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Carl Jung

Theory of
Individualism
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Carl Jung
July 26, 1875 - June 6, 1961

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of a neopsychoanalytic school of


psychology, which he named Analytical Psychology. Jung's unique and broadly influential
approach to psychology has emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of
dreams, art, mythology, world religion and philosophy. Although he was a theoretical
psychologist and practicing clinician for most of his life, much of his life's work was spent
exploring other realms, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology,
as well as literature and the arts.

His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetype, his
theory of synchronicity and the collective unconscious - also known as "a reservoir of the
experiences of our species."

Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern
humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and
appreciation of the unconscious realm. Jungian ideas are not typically included in curriculum of
most major universities' psychology departments, but are occasionally explored in humanities
departments.

THEORY OF INDIVIDUALISM
• Jung's Theory of Individualism focuses on a life span view of personality development
versus achievement of basic needs (Jung, 1960).
• Hypothesized that as the person ages, the shift of focus is away from the external world
(extroversion) towards the inner experience (introversion)
• The older person will search for answers to many life’s riddles and try to find the essence
of the “true self”. To age successfully, the older person will accept past accomplishments
and failures. “The goal of life is to realize self”

• The first of Jung’s general psychological types was the general attitude type. An attitude,
according to Jung, is a person’s predisposition to behave in a particular way. There are two
opposing attitudes: introversion and extroversion. The two attitudes work as opposing, yet
complementary forces and are often depicted as the classing yin and yang symbol.

Jung's theory divides the psyche into three parts. The first is the ego,which Jung identifies with
the conscious mind. Closely related is the personal unconscious, which includes anything which
is not presently conscious, but can be. The personal unconscious is like most people's
understanding of the unconscious in that it includes both memories that are easily brought to mind
and those that have been suppressed for some reason. But it does not include the instincts that
Freud would have it include.

But then Jung adds the part of the psyche that makes his theory stand out from all others: the
collective unconscious. You could call it your "psychic inheritance." It is the reservoir of our
experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with. And yet we can never be
directly conscious of it. It influences all of our experiences and behaviors, most especially the
emotional ones, but we only know about it indirectly, by looking at those influences.

There are some experiences that show the effects of the collective unconscious more clearly
than others: The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you've been here
before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths,
could all be understood as the sudden conjunction of our outer reality and the inner reality of the
collective unconscious. Grander examples are the creative experiences shared by artists and
musicians all over the world and in all times, or the spiritual experiences of mystics of all
religions, or the parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies, fairy tales, and literature.

The Eight Personality Types Defined by Carl Jung

The Eight Personality Types Defined by Carl Jung

Extroverted Thinking – Jung theorized that people understand the world through a
mix of concrete ideas and abstract ones, but the abstract concepts are ones passed
down from other people. Extroverted thinkers are often found working in the
research sciences and mathematics.

Introverted Thinking – These individuals interpret stimuli in the environment through


a subjective and creative way. The interpretations are informed by internal
knowledge and understanding. Philosophers and theoretical scientists are often
introverted thinking-oriented people.

Extroverted Feeling – These people judge the value of things based on objective fact.
Comfortable in social situations, they form their opinions based on socially accepted
values and majority beliefs. They are often found working in business and politics.

Introverted Feeling – These people make judgments based on subjective ideas and
on internally established beliefs. Oftentimes they ignore prevailing attitudes and defy
social norms of thinking. Introverted feeling people thrive in careers as art critics.

Extroverted Sensing – These people perceive the world as it really exists. Their
perceptions are not colored by any pre-existing beliefs. Jobs that require objective
review, like wine tasters and proofreaders, are best filled by extroverted sensing
people.

Introverted Sensing – These individuals interpret the world through the lens of
subjective attitudes and rarely see something for only what it is. They make sense of
the environment by giving it meaning based on internal reflection. Introverted
sensing people often turn to various arts, including portrait painting and classical
music.

Extroverted Intuitive – These people prefer to understand the meanings of things


through subliminally perceived objective fact rather than incoming sensory
information. They rely on hunches and often disregard what they perceive directly
from their senses. Inventors that come upon their invention via a stroke of insight
and some religious reformers are characterized by the extraverted intuitive type.

Introverted Intuitive – These individuals, Jung thought, are profoundly influenced by


their internal motivations even though they do not completely understand them.
They find meaning through unconscious, subjective ideas about the world.
Introverted intuitive people comprise a significant portion of mystics, surrealistic
artists, and religious fanatics.
The introvert is most aware of his or her inner world. While the external world is still
perceived, it is not pondered as seriously as inward movement of psychic energy. The introverted
attitude is more concerned with subjective appraisal and often gives more consideration to
fantasies and dreams.
The extrovert, by contrast, is characterized by the outward movement of psychic energy.
This attitude places more importance on objectivity and gains more influence from the
surrounding environment than by inner cognitive processes.
Clearly, it is not a case of one versus the other. Many people carry qualities of both
attitudes, considering both subjective and objective information.

How does behavior change in relation to advancing age?

Applying Jung’s Orientations to a Complete Personality

A person is not usually defined by only one of the eight personality types. Instead, the
different functions exist in a hierarchy. One function will take have a superior effect and another
will have a secondary effect. Usually, according to Jung, a person only makes significant use of
two functions. The other two take inferior positions.

In his 1921 work, Psychological Types, Jung compared his four functions of personality to
the four points on a compass. While a person faces one direction, he or she still uses the other
points as a guide. Most people keep one function as the dominant one although some people may
develop two over a lifetime. It is only the person who achieves self-realization that has completely
developed all four functions.

Although not specific to aging, Jung's Theory of Individualism focuses on a life span view
of personality development versus achievement of basic needs (Jung, 1960). This theory suggests
that older adults should review their accomplishments and search their inner beliefs, ft proposes
that successful aging includes the ability to accept the past and adjust to losses as individuals
experience functional decline. Many older adults recognize that a spouse, self, or close friend may
be ill enough to die or may actually die. Depending on their history of accomplishments and
beliefs, older adults want the nurse to be realistic, to help them adapt to change and loss, and then
continue their lives.
Are these behavioral changes consistent in pattern from one individual to another? Explain
and relate to the stages of your assigned theory.

- Behavioral changes depend on their history of accomplishments and beliefs of the older
adults. If we relate this to the theory of Carl Jung, Adults who have been successful
during the first part of their life are more likely to have a goal in the future and accept
death as it is. While those who have unsatisfied demands need to have their attention
drawn inward to see their true self in order to know their goals for the future. Either way,
adjustments to the present situation are needed for successful aging., Adults will review
their accomplishments in life. Those older people who are successful, who can easily cope
up with the situations and who can socialize with the other people we can consider them as
an extrovert whereas to those older people who gain nothing in their life, and merely prefer
less social activities we may consider them as introvert.

What promotion strategies would you recommend to successful aging?

Emotional support
As a nurse I can give emotional support to older people and help them
emotionally. I can listen to their stories to help them show their feelings, if
their lonely ill show them that there isn’t a reason for he/she to be lonely by
being there and listening to their woes. Older people tend to reminisce old
memories that are important to them so give them time to remember those
memories and you might know something by doing so.

To help them prepare for death the nurse must answer therapeutically, you
must realize how delicate an elderly person emotionally, one wrong answer
might lead to emotional distress. This can be resolve by giving what you can
give to them, asking them what they want to do that they didn’t do in the
past, but if you find it too difficult to do you can give them minimum of what
they asked. Also asking them about what are their achievements in life, is
good because it helps them realized that their life is meaningful and they
won’t regret anything until they’re pushing up daisies.

Ex.
Nurse: Mrs. Banner how are you feeling today?

Mrs. Banner: Oh I feel just fine, just like the time I went to…..(speaks about
her past)

Nurse: (listening to the client)

Lifestyle
As a nurse helping older people cope with stress and deal with their vices is a
must. Telling them to stop their vices isn’t enough, simply saying to them to
limit their vices to moderation because it’s already too late to say to stop
their vices. Teaching them hobbies like making tower out of Popsicle sticks
helps to divert their attention from their vices.

Ex.

Nurse: Mr. Rodchewagen we have activities today which can help you relieve
some of your stress.

Mr. Rodchewagen: what kind of activities would that be? It better be good
because im feeling really stressed right now.

Nurse: don’t worry Mr. Rodchewagen im sure that you will like it.

Mr. Rodchewagen: ok lemme have a go at it.