Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology (Martini/Bartholomew) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System

Multiple Choice 1)


Functio ns of the skeletal system include A)

support. B)

storage. C)

protection. D)

blood cell E)


all of the

above Answer:



Mature bone cells are termed A)

osteocytes. B)

osteoblasts. C)

osteoclasts. D)

chondrocyte s. E)

osteons. Answer:




of the following is NOT a step in endochondral ossification? A)

Hyaline B)

cartilage model forms.

Periosteum forms a collar around the cartilage. C)

Hyaline D)

cartilage changes to dense connective tissue.

Osteoblasts deposit bone in areas of cartilage loss. E)

none of the above; all are part of endochondral ossification Answer:



Large. multinucleated cells that can dissolve the bony matrix are termed A) .

osteocytes. B) .

stem cells. C) .

D) .osteoblasts.

E) .osteoclasts.

Answer: .chondrocyte s.

D 5) .

The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are termed A) .

B) .lamellae.

lacunae. C) .

D) .canaliculi.

.marrow E) cavities.

matrices. Answer: .

C .

6) .

Red bone marrow functions in the formation of A) .

.adipose B) tissue.

new bone. C) .

blood cells. D) .

E) .osteoblasts.

both C and D Answer: .

C 7) .

The plates of bone found in spongy bone are called A) .

B) .osteons.

C) .trabeculae.

.concentric D) lamellae.

.interstitial E) lamellae.

lacunae. Answer: .

B 8) .

The medullary cavity of bones contains A) .

compact B) bone. .

osteons. C) .

D) .cartilage.

marrow. E) .

Answer: .periosteum.

D 9) .

Skull bones are joined by tight connections called A) .

B) .discs.

C) .sutures.

D) .marrow.

sinuses. E) .

Answer: .lamellae.

B 10) .

The lining of the marrow cavity is called the A) .

B) .endosteum.

periosteum. C) .

epimysium. D) .

E) .perimysium.

myometrium . Answer: .

A 11) .

In intramembranous ossification. A) .

osteoblasts differentiate within a connective tissue. B) .

osteoblasts cluster together and secrete organic matrix. C) .

ossification occurs at the ossification center. D) .

only A and C E) .

all of the above Answer: .

E 12) .

The pituitary gland is located in the A) .

cribriform B) plate. .

C) .sella turcica.

.sphenoid D) sinus.

.glenoid E) fossa.

hypophysis. Answer: .

B 13) .

major 3. and the inner layer produces bone. steps in 4. Osteoclasts create a marrow cavity. Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify. process The correct order for these events is A) . g are 2. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium. The perichondrium is converted into periosteum. the 5.The of endochondral ossification: followin 1.

3. 4. 2 B) . 5. 1.

2 C) . 5. 3. 4.1.

2 D) . 3. 4. 5.1.

2. 5. 3. 4 E) . 1.

4.3. 1. 5. 2 Answer: .

A 14) .

Second ary ossification centers occur A) .

in the B) medullary cavity of the diaphysis. .

C) .at the outer surface of the diaphysis.

in the center of the epiphyses. D) .

.at the E) surface of the epiphyses.

Answer: .in the dermis of the skin.

C 15) .

The nasal septum includes which of the following? A) .

vomer B) .

perpendicula r plate of the ethmoid C) .

nasal bones D) .

inferior nasal conchae E) .

both A and B Answer: .

E 16) .

The presence of an epiphyseal line indicates A) .

.epiphyseal B) growth has ended.

epiphyseal C) growth is just beginning. .

.growth in D) bone diameter is just beginning.

the bone is E) fractured at that location. .

Answer: .The presence of an epiphyseal line does not indicate any particular event.

A 17) .

The most abundant mineral in the human body is A) .

B) .sodium.

potassium. C) .

phosphorus. D) .

calcium. E) .

sulfur. Answer: .

D 18) .

The jugular foramen is made from depressions of which pair of bones? A) .

temporal B) and occipital .

zygomatic C) and sphenoid .

temporal D) and sphenoid .

maxillary E) and zygomatic .

maxillary and temporal Answer: .

A 19) .

The hormone calcitonin functions to A) .

stimulate B) osteoclast activity. .

decrease the rate of calcium excretion. C) .

increase the rate of bone deposition. D) .

E) .decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood.

all of the above Answer: .

C 20) .

The parathyroid hormone A) .

.stimulates B) osteoclast activity.

increases C) the rate of calcium absorption. .

.decreases D) the rate of calcium excretion.

A and C only E) .

all of the above Answer: .

E 21) .

The primary curves of the vertebral column are the A) .

B) .cervical and lumbar.

C) .cervical and thoracic.

cervical and pelvic. D) .

thoracic and pelvic. E) .

thoracic and lumbar. Answer: .

D .

22) .

Vitamin D is necessary for A) .

.collagen B) formation.

absorption C) and transport of calcium and phosphate ions. .

.reducing D) osteoblast activity.

increasing E) osteoclast activity. .

the formation of the organic framework of bone. Answer: .

B 23) .

A lack of exercise would A) .

cause bones to become thicker. B) .

cause bones to store more calcium. C) .

result in D) thin. brittle bones. .

increase the length of a bone. E) .

Answer: .have no effect on a bone.

C 24) .

Coxal bones include the A) .

pubis. B) .

C) .ischium.

ilium. D) .

all of the E) above .

none of the above Answer: .

D 25) .

The normal loss of bone that occurs with aging is called A) .

osteopenia. B) .

C) .osteoporosis .

D) .osteogenesis .

osteoinflam mation. E) .

Answer: .bone cancer.

A 26) .

A large rough projection of a bone (found only on the femur) is termed a A) .

wall. B) .

C) .trochanter.

D) .tuberosity.

tubercle. E) .

Answer: .condyle.

B 27) .

A) .The atlas is classified as a ________ vertebra.

thoracic B) .

lumbar C) .

sacral D) .

cervical E)

none of the above Answer:




smooth, rounded, or oval articular process of a bone is termed a A)

crest. B)

ridge. C)

head. D)

condyle. E)

trochlea. Answer:




shallow depression on a bone is termed a A)

fossa. B)

sulcus. C)

facet. D)

fissure. E)

line. Answer:




of the following is a function of the skeletal system? A)

storage of B)

inorganic salts

protection of vital organs C)

locomotion D)

support E)

all of the above Answer: .

E 31) .

Which of the following is NOT a part of the axial division of the skeletal system? A) .

skull B) .

auditory C) ossicles .

hyoid bone D) .

pectoral E) girdle .

vertebral column Answer: .

D 32) .

Which of the following is a function of the axial skeleton? A) .

support and protect organs in the dorsal and ventral body cavities B) .

and trunk .provide an C) attachment for muscles that move the head. neck.

provide an D) attachment for muscles involved in respiration .

A and C only E) .

all of the above Answer: .

E .

33) .

Which of the following make up most of the bone tissue? A) .

cells B) .

protein C) fibers .

hydroxyapati te crystals D) .

osteons E) .

polysacchari des Answer: .

C 34) .

The appendicular skeleton consists of A) .

the bones of the arms. B) .

the bones of the legs. C) .

D) .the bones of the hands and feet.

.the bones E) that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton.

all of the above Answer: .

E 35) .

Which of the following is NOT a component of the appendicular skeleton? A) .

scapula B) .

hyoid C) .

femur D) .

humerus E) .

coxa Answer: .

B 36) .

The bones of the limbs are classified as A) .

short bones. B) .

C) .long bones.

flat bones. D) .

sesamoid E) bones. .

irregular bones. Answer: .

B 37) .

The bones of the forearm include the A) .

B) .humerus.

C) .femur.

tibia. D)

fibula. E)

radius. Answer:




olecranon process would be found on the A)

humerus. B)

radius. C)

ulna. D)

femur. E)

tibia. Answer:




of the following is NOT found in spongy bone? A)

trabeculae B)

canaliculi C)

osteoblasts D)

osteons E)

marrow Answer:




radius articulates with A)

the femur. B)

the ulna. C)

the scapula. D)

.the E) metacarpals.

all of the above Answer: .

B 41) .

A) .The ________ of the radius assists in the stabilization of the wrist joint.

olecranon B) process .

coronoid C) process .

styloid D) process .

radial E) tuberosity .

capitulum Answer: .

C 42) .

Which of the following is NOT part of the orbit? A) .

vomer bone B) .

zygomatic C) bone .

maxillary D) bone .

frontal bone E) .

sphenoid bone Answer: .

A 43) .

The bones that form the palms of the hands are the A) .

carpals. B) .

C) .tarsals.

D) .metacarpals.

metatarsals. E) .

Answer: .phalanges.

C .

44) .

The bones that form the fingers are the A) .

carpals. B) .

tarsals. C) .

metacarpals. D) .

E) .metatarsals.

Answer: .phalanges.

E 45) .

A) .Ribs that join the sternum directly are called ________ ribs.

false B) .

true C) .

floating D) .

broken E) .

sternal Answer:




distal end of the tibia articulates with the A)

talus. B)

fibula. C)

patella. D)

calcaneus. E)

coax. Answer:




medial knob at the ankle is a projection from the A)

fibula. B)

femur. C)

tibia. D)

calcaneus. E)

talus. Answer:




compound fracture A)

is caused by an underlying pathology. B)

results in C)

bone breaking the skin.

is a type of incomplete fracture. D)

never E)


is also called a greenstick fracture. Answer:

B 49) .

The ankle contains ________ bones. A) .

2 B)

5 C)

6 D)

7 E)

8 Answer:




of the following is the heel bone? A)

talus B)

navicular C)

calcaneus D)

cuboid E)

none of the above Answer:



A cleft

palate is malformation of which bone? A)

vomer B)

ethmoid C)

sphenoid D)

mandible E)

maxillary Answer:




portion of the sternum that articulates with the clavicles is the A)

manubrium. B)

C) .body.

.xiphoid D) process.

E) .angle.

tuberculum. Answer: .

A 53) .

The foramen magnum would be found in the A) .

B) .frontal bone.

parietal C) bone. .

.sphenoid D) bone.

occipital E) bone. .

Answer: .temporal bone.

D 54) .

The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bone with the temporal bone is the A) .

B) .lambdoidal suture.

.rostral C) suture.

.coronal D) suture.

.squamosal E) suture.

Answer: .sagittal suture.

D .

55) .

The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of processes from which two bones? A) .

temporal B) bone and maxilla .

frontal bone and temporal bone C) .

sphenoid D) bone and temporal bone .

zygomatic E) bone and maxilla .

temporal bone and zygomatic bone Answer: .

E 56) .

The external auditory meatus would be found in the A) .

sphenoid B) bone. .

zygomatic C) bone. .

temporal D) bone. .

.parietal E) bone.

occipital bone. Answer: .

C 57) .

The long skinny process near the external auditory meatus is the A) .

mastoid B) process. .

styloid C) process. .

.occipital D) condyle.

condyloid E) process. .

temporal process. Answer: .

B 58) .

The bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by the A) .

nasal bones. B) .

perpendicula r plate of the ethmoid bone. C) .

perpendicula r plate of the ethmoid bone and vomer. D) .

vomer and E) sphenoid bone. .

Answer: .perpendicula r plate of the ethmoid bone and sphenoid bone.

C 59) .

Ligame nts that support the hyoid bone are attached to the A) .

styloid B) process. .

mastoid C) process. .

articular D) tubercle. .

greater E) tubercle. .

Answer: .middle conchae.

A 60) .

The bone that makes up the lower jaw is the A) .

B) .mandible.

maxillary. C) .

zygomatic. D) .

temporal. E) .

cribriform plate. Answer: .

A 61) .

The sella turcica contains the A) .

.lacrimal B) gland.

.pituitary C) gland.

olfactory D) organs. .

E) .nasal gland.

salivary gland. Answer: .

B 62) .

The bony roof of the mouth is formed by A) .

.palatine B) bones.

C) .the vomer.

D) .maxillae.

the sphenoid bone. E) .

both A and C Answer: .

E 63) .

The clavicle articulates with the A) .

manubrium. B) .

ribs. C) .

D) .humerus.

body of the sternum. E) .

all of the above Answer: .

A 64) .

A) .The paranasal sinuses are located in the ________ bone.

frontal B) .

ethmoid C) .

sphenoid D) .

maxillary E) .

all of the above Answer: .

E 65) .

One role of the fontanels is to A) .

.allow for B) compression of the skull during childbirth.

serve as C) ossification centers for the facial bones. .

D) .serve as the final bony plates of the skull.

.lighten the E) weight of the skull bones.

none of the above Answer: .

A .

66) .

Which of the following curves develop as a child begins to stand and walk? A) .

lumbar B) .

thoracic C) .

sacral D) .

cervical E) .

cervical and sacral Answer: .

A 67) .

An exaggerated lateral curvature is termed A) .

kyphosis. B) .

lordosis. C) .

scoliosis. D) .

gomphosis. E) .

none of the above Answer: .

C 68) .

A) .The vertebral column contains ________ cervical vertebrae.

4 B) .

5 C) .

7 D) .

12 E) .

31 Answer: .

C 69) .

The joints between the phalanges are classified as A) .

B) .sutures.

condyloid. C) .

D) .hinges.

E) .gomphosis.

none of the above Answer: .

C 70) .

The odontoid process would be found on the A) .

B) .atlas.

C) .axis.

D) .sacrum.

coccyx. E) .

ribs. Answer: .

B 71) .

A) .Costal processes are located on ________ vertebrae.

cervical B) .

thoracic C) .

lumbar D) .

sacral E) .

coccygeal Answer: .

B 72) .

The appendicular skeleton contains ________ bones. A) .

80 B) .

206 C) .

126 D) .

64 E) .

62 Answer: .

C 73) .

Thoraci c vertebrae can be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of A) .

.transverse B) processes.

.transverse C) foramina.

facets for D) the articulation of ribs. .

.notched E) spinous processes.

costal cartilages. Answer: .

C 74) .

A) .The vertebral column contains ________ lumbar vertebrae.

4 B) .

5 C) .

7 D) .

12 E) .

31 Answer: .

B 75) .

Which of the following is most likely to be damaged during CPR? A) .

styloid B) process .

mastoid C) process .

xiphoid D) process .

odontoid E) process .

transverse process Answer: .

C 76) .

The ribs articulate with A) .

B) .the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

.the C) transverse processes of the vertebrae.

the laminae of the vertebrae. D) .

E) .the pedicles of the vertebrae.

both A and B Answer: .

B .

77) .

Human s have ________ pairs of ribs. A) .

2 B) .

6 C) .

10 D) .

12 E) .

24 Answer: .

D 78) .

Proof of the fusion of vertebrae in the sacrum is evidenced by the A) .

lateral sacral crest. B) .

medial C) sacral crest. .

sacral D) foramina. .

.transverse E) sacral ridges.

Answer: .sacral hiatus.

D 79) .

The coccyx is composed of ________ fused vertebrae. A) .

1-2 B) .

3-5 C) .

6-7 D) .

7-8 E) .

9-11 Answer: .

B 80) .

Structur al characteristics of the pectoral girdle that adapt it to a wide range of movement include A) .

.heavy B) bones.

.relatively C) weak joints.

.limited D) range of motion at the shoulder joint.

.joints E) stabilized by ligaments and tendons.

all of the above Answer: .

B 81) .

Which of the following is NOT part of the axial skeleton? A) .

the skull B) .

the C) manubrium .

the sternum D) .

the scapula E) .

the vertebrae Answer: .

D 82) .

positioning.What tissue is primarily responsible for stabilizing. and bracing the pectoral girdle? A) .

tendon B) .

ligament C) .

joint D) .

muscle E) .

none of the above Answer: .

D 83) .

Which end of the clavicle is the larger end? A) .

sternal B) .

acromial C) .

dorsal D) .

superior E) .

inferior Answer: .

B 84) .

Which two features make up the hinge at the elbow? A) .

trochlea of B) humerus and head of the radius .

head of C) radius and ulnar notch .

trochlea of D) humerus and trochlear notch of ulna .

coronoid E) fossa and trochlea of humerus .

medial condyle and medial epicondyle Answer: .

C 85) .

The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the A) .

acromion B) process. .

coracoid C) process. .

glenoid D) tuberosity. .

scapular E) spine. .

subscapular fossa. Answer: .

A 86) .

Structur characteristics of the pelvic girdle that adapt it to the role of bearing the weight of the body al include A) .

.heavy B) bones.

.strong and C) stable joints.

a high D) degree of flexibility at the hip joint. .

A and B only E) .

all of the above Answer: .

D 87) .

Which of the following is NOT part of the foot or ankle? A) .

navicular B) .

cuneiform C) .

calcaneus D) .

talus E) .

scaphoid Answer: .

E .

88) .

Which of the following is NOT a part of the pelvis? A) .

sacrum B) .

coccyx C) .

coxae D) .

lumbar E) vertebrae .

both B and D Answer: .

D 89) .

What bone articulates with the coxa at the acetabulum? A) .

sacrum B) .

femur C) .

humerus D) .

tibia E) .

fibula Answer: .

B 90) .

Which of the following is NOT a synovial joint? A) .

pivot B) .

suture C) .

ball and D) socket .

hinge E) .

gliding Answer: .

B 91) .

The largest coxal bone is the A) .

B) .pubis.

C) .ischium.

ilium. D) .

E) .femur.

Answer: .tibia.

C 92) .

The border of the ilium that acts as a point of attachment for both ligaments and muscles is the superior A) .

anterior iliac spine. B) .

acetabulum. C) .

posterior D) superior iliac spine. .

E) .iliac crest.

Answer: .iliac notch.

D 93) .

A synovial membrane A) .

surrounds B) the joint cavity. .

secretes C) synovial fluid. .

D) .stores small amounts of adipose tissue.

lubricates E) the joint. .

all of the above Answer: .

E 94) .

A slightly movable joint is a(n) A) .

synarthrosis. B) .

diarthrosis. C) .

amphiarthro sis. D) .

E) .gomphosis.

synostosis. Answer: .

C 95) .

A freely movable joint is a(n) A) .

B) .synarthrosis.

diarthrosis. C) .

amphiarthro sis. D) .

syndesmosis . E) .

Answer: .symphysis.

B 96) .

A fibrous joint in which the bones are held together by an interosseous ligament is a(n) A) .

B) .syndesmosis .

suture. C) .

symphysis. D) .

diarthrosis. E) .

amphiarthro sis. Answer: .

A 97) .

A synovial joint is an example of a(n) A) .

synarthrosis. B) .

C) .amphiarthro sis.

D) .diarthrosis.

E) .symphysis.

syndesmosis . Answer: .

C 98) .

Which of the following is NOT a function of synovial fluid? A) .

shock B) absorption .

increase C) osmotic pressure within joint .

lubrication D) .

provide E) nutrients .

protect articular cartilages Answer: .

B .

99) .

In which of the following is rotation a permitted movement? A) .

hinge B) .

ball and C) socket .

saddle D) .

condyloid E) .

ellipsoidal Answer: .

B 100) .

The elbow joint is an example of a(n) A) .

B) .saddle joint.

gliding joint. C) .

.ellipsoid D) joint.

hinge joint. E) .

Answer: .pivot joint.

D 101) .

Decreas ing the angle between bones is termed A) .

flexion. B) .

extension. C) .

abduction. D) .

adduction. E) .

Answer: .hyperextensi on.

A 102) .

A movement away from the midline of the body is termed A) .

B) .inversion.

abduction. C) .

adduction. D) .

flexion. E) .

Answer: .extension.

B 103) .

The special movement of the thumb that allows it to grasp an object and hold onto it is called A) .

rotation. B) .

opposition. C) .

circumductio n. D) .

eversion. E) .

Answer: .retraction.

B 104) .

A twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole inward is termed A) .

B) .eversion.

protraction. C) .

D) .dorsiflexion.

.plantar E) flexion.

inversion. Answer: .

E 105) .

most complex synovial joint is the A) .The largest.

B) .hip.

C) .shoulder.

elbow. D) .

E) .knee.

Answer: .ankle.

D 106) .

The movements known as dorsiflexion and plantar flexion involve moving the A) .

hand. B) .

C) .arm.

D) .foot.

leg. E) .

Answer: .hip.

C 107) .

Which of the following is NOT a function of the intervertebral disc? A) .

acts as B) shock absorbers .

prevents C) bone-to-bone contact .

lubricates D) the joint .

contributes to the height of the individual E) .

allows the movements associated with flexion and rotation of the vertebral column Answer: .

C 108) .

The only moveable joint in the head is the A) .

.sagittal B) suture.

.lambdoid C) suture.

gomphosis. D) .

temporoman dibular joint. E) .

none of the above Answer: .

D 109) .

The knee joint is reinforced by A) .

.cruciate B) ligaments.

fibular C) (lateral) collateral ligaments. .

.patellar D) ligaments.

tibial E) (medial) collateral ligaments. .

all of the above Answer: .

E .

110) .

The body system that is responsible for synthesizing vitamin D3 is the A) .

B) .endocrine.

digestive. C) .

D) .cardiovascul ar.

urinary. E) .

integumenta ry. Answer: .

A 111) .

The lateral collateral ligament is part of which joint? A) .

elbow B) .

hip C) .

shoulder D) .

knee E) .

ankle Answer: .

D 112) .

In compact bone. the osteons A) .

B) .are lined up parallel to the long axis.

are lined up perpendicular to the long axis. C) .

D) .are arranged in an irregular pattern.

are E) separated by medullary spaces. .

Answer: .are lacking in the diaphysis.

A 113) .

A) .When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone.

.puberty B) begins.

bones begin to grow in length. C) .

appositional bone growth begins. D) .

.long bones E) have reached their adult length.

the bone becomes more brittle. Answer: .

D 114) .

Which is greater? A) .

osteoclast B) activity when calcitonin is present .

osteoclast activity when calcitonin is absent Answer: .

B 115) .

Which is greater? A) .

blood B) calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is increased .

blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is decreased Answer: .

A .

116) .

Dislocat ions involving synovial joints are usually prevented by A) .

structures B) such as ligaments that stabilize and support the joint. .

the shape of the articulating surface. C) .

D) .the presence of other bones that prevent certain movements.

E) .the position of muscles and fat pads that limit the degree of movement.

all of the above Answer: .

E 117) .

The thickest intervertebral discs are found in the A) .

.cervical B) region.

thoracic C) region. .

lumbar D) region. .

sacral E) region. .

Answer: .coccygeal region.

C 118) .

Damag e to the temporal bone would most likely affect the sense of A) .

sight. B) .

taste. C) .

D) .smell.

hearing. E) .

touch. Answer: .

D 119) .

As you proceed from the head inferiorly down the vertebral column. A) .

.the B) vertebrae become larger.

.the C) transverse processes become shorter.

the body of the vertebrae become heavier. D) .

the spinous processes become larger. E) .

all of the above Answer: .

E 120) .

Improp er administration of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) can force the ________ into the liver. A) .

floating ribs B) .

lumbar C) vertebrae .

manubrium of the sternum D) .

costal E) cartilage .

xiphoid process Answer: .

E 121) .

The only fixed support for the pectoral girdle is the A) .

scapula. B) .

C) .clavicle.

D) .humerus.

sternum. E) .

shoulder musculature. Answer: .

B 122) .

most of your weight is transmitted to the ground by the A) .When standing normally.

.talus and B) calcaneus.

.talus and C) cuneiforms.

.calcaneus D) and cuneiforms.

.cuboid and E) cuneiforms.

calcaneus and cuboid. Answer: .

A 123) .

The stronger and more stable a joint is. A) .

.the more B) mobility it has.

Answer: .the less mobility it has.

B 124) .

Noddin g your head up and down is an example of A) .

.lateral and B) medial rotation.

circumductio n. C) .

flexion and extension. D) .

.pronation E) and supination.

protraction and retraction. Answer: .

C 125) .

Which of the following movements would you associate with chewing food? A) .

elevation B) .

abduction C) .

flexion D) .

pronation E) .

circumductio n Answer: .

A 126) .

The joints that are subjected to the greatest forces would be found in A) .

B) .the legs.

the arms. C) .

the head. D) .

the E) shoulder. .

none of the above Answer: .

A 127) .

Which of the following conditions would you possibly observe in a child that is suffering from vitamin D deficiency? A) .

abnormally short arms and legs B) .

abnormally long arms and legs C) .

oversized D) facial bones .

bow legs E) .

weak. brittle bones Answer: .

D 128) .

Which of the following bones might be fractured by this blow? A) .Mike gets into a fight and sustains a blow to the nose.

ethmoid B) .

sphenoid C) .

frontal D) .

zygomatic E) .

maxilla Answer: .

A 129) .

Types of tissue found in bones include all of the following EXCEPT A) .

B) .blood.

cartilage. C) .

fibrous D) connective tissue. .

E) .nerve tissue.

muscle tissue. Answer: .

E 130) .

Infectio n of a bone is called A) .

osteogenesis . B) .

C) .osteoporosis .

D) .osteopenia.

rickets. E) .

Answer: .osteomalaci a.

E 131) .

The term used to describe any bony projection or bump is A) .

ramus. B) .

C) .fossa.

D) .sulcus.

process. E) .

meatus. Answer: .

D 132) .

The term used to describe a shallow depression is A) .

trochanter. B) .

condyle. C) .

fossa. D) .

sinus. E) .

Answer: .ramus.

C .

133) .

Types of synarthrotic joints include all of the following EXCEPT A) .

B) .syndesmose s.

sutures. C) .

D) .gomphoses.

synchondros es. E) .

Answer: .All of the above are synarthrotic joints.

A 134) .

Bones that develop from membranous connective tissue are called A) .

.inorganic B) bones.

organic C) bones. .

.ossified D) bones.

intramembra nous bones. E) .

endochondra l bones. Answer: .

D 135) .

The longest bone in the human body is the A) .

radius. B) .

femur. C) .

D) .ulna.

E) .tibia.

fibula. Answer: .

B 136) .

The largest bone in the foot is the A) .

B) .navicular.

C) .talus.

D) .calcaneus.

cuneiform. E) .

cuboid. Answer: .

C 137) .

The smallest bone of the wrist is the A) .

B) .pisiform.

C) .lunate.

D) .scaphoid.

capitate. E) .

Answer: .trapezoid.

A 138) .

The parts of the sternum include all of the following EXCEPT A) .

manubrium. B) .

body. C) .

.transverse D) foramina.

xiphoid E) process. .

both A and C Answer: .

C Fill-in-the-Blank 1) .

________ general term that indicates pain and stiffness affecting the skeletal or muscular systems or both. is a Answer: .

Rheumatism 2) .

Answer: .The presence of a(n) ________ indicates that the long bone is still growing.

epiphyseal disk/plate .

3) .

The medullary cavity of a long bone is lined with ________. Answer: .

endosteum 4) .

The shaft of long bones is called the ________. Answer: .

diaphysis 5) .

Answer: .The head of a long bone is called the ________.

epiphysis 6) .

________ is the process of blood cell formation. Answer: .

Hematopoiesis 7) .

an existing tissue is replaced by bone.During the process of ________. Answer: .

ossification 8) .

The process of depositing calcium into a tissue is called ________. Answer: .

calcification 9) .

Acrome galy is caused by oversecretion of ________. Answer: .

GH (growth hormone) .

10) .

An increase in the diameter of growing bone is termed ________. Answer: .

appositional growth or diametric growth .

11) .

Two hormones that work together to elevate calcium levels in the body are ________ and ________. Answer: .

calcitriol .parathyroid hormone.

12) .

Answer: .The cartilaginous parts that separate vertebrae are called ________.

intervertebral discs .


13) .

The ed articular end of an epiphysis that is separated from the shaft by a narrower neck is termed a expand ________. Answer: .

head 14) .

Answer: .A smooth. grooved articular process shaped like a pulley is termed a ________.

trochlea 15) .

The bones of the wrist form the ________. Answer: .

carpus 16) .

True ribs are directly connected to the sternum by ________. Answer: .

costal cartilage 17) .

Ribs that have no direct connection to the sternum are called ________. Answer: .

floating ribs 18) .

The joint between the pubic bones is the ________. Answer: .

pubic symphysis 19) .

Answer: .The bony compartment that houses the brain is called the ________.

cranium 20) .

Answer: .The occipital bone articulates with the first cervical vertebra at the ________.

occipital condyles .

21) .

Bone- forming cells are called ________. Answer: .

osteoblasts 22) .

The frontal and parietal bones articulate at the ________ suture. Answer: .

coronal 23) .

Answer: .The fibrous areas that exist between cranial bones at birth are called ________.

fontanels 24) .

The xiphoid process is part of the ________. Answer: .

sternum 25) .

The first cervical vertebra is also known as the ________. Answer: .

atlas 26) .

Answer: .The second cervical vertebra is also known as the ________.

axis 27) .

Moving a part anteriorly is called ________. Answer: .

protraction 28) .

Answer: .Posterio rly. the ilium articulates with the sacrum at the ________ joint.

sacroiliac 29) .

The location where two bones meet is called a(n) ________. Answer: .

articulation (joint) .

30) .

Answer: .A joint with nearly flat articulating surfaces is called a ________ joint.

gliding 31) .

Pads of are often found around the edges of joints to provide protection for the articular cartilages. ________ Answer: .

fat or adipose 32) .

Answer: .Small of synovial fluid that form to reduce friction and act as a shock absorber where ligaments and pockets tendons rub against other tissues are called ________.

bursae 33) .

The ________ ligaments of the knee are intracapsular. Answer: .

cruciate 34) .

The movement of rotating a limb toward the ventral surface of the body is called medial ________. Answer: .

rotation 35) .

Answer: .The movement of rotating a limb outward is called ________.

lateral rotation 36) .

Answer: .Fibrocar tilage discs that provide cushioning in joints are called ________.

menisci 37) .

Answer: .The movement of a body part backward in a horizontal plane is called ________.

retraction 38) .

The movement of a body part superiorly is called ________. Answer: .

elevation 39) .

Answer: .The type of joint that only allows rotation is called a ________.

pivot Matching 1) .

condyle A. antrum C. expanded end of an epiphysis _____4. _____1. crest B. smooth. grooved articular process _____3. head E. smooth. rounded articular process Answer: . chamber within a bone _____5. prominent ridge _____2. trochlea D.Match the term in the first column with the definition in the second column.

2-A. 5-C . 4B. 3-D.1-E.

2) .

_____1. lateral malleolus _____3.Match the bone in the first column with the feature in the second column. tibia B. fibula C. medial malleolus Answer: . femur A. linea aspera _____2.

1-A. 3-B Essay 1) . 2-C.

Differen tiate between compact bone and spongy bone. Answer: .

Compact bone has osteons situated in closely packed areas and is found where stresses come from a limited range of direction. . Spongy bone has large spaces between thin. bony plates and is found where stresses are few or come from many different directions. whereas spongy bone serves to reduce the weight of bones. Compact bone provides strength.

2) .

Since she is carrying her excess in her weight in front of her.Mary is last month of pregnancy and is suffering from lower back pains. she wonders why her back hurts. What would you tell her? Answer: .

The increased mass of the pregnant uterus shifts the center of gravity. the lumbar curvature is exaggerated and more of the body weight than normal is supported by the lumbar region. This results in sore muscles and the lower back pain.Women in later stages of pregnancy develop lower back pain because of changes in the lumbar curvature of the spine. . to compensate for this.

3) .

His chest is badly bruised.Billy is injured during a high school football game. What might be the problem? Answer: . and he is experiencing difficulty breathing.

Billy has probably broken one or more of his ribs. which is an important part of breathing. . resulting in a condition known as a pneumothorax. When the ribs are broken. or collapsed lung due to air in the pleural cavity. breathing can become difficult (labored) because the ribs cannot function properly. Movement of the ribs changes the size of the thoracic cavity. It is also possible that the injury caused a rib to pierce one of the lungs.

4) .

Due to a developmental defect. what would you expect in terms of upper body motion? Answer: . As a result of this condition. Mike was born without clavicles.

Mike would have an increased range of motion at the shoulder joint. .

5) .

Why person suffering from osteoporosis be more likely to suffer a broken hip than a broken shoulder? would a Answer: .

fractures in the bones of this joint should occur less frequently. The shoulder joint is not a loadbearing joint and is not subject to the same great stresses or strong muscle contractions as the hip joint. Since the hip joint and leg bones must support the weight of the body. any weakening of these bones may result in not enough strength to support the body mass. . a decrease in the calcium content of bones leads to bones that are weak and brittle.In osteoporosis. As a result. and as a result the bone will break under the great weight.

6) .

When a contact sport. which injury would you expect to occur more frequently: a dislocated shoulder or playing a dislocated hip? Why? Answer: .

Because of its mobility. These factors contribute to the joint being more stable and less easily dislocated. the shoulder joint is not bound tightly by ligaments or other structures and is easier to dislocate when excessive forces are applied. The synovial capsule of the hip joint is larger than the shoulder. . although mobile. bones fit together snugly in the joint. is stabilized by four heavy ligaments. The hip joint. and the range of motion is not as great.Shoulder dislocations would occur more frequently than hip dislocations because the shoulder is a more mobile joint.


identify the labeled part.Labeling Exercises Using the figure above. 1) .

Label A: ________ Answer: .

Proximal epiphysis .

2) .

Label B: ________ Answer: .

Diaphysis 3) .

Label C: ________ Answer: .

Distal epiphysis .

4) .

Label D: ________ Answer: .

Periosteum 5) .

Label E: ________ Answer: .

Compact bone 6) .

Label F: ________ Answer: .

Endosteum 7) .

Label G: ________ Answer: .

Marrow cavity 8) .

Label H: ________ Answer: .

Epiphyseal line 9) .

Label I: ________ Answer: .

Blood vessels 10) .

Label J: ________ Answer: .

Spongy bone 11) .

Label K: ________ Answer: .

Articular cartilage .

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