London 1989.

Apthorpe, R. (ed.) Towards Emergency Humanitarian Aid Evaluation, Canberra: Australian National
University, NCDS, 1998.

Atkinson, P., Goodhand, J. & Hulme, D. “Missing Voices: Rapid and participatory methods for
understanding conflict and peace at the community level”, Paper presented at Development Studies
Association Conflict Group conference, London: South Bank University, 26th March 1999.

Auvinen, Juha “Aid and conflict: opportunities for Finnish preventive action”; Acta Politica, No. 5, 1997.

Azar, Edward E. & Moon, Chung In, “Managing Protracted Social Conflicts in the Third World:
Facilitation and Development Diplomacy”, Millenium, Journal of International Studies, vol. 15, no. 3,
1995, pp. 393-406.

Baranyi, Stephen, From Ideas to Action: Operationalising Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment.
Paper for the Canadian Peacebuilding Consultations, Ottawa, March 2-3, 1999, IDRC, Peacebuilding
and Reconstruction Programme Initiative.

*Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, European Centre for Conflict,
International Alert, Life & Peace Institute, Code of Conduct/Guidelines for Conflict Transformation; Draft
Conference Report; Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1999.

Black, R. & Koser, K., The end of the refugee cycle: refugee repatriation and reconstruction, Oxford:
Berghahn Books, 1999.

Bock, Joseph G. & Anderson, Mary B. “Dynamite under the Intercommunal Bridge: How Can Aid
Agencies Help Defuse It?” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1999.

Bradbury, M. Aid under fire: redefining relief and development assistance in unstable situations, Wilton
Park paper 104; HMSO: London, 1995.

18
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Brabant, Koenraad Van, “Cool Ground for Aid Providers: Towards Better Security Management in Aid
Agencies” , Disasters, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1998.

Bremner, Davin, “Accountability Relationships and Third Party Intervention”, in Landon E. Hancock et al,
(eds.) Soldier, Scientist, Diplomat, Mediator: The Multi-Disiplinary Context of Conflict Resolution, George
Mason University - Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, 1998.

Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee, Towards a Lessons-Learned Framework for NGOs in


Peacebuilding: A Preliminary Report. Ottawa: CPSS, March 1999.

*Cahill, Kevin, A Framework for Survival: Health, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Assitance in
Conflictc and Disasters, New York: Basic Books & The Council on Foreign Relations, 1993.

*Carlarne, J., “Collaborative Action Research and Peacebuilding”, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 4,
No. 4, 1997, pp.79-85.

Chalinder, Andrew, “Temporary Human Settlement Planning for Displaced Populations in Emergencies”,
Good Practice Review, London: ODI in association with EuronAid, 1998.

CIDA, Peacebuilding Unit, Conflict Prevention and Post Conflict Reconstruction: A Matrix of Analytical
Tools Available Internationally for Peacebuilding and Donor Coordination. Work in Progress. Hull, 1998.

Clayton, Andrew, NGOs, civil society, and the state : building democracy in transitional societies,
INTRAC NGO management & policy series ; No. 2 Oxford : INTRAC, 1996

*Conflict Management Group, “Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and Humanitarian Assistance in Areas in


Conflict”, Working Paper Series, Cambridge MA: Conflict Management Group, 1994.

Cornelius, Helena & Faire, Shoshana, Everyone Can Win: How to Resolve Conflict, Rosewood, NSW,
Australia: Simon Schuster, 1994.

Crawley, John, Constructive Conflict Management: Managing to Make a Difference, Lonodn, Nicholas
Brealey, 1992.

Cuny, F. with Hill, R. & Reed, P., Famine, conflict and response, a basic guide, W Hartford, Conn:
Kumarian Press, 1999.

Cutts, Mark “Safety first: protecting NGO employees who work in areas of conflict”; Save the Children,
London, 1998.

DAC-OECD. Civilian and military means of providing and supporting humanitarian assistance during
conflict : a comparative analysis, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Development Assistance Committee, OECD working papers, Vol. 6, No. 49, Paris : Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development, 1998.

DAC Working Party on Aid Evaluation, Guidance for Evaluating Humanitarian Assistance in Complex
Emergencies. Paris: OECD, 1999.

Davies, John L. & Gurr, Robert Ted, Preventive Measures: Building Risk Assessment and Crisis Early
Warning Systems. Boulder: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Department for International Development (DfID), Social Development Division, Stakeholder Participation
and Analysis. London, 1995.

Department for International Development (DfID)/Michael Warner, Discussion Paper on Conflict Impact
Assessment. London: DFID/ODI, 1999.

*Doucet, Ian, Resource Pack for Conflict Transformation, London: International Alert, 1996.

19
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Duffield, Mark, Evaluating Conflict Resolution. Context, Models and Methodology. Bergen: Ch. Michelsen
Institute, 1997.

Eade, D. (ed.) Development and Management: Experiences in Value-Based Conflict - Development in


Practice Readers, Oxford: Oxfam, January 2000.

*Finucane, Aengus, “The changing roles of voluntary organizations”, in Kevin Cahill (ed.) A Framework
for Survival: Health, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Assistance in Conflicts and Disasters, New York:
Basic Books & The Council on Foreign Relation,1993, pp. 175-190.

Fisher, Roger, Beyond Macchiavelli: Tools for Coping with Conflict, USA: Harvard University Press,
1992.

Fuchs, P. “Emergency coordination - a problem of humanitarian actors or rather of politicians and


generals?”; a speech by ICRC President, Chatham House; London: RIIA, 1994.

Garcia, Edmundo, Participative Approaches to Peacemaking in the Philippines, Tokyo: United Nations
University Press, 1993.

Garcia, Edmundo (ed.), Pilgrim Voices: Citizens as Peacemakers, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila
University Press, 1994.

*Gasper, Des, “Drawing a Line –Ethical and Political Strategies in Complex Emergency Assistance”,
The European Journal of Development Research, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1999, pp. 87-114.

*Ginifer, Jeremy, Eide, Espen Barth, Ronnfeldt, Carsten, (eds.) Preventive Action in Theory and Practice
–The Skopje Papers, Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 1999.

Griffiths, A.L.(ed.), Building Peace and Democracy in Post-Conflict Societies, Centre for Foreign Policy
Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, 1999.

Goyder, Hugh, Rich Davies, Winkie Williamson, Participatory Impact Assessment. Somerset:
ActionAid, 1998.

Hallam, A. “Evaluating humanitarian assistance programmes in complex emergencies”; Relief and


Rehabilitation Good Practice Review, No. 8, RRN-ODI: London, 1998.

Hammock, J. and Lautz, S. Coping with crisis; coping with aid: capacity building, coping mechanisms
and dependency, linking relief and development, HPG Library, London: ODI, 1996.

Hansen, Greg & Seely, Robert “Building Local NGO Capacity To Promote Peace”, Surviving Together,
Vol. 15, No. 1, 1997.

Harvey, P. “Rehabilitation in complex political emergencies: Is rebuilding civil society the answer?”; in
Disasters, Vol. 22, No. 3, September 1998, pp. 200-217.

Hay, Robin, Draft Peacebuilding Typology: A Framework for Taking Action and Learning Lessons.
Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee, 1998.

Higson-Smith, Craig “‘Linking’ and ‘empowering’ : key concepts for intervention following war and
disaster”; Development in Practice, Vol. 9 No. 3, May 1999, pp. 330-336.

Hill, R., Famine, Conflict & Response: A Basic Guide by Fred Cuny (posthumously), Connecticut:
Kumarian Press, 1999.

International Alert, Code of Conduct for Conflict Transformation Work . London, 1998.

20
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Principles of Conduct for the International Red
Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Response Programmes. Geneva, 1996.
(http://www.ifrc.org/pubs/code/)

Jaspars, Susanne and Young, Helen, “General Food Distribution in Emergencies: From Nutritional
Needs to Political Priorities”, Good Practice Review, London: ODI in association with EuronAid, 1996.

*Johnston, Philip, “Relief and reality”, in Kevin Cahill (ed.) A Framework for Survival: Health, Human
Rights, and Humanitarian Assistance in Conflicts and Disasters, New York: Basic Books & The Council
on Foreign Affairs, 1993.

Jolly, R (ed.). Working in long-term conflict: managing the organisational challenge, Oxford, INTRAC,
1997.

Jones, Bruce D., Bryans, Michael & Stein, Janice Gross Mean times: humanitarian action in complex
political emergencies - stark choices, cruel dilemmas: report of the NGOs in complex emergencies
project,The Program on Conflict Management and Negotiation - Centre for International Studies,
University of Toronto: Toronto, 1999.

Kapoor, Ilan, Indicators for Programming in Human Rights and Democratic Development: A Preliminary
Study. CIDA, 1996.

Kuperus, G, “The desirability and feasibility of stakeholder participation in planning, monitoring and
evaluation within MSF-Holland”; MSF Holland Discussion Paper, 1998.

Laprise, Anne-Marie, Programming for Results in Peacebuilding: Challenges and Opportunities in


Setting Performance Indicators. Canadian International Development Agency, October 1998.

*Lang, Peter (compiled by), Assisting in Disasters: Notes from the Asia Workshop on Emergencies,
[Oxford]: Oxfam, 1992.

Lederach, John Paul, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies, Tokyo: United
Nations University, 1995.

*Lederach, John Paul, Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation across Cultures, Syracuse:
Syracuse Press, 1995.

Macnair, Rebecca, “Room for Improvement: The Management and Support of Relief Workers”, Relief and
Rehabilitation Network Papers, London: ODI, 1995.

Macrae, J. & Zwi, A. (eds.) War and hunger: rethinking international responses to complex
emergencies, Zed Books in association with Save the Children Fund UK: London and New Jersey, 1994.

Macrae, Joanna, “Purity or Political Engagement?: Issues in food and heath security inverventions in
complex political emergencies”, Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, http://www-
jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a574.htm posted on 7 March 1998.

*Macrae, Joanna, “Training for ‘it’: some reflections on training for rehabilitation and reconstruction in
politically volatile areas”, Training for Donor Program Personnel in Politically Volatile Areas Workshop,
Uppsala, Sweden: 1999.

Maynard, Kimberly A. - Healing communities in conflict : international assistance in complex


emergencies. - New York : Columbia University Press, 1999.

Minear, Larry, “Learning to Learn”, pp. 27-45 in: Humanitarian Coordination. Lessons learned. Report of
a Review Seminar, Stockholm, April 3-4 1998. OCHA.

21
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Moss, David & Farrington, John (eds.) Development as process: concepts and methods for working with
complexity, Routledge, London and New York, 1998.

Ndelu, T. “Conflict management and peace building through community development”; Journal of Social
Development in Africa, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1998, pp. 67-74.

Nyamugasira, Warren, Nigel Marsh, Lincoln Ndogoni, Equipping Project Staff in Conflict Situations to
be Agents of Positive Development Energy. Discussion Papers. World Vision, 1998.

OCHA. Humanitarian Coordination Lessons Learned, Report of a Review Seminar, Stockholm, April 3-4
1998, jointly organised by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the UN Office fpr the Coordination
of Humanitarian Affairs, OCHA, New York, 1998.

Operations Evaluation Department, World Bank, Designing Project Monitoring and Evaluation. Lessons
& Practices No. 8, June 1996.

Operations Evaluation Department, World Bank, Evaluating Development Operations: Methods for
Judging Outcomes and Impacts. Lessons & Practices No. 10, July 1997.

Oxfam, Conflict and development: organisational adaptation in conflict situations, an Oxfam working
paper; Oxfam, Acord, Oxford and Birmingham: Responding to Conflict and the University of Birmingham,
1995

*Oxfam, Managing the Psychosocial Effects of Conflict Situations on Oxfam Staff, Health Unit, Oxford:
Oxfam UK/I, 1991.

People in Aid, Code of Best Practice in the Management and Support of Aid Personnel, London: RRN-
ODI, 1997.

*Prendergast, John, “Aid with Integrity –Avoiding the Potential of Humanitarian Aid to Susatin Conflict: A
Strategy for USAID/BHR/OFDA in Complex Emergencies”, Occasional Paper for USAID, Washington
DC: USAID, 1996.

Ramsbotham, O. & Woodhouse, T. Humanitarian intervention in contemporary conflict: a


reconceptualization, Polity Press: Cambridge, 1996.

Reychler, Luc, “Conflict Impact Assessment (CIAS) at the Policy and Project Level”, paper presented at
the International Conference on Development and Conflict, 24 - 26 September 1998, European
University Centre for Peace Studies, Stadtschlaining, Austria.

Reychler, Luc, The Conflict Impact Assessment System (CIAS): A Method for Designing and Evaluating
Development Policies and Projects. Ebenhausen: CPN, 1999.

Roche, Chris, Impact assessment for development agencies, Oxford: Oxfam & Novib, 1999.

Roche, Chris, ”Operationality in turbulence: the need for change”, Development in Practice, Vol. 4, No.
3, 1994, pp.160-172.

Rotberg, Robert I. (ed.) Vigilance and vengeance: NGOs preventing ethnic conflict in divided societies,
Brookings Institute Press, Washington D.C. and World Press Foundation, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
1996.

Rothman, Jay, “Action-Evaluation and Conflict Resolution: In Theory and Practice”, paper presented at
the National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution. Pittsburgh, May 27, 1997. Bryn
Mawr College and Haverford Colleges.

Schireh, Lisa. Keeping the peace: Exploring civilian alternatives in conflict prevention, Life and Peace
Institute: Uppsala, 1995.

22
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*Shackman, Jane, Reynolds, Jill, “Training indigenous workers in mental-health care”, in Deborah Eade
(ed), Development in States of War -A Development in Practice Reader, Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.

Shoham, Jeremy, “Emergency Supplementary Feeding Programmes”, Good Practice Review, London:
ODI in association with EuronAid, 1995.

Slim, H. “The continuing metamorphosis of the humanitarian practitioner: some new colours for an
endangered chameleon”; Disasters,Vol.19, No. 2, 1995, pp. 110-126.

Slim, Hugo, “Planning between danger and opportunity: NGO situation analysis in conflict related
emergencies”, Vetaid Occasional Paper Series, No. 1, April 1996.

Slim, Hugo, “Planning between danger and opportunity: NGO situation analysis in conflict related
emergencies”. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, May 1996.

Slim, Hugo, Doing the right thing: relief agencies, moral dilemmas and moral responsibility in political
emergencies and war, Nordic Africa Institute: Uppsala, 1997.

Slim, Hugo. Relief Agencies and moral standing in war: principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality
and solidarity, Development in Practice, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1997, pp. 342-352.

Small, Cleo. “NGO management in situations of conflict”; INTRAC Occasional Papers, No. 12, Oxford,
1996.

South House Exchange, Workshop Report. Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) of
Development Projects in Conflict Zones. June 1 and 2, 1998. Ottawa, Canada. Ottawa: The International
Development Research Centre.

Spelten, Angelika, Crisis analysis in development co-operation. Bonn: Federal Ministry for Economic
Co-operation and Development, 1998.

Sphere Project, Preliminary edition of the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in
Disaster Response, 1998. (http://www.sphereproject.org/)

Stein, Barry N. & Cuny, Frederick C. “Refugee repatriation during conflict: protection and post-return
assistance”; Development in Practice, Vol. 4 No. 3, 1994, pp. 173-187.

Summerfield, Derek, “The Impact of War and Atrocity on Civilian Populations: Basic Principles for NGO
interventions and a Critique of Psychosocial Trauma Projects”, Relief and Rehabilitation Network
Papers, London: ODI, 1996.

Telford, John, “Counting and Identification of Beneficiary Populations in Emergency Operations:


Registration and its Alternatives”, Good Practice Review, London: ODI in association with EuronAid,
1997.

Thompson, M. “Empowerment and survival: humanitarian work in civil conflict”, Development in Practice,
Vol. 7, No. 1, 1997, pp. 50-58.

UNDP, National Long-Term Perspectives Studies: A Tool for Governance. New York, 1998.

UNHCR, Refugee Emergencies: A Community-based Approach, Revised May 1996, Second Edition.

USAID, Humanitarian Response and Post-crisis Transition - a Strategy Paper, USAID: Washington DC,
1995.

USAID, Centre for Democracy and Governance, Handbook of Democracy and Governance Program
Indicators. Washington: Management Systems International, 1998.

23
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

van der Linde, A. L. Peacebuilding from below? how perspectives from critical social theory, ethnicity,
normative discourse and civil society inform NGO roles in peacebuilding, [University of Bradford]:
Bradford, 1998.

*Van Brabant, K., “An Action Agenda for Protecting Aid Workers”, Humanitarian Affairs Review, Vol. 1,
No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-27.

van Tongeren, Paul, “Exploring the local capacity for peace: the role of NGOs” The Courier, No. 168, pp.
70-72, 1998.

von Kotze, A. & Holloway, A. Reducing risk: Participatory learning activities for disaster-mitigation in
Southern Africa, [Natal]: Oxfam, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies &
Department of Adult and Community Education at the University of Natal, 1996.

Voutira, E. & Whishaw Brown, S.A. Conflict resolution: a review of some non-governmental practices: a
cautionary tale, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet in cooperation with SIDA: Uppsala, 1995.

Walkup, Mark, “Policy dysfunction in humanitarian organizations: the role of coping strategies,
institutions, and organizational culture”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997.

Weiss, Thomas G. “Beyond UN subcontracting: task-sharing with regional security arrangements and
service-providing NGOs” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1997, pp. 417-619.

White, Sarah C. “Depoliticising development: the uses and abuses of participation”; Development in
Practice, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1996, pp. 6-15.

World Bank, Social Assessment: Key Concepts, Policies, Methods, Frequently Asked Questions, 1999.
<http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/essd/essd.nsf>

World Vision, Conflict and development: responding to the challenge, Discussion papers 6, Milton
Kenyes: World Vision, 1998.

Wright, Robert E., “A framework for assessing the impact of distribution factors on the potential
effectiveness of international short-term humanitarian aid”, IJCM, Vol. 6, No. 1 & 2, 1996, pp. 38-50.

Zielinski, Henryk Leszek, Health and humanitarian concerns : principles and ethics : guidelines for Red
Cross/Red Crescent health professionals, Institut Henry-Dunant International Red Cross and Red
Crescent Movement, Nijhoff law specials ; 5 Dordrecht : M. Nijhoff, 1994.

10. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - AFRICA

*Actionaid- Mozambique, “Peace and Conflict: The Mozambique Situation”, Report from an Actionaid
Workshop, 22-26 May, Ghana: Actionaid, 1995.

*Adeniji, Olu, “Mechanisms for Conflict Management in West Africa: Politics of Harmonization”, Journal
of Humanitarian Assistance, <http://www-jha.sps.cam.ac.uk/a/a258.htm> posted on 15 October 1997.

Barnes, Sam, Humanitarian aid coordination during war and peace in Mozambique, 1985 - 1995,
Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet in cooperation with SIDA, 1998.

De Waal, Alex, “Democratizing the aid encounter in Africa”, International Affairs, Vol. 73, No. 4 , pp.
623-639, 1997.

Dugard, Jackie, Everatt, David & Orkin, Mark, Monitoring the monitors: a review of selected south
African NGOs involved in conflict resolution, Community Agency for Social Enquiry, Interfund, Joseph
Rowntree Charitable Trust: Johannesburg, 1996.

24
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

European Platform for conflict prevention and transformation, Report of the Conference Conflict
Prevention and Peace Building in Africa organised by the European Centre for Conflict Prevention
Hosted by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague, The Netherlands, October 15, 1999.

Green, R. & Mavie, M., “From Survival to Livelihood in Mozambique”, IDS Bulletin, Vol. 25, 1994.

James, Rick. Demystifying organisation development: practical capacity-building experiences of African


NGOs, NTRAC: Oxford, 1998.

IPA/OAU “Civil society and conflict management in Africa”, Report on IPA/OAU Consultation; IPA: Cape
Town, 1996.

International Alert. The Challenge for peace making in Africa: conflict prevention and conflict resolution,
London: International Alert, 1994.

Macrae, J. “Conflict, the continuum and chronic emergencies: a critical analysis of the scope for linking
relief, rehabilitation and development planning in Sudan”; Disasters, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1997, pp. 223-243.

Mekenkamp, M., van Tongeren, P. & van de Veen, H. (eds.), Searching for Peace in Africa: An Overview
of Conflict Prevention and Management Activities, European Platform for Conflict Prevention and
Transformation, 1999.

Mitchener, V.J. “The participatory approach: contradiction and co-operation in Burkina Faso”; World
Development, Vol 26, No 12, pp. 2105-2118, 1998.

*Ohlson T. & Stedman, S.J., The New is not yet Born: conflict resolution in Southern Africa, Washington
D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1994.

*Rotschild, D., Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: pressures and incentives for Cooperation,
Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1999.

11. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - ASIA

Atmar, Haneef, Sultan Barakat and Arne Strand (ed.) From Rhetoric to Reality The role of aid in local
peacebuilding in Afghanistan, York: PRDU, The University of York, 1998.

[British Agencies Afghanistan Group], NGOs and the common programming process: a consideration of
the ways in which NGOs operating in Afghanistan can best engage with the common programming
mechanism, [British Refugee Council: London 1998].

*Fielden, M, Goodhand, J, “Peace-Making Where There Is No State: an Analysis of the Afghan Conflict
and Attempts to Resolve it”, Peace Building in Complex Political Emergencies Working Paper No. 7,
IDPM, Manchester: University of Manchester, 2000.

*Goodhand, J, “Research Methodology to Examine the Role of NGOs in Peace Building: Afghan Case
Study”, Peace Building in Complex Political Emergencies Working Paper No. 8, IDPM, Manchester:
University of Manchester, 2000.

Goodhand, Jonathan & Lewer, Nick: “Sri Lanka: NGOs and peace-building in complex political
emergencies” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, February 1999, pp. 69-88.

Van Brabant, Koenraad, “The Coordination of Humanitarian Action: The Case of Sri Lanka”, Relief and
Rehabilitation Network Papers, London: ODI, 1998.

Ward, Patrick & Rimmer, Martin, “Targeting the Poor in Northern Iraq: The Role of Formal and Informal
Research Methods in Relief Operations”, Relief and Rehabilitation Network Papers, London: ODI, 1995.

25
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

12. CONCEPTS AND METHODS FOR WORKING IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - EUROPE / EURASIA

CIS Unit, UNHCR Catalogue of Capacity-Building Resources for NGOs in the Countries of the CIS,
Geneva: CIS Unit - UNHCR, 1999.

Forced Migration Projects, Open Society Institute, Coping with Conflict: A Guide to the Work of Local
NGOs in the North Caucasus, New York: Open Society Institute, 1998.

*Fox, Robert, Peace in the Balkans: The Prospects and Perils in the Quest for Stability, A British-
Italian dialogue; the Taormina Conference; Taormina Sicily: The British Council, 2000.

Open Society Institute, Forced Migration Projects, Protecting Eurasia's dispossessed : a practical guide
for NGOs working on issues of forced migration in the former Soviet Union
New York: Open Society Institute, 1996.

Walsh, Martha. Post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina: Integrating women’s special situation and gender
perspectives in skills training and employment promotion programmes, Brighton: IDS, 1998.

13. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - GENERAL

Abourjaili, K. The role of research and training in promoting development in regions devastated by war:
the experience of ILDES, Adult Education and Development/German Adult Education Association, No.
50, 1998, pp. 79-83.

Actionaid, Actionaid working in emergencies in 1994, London: Actionaid.

Actionaid- Pakistan, “Working with conflict: strategies and skills for development workers”, Report from
an Actionaid Workshop, 16-20 July; Islamabad: Actionaid-Pakistan, 1995.

*Agerbak, Linda, Oxfam’s Work in Conflict:1978/9 to 1988/9, [Oxford]: Oxfam Uk/I, 1991.

*Bentley, Marigold, S., “Conflict Resolution in Areas Affected by War”, Emergency and Refugee
Education Forum, Cambridge: International Extension College, 25th May 1995.

Bergh, M. and Jareg, P. (ed.) Relief work in complex emergencies: the Norwegian NGO experience,
Centre in Partnership in Development, Diakonhjemmet International Centre, Oslo, 1998.

Borton, J. with Nicholds, N., Benson, C. & Dhiri, S. NGOs and relief operations: trends and policy
implications, London: ODI, 1994.

Borton, J. and Shoham, J. “Experiences of non-governmental organisations in the targeting of


emergency food aid: a report on a workshop at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,
London, Jan 1989”; Disasters, Vol. 13, No. 1, 19

*Brauman, Rony, “The Medecins sans Fronteires Experience”, in Kevin Cahill (ed.) A Framework for
Survival: Health, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Assitance in Conflict and Disasters, New York: Basic
Books & The Council on Foreign Relations, 1993, pp. 202-220.

DFAIT/CIDA, Peace in Progress. Canada’s Peacebuilding Initiative. Ottawa, 1998.

*Duncan, Debi, The Effects on staff Working in Areas of Conflict, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I, 1992.

Feeney, P. Accountable Aid: local participation in major projects, Oxford: Oxfam, 1998.

Gould, Helen, The art of survival : investigating creativity in humanitarian aid, The social impact of arts
programmes. working paper ; 3, Stroud : Comedia, 1996.

26
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Harvey, P. PRA and participatory approaches in emergency situations: a review of the literature and
ACTIONAID’s experience, London: ActionAid, 1997.

Hallam, A. “Evaluating humanitarian assistance programmes in complex emergencies”; Relief and


Rehabilitation Good Practice Review, No. 8, RRN-ODI: London, 1998.

*Hulme, David, Edwards, Michael, (eds.) Beyond the Magic Bullet –NGO Performance and
Accountability in the Post-Cold War World, West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1996.

Lund, Michael S., Formulating Effective Early Responses to Potential Violent Conflicts: The Role in
FEWER’s Work of the Assessment of Preventive Responses’ Impacts on Peace and Conflict.
Discussion Paper. Washington: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, May.

Macrae, Joanna, “Dilemmas of ‘Post’-Conflict Transition: Lessons from the Health Sector”, Relief and
Rehabilitation Network Papers, London: ODI, 1995.

*NPI-Africa, Stategic and Responsive Evaluation of Peacbuilding: a framework for learning and
assessment; Report on an Action-Reflection Seminar, Kenya: NPI-Africa, 1999.

O’Reilly, Siobhan, The Contribution of Community Development to Peacebuilding: World Vision’s Area
Development Programmes, Milton Keynes: World Vision UK, 1998.

Oxfam, Problems and lessons identified from evaluations of emergency interventions 1984-1992,
Planning and Evaluation Unit, Oxford: Oxfam, 1993.

*Oxfam, Oxfam America: Countries in Transition Programme, [Boston]: Oxfam America, 1995?.

*Roche, Chris, Through the Looking Glass: NGOs in Wonderland, Policy Department, Oxford: Oxfam,
1995.

Spencer, T. A. Synthesis of evaluations of peace-building activities undertaken by humanitarian


agencies and conflict resolution organisations, London: ODI-ALNAP, 1998.

Stiefel, Matthias, Rebuilding after War: A Summary Report of the War-Torn Societies Project. Geneva:
WSP/UNRISD, 1998.

Uvin, P., The Influence of Aid in Situations of Violent Conflict A synthesis and a commentary on the
lessons learned from case studies on the limits and scope for the use of development assistance
incentives and disincentives for influencing conflict situations, OECD, Development Assistance
Committee, Informal Task Force on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation, Paris, 1999.

Voutira, Efthira & Whishaw Brown, Shaun A., “Conflict Resolution: A Review of Some Non-Governmental
Practices: A Cautionary Tale”, Report no. 4, Studies on Emergencies and Disaster Relief, Uppsala,
Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 1995.

World Vision, Conflict and development: responding to the challenge, Discussion papers 6, Milton
Kenyes: World Vision, 1998.

14. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - AFRICA

Abdillahi, Mohamed Sheikh. “The emergence of local NGOs in the recovery and development processes
of Somaliland (northwest Somalia)”; Voices from Africa, No. 8, 1998, pp. 73-83.

Acord, Development in conflict: case study: Acord’s programming in Gulu, Uganda, [London]: Acord,
1994.

27
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*Acord, Development in conflict: The experience of Acord in Uganda, Sudan, Mali, and Angola, London:
Overseas Development Institute, 1995.

*Actionaid- Somalia, “ActionAid in Somalia and Timeline for Somalia, Somaliland, and Sanaag”, Paper
presented at ActionAid Conference, Ghana: Actionaid, 22-26 May 1995.

*Adams, Mark, Conflict and Development –Gulu, London: Acord, 1994.

*Adams, Mark, “Development in Conflict –Case Study: Acord’s Programming in Southern Sudan”,
Report prepared for the Development in Conflict Workshop, London: Acord, 1-3 November 1994.

*Adibe, Clement E., “The Liberian Conflict and the ECOWAS-UN partnership”, in Thomas G. Weiss (ed.)
Beyond UN Subcontracting –Task Sharing with Regional Security Arrangements and Service Providing
NGOs, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998.

*African Rights, Rwanda –‘A Waste of Hope’: The United Nations Field Operations, London: African
Rights, 1995.

Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development, Development in conflict: The experience of
ACORD in Uganda, Sudan, Mali and Angola. Network Paper No. 9. ODI, Relief and Rehabilitation
Network, April 1995.

Ahmed, Ismail I. & Green, Reginald Herbor, “The heritage of war and state collapse in Somalia and
Somaliland: local-level effects, external interventions and reconstruction” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20,
No. 1, February 1999, pp. 113-128.

Atkinson, P, Mulbah, E, “NGOs and Peace Building in Complex Political Emergencies: Agency Surveys
from Liberia”, Peace Building and Complex Political Emergencies Working Paper No. 10, IDPM,
Manchester: University of Manchester, 2000.

Baden, Sally, Post-conflict Mozambique: Women’s special situation, population issues and gender
perspectives to be integrated into skills training and employment promotion, [Brighton]: IDS, 1998.

Ball, N. (with the assistance of Spies, C.) Managing conflict: lessons from South African Peace
Committees, For USAID/CDIE/POA, IQC Contract No AEP - 0085-6020, Task Order #3, 1997.

Barnes, S. NGOs in peace-keeping operations: their role in Mozambique, Development in Practice, Vol.
8, No. 3, 1998, pp. 309-322.

Borton, J., Nicholds, N., Shoham, J. and Mukhier, M.O. An evaluation of Concern’s 1990-91 Emergency
Programme in Kosti Province, Sudan, ODI: London, 1992.

Borton, John, The changing role of NGOs in the provision of relief and rehabilitation assistance : case
study 3 - Northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, Overseas Development Institute Working, No. 76, 1994.

*Borton, John, “Masking a Policy Vacuum?: Reviewing the Lessons of the International Response to the
Rwanda Crisis”, Disasters:The Journal of Disaster Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1996, pp. 281-352.

Bradbury, M. “Peace-enforcement, peace-making and peace-building: options for resolving the Somali
conflict”, an exploratory report for Oxfam UK/I, Oxford: Oxfam, 1993.

Bradbury, M. “Development in Conflict: Experiences of ActionAid in Somalia”; Responding to Conflict


Discussion Paper, No. 1, Birmingham, 1994.

Bradbury, M. “The case of the yellow settee: experiences of doing development in post-war Somaliland”;
Community Development Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1994, pp. 113-122.

28
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Bradbury, Mark. “The Somali conflict: prospects for peace”, an Oxfam Working Paper; Oxford: Oxfam,
1994.

Bradbury, M., Fisher, S. & lane, Charles “Working with pastoralist NGOs and land conflicts in Tanzania”
a report on a workshop held in Terrat, Tanzania, 11th-15th December 1994”; IIED, Drylands, Forests,
Trees and People Programme, Responding to Conflict; London, 1995.

Brusset, Emery, EU Cooperation with Politically Fragile Countries. Experiences from Liberia. ECDPM
Discussion Paper No. 2. Brussels: February, 1999.

*Capezzuoli, Silia, Adams, Mark, Development in Conflict Case Study: Acord’s Programming in Mali,
[London]: Acord, 1994.

*Chiffe, L., “Regional Dimensions of conflict in the Horn of Africa”, Special Issue: Complex Political
Emergencies, Third World Quarterly, 1998.

*Chin, Sally, Davies, John, Deshmukh, Rohini, Kitevu, Raymond, Ivanov, Anton, Nodia, Ghia, Nyheim,
David, Odera, Josephine, Piza-Lopez, Eugenia, Tishkov, Valery, Zeynalov, Eldar, “Challenges and
Lessons Learned in Setting Up Early Warning Pilot Projects in the Caucasus and the Great Lakes”,
London: Conflict Prevention Network,

*Clarke, Walter, Herbst, Jeffrey, (eds.) Learning from Somalia –The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian
Intervention, Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.

*Commission on Africa Regions in Crisis, King Baudouin Foundation, Medecins sans Frontieres,
Conflicts in Africa: an analysis of crises and crisis prevention measures, Brussels: GRIP, 1997.

Crichton, P., Katet, B., Mosowoya-Keys, A. & Buchanan-Smith, M. Situation analysis and revised
strategy for Actionaid-Rwanda, Actionaid: Kigali, 1997.

*de Waal, Alex, “African Encounters –Intervention: Africa”, Index on Censorship, Vol. 6, 1994.

*Dicklitz, S., The Elusive Promise of NGOs in Africa: lessons from Uganda, Baskinstoke: Macmillian,
1998.

Dodd, R. “Research and advocacy plan: Peace, conflict and reconciliation”, Actionaid Country
Programme Visit, No. 2 - Burundi; London: Actionaid, 1996.

*Drisdelle, Rheal, Fiddling While Rome Burns (Mali Background), Mali: Oxfam UK/I, 1994.

*Drisdelle, Rheal, Oxfam –Mali Memorandum, Mali: Oxfam UK/I, 1995.

*Duffield, M., Karim, A., Macrae, J., “Operation Lifeline Sudan: A Review”, Report for UNDHA, Genva:
UN, 1996.

Egan, Erica “Relief and rehabilitation work in Mozambique: institutional capacity and NGO executional
strategies”; Development in Practice, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1991, pp. 174-84.

Farah, A. Y. & Lewis, I. M. Somalia: the roots of reconciliation: peace making endeavours of
contemporary lineage leaders: a survey of grassroots peace conferences in ‘Somaliland’, London:
Actionaid, 1993.

*Haile, Tsige, Tekaligne, Yitna, “Working in Conflict/Neutrality: Actionaid Ethiopia Experience”, Paper
presented at Actionaid Conference, Ghana: Actionaid, 22-26 May 1995.

Heinrich, W. Building the peace: Experiences of collaborative peacebuilding in Somalia 1993-1996, Life
& Peace Institute: Uppsala, 1997.

29
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Howell, P. & Young, M. Responding to conflict: Actionaid - Sierra Leone’s emergency experience in
Kambia and North Bombali districts 1995-1996, [London]:Actionaid, 1997.

Huddock, A. “Facilitating PRA amidst war: experiences from Sierra Leone”; PLA Notes, No. 25, 1996.

IPA/OAU “Civil society and conflict management in Africa”, Report on IPA/OAU Consultation; IPA: Cape
Town, 1996.

International Alert. The Challenge for peace making in Africa: conflict prevention and conflict resolution,
London: International Alert, 1994.

Jaspars, Susanne, “The Rwandan Refugee Crisis in Tanzania: Initial Successes and Failures in Food
Assistance”, Relief and Rehabilitation Network Papers, London: ODI, 1994.

*Jones, Bruce D., “Intervention without Borders: Humanitarian Intervention in Rwanda, 1990-1994”,
Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1995, pp. 225-249.

*Joyner, Alison, “Supporting education in emergencies: a case study from southern Sudan”, in Deborah
Eade (ed), Development in States of War -A Development in Practice Reader, Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.

*Kennes, Erik, Laakso, Liisa, Reychler, Luc, Schraeder, Peter J., Vandeginste, Stef, The Congo Crisis:
Background and International Dimension, Helsinki: Department of Political Scince, University of
Helsinki, 1999.

Kuzwe, C. N. “The role of NGOs in democratisation and education in peace-time (Rwanda)”; Journal of
Social Development in Africa, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1998, pp. 37-40.

Lake, E., After the Wars - Reconstruction in Afghanistan, Indochina, Central America, Southern Africa
and the Horn of Africa, Overseas Development Council, Washington DC, 1990.

*Lautze, S., Jones, B.D., Duffield, M., Strategic Humanitarian Coordination in the Great Lakes Region
1996-1997: An Independent Study for the Inter-agency Standing committee, New York: United Nations,
1998.

Levine, Iain, “Promoting Humanitarian Principles: The Southern Sudan Experience”, Relief and
Rehabilitation Network Papers, London: ODI, 1997.

*Lewis, Ioan M., “Making history in Somalia: Humanitarian intervention in a stateless society”, Horn of
Africa:an Independent Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1-4, 1997.

*Lochhead, Alison, Evaluation of Oxfam’s Work in Soamlia and Somaliland May 1991 to December
1993, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I, 1994.

*Malan, Jannie, Conflict Resolution Wisdom from Africa, Durban: African Centre for Constructive
Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD), 1998.

Mbeja, A. & Harvey, P. Documentation of the Mount Elgon ethnic clashes and the Actionaid response in
Kapsokowony rural development area, [London]: Actionaid, 1996.

*Menkhaus, Ken & Prendergast, John, “Conflict and Crisis in the Greater Horn of Africa”, Current History,
May, 1999.

*Minear, Larry, Humanitarianism Under Siege: A Critical Review of Operation Lifeline Sudan, Trenton NJ:
The Red Sea Press, 1991.

Mitchener, V.J. “The participatory approach: contradiction and co-operation in Burkina Faso”; World
Development, Vol 26, No 12, pp. 2105-2118, 1998.

30
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*Naumann, Roger, Oxfam’s Learning on Conflict: Case Study from the Horn of Africa 1987-95, [Oxford]:
Oxfam, 1996.

Niehe, R. Development against odds: prospects for NGDO strategies in conflict-ridden countries: the
case of SECADEV in Chad, Institute for Social Studies: The Hague, 1995.

*Oxfam, Institutional Learning in East Africa; Report on a workshop; [Oxford]:Oxfam UK/I, 1996.

Payne, L. Rebuilding communities in a refugee settlement, a casebook from Uganda, Oxfam: Oxford,
1998.

Pierson R.T. Ntata “Participation by the Affected Population in Relief Operations: A Review of the
Experience of DEC Agencies during the Response to the 1998 Famine in South Sudan”, Report
prepared for the Active Learning Network on Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian
Assistance, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, June 1999.

Pottier, J. “Rwandan refugees; lessons for humanitarian aid workers”; African Affairs, Vol 95, 1996.

Pottier, Johan, “Why Aid Agencies Need Better Understanding of the Communities They Assist: The
Experience of Food Aid in Rwandan Refugee Camps”, Disasters, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1997.

*Prendergast, John, Building for Peace in the Horn of Africa, Washington D.C.: United States Institute of
Peace, 1999.

Rock, June, “Relief and rehabilitation in Eritrea: lessons and issues”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No.
1, February 1999, pp. 129-142.

*Scott, Colin, et al., “Humanitarian Action and Security in Liberia 1989-1994”, Occasional Paper No. 20/
Brown University, Thomas J.Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, Providence: Brown University,
1995.

Scott-Villiers, A. Training and Networking in Participation: Approaches to Relief in Southern Sudan,


Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 1999.

Sheeham, James. NGOs and participatory management styles: a case study of CONCERN Worldwide
in Mozambique, CVO: London, 1998.

Salith, M.A.M. “Post-war reconstruction in northern Ethiopia: Relief society of Tigray and its international
NGO partners”; Voices From Africa, No. 8, 1998, pp. 63-72.

Storey, A. ”Non-neutral humanitarianism: NGOs and the Rwanda crisis”; Development in Practice, Vol.
7, No. 4, 1997, pp. 384-394.

Thompson, M. Conflict, reconstruction and reconciliation: reciprocal lessons for NGOs in Southern
Africa and Central America, Development in Practice, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1997, pp. 505-509.

Uvin, Peter. Aiding Violence: The development enterprise in Rwanda, Kumarian Press: West Hartford
CT, 1998.

van der Linde, A. & Naylor, R. “Building sustainable peace: conflict, conciliation and civil society in
Northern Ghana”, an Oxfam Working Paper; Oxford: Oxfam, 1999.

Visman, Emma, Cooperation with Politically Fragile Countries: Lessons from EU Support to Somalia.
ECDPM Working Paper No. 66. Brussels: December 1998.

Whiteside, Martin ”Realistic rehabilitation: linking relief and development in Mozambique”; Development
in Practice, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1996, pp. 121-128.

31
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

World Vision. Sudan: the cost of continuing conflict, World Vision UK: Milton Keynes, 1996.

Zetter, R. “Indigenous NGOs and Refugee Assistance : Some Lessons from Malawi and Zimbabwe”,
Development in Practice, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp 37-49, 1996.

Zetter, R., “Refugee Survival and NGO Project Assistance for Mozambican Refugees in Malawi”,
Community Development Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp 214-29, 1996.

Zetter, R., Synopsis Report on the Evaluation of Oxfam's Great Lakes Emergency Programme 1994-97.
Oxford: Oxfam.

*Zolberg, A. & Callamard, A., “Displacement-generating conflicts and international assistance in the
Horn of Africa”, in W.R. Bohning & Schloeter-Paredes, (eds.) Aid in Place of Migration, Geneva:
International Labour Office, 1994.

15. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - LATIN AMERICA

Alvarez Solis, F. & Martin, P. “The role of Salvadorean NGOs in post-war reconstruction”; Development
in Practice, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1992, pp. 103-113.

Archer, D. “Resolving intra-national conflict and strengthening NGOs - some notes on Actionaid’s work
in El Salvador”, memorandum; Actionaid, 1992.

Ardon, P. “Post-war reconstruction in Central America: lessons from El Salvador, Guatemala and
Nicaragua”, Oxfam Working Paper, Oxford: Oxfam, 1998.

*Benady, I & Huey, D., Between two Fires: Oxfam’s Programme in Peru, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I, 1995.

Binfold, L. “Grassroots development in conflict zones of northeastern El Salvador”; Latin American


Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1997, pp. 56-79.

CAFOD. Strategies for community survival and economic development in the context of social conflict
and a market-led economy: a review of CAFOD projects in Colombia, CAFOD, London, 1995.

Kees, Biekat, The politics of civil society building : European private aid agencies and democratic
transitions in Central America, Utrecht : International Books and the Transnational Institute,1999.

Lake, E., After the Wars - Reconstruction in Afghanistan, Indochina, Central America, Southern Africa
and the Horn of Africa, Overseas Development Council, Washington DC, 1990.

*Martin, Pauline, Report on Visit to Guatemala 25-30 November 1994, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I, 1994.

Pearce, J.” Sustainable peace-building in the South: experiences from Latin America”; Development in
Practice, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1997, pp. 438-454.

Pearce, Jenny, “Peace-building in the periphery: lessons from Central America”, Third World Quarterly,
Vol. 20, No. 1, February 1999, pp. 51-68.

Thompson, M. Conflict, reconstruction and reconciliation: reciprocal lessons for NGOs in Southern
Africa and Central America, Development in Practice, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1997, pp. 505-509.

Thompson, Martha, Working in a Conflict Situation: the Perspective of an Agency Worker in El


Salvador, El Salvador: Oxfam El Salvador, 1995.

Trujillo, M., Ordones, A. & Hernandes, C. “Risk mapping and local capacity: Lessons from Mexico and
Central America”, Oxfam Working Paper, Oxford: Oxfam, 1999.

32
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*Wils, Frits, “NGOs in Latin America: Past Strategies, Current Dilemas, Future Challenges”, INTRAC
Ocassional Paper No. 8, Oxford: INTRAC, 1995.

16. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - ASIA

Barakat, Sultan, Ehsan, Mohammed, Strand, Arne, NGOs and peace-building in Afghanistan :
workshop report, 3-7 April 1994, University of York Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies. Post-war
Reconstruction & Development Unit Responding to Conflict, York : University of York, 1994.

Benson, Charlotte, The changing role of NGOs in the provision of relief and rehabilitation assistance :
case study 2 : Cambodia/Thailand, Overseas Development Institute Working paper, No. 75, 1993

Boyden, J. & Gibbs, S. Children of war: responses to psycho-social distress in Cambodia, Geneva &
Oxford: UNRISD & INTRAC, 1997.

Demusz, K. Listening to the displaced: Action research in the conflict zones of Sri Lanka, Oxfam
Working Papers, 2000.

Edwards, M. “NGO Performance - what breeds success? A study of approaches to work in South Asia”,
Save the Children Working Paper, No. 14, 1996.

Goodhand, J. & Chamberlain, P. “Dancing with the prince: NGOs survival strategies in the Afghan
conflict”; Development in Practice, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1996, pp. 196-207.

Goodhand, J. & Lewer, N. “Sri Lanka: NGOs and peace-building in complex political emergencies”; Third
World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1999, pp. 69-87.

Goodhand, J., Lewer, N. and Hulme, D. “NGOs and Peace Building: Sri Lanka Study”, Draft for
Workshop Discussion; Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK/COPE Research
Programme. Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester, UK/INTRA:
Oxford, 1999.

Lake, E., After the Wars - Reconstruction in Afghanistan, Indochina, Central America, Southern Africa
and the Horn of Africa, Overseas Development Council, Washington DC, 1990.

*Oxfam, Involvement in Conflict Situations, Kathmandu: Oxfam -Calcutta, 1991.

17. EXPERIENCES OF NGOS WORK IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS - EUROPE / EURASIA

*Bazalgette, E., Paukovic, J., Coleridge, P. & Harris, J., Review of Oxfam’s programme –Albania,
Former Yugoslavia, and the Caucasus, The Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, [London]; Oxfam
UK/I, 1995.

*Centro Studi di Politica Internazionale, Lessons of the Western Response to the Crisis in former
Yugoslavia, Rome: CeSPI, 1995.

Deacon, Bob, & Stubbs, Paul, The price of peace: Assessing interagency work in postwar Croatia and
Slovenia, Sheffield: Globalism and Social Policy Programme - University of Sheffield, 1998.

Diamond, Todd, Coping with conflict : a guide to the work of local NGOs in the North Caucasus, New
York : Open Society Institute, 1998

Duffield, M. ”An Account of Relief Operations in Bosnia”; Relief and Rehabilitation Network , Paper 3,
ODI: London, 1994.

Forced Migration Monitor, “Prospects for Migration-Related NGO Activity in the South Caucasus”,
Forced Migration Monitor, November, 1998.

33
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Forced Migration Monitor, “Tajikistan: the role of local NGOs in post-conflict rehabilitation”, Forced
Migration Monitor, March, 1999.

Forced Migration Monitor, “Kyrgyzstan: NGOS and Conflict Prevention”, Forced Migration Monitor, July,
1999

Gagnon, Chip, “INGOs in Bosnia-Herzegovina”, Draft for Carnegie Project on ‘Evaluating NGO Strategies
for Democratization and Conflict Prevention in the Formerly Soviet States’, New York: Carnegie,
December 1998.

Hastie, R. Disabled Children in a Society at War: a casebook from Bosnia, Oxford: Oxfam, 1997.

Hansen, Greg, “War and Humanitarian Action in Chechnya”, Occasional Paper No. 26 Brown University,
Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, Providence: Brown University, 1996.

HMD International, “Tuzla - psychosocial programme”, HMD Response Working Paper, London 1997.

*Kiely, Ann, Oxfam in Azerbaijan: a Critical Appraisal of the Past and a Proposal for the Future,
Azerbaijan: Oxfam, 1995.

MacFarlane, S. Neil, and Minear Larry. “Humanitarian Action and Politics: The Case of Nagorno-
Karabakh”, Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies Occasional Paper #25, Providence
RI, 1996.

MacFarlane, S. Neil, Minear, Larry., & Shenfield, Stephen., “Armed Conflict in Georgia: A Case Study of
Humanitarian Action and Peacekeeping”, Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies
Occasional Paper #25, Providence RI, 1997.

*Matveeva, Anna, The Conflict Prevention Capacities of Local NGOs in the Caucasus, London: Royal
Institute of International Affairs, 2000.

*Minear, Larry, “Reconciliation Across Borders: An Experiment in Croatia”, A Case Study, Cambridge
MA: Collaborative for Development Action, 1995.

Walsh, Martha. Post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina: Integrating women’s special situation and gender
perspectives in skills training and employment promotion programmes, Brighton: IDS, 1998.

18. MANUALS AND GUIDES FOR PRACTITIONERS

Babbit, Eileen, Gutlove, Paula & Jones, Lynne, Handbook of Basic Conflict Resolution Skills:
Facilitation, Mediation and Consensus Building, Cambridge, USA: Balkans Peace Project, 1994.

Baker, Pauline H. Weller, Angeli E., An Analytical Model of Internal Conflict and State Collapse: Manual
for Practitioners. Washington: The Fund for Peace, 1998.

Creative Associates International, Preventing and Mitigating Violent Conflicts: A Revised Guide for
Practitioners. Washington, DC: Creative Associates International 1997.

*Davis, Jan, Lambert, Robert, Engineerging in Emergencies –A practical guide for releif workers,
London: ITP, 1995.

Dingle, Alan and Cutts, Mark, Safety First - protecting NGO employees who work in areas of conflict,
(2nd edn), London: Save the Children, 1996.

Eade, Deborah & Williams, Suzanne, The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief, Vols.1-3,
Oxford: Oxfam, 1995.

34
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

European Commission, Development Policy Evaluation Unit, Manual Project Cycle Management.
Integrated Approach and Logical Framework . Brussels, 1993.

FEWER, A Manual for Early Warning and Early Response. London, 1999.

Fitzduff, Mari, Community Conflict Skills: A Handbook for Group Work , Belfast: Express Litho, 1988.

Girardet , E. & Jonathan Walker, Essential Field Guides to Humanitarian and Conflict Zones :
Afghanistan, Geneva: International Centre for Humanitarian Reporting, 1998.

Hansen, G., Humanitarian Action in the Caucasus: A Guide for Practitioners, Occasional Paper #32,
The Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, 1998.

*International Committee of the Red Cross, Guide for National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies to
Activities in the Event of Conflict, Geneva:ICRC, 1990.

Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for
Negotiators. Handbook Series 3. Stockholm: IDEA, 1998.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Guide for planning operations for
refugees, displaced persons and returnees: from emergency response to solutions, Geneva:
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 1993.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Vulnerability and capacity
assessment: a Federation guide, Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies, 1993.

*Kenny, Karen, Towards Effective Training for Field Human Rights Tasks, Dublin: International Human
Rights Trust, [2000?].

Lund, M., Preventing and Mitigating Violent Conflict: a Guide for Practitioners, Washington DC: Creative
Associates International, 1997.

Lund, Michael S., Mehler, Andreas, Peace-building and Conflict Prevention in Developing Countries: A
Practical Guide. Brussels: SWP-CPN, June 1999.

*Mackinlay, J., A Guide to Peace Support Operations, Providence: Brown University, 1996.

McGrath, R. Landmines - A Legacy of Conflict: A Manual for Development Workers, Oxfam: Oxford,
1994.

Minear, Larry & Weiss, Thomas G. Humanitarian action in times of war - a handbook for practitioners,
Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993.

O’Neill, W. G., A Humanitarian Practitioner’s Guide to International Human Rights Law, Occasional
Paper #34, The Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, 1999.

Open Society Institute, Forced Migration Projects, Protecting Eurasia's dispossessed : a practical guide
for NGOs working on issues of forced migration in the former Soviet Union
New York: Open Society Institute, 1996.

Summerfield, Derek, “Assisting Survivors of War and Atrocity: Short Notes on ‘psychosocial’ Issues for
NGO Workers”, Development in Practice, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1995, pp. 352-356.

UNICEF, Assisting in emergencies: a resource handbook for UNICEF field staff, [New York]: UNICEF
1986.

35
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

*United Nations, Handbook an the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes between States, New York: UN,
1992.

*United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Protecting Refugees: A Field Guide for NGOs,
Geneva: UNHCR, 1999.

19. GENDER AND CONFLICT

Abedin, S. M. “Women in search of equality, development and peace: a critical analysis of the Platform
of Action, Fourth World Conference on Women, and the Islamic perspective”; Journal - Institute of
Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1996, pp. 73-98.

Bennett, O, Bexley, D. & Warnock, K. (eds.) Arms to fight, arms to protect: women speak about
conflict, Panos: London, 1995.

*Burke, Colleen, Women and Militarism, Geneva: Women’s International League for Peace and
Freedom, 1994.

Byrne, Bridget, Baden, Sally, Gender, emergencies and humanitarian assistance, University of Sussex
Institute of Development Studies, European Commission Directorate General for Development, BRIDGE :
briefings on development and gender, Brighton : University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies,
1995.

Byrne, B., Marcus, R. & Power-Stevens, T. Gender, Conflict and Development. Vol. 2: Case studies -
Cambodia, Rwanda, Kosova, Somalia, Algeria, Guatemala and Eritrea, Brighton: IDS, 1995.

Byrne, Bridget, Gender and Development volume I: Overview, Brighton: Bridge, 1996.

Byrne, Bridget, Stevens, Rachel Marcus & Powers, Tanya, Gender and Development volume II: Case
Studies, Brighton: Bridge, 1996.

*Cleaver, Tessa, Wallace, Marion, Namibia: Women in War, London: Zed Books, 1990.

Date-Bah, Eugenia: “Sustainable peace after war: arguing the need for major integration of gender
perspectives in post-conflict programming”; ILO Action Programme on Skills and Entrepreneurship
Training for Countries Emerging from Armed Conflict; ILO.

El Bushra, J. & Piza-Lopez, E. “Development in conflict”, Oxfam Working Paper, Oxford: Oxfam, 1994.

*El Bushra, Judy, Gender Planning in Conflict Situations, London: Acord, 1994.

*El Bushra, Judy, Uganda, [Oxford]: Oxfam UK/I, 1993.

Jacobson, Ruth, “Complicating ‘complexity’: integrating gender into the analysis of the Mozambican
conflict”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, February 1999, pp. 175-188.

Kašic, Biljana. Women and the politics of peace, Centre for Women’s Studies, X-Press, Zagreb, 1997.

*Kasynathan, Nalini, Community Aid Abroad’ Work with Women in Eastern Sri Lanka, Melbourne: CAA,
1992-93.

*Nato Alerts Network, Women in War, Brussels: NAN 1993.

Nordstrom, Carolyn, Girls and Warzones: Troubling Questions, Uppsala: Life & Peace Institute, 1997.

O’Connell, Helen (ed.) Women and Conflict, Oxford: Oxfam, 1993.

36
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Palmer, C. & Zwi, A. “Women, health and humanitarian assistance in conflict”; Disasters, Vol. 22, No.
3, September 1998.

*Pankhurst, Donna (et a l.), Mainstreaming Gender in Peacebuilding: A Framework for Action, Women
Building Peace Campaign, London : International Alert, 2000.

*Roche, Chris, Women, Conflict and Reconciliation, Policy Department, Oxford: Oxfam, 1995.

Rubin, Barnett R. “Women and pipelines: Afghanistan’s proxy wars”; International Affairs, Vol. 73, No.
2, 1997, pp. 283-96.

*Sollis, Peter, Piza-Lopez, Eugenia, War, Women and Development: Respnses to Questionaires and
the Way Forward, Policy Department, Oxford: Oxfam, 1988.

Sørensen, Birgitte. Women and post conflict reconstruction: Issues and sources, UNRISD and
Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies: Geneva, 1998.

*Stoltenberg, Karin, “Working with Women in Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation Programmes”,
League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Field Studies Paper No. 2, Geneva: Leaugue of Red
Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 1991.

*Valentin, Paul, Some Reflections on Gender Issues in Situations of Conflict, Policy Department,
Oxford: Oxfam, 1991.

*Vickers, Jeanne, Women and War, London: Zed Books, 1993.

Walker, Bridget (ed.) Women and Emergencies, Oxford: Oxfam, 1994.

Woroniuk, Beth et al., Overview: Gender Equality and Emergency Assistance/Conflict Resolution.
Stockholm: Swedish International Development Agency, Division for Humanitarian Assistance, January
1997.

20. DONOR EVALUATIONS OF AID INTERVENTIONS IN CONFLICT REGIONS

Apthorpe, R. et al., What relief for the Horn? Sida Supported Emergency Operations in Ethiopia, Eritrea,
Sudan, Somalia and Djibouti, Stockholm: Sida, 1994.

APT Consult UK, Evaluation of the implementation of the budget lines B7-3210 “Assistance to
rehabilitation programmes in southern Africa” and B7-6410 “Rehabilitation in all developing countries,
ACP section” - Financial years 1994-1995-1996-1997. European Commission, September 1998.

Barré, Anton., Shearer, David., Uvin, Peter., with a contribution by Christian Cherrer, The Limits and
Scope for the Use of Development Assistance Incentives and Disincentives for Influencing Conflict
Situations - Case Study: Rwanda, Paris: Informal Task Force on Conflict, Peace and Development
Cooperation, DAC-OECD, 1999.

Bernander, B. et al., Facing a Complex Emergency: Evaluation of Swedish Support to Emergency Aid to
Cambodia, Stockholm: Sida, 1995.

Bird, K & Ryan P. An Evaluation of DFID Support to Kenya Enterprise Programme’s Juhudi Credit
Scheme, London: Evaluation Department - Department for International Development, 1998.

Borton, John & Macrae, Johanna, DFID Evaluation Synthesis of Emergency Aid EV619, London:
Evaluation Department - Department for International Development, 1997.

37
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Bush, Kenneth, The Limits and Scope for the Use of Development Assistance Incentives and
Disincentives for Influencing Conflict Situations - Case Study: Sri Lanka, Paris: Informal Task Force on
Conflict, Peace and Development Cooperation, DAC-OECD, 1999.

Carl Bro Management, Danish Transitional Assistance Volume 1 - Synthesis Report, Copenhagen:
Danida - Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1996.

Carl Bro Management, Danish Transitional Assistance to the Republic of South Africa - Ref No.
104.SAR.1, 1998/2, Copenhagen: Danida - Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1998.

Center for Partnership in Development, Diakonhjemmet International Center, Relief Work in Complex
Emergencies - The Norwegian NGO Experience - Ev 14.98, Oslo: Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, 1998.

Channel Research, Danish Humanitarian Assistance Annex 5 - Great Lakes, Copenhagen: Danida -
Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1999.

Chr. Michelsen Institute in association with Nordic Consulting Group, Evaluation of Norwegian
Assistance to Peace, Reconciliation, and Rehabilitation in Mozambique - Evaluation Report 4.97, Oslo:
Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1997.

Coopers and Lybrand Consulting ANS, The Norwegian People’s Aid Mine Clearance Project in
Cambodia - Evaluation Report 3.96, Oslo: Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1996.

COWI, Evaluation of Norwegian Humanitarian Assistance to the Sudan - Evaluation Report 11.97, Oslo:
Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1997.

COWI Consulting, Evaluation of EC actions financed by article 255 of the Lome IV convention
“Assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons” under the 7th European Development Fund.
European Commission, July 1997.

COWI, Danish Humanitarian Assistance Annex 3 - Caucasus Case Study, Copenhagen: Danida -
Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1999.

COWI Consult / DiS, Evaluation of Norwegian Support to Psycho-Social Projects in Bosnia-Herzegovina


and the Caucasus - Final Evaluation Report, Evaluation Report 3.99, Oslo: Royal Norwegian Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, 1999.

Dahrendorf, Nicola & Balian, Hrair, The Limits and Scope for the Use of Development Assistance
Incentives and Disincentives for Influencing Conflict Situations - Case Study: Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Paris: Informal Task Force on Conflict, Peace and Development Cooperation, DAC-OECD, 1999.

Danida - Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs Danish Humanitarian Assistance Synthesis Report,
Copenhagen: Danida - Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1999.

Development Administration Group - University of Birmingham, British Aid to Small Enterprise (BASE)
Programme in Kenya Components: The Enterprise Initiative Project (EIP) - EV603, London: Evaluation
Department - Department for International Development, 1998.

Development Researchers’ Network/IRAM, Evaluation à mi-parcours. Programme de Réhabilitation pour


Haïti. Commission Européenne, Septembre 1997.

Franklin Advisory Services, Evaluation of Humanitarian-Aid Actions Stipulated under Article 20 of


Council Regulation (EC) No. 1257/96 of 20.6.1996. Final Report. European Community Humanitarian
Office (ECHO), April 1999.

Hawthorn, E & Lane C. ODA An Evaluation of Programme Aid to Mozambique 1986 - 1989, London:
Overseas Development Administration, 1991.

38
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

International Peace Research Institute, Oslo - PRIO, Norwegian Church Aid’s Humanitarian and
Peacemaking Work in Mali, Oslo: Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1997.

Klingebiel, Stephan, Impact of Development Cooperation in Conflict Situations: Cross-section Report on


Evaluations of german Development Cooperation in Six Countries, Berlin: German development Institute,
1999.

Kumar, Krishna et al. , The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda
Experience - Study 4 - Rebuilding Post-War Rwanda, Odense: Steering Committee of the Joint
Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda, 1996.

Landell Mills Ltd, Danish Humanitarian Assistance - Annex 5 Former Yugoslavia, Copenhagen: Danida -
Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1999.

Lindahl, Claes, Möller, Gustaf & Waslekar, Sundeep, Support to Building an Insitutional Capacity for
Arbitration in Sri Lanka, Sida Evaluation 98/34, Stockholm: Department for Infrastructure and Economic
Cooperation, 1998.

*Mott Foundation, Reaching for Peace: Lessons llearned from Mott Foundation’s conflict resolution
grantmaking, 1989-1998, Flint, Michigan: Mott Foundation, 1999.

Operations Review Unit, Netherlands Humanitarian Aid to Somalia - Evaluation Report 1994, The Hague:
Netherlands Development Cooperation, 1994.

Overseas Development Institute, Danish Humanitarian Assistance - Annex 2 - Afghanistan Case Study,
Copenhagen: Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1999.

Overseas Development Institute, Danish Humanitarian Assistance - Annex 6 Sudan Case Study,
Copenhagen: Danida - Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1999.

QUEST-Consult, Mid-term Evaluation of the First Rehabilitation Programme (FRP) for Somalia.
European Commission, DG VIII, July-October 1997.

Riddell, Roger C. et al., Searching for Impact and Methods: NGO Evaluation Synthesis Study. Report
prepared for the OECD/DAC Expert Group on Evaluation. Helsinki: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland,
November 1997.

Sørbø, Gunnar., Hauge, Wenche., Hybersten, Bente., & Smith, Dan, Norwegian Assistance to Countries
in Conflict - The Lesson of Experience from Guatemala, Mali, Mozambique, Sudan, Rwanda and Burundi
- Ev 11.98, Oslo: Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1998.

Telford, John, Evaluation of the Humanitarian Aid funded by the European Commission between
01.01.91 and 30.6.96. Synthesis Report. European Commission - ECHO, May 1999.

Todd, David/Tilman, Eric, Mid term review mission for the short term programme to aid reconstruction
and recovery in Eritrea. Project 7 ERY 012. European Commission, April 1997.

Vielajus, Jean-Louis, The Evaluation of the MPMP (Micro-Projects) Instrument and Programmes under
Lomé IV. European Commission, 1997.

Uvin, Peter, The Influence of Aid in Situations of Violent Conflict - A Synthesis and a Commentary on
the Lessons Learned from Case Studies on the Limits and Scope for the Use of Development
Assistance Incentives and Disincentives for Influencing Conflict Situations, Paris: Informal Task Force
on Conflict, Peace and Development Cooperation, DAC-OECD, 1999.

39
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Van Brabant, Koenraad, & Killick, Tony, The Limits and Scope for the Use of Development Assistance
Incentives and Disincentives for Influencing Conflict Situations - Case Study: Afghanistan, Paris:
Informal Task Force on Conflict, Peace and Development Cooperation, DAC-OECD, 1999.

21. MISCELLANEOUS

Aris, Luke, Gee, Peter & Perkins, Mark, “Getting On-Line in Emergencies: A Guide and Directory to the
Internet for Agencies Involved in Relief and Rehabilitation”, Relief and Rehabilitation Network Papers,
London: ODI, 1996.

Australian Agency for International Development. - Review of the effectiveness of NGO programs,
Canberra : Australia Agency for International Development, 1996.

*Bonnerjea, Lucy, “Family tracing: in whose interests?”, in Deborah Eade (ed), Development in States of
War -A Development in Practice Reader, Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.

*Central Intelligence Agency –Directorate of Intelligence, Worldwide Humanitarian Aid: An Overview of


the Relief System: Intelligence Research Paper –RTT 94-10009, Washington D.C.:CIA, 1994.

Costy, Alexander and Gilbert, Stefan, Conflict Prevention and the European Union. Mapping the Actors,
Instruments and Institutions. London: International Alert, 1998.

Department for Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), Human Security: Safety for People in a
Changing World. Ottawa, April 1999.Cairns, Edmund, A safer future: Reducing the human cost of war,
Oxfam: Oxford, 1997.

Eide, Asbjorn, Rosas, Allan, Meron, Theodor, Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, Abo
akademi Institutet for mänskliga rättigheter, Turku : Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University,
1996.

European Centre for Conflict Prevention, People Building Peace, European Centre for Conflict
Prevention, 1999.

Macrae, Joanna, “The Death of Humanitarianism? An Anatomy of the Attack”, Disasters, Vol. 22, No. 4,
1998, pp. 309-317.

*Macrae, Joanna, “Humanitarianism: Facing New Challenges”, Great Decisions, New York: Foreign
Policy Association, 2000.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Searching for impact and methods : NGO evaluation synthesis study : a
report. - Vol. I : Main report, May 1997. - Helsinki : Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.

ODA, Conflict reduction through the aid programme. A briefing for agencies seeking support for conflict
reduction activities; London: ODA, 1996.

Slim, H. “Military humanitarianism and peacekeeping: An agenda for peace”; IDS Bulletin, Vol. 27, No.3,
1996, pp. 86-95.

*Sogge, David, (ed) Compassion & Calculation: The Business of Private Foreign Aid, London: Pluto
Press, 1996.

*Stockton, Nicholas, NGOs –Subcontractors or Innovators in Unstable Conditions, Emergengies


Department, Oxford: Oxfam, 1995.

Walkup, Mark, “Policy dysfunction in humanitarian organizations: the role of coping strategies,
institutions, and organizational culture”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997.

40
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

Walker, Peter, “To Do the Right Thing or To Do the Thing Right? Humanitarianism and Ethics”, The
Ecumenical Review, Vol. 49, Part 1, 1997.

Weiss Fagen, Patricia/Uimonen, Paula, After the Conflict. A Review of Selected Sources on Rebuilding
War-Torn Societies. Geneva: UNRISD/PSIS, 1995.

Weiss, Thomas G. “Beyond UN subcontracting: task-sharing with regional security arrangements and
service-providing NGOs” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1997, pp. 417-619.

41
NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

On-Line Sources on NGOs and Conflict


A. General Information Sources
General information resource pages covering aspects of conflict and NGOs work.

AlertNet Reuters News for the Emergency Relief Community


http://www.alertnet.org/alertnet.nsf

Bradford University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies links page


http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/peace/links.html

CPCC Canadian peacebuilding Coordinating Committee


http://www.cpcc.ottawa.on.ca/

Conflict ConflictWeb is a resource for organisations working in conflict situations and is


Web sponsored by USAID
http://www.info.usaid.gov/regions/afr/conflictweb/

IDRC International Development Research Centre Peace Programme


http://www.idrc.ca/peace/

JHA Journal of Humanitarian Assistance


http://131.111.106.147/

Oneworld Oneworld Partnership of NGOs, Development, and Peace Links and Organisations
http://www.oneworld.org/

P&C University of Colorado’s Peace and Conflict Links Homepage


http://csf.colorado.edu/peace/

ReliefNet ReliefNet
http://www.reliefnet.org/

ReliefWeb OCHA ReliefWeb - Comprehensive Information on Humanitarian Assistance


http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf

SPHERE Sphere Project: Charter and the Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Assistance
http://www.sphereproject.org/

UNCM UN and Conflict Monitor Quarterly


http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/monitor/index.html

WPSG War, Peace and Security Guide provided by Canadian Armed Forces College
http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/index.html

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

B. Independent Research Institutes


Independent institutes that in their research have looked at aspects of NGOs in conflict
situations.
*Carnegie Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict
http://www.ccpdc.org/

Carter The Carter Center, USA


http://www.cartercenter.org/

CMI Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway


http://www.cmi.no/

COPRI Copenhagen Peace Research Institute


http://www.copri.dk/

ECCP European Centre for Conflict Prevention


http://www.euconflict.org/

FMP-OSI Forced Migration Project of Open Society Institute, Soros Foundation, New York
http://www.soros.org/fmp2/html/about_fmp.html

HPG-ODI Humanitarian Policy Group - Overseas Development Institute, London


http://www.oneworld.org/odi/hpg/index.html

IDEA International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Sweden


http://www.int-idea.se/index.htm

IISS International Institute for Strategic Studies, London


http://www.isn.ethz.ch/iiss/

IPA International Peace Academy, New York


http://www.ipacademy.org/

L&PI Life and Peace Institute, Norway


http://www.life-peace.org/

NIIA Clingendael - Netherlands Institute for International Affairs


http://www.clingendael.nl/cru/index.htm

NUPI Norwegian Institute for International Affairs


http://www.nupi.no/default-e.htm

ODC Overseas Development Council, Washington


http://www.odc.org/

PRIO Norwegian Peace Research Institute


http://www.prio.no/

RRN - ODI Relief and Rehabilitation Network of the Overseas Development Institute, London
http://www.oneworld.org/odi/rrn/

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

SEF German Development and Peace Foundation


http://bicc.de/sef/english.html

TAPRI Tampere Peace Research Institute, Finland


http://www.uta.fi/tapri/taprien.html

USIP United States Institute for Peace, Washington


http://www.usip.org/

C. NGO Consortia and Umbrella Organisations


NGO consortia and umbrella organisations that are concerned with aspects of NGOs in
conflict situations.

ALNAP Active Learning Network on Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Assistance


http://www.oneworld.org/odi/alnap/

CODEP UK Conflict, Development and Peace Network


Email: codep@codep.dircon.co.uk

DEC Disasters Emergency Committee (of the United Kingdom)


http://www.dec.org.uk/

FEWER Forum on Early Warning and Early Response


http://www.fewer.org/

ICVA International Council for Voluntary Agencies


http://www.icva.ch/

Interaction Interaction: American Council for Voluntary International Action


http://www.interaction.org/situation/index.html

SCHR Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response


http://www.sphereproject.org/schr.htm

VOICE Voluntary Organizations in Conflict and Emergencies


http://www.oneworld.org/voice/str_gb.htm

D. University Based Research Centres


University based and attached research institutes and departments that have carried
out research into aspects of NGOs and conflict.

Aber Department of International Politics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales


http://www.aber.ac.uk/*inpwww/home.html

Bradford Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK


http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/peace

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

CDS Centre for Defence Studies, Kings’ College, University of London, UK


http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/cds/resact.htm

CENDEP Centre for Development and Emergency Practice, Oxford Brookes University, UK
http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/arch/cendep/staff.html

CERTI Complex Emergency Response and Transition Initiative, Tulane University, USA
http://www.payson.tulane.edu/CERTI/

CFPS Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, Dalhousie University, Canada


http://is.dal.ca/*centre/

CH - HPU Conflict and Health Programme - Health Policy Unit - London School of Hygiene and
Tropical Medicine, UK
http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/php/hpu/index.htm

CIS-PCMN Centre for International Studies - Program on Conflict Management and Negotiation -
University of Toronto, Canada
http://www.utoronto.ca/cis/conflict.html

CSSCR Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research - Federal Institute of Technology,
Switzerland
http://www.fsk.ethz.ch/

H&W Humanitarianism and War Project - Watson Institute, Brown University, USA
http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Watson_Institute/H_W/index.html

INCORE Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity - University of Ulster, Northern Ireland
http://www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/

IDS Institute for Development Studies, University of Sussex


http://www.ids.sussex.ac.uk/

IDPM Institute for Development Policy and Management - The University of Manchester, UK
http://www.man.ac.uk/idpm/idpm_dp.htm#peace

ICAR Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution - George Mason University, USA
http://www.gmu.edu/departments/icar

PRDU Post-War Reconstruction and Development Unit - University of York, UK


http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/arch/prdu/

Pearson Lester B. Pearson Peacekeeping Training Centre, Canada


http://www.cdnpeacekeeping.ns.ca/

Plymouth Plymouth Peacebuilding Project, University of Plymouth, UK


http://politics.plymouth.ac.uk/politics/pisc/pbplym/pbplym.htm

POLIS Institute for Politics and International Studies - University of Leeds, UK


http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/

RI Richardson Institute, University of Lancaster, UK

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

http://www.lancs.ac.uk/users/richinst/riweb1.htm

RSP-QEH Refugee Studies Programme - Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, UK


http://www.qeh.ox.ac.uk/rsp/

E. On-Line Information Catalogues


These are catalogues that contain references to material on conflict and NGOs. These
on-line catalogues are not specialist, and do not give full text access to information
cited. Some of the catalogues listed are amongst the largest on-line catalogues in any
discipline in the world, and provide information on almost any topic you care to mention.
A significant amount of the bibliographic entries in the main part of this listing were
taken from searching these on-line catalogues.

BL British Library On-Line Catalogue


http://www.bl.uk/

BLDS British Library for Development Studies


http://www.ids.ac.uk/blds/

BLPES British Library of Political and Economic Science On-Line Catalogue


http://libaxp.lse.ac.uk/

CAIN Conflict Archive on the Internet - INCORE


http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/index.html

COPAC Combined On-Line Catalogue of UK Research Universities Libraries


http://copac.ac.uk/copac/wzgw?db=copact

DEC USAID - Development Experience Clearinghouse


http://www.dec.org/

Elibrary Electronic Library Database


http://www.elibrary.com/

INTRAC-L International NGO Training and Research Centre Library


http://www.intrac.org/l-cat.htm

IRSIN International Relations and Security Information Network


http://www.isn.ethz.ch/

LOC Library of Congress, US


http://catalog.loc.gov/

Oxford Oxford University Libraries combined catalogue


http://www.lib.ox.ac.uk/

SIPRI-A Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Article Database


http://www.sipri.se/SFgate.html

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

UCD - DSL University College Dublin Catalogue, including Irish Development Studies Library
http://udtal.ucd.ie/

UNCOVER CARL-UNCOVER - Current Awareness and Document Delivery Service


http://uncweb.carl.org/

VLID Virtual Library on International Development - CIDA


http://w3.acdi-cida.gc.ca/Virtual.nsf/pages/index_e.htm

F. Relevant Journals
These are journals that regularly publish articles related to NGOs and conflict. Full text
of articles included in these journals are NOT available without charge. However, tables
of contents and some abstracts are available for free.

Crosslines Crosslines Global Report


http://www.ichr.org/xlines/xlnews.htm

CWJ Civil Wars Journal


http://www.frankcass.com/jnls/cw.htm

DIP Development in Practice


http://www.catchword.co.uk/titles/09614524.htm

Disasters Disasters: A Journal of Disasters, Policy and Management


http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/asp/journal.asp?ref=0361-3666

HAR Humanitarian Affairs Review: A Quarterly Journal of Global Policy Issues


http://www.humanitarian-review.org/

IJRL International Journal of Refugee Law


http://www3.oup.co.uk/reflaw/

IP International Peacekeeping
http://www.frankcass.com/jnls/ip.htm

JRS Journal of Refugee Studies


http://www3.oup.co.uk/refuge/contents/

NR New Routes
http://www.life-peace.org/nroutes/index.htm

RSQ Refugee Survey Quarterly


http://www3.oup.co.uk/refqtl/contents/

TWQ Third World Quarterly: A Journal of Emerging Areas


http://figaro.catchword.com/cl=5/vl=44138022/nw=1/rpsv/catchword/carfax/13602241/contp1.htm

G. Citing of Electronic Material

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NGO WORK IN CONFLICT AREAS : A BIBLOGRAPHY - I NTERNATIONAL ALERT

This site gives a comprehensive overview on how to cite Internet material in a wide
variety to styles, as well as giving links to other similar sites.

Bedford and Martin’s Guide to On-Line Citation Styles


http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html

Updates, additions and amendments


Updates, additions and amendments are very much encouraged, as are any other
comments, and these should be e-mailed directly to:

asherriff@international-alert.org

Hard copies of documents are most welcome and can be sent to:

Andrew Sherriff
Development and Peace Building Programme
International Alert
1 Glyn Street
London
SE11 5HT
United Kingdom

Further information on the Development and Peace Building Programme of


International Alert is also available from the contact details given above.

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