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H SCH0:ELLER :
Professor of hydrogeology and Geology i the Bordeaux Faculty of Science n
U N E S C O
ARID Z O N E RESEARCH-XI1 ARID Z O N E H Y D R O L O G Y RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
In the same series:
I Reviews of Research on Arid Zone Hydrology. .
11. Proceedings of the Ankara Symposium on And Zone Hydrology. 111. Directory of Institutions Engaged in Arid Zone Research (in English only).
IV. Utilization of Saline Water, Reviews of Research. V. Plani Ecology, Proceedings of the Montpellier SymposiumlEcologie vdgaale,actes du collogue
VI. Plant Ecology, Reviews of Research/&dogie vdgdtale, compte rendu de recherches. VII. W n and Solar Energy,Proceedings of the New D l i SymposiumlEnergie solaire et hlienne, id eh
actes du colloque de New DelhilEnergia solar y iolica, Actas del coloquio celebrado en N m a
VIII. H u m a n and Animal Ecology, Reviews
o ResearchlEcologie humaine e6 animale. compte f rendu de recherches. IX. Guide B o to Research Data for Arid Zone Development. ok X. Climatology, Reviews of Research. XI. Climatology and Microclimatology, Proceedings of the Canberra SymposiurnlClimacologie ei microclimatologie, actes du collogue de Canberra. XII. Arid Zone Hydrology. Recent Developments.
Since 1955 the reviews of research have been published with yellow covers. and the proceedings of symposia with grey covers.
Paris-P Rinted by Imprimerie Chaix @ Uneaco 1959 Printed in fianca NS.Published in 4959 by the United Nations Edmatwnal. Scientijic and Cultural Organisation Place de Fontenoy. 16/A . 58/11I.
drawn up in 1951. h u m a n and animal ecology. They include digests o research on particular subjects such as hydrology. or o monographs on research o o f in certain jields o special importance but where the extent o the work done does not warf f rant fuller treatment. Professor Schoeller has agreed. there has been considerable progress in hydrology in general and hydrogeology in particular in such branches as the utilization of groundwater. plant ecology. the Unesco Secretariat takes this opportunity of expressing its gratitude to the author and to a l those who have supplied him with new information. the collection and dissemination o scientijic information provided by studies f en arid zone problems remain essential objects. In presenting this work to hydrologists and other researchers concerned with arid zone problems. to discuss the advances and to provide full bibliographical data on the zoritings published since 4952. f The present volume is the jirst of a slightly different type of publication in the series t consist either of sequels bringing existing digests up t date. was raised t the status of a o major project a the ninth Session of the General Conference in 1956. the utilization o radioactive tracers. f utilization o saline waters. and the prof ceedings o symposia on the same subjects arranged under the programme. f in the presea volume. Eleven volumes have so far been published in the Unesco Arid Zone Research series. While the t change has brought a substantial increase in the resources granted to the Organizathn for the promotion o arid zone research specijically by direct support for certain f institutions in the region extending from N r h Africa t the Middle East and Southot o East Asia. its geochemistry. f f Since the issue o Reviews of Research o n Arid Zone Hydrology and o the Proceedings of the Ankara Symposium. etc. and climatology. l U .F O R E W O R D NESCO’S Arid Zone programme.
n Groundwater resources . . . . . Usable resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of water extraction by wells and boring8. . . . . . . . . . Water balance i aquifers. . . . . . General remarks on the formation of groundwater reservaland their replenishment and on groundwater resources in arid zones . . . . . . . . . Priorities. . . . . . . . 36 36 39 41 43 44 T e s s formula . charge of a&Xers . . . . . . . . . . safe yields . . 11 13 13 15 21 22 22 22 22 CHAPTER I. . . Calculation of permeability and transmissibility from pumping tests b non-equilibrium formulae y . . . . Groundwater prospecting and development in arid zones . Withdrawals from permanent storage. . . . . . . . . . . Critical factors . . Water storage . . . . . . . . . . n 24 25 25 27 27 27 . . . . . . . . Location of web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boulton's method for wells i water-table aquifers. . . . . . . hi' 'Approximate calculation method . Water supply and drainage. . .CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . Relationship between discharge through wells and boring8 and the natural dis. . . . . . . . . . . Tapping the 'through-put'-i. . . . . . . n Factors operativein the formation of groundwater reserves i and zones. . . . . . . . . . . The situation i the intake area . . . Retarded discharge . . . 23 CHAPTERI1. . . Utilisation of mountain and submontane groundwater . . . . . . . . . . . 28 28 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 CHAPTERI11.e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of groundwater concentrationsand springs. . Natural yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . natural yield-of aquifers . . . . . . . Model water supply and drainage appreciation for an arid region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n Numerical determination of V . . Permissible extraction of sub-surfacewater. . Calculationofdraw-downin thepumped well. . . . . . . . . Secular reserves . . . . . . . . . Aasessment of natural water resources of very large areas . . .
. . . . . . Presentation of analyses . . . . . . In calcareous terrains. . . . Tracer dyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Methods allowing for the delayed discharge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mg. . . . . . . . Typrs tracers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The semi-logarithmicgraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geological zonation . . . . Circulation of water i rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 54 56 56 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 63 68 68 68 69 69 69 72 73 74 74 74 Dissolution . . Base exchanges . . . . . Graphs and tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid tracers. . . . . . . . n The progressive changes i chemical composition within a single groundwater body n Zonationsreflectedin the chemical composition of groundwater . . The general trajectory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n Siline-Bektchourineon the build-up of the chemical content of groundwater in arid regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical zonation. . . . Water i contact with marls and clays. . . . . . . Water i contact with organic matter . Zonation by climate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C l i s s comparative table oln' . . . . Water from the main types of rock . n Graniteand gneiss. . . . . . . . . 85 85 86 86 86 87 89 89 90 Characteristics of an ideal tracer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some general geochemical features of deserts and semi. Hantush's method . . . . . or caused by leakance i the case of captive aquifers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n The variety of trajectories. . . . . n n Boulton's method . . . . . . . . . . The chemical composition of the water i underground strata . . . . . . Soluble chemical tracers. . . . . of tTacu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and C1 . Non-equilibrium (transitory) stage.deserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reductions . representing the balance of the specific yield i free water. . . . . . . . . The varieties of non-radioactivetracer . . . . D y residue . . . . . . . . . . . Ca. . . . . . . . . . . 44 44 47 50 50 CHAPTER IV. . . . . . . . . n Water from sands and ordinary sandstones. . . . . . . . . . . . Geochemistry of groundwater . . . . . Water from purely siliceous sands and sandstones. . Relativevalues . In gypsum and saliferousformations. . . . . . . . . . . . Kounine on the chemistry of water i deserts. . . . . . . . . . . Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . Modifying phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tables. . . . . . N a . . 76 77 77 79 79 80 80 83 83 83 83 CHAPTER V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The stage of equilibrium . . . . Stage 1 . . . . . . Basalts . . . . . . radioactive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . microcirculation of water in aquifers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . r Bicarbonates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SO. . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute values and products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . Wadi Raiyan test. Multiple peaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Isotopes not readily adsorbable . . . . . . . . . Constant input dilution evaluation method . . . . . . . . . Research on hydrological balances . . . . . . . . Isotopes liable to adsorption or to react with water or to rocks. . . . . . . . .Libyan Desert . . . Pure p emitters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Deviant trajectories . . . p and y radiation emitters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methods for the use of radioactivetracers. . . . . . . . . Constant input velocity determination method . . The w e of radioactive tracers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tests i the pctroliferousformations i Oklahoma (Nowata County) and Kansas n n . . . . . lw Laminar flow trajectory i a capillary . Carriers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experiments i which radioactive tracers have been used . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. . . . . Usable radioactive tracers. . . . . . . N o adsorption. . . . . . . . . . . . . n The California Research Laboratory Test . . . . . . n Adsorption and retention oftracers. . . Serre-Ponqon Test (France). . . . . . . . Tests at Cauterets and Luz (France) . . n Trajectory i a sand ofunlimited lateraldimensions . . Turbulent f o trajectories. . Direct trajectories. . . . . . . . . Methods of injecting tracers into aquifers . .S. . . . Adsorption occurring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. . . Single-shot injection methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Anderson County). . . . . 90 90 90 91 92 94 96 96 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 101 101 102 102 102 104 106 107 108 108 109 112 112 . . . . . . . . . .
There is no question but that i these areas the role of hydrology i particular is n n vital and without it all other arid zone research would be pointless. Chapter I1 covers groundwater prospecting and development. Chapter V deals with the utilization of tracers and particularly radioactive W 11 . the first being a genuine scientific operation while the second is impossible without a general study of the region where the groundwater is located and detailed study of special points. One such is evapotranspiration. least k n o w n or previously most seriously neglected. the likely result would be no more than a series of unrewarding thumb-nail sketches. i contact with rocks and through climatic n n factors. which is of particular importance in arid zones since mineralization and aridity go hand i n hand. is the key to life in semi-arid and a n d zonea. especially groundwater. Chapter I11 discusses certain new methods for determining the transmissibility of aquifers. M a n y subjects.I N T R O D U C T I O N ATER. often important. their replenishment and the water resources they represent. These are not tasks to be ventured on casually without a definite programme. which is still too m u c h in its infancy. Lastly. Calculating the yield of aquifers is one of the essentialtasks of arid zone hydrogeology but to arrive at the yield the permeability or more accurately the transmissibility of the aquifers themselves must be known. It shows what gives the water its chemical composition and the changes which occur i stored groundwater. all n of which are different ? Chapter I deals with one of the basic problems of arid zone hydrology-the circumstances determining the formation of bodies of groundwater. Since the Ankara symposium i 1952 the discipline has progressed rapidly in every n conceivable direction and i all countries. These considerations have led the writer to confine his attention solely to those questions which are new. Chapter IV gives a ge*ral outline of the geochemistry of groundwater. have been deliberately left alone. These methods are little known outside the United States of America el but could be of immense usefulness. n It is impossible to cover all that has been done i a few pages: there is too m u c h n of it and too m a n y domains are involved. It is of course a calculable factor in the overall hydrological balance say of entire river basins. but h o w are w e to determine its significance i the inventories of the separate groundwater concentrations. Undoubtedly one of the best methods for determining transmissibility is from the non-equilibrium discharge of w l s and borings.
Something on this question has therefore been included. brome-82. present unquestionable advantages. 12 . Three radioactive tracers. but a need is becoming felt for tracers with half lives neither of a f w days like iodine-131 e nor of several years like tritium but of weeks or months. iodine-131 and tritium.Arid zone hydrology tracers to determine the direction and velocity of groundwater flow. Use of tracers requires a deeper knowledge of the microcirculation of water in rocks.
1 M. can be further broken d o w n into above-ground run-off. 13 . r i e . Hydrogblagie de l terre. . water-table. and which should incorporate all the variations inherently likely to affect the position. finally. though it must be admitted that they are not frequent. The groundwater balance has an obvious connexion with the water balance which can be worked out for a river basin. of water levels in rivers. Yet it is of the first importance since the practical aim of hydrogeology is. A number of conventional studies have been deliberately omitted. A. However. to determine the groundwater refiourcesavailable for use. It is for that reason that an account of the work of M. y-. from the free groundwater. . say for one year. W A T E R B A L A N C E IN A Q U I F E R S The groundwater balance is still usually a nagging question m a r k in hydrogeology. rise or fall of the free . In addition to the foregoing elements. A. etc. river basins do not necessarily overlie hydrogeological systems coterminous with them. U. 20Ia is called for here.y. increase or decrease of the snow-cap. surface drainage. Velikanovl and B.. summating all variations in the water reserves. the plus sign representing outflow from the basin under study to adjacent basins and the minus sign inflow to the first from the second. They n have been picked from the numerous studies published i all parts of the world on the n criteria firstly of their general relevance and secondly of their special importance for arid regions. T h e fluvial water balance covers rainfall. Velikanov. T h e phenomenon is m u c h more c o m m o n i the case of non-phreatic groundwater n at shallow depths and accordingly allowance must be m a d e for the flow of groundwater to or from the basin under study and adjacent basins by including a value f U)#.C H A P T E R I General remarks on the formation of groundwater reserves and their replenishment and on groundwater resources i arid zones n T i chapter gives digests of selected publications on the formation of groundwater hs reserves and their replenishment and on groundwater resources i arid zones.I. page 116. positive or negative. and stream run-off. Phreatic groundwater reservoirs under an adjacent basin m a y drain into that being surveyed and vice versa. Kudelin [19. and for a value. z (less condensation). x. and underground run-off. The latter however y. and examples are k n o w n to the writer. a 2 The figures in brackets refer to the bibliography. e g . lakes. 1948.. it is advisable to allow for evaporation.
for instance. + Yo. . Deep artesian water. the positive and negative variations end by cancelling out. We must therefore include the quantity w. There is yet another complication. is negligible but failure to include it autoil matically would be a grave error. n %)Sa W e thus have to reckon i ya. n Thus the source of the Garonne has its recharge area not on the French but on the Spanish side of the watershed.000 and 30. a basin m a y either get artesian water from or lose it to a neighbouring basin. on the other hand. often running to tens or even hundreds of thousands of years.( -4%= Yr + Ys + Y a + *f 21 w. despite the small area of the Aquitaine basin. In such cases the balance ought not to be calculated on the basis of an antecedent period of n years.the artesian run-off. but of a value. Furthermore. The two regimes must be fundamentally independent. the balance is written: x = yr +r. calculations on the same lines put the time taken for water to cover a distance of 300 kilometres at between 500. which considerably simplifies the calculation of the overall water balance by avoiding major uncertainties. then. n Phreatic and shallow artesian formations are elements i a circulatory system constituting a cycle of brief duration. Obviously. T h e overall water balance should therefore be worked out by taking the average of n years. T i gives us the following equation: hs - & z +a. of geological time m a n y times greater. In the n n case of what is called the Albian artesian horizon i the Sahara. It must be checked every time: the extent to which one basin gets its water supplies from groundwater i another is often very large and n this frequently occurs i limestone areas. N. f wa 14 . But this water belongs to a hydrological cycle of far greater duration than that of the artesian water at shallow depths. In that case and w e get %= Yor + YO8 + 20 + W". Between that epoch and our o w n there must have been immense fluctuations i the rainfall and logically n we should reckon in all of these and all the variations i the artesian discharge. Thus. and the variation (xu of the past rainfall on the artesian intake area giving rise to the run-off. There are cases of river basins with deep-lying artesian water replenished from and discharging into that basin exclusively. separate water balances need to be worked out for these two categories of subsurface water. if the water balance is worked out for a long period of years. the writer has calculated from the permeability and the inclination of the piezometric surface that the time taken for water to pass right through the aquifer is between 25. obeys another regimen extending backwards to a m u c h remoter period measurable by the yardstick not of short-term climatic oscillations but of geological change.Arid w n e hydrology If there are no deep-lying artesian concentrations. It wl happen fairly frequently that w. with Y o = Yor yo being the total run-off of the stream. + z + 21 + ws On the other hand.000 years and water leaving the aquifer today entered it in the W u r m s epoch.000 and over a million years.
and aquifers which are always of great length. 15 . chemical composition or any other particular. are apparent i either regimen. In actual fact however the circulation regime of deep artesian water must be relatively constant. the geographical influence becomes progressively slighter. + R a + Y1a + f 21 WlU f W1s If there is no or communication between one basin and another then =R I + YIS + Y l O + 21 x =Y . T h e amounts of water i the aquifer and discharged from n it w l therefore remain the same respectively. With discharge determined b y the difference of elevation between the zone of replenishment and the zones of discharge. due to the feeble gradient of the piezometric surface and there wl be overspilling at the recharge outil Cropping6 of the aquifer. As the depth of the horizon increases. l + 21 The foregoing equations should always be taken into consideration when a time. it can be reckoned that velocity ( . our attention must be directed primarily to the groundwater on which the geological conditions exert an influence. however. n It follows that. N. that influence is of great practical significanceas in m a n y cases any other groundwater present is inaccessible. As far as the first aquifer is concerned. it is no longer necessary i l i l to take the general m e a n for a time N but that for the m u c h shorter time n w l suffice. ie. l I. il rate of passage through unit cross-sectional area) wl be low. as Kunin indicates. then xo = Yor + YO8 + Yoa + 20 or z o = Yo + 20 F A C T O R S O P E R A T I V E IN T H E F O R M A T I O N O F G R O U N D W A T E R RESERVES IN ARID Z O N E S Below are outlined. the general ideas developed by Kunin 1221 on the factors operative i the formation of groundwater n reserves i deserts. over most of the Sahara. with the present writer’s o w n amplifications. of geological magnitude is used. n A good example of this is the reservoir in the Lower Continental Cretaceous horizon of the Sahara. it is i fact the n groundwater at great depths which can most easily be tapped. That being so. .Formation and replenishment of groundwater reseivea If w e take a geological number of years. to understand the hydrogeological characteristics peculiar to deserts. which is fed from wl outside the el desert i the Atlas range. only minimal desert influences. In other words the following equation can be used: xo = Y r + Y 8 + Yoa + 20 zt W o a &W O 5 o O If there is no communication between basins. the passage of the water n to and into it and its other characteristics are determined essentially by the geographical conditions. exceptions to the rule: for instance. i any f at all. k n o w n as the Albian formation.There are. N And by taking the means over N years we get: 21 = Y. and hence with deep-lying captive water with recharge areas far outaide the desert and travelling underground to it.
Finally. The local replenishments are by far the most important with only moderate supplies from a distance. again from the point of view of the groundwater balance. following loss of l water vapour from the soil to the atmosphere by transpiration. Considering more particularly the operative agencies in groundwater recharge actuati g i desert areas [17.Ghirski’s  division of desert and semi-desertgroundt water into two major groups: 1. The difference is determined by the degree to which n l the individualitems on the receipts side of the hydrological balance sheet count towards n groundwater replenishment.As w e shall see in the geochemical section of this paper. 2. consisting of thick deposits of mixed sand and clay sediments. Thus direct infiltration of rainfall bulks larger i stony deserts than elsewhere but becomes practically n l i argillaceous desert. is distinguished by a complex stratification of consolidated marine or metamorphic rocks containing numerous water-bearing horizons structurally similar and of small area. The first type i marked by extremely thick accumulations of uncoagulated sedis mentary matter in which phreatic groundwater is found over extensive areas. usually overlapping. The chemicalcomposition of the water varies widely. In sub-montane areas. can be regarded as ‘upper horizon’ groundwater. the upper water-bearing horizons comprehend a whole succession of aquifers. n as the chemical characteristics ultimately become the same i every case.(b) tectonic plains usually abutting on table-lands. Local s n replenishments play a minimal part i the water balance but from the utilitarian angle they are of special importance as they produce perched bodies of sweet water i regions where the bulk of the water i saline. inhltrationsfrom temporary lakes gain i importance w i e i sandy deserts accumulated condensations of atmospheric moisture become hl n a leading item. and speaking very generally. which-Kunin asserts-occurs at a l depths.there is no particular n n which distinguishes deep-lying groundwater from shallow. as i is i arid regions i general. becomes a factor of considerable importance. usually located i zones n of subsidence. the tectonic plain. where he distinguishes two geological types: (a) alluvial piedmont plains. I is proposed to adopt N.the chemical n concentrationin groundwater tends to rise as the depth below the soil surface increases and the deep-lying water i desert regions includes some very highly mineralized n types. n s The second type. Water which has infiltrated where desert and semi-desert conditions obtain. there are three possibilities: condensation of atmospheric n n 16 . lithological and geomorphological idiosyncrasies. i other words that which has been affected by dcscrt conditions from that which has not. In contradistinct n n tion to non-aridareas. Water of which the bulk infiltrates i adjacent non-desert areas and reaches the n desert or semi-desertarea by w a y of permeable strata.Arid zone hydrology Kunin points out that i practice. beginning in the eroded uplands and ending i local artesian basins. n n Thus the distinction between ‘shallow’and ‘deep-lying’groundwater is made i terms of structural.291. the explanation is that the phenomena are much more complex than seems to be the case at first sight-a warning to be repeated time and time again i hydrogeology. Zones of replenishment are usually at a considerable distance and salinity i high. the outgoings side in deserts is quite distinctive. Obviously. n The operative factors i groundwater replenishment in deserts differ widely from those i a l other climatic regions. the loss by evaporation from the surface of the water-tablevia the capillary fringe. By w a y of dustration. There is no means of identifying the operative cause of high mineralization.K. On the i n n fringes of sand and clay deserts.below mountains or in marginal table-lands. In the alluvial plains. Kunin discusses the deserts of Central Asia. only the uppermost free formations.
t. In summer. the factor finally determining the value of rainfall for groundwater replenishment is the nature of the rock formations. rainfall. lies i the part played by the difference i the vapour pressure of atmospheric and soil air respectively. according to She-Bektchourine and Plotnikov . which wl become charged with salts. where in winter n n the radiation of heat during the night chills the soil sufficiently for condensation to take place and moisten a layer of from a few millimetres to one centimetre i thickness. (5). 15.w h e n permeability is very low. However. as a result of which the water m a y in due course reach the aquifer. 'L'hydrog6ologie d'une partie de la v d 6 e de la Saoura et d u Grand Erg occidental'.Formation and replenishment of groundwater reserves humidity. under the most favourable conditions. W have only exiguous data on the importance of rainfall as a replenishment factor. the water lingers in the soil near the surface and is lost entirely by evaporation. Ghirski calculated the amount of direct recharge by rainfall in the regions studied by h m as equivalent to 1-2mm. i arid regionsn e g . the water infiltrates rapidly and becomes more or less safe from loss by evaporation . Soc.. Tunisia-soil air vapour pressure is only lower than that of the atmosphere on . In arid regions with a summer rainy season of exiguous precipitations. and infiltration of surface water-from perennial streams. but even under the most favourable geological conditions the amount of water i yields. compact porous rocks and boulder n or pebble formations. lakes. and intermittent streams. n T h e explanation.would t appear to be the equivalent of no more than about 4-8mm. gkol. the soil moisture from rainfall w l provide an addition of sweet water for the phreatic i l reservoirs. w h e n Gisi the temperature of the soil surface is at m a x i m u m . fissured rocks. However. 563-85. and Ghirski  himself concedes that replenishment by condensation can be discounted for all practical purposes.. In any event. e. i the Sahara. 1 Replenishment by rainfall is a significant item only i Northern Hemisphere arid n regions where the main rainfall. it is almost entirely dependent on the nature of the soil and rock formation. there wl be a net loss of water by evaporil il ation from the soil. n Even i .of rainfall. occurring in winter. very f w days of the year except near the sea. e Discounting the influence of vegetation. It undoubtedly occurs to some extent i sandstones. coincides with the period of greatest general humidity. When rain falls on bare surfaces of fissured rock-which are to be found in deserts and semi-deserts -there is no loss by evapotranspiration and fresh supplies of sweet water reach the water-table. n The moisture evaporates during the first few hours of daylight. i 1 H S c b d e r . n Condensation is an insignificant factor i groundwater recharge.g. because of the dryness of the air the water thus condensed wl be returned to the atmosphere within a very brief space. other factors to be taken into account ( h r k )are water movements in the soil in the vapour phase. If the quantities are reversed. as I have shown. p. 2 17 . Good examples of this i l phenomenon are provided i desert sand-dunes. B l . losses by evaporation reduce the groundwater increment practically to zero. . . In winter the vapour movement is i the reverse direction. T h e most n n favourable conditions for condensation occur i s u m m e r when there is an appreciable nocturnal heat-loss from the soil d o w n to the neutral temperature zone so that the relative vapour pressure of the soil air is at its lowest. G i s i s arguments reach the same e hrk' conclusion. Over and above the phenomena just discussed. water vapour moves d o w n from the lower surface of the moist layer of soil created by rain towards the zone of constant temperature. infiltration is less easy. with rainfall on true porous rock. of rain. as I have myself indicated . n If over the year the amount of water descending exceeds the amount ascending. If the permeability is fairly high. some condensation takes place i f the uppermost level of soil. ul 1945.
/litre) n of the water. As w e shall see again in the chapter on geochemistry. If the permeability is adequate the great bulk of the water indtrated reaches the aquifers. Floods from the overflow of intermittent streams-wadis-and overland run-off n accumulating i natural depressions probably provide a large proportion of the recharge for desert groundwater reservoirs. In the Sfax region. be direct recharge by precipitation. In the Oued el K b r (Tunisia) region they are mainly clay schists. in some i not most instances.)the soil i saturated when l s rainfall reaches about 100 mm. Tixeront points out. 18 . too. the process depends for its effectiveness on the nature of the terrain. near Beni Abbes i the Sahara. can il there be deep infiltration which wl replenish the desert water-table. in combination with low rainfall.per year against the equivalent of 1 or 2 mm.with consequent concentration in limited zones in appreciable depth and for a fair space of time. as i Egypt and i Central Asia and Kazakstan i t the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . field capacity m a y n 1 H.’ Recharge from permanent streams and irrigation works must obviously be taken n n n into consideration w h e n i occurs. the crucial factor affecting the replenishment of groundwater concentrations. rainfall reaches 200 mm. Here irrigation brings about the formation of sweet water mounds surmounting the water-table proper but w h e n irrigation is discontinued. w e do not possess adequate data on field moisture deficiency in arid soils. In areas with rainfall below 200 mm. n this is the only explanation of h o w the groundwater i the Western Grand Erg. which i s s determined essentially by the lithological nature of the stream bed and bank and by the height and duration of the discharge. whereas i the 6i n Sfax area sandy formations are a major element. n n However. but i permeability is low i is lost again by evaporation with a consequent f t increase i the salts i the soil.the m o u n d flattens out and the underlying saline water soon reappears.Schdler. If there is enough rainfall and the terrain i sufficiently pers meable. is fed and of the extremely low salt content (300 mg. in fact. discussing the Sahara. Similarly. In some places there are considerable depths of soil and the effects of evaporation m a y be felt far d o w n i i which can cause n t substantial field moisture deficiencies. there will. .a big head of water and prolonged flow). Ioc. i evapotranspiration. G i s i  hrk reckons that their contribution amounts to as m u c h as 10 mm. It i not proposed to linger over the subject of infdtration from freshets. As J. exceed f direct recharge by rain in truly desert areas. It should be added that the value of the field moisture deficiency is definitely affected not only by the evapotranspiration factor but also by the nature of the soil formation.’ Obviously. i should not be concluded that groundwater i deserts is replenished t n exclusively by run-off. In Tunisia there i a great difference i this connexion between regions with rainfall s n above and below 200 mm. and particularly i deserts. per year respectively.Arid zone hydrology Replenishment by intermittent streams may. concludes: ‘Onlyfrom that proportion of rainfall evacuated as run-off.which he wl accept il as the direct recharge by rainfall. The water m a y c o m e either from ordinary freshets filling the dry stream beds or from floodwater overflowing from them. cit. T o take a n example. though i is a fact that under favourable t conditions (highpermeability. In the Oued e K6bir region (annual rainfall 500 mm. Dubief . which creates a field moisture deficiency i the zone of evapors n ation. a large quantity of water can reach the aquifers particularly where shrub vegetation along the stream is scanty so that the amounts lost again by evapotranspiration are negligible.
and they empty just as a surface reservoir would do without adequate replenishment. Tixeront. However. which is in fact the determinant n i m a n y cases. ols Hence. 19 . n n ) 1. T i situation is not quite the same with unconsolidated hs sand formations or clays. whereas the water from the unconsolidated Quaternary deposits contains a total of 5-7 g. 1. and thence easily percolates the rest of the zone of aeration to reach the groundwater. T h e n chemical composition of the groundwater.. In that case less goes into the aquifers than flows out. Schoeller. This turns out very well with limestones and consolidated rock with fissures into which rainfall can sink and be safe from evaporation. to the litre are chloride. water emerging from the Ordovicien quartzites contains 900 mg. and it must therefore be conceded that either soil saturation has nevertheless n been achieved i limit areas of the basin to produce a freshet. rainwater cannot infiltrate except i certain cases. both expressions are used by J. hs The process cannot be better illustrated than b y the attached graph of the variations in the water level of a well i the Grambalia Plain i Tunisia (fig. either because the showers are too light or because the field moisture deficiency is too great. squares with the phenomena described. During these periods. and its intensity 0 5 mm. Thus there m a y even be several years on end i which only small quantities of rain n can infiltrate. Generally speaking the emptying rate can be expressed by the equation (q -c) = (qo -c)e-@-Q (1) p being the groundwater discharge at time t.i. when the field moisture n deficiency is not too great and when the rain infiltrating is not merely sufficient to n m a k e it good. saturation run-off resulting from saturation of the soil after prolonged rain and intensity run-off w h e n the rainfall is too intense for the s i ' infiltration capacity.1 In regions with annual precipitations of less than 200 mm. the amounts of rain are so small that it normally falls on non-saturated ground. of salts per litre and above. two sorts hs of temporary excess over retention capacity. indeed. T h e height of the water-table can be related to the discharge b y a simple formula and its variations are accordingly expressed by an equation comparable to 1 above. even in mid-desert in which there is no water movement for years e on end.. maintains that a freshet will occur i the central n n Sahara w h e n a fall of rain exceeds 5 mm. Dubief. which have a high field capacity in themselves. Thus in the Beni Abbes region of the Western Sahara. in fact the bedrock is exposed over vast areas.where mere evaporation can cause extremely serious field moisture deficiencies which must be m a d e good before any infiltration d o w n to the water-tables can take place. the water sinks below the evapotranspiration zone. po the discharge at time to and C the replenishment. per litre and over. with a chloride content of 18-250mg.Formation and replenishment of groundwater reserves be very low as a result of the slowing d o w n of the processes of soil formation for lack of water . It is precisely the wide intervals between the periods w h e n the conditions for groundwater recharge are present and the comparative brevity of those periods which distinguishes the arid zones. and none of it reach the water-table. It can thus be seen that in semi-arid and a fortiori i arid regions. . there m a y be periodical interruptions in groundwater recharge. of salts to the litre. i either case. causing the water-table and consequently the discharge to rise sharply. T i period of replenishment is succeeded by another period of water loss.e. there are very f w stream beds. unpublished observations. or that the main factor i causing the run-offwas the intensity of the rainfall. T i suggests the need to distinguish between two sorts of run-off. of which from 190-320mg.
in unconsolidated formations. assuming . Suppose an aquifer’s recharge fluctuate according to a regular cycle with C the rate of input expressible sinusoidally as: 2C Tt C C + . naturally. 59 and 56. as is possible with extremely fissuredformations in arid zones and the rule for all formations in the rainy regions. Undoubtedly. with heavily fissured rocks. They mainly follow the fluctuations in climatic conditions. FIG. q. but in fissured consolidated rocks they are m u c h shorter.--. the less marked is the tendency to discontinuous recharge. e (1) = t0 C being the m e a n input rate and . Observed movement. n n Thus i arid regions it is only in certain years that groundwater i non-fissured aquifers i replenished and there is even more reason to expect the same conditions s i the desert. the storage coefficient and p a constant. T h e relationship between the periodicity patterns of recharge to discharge from the aquifers has been worked out b y J.Arid rw hydrolagy o 8 1945 0 Observed depth. and the lower its permeability. that w e are dealing with a body of groundwater of great length i which n dhldx remains constant. to the water level is expressed by the equation m. We thus get: C = q + S m . . Even when there are no breaks in the annual replenishment of aquifers. there are nevertheless periodical variations in the rate of recharge.Aasumed movement.. z dh and C=q+-. which themselves to some extent exhibit a periodical pattern. and correspond almost exactly to the periods of rainfall. rainfall and evapotranspiration. However. i e . But this shift is subject always to the nature of the terrain: the deeper the zone of aeration.4 s P clt 20 . sin . el In actual practice the picture is not always so clear cut. and G. the recharge situation is easier. n To s u m up. Displacement of water surface at Larue Wl (Tixeront [29J) 1. c The relation of the outflow. the period of no recharge m a y be very long owing to the high field moisture deficiency.Tison [58. with evapotranspiration only the most minor factor. being the effective porosity. 57 respectively]. 1946 1947 ~ 1948 1949 195@ 1951 1952 1953 1954 Years. half the amplitude of an oscillation of period to. . there is a progressive shift from conditions of almost continuous replenishment in rainy zones to conditions first of periodical and finally of completely irregular recharge in arid regions.
In the special case of oscillations. sin 3 can be obtained by offsetting C sin . Gosgeolizdat.:_ ) q+-- sin. this term disappears for all practical n purposes. C . + qm sin --. A. G. Mdoscow. 21 . the interval between an n n oscillation i recharge and the corresponding oscillation i the water-table is about three months. If a time sufficiently long after the draw-down is taken.A.Kernenski. + q . and damping factor). it represents the rate of exhaustion of the ground reservoir mentioned earlier. T h e h s t term.N. Plotnikov. 1. . N. As it denotes an exponential decrease i the discharge and a n exponential lowering of the water-table. integrated. In papers by N. 2.~ c . q m sin (y-. T h e second term. the practical purpose of hydrogeology is to as~eaa the total available water resources i a region and determine h o w they can be deven loped. q 7 ( . t .+ ( q o . G. G R O U N D W A T E R RESOURCES As has already been pointed out. by reducing the ordinates i the ratio a (the n is mainly significant w h e n a water- 3. ) is the time-lag. W e have thus: to being here the time of commencement. However. 2?a tD b y a time value T (the time-lag). T h e thud term.Bogomolov. q m th0 demi-amplitude of the discharge. It w l be il noted that equation 4 comprises three terms: represents the m e a n flow.') T + q. 1946. S the extent of the groundwater formation. t0 = -arctg 2xs 2x tOP T h e usual value of 7 for very lengthy bodies of groundwater is shown to equal one quarter of the period.'Classification of Groundwater Resources for Total Supply and Methods of Calculation' in: Siline-Bektchourine.Formation and replenishment of groundwater Equations 1 and 2 give us: r8sdntBd q+.2=cm+ which gives us. as far as groundwater resources are concerned discrimination must be exercised as they are not identical i type or origin and cannot all be treated i the n n same way. qo is instantaneous initial input. p = 3 is rndh the angular coefficient of the variation of discharge with the height of the water-table and the effective porosity of the aquifer. po -C.M. table has been lowered appreciably below its natural equilibrium stage.Special Geology. Plotnikovl and Bogomolov and Plotnikov  groundwater 1. 2 = C. to 7 (2r ' .
By this term Plotnikov means all those quantities of water accumulating i the water-bearing horizon during recharge periods. by determining either the coefficient of permeability by Thiem’s method (or preferably Theis’s method) and the hydraulic gradient. i n n spring after the melting of the snows. 1000 in which S is the regional draw-down i metres at the central point of the regional devclopn ment. H e considers that i the majority of cases drops ill n artesian pressure are the result of water extraction from a series of regional boringshence regional water extraction and regional cones of depression or draw-downs. Secular reserves. is the volume of the thickness of earth between the highest and lowest levels of the water-table and p the effective porosity. Retarded discharge resources. By Darcy’s law from the movement of the water i the actual reservoir by detern mining either the gradient and the Darcy coefficient or the field velocity sub-surface water and the porosity. Natural yield is the spontaneous discharge of a groundwater reservoir in the untapped state. of the total amount of water in the horizon. According to Plotnikov the greatest draw-down takes place in the central area of an artesian region of water extraction and m a y be determined by the equation S=- Q . F r o m borings and wells. when Q1 = Q6 -Qn For confined water. Usable resources. Taking p as the free porosity and V as the volume of a confined aquifer or the volume of the saturated section of a surface aquifer the long-term reserve is represented by Q = pV. To calculate the usable resources QI the natural yield Qo above the extraction perimeter is determined and also the plan Qn of the natural yield passing below the extraction perimeter. These are the quantities of water obtainable for supply purposes from water-bearing horizons by extraction installations. secular reserves and usable resources. The depth and shape of a regional cone of depression are determined not only by the amount of water extracted but also by the surfaces of the zones where the borings are made. a term introduced by Plotnikov. 22 . These consist of the amount of water in the aquifer below the zone of oscillation of the water-table or. There are two types of practical procedure for arriving at the discharge: 1. the retarded discharge resources are given by the equation Q = PWD . the Russians use the method of ‘regional cones of depression’.. e. They are the amount of water which could be obtained by draining the aquifer dry. 2. in the case of confined aquifers.Arid zone hydrology supplies are classified under four heads: natural yield resources. The retarded discharge resources are held i the zone of natural oscillation of the phreatic n surface. or w h e n there are heavy falls of rain. retarded discharge resources.g. If W. or the unit discharge of the aquifer by calculation of the radius of influence.
metres per day of water extracted over the whole region. Run-off Y. T h e best method is to take the stream hydrographs and effect a break-down to determine what proportion of the stream discharge is supplied by underground run-off. T h e methods of hydrogeological prospection and localized testing used for calculating the natural yield of restricted areas are not readily applicable i determining the natun ral yield of an extensive territory. the most important is the natural yield. they clearly do not obviate the necessity of detailed hydrogeological prospection and experiment.Formatwn and replenishment of groundwater reserves Q is the regional discharge of artesian water in cubic metres per day. . Evaporation Z .000 cubic . Such m a p s would comprise not three isopleths (as on modern maps) but five: Precipitations X . for which they are no sort of substitute when it is a matter of resolving problem8 of local water supplies. Obviously the special structural and hydrogeological features should also be taken into account as pointers. i e the lowering of the water level per 1. In a permanent cycle of groundwater movement and replenishment. - 23 .. Kudelin n [19. the latter representing the groundwater resources of the basin. only this element should be taken into account i reckoning the usable resources. With these methods m a p s can be plotted of the long-term water balance for extensive regions. . and U is the specific regional depression. While these methods give a regional estimate of water resources not only for free but also for artesian formations. . Working from the earlier equation this gives us: Q=1000 U s ASSESSMENT OF N A T U R A L W A T E R RESOURCES OF Y E R Y LARGE AREAS Of all the types of water resources enumerated. This procedure has given satisfactory results in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Thereafter the groundwater balance equations dealt with above are applied. . 211 has laid d o w n some principles for its calculation on a regional basis. Infiltration to deep-lying aquifers + W . .20. Artesian run-off (recharge to streams) in a river basin W.
earth tides n or any other cause. as m u c h so as the permeability or transmissibility of the aquifer.such as those which affected the Quaternary formations.C H A P T E R I1 Groundwater prospecting and development i arid zones n Finding and using groundwater reservoirs which discharge through springs presents no difficulty from the point of view of hydrodynamics and the process of harnessing these consists simply in improving the points of egress of the water. Other short-term disturbances due to variations i atmospheric pressure. with no effect on the question of recharge. the character of each well’s cone of depression. e g . and both factorsgradient and transmissibility/permeability-are given equal weight in Darcy’s formula. namely the disturbance of the groundwater regimen by: (a) oscillations arising from the seasonal variations in recharge. wl be disregarded. (c) oscillations of duration measurable on the geological time-scale. (b) the distance of w l s from the recharge zone. In that case consideration must be given to all the essential factors affecting the degree of disorganization of the reservoir’s regimen and arising from water extraction at points which are not after all points of natural discharge. It wl emerge from what follows that the key factors determining the effect of well il extraction are: (a) the characteristics of the replenishment supplies. two to three metres per year i the . The position is not the same w h e n subsurface water is extracted by wells or borings. T i m a y often hs be difficult technically but it rarely gives rise to any dislocation of the general hydraulic syatem within the reservoir. they are i most casea n lower still and by a considerable amount. The velocities most usually recorded are from a few dozen to a f w hundred metree e per year in phreatic formations. in some artesian reservoirs. it can be taken that groundwater (a) 24 . A knowledge of all these factors is of primary importance for interpreting water-table levels noted after the start of extraction from wells or borings and for estimating future developments. Hence the gradient of the piezometric surface is of considerable importance. A n aquifer i which there is no movement can be dismissed from consideration since absence of n movement means that there is no recharge and ultimately exploiting this water would simply amount to using u p a non-replaceable reserve. (c) the distance of wells from the natural discharge el zone . il Subject to the significant fluctuations mentioned. (b) oscillations of long duration due to the alternation of series of dry and w e t years.. n Palaeocene sands of the Aquitaine basin and half a metre per year in the so-called Albian horizon in the Sahara. A further consideration also needs to be allowed for. Only that groundwater which is in motion is of practical importance.
25 . a cone of depression is created which spreads-be it remembered-to the outer l m t of the iis aquifer. Theis’s equation. to its rate of descent through the soil after inatration and to the extent of the soil moisture deficiency caused by evapotranspiration. 2. or i replenishment n n by recharge or evapotranspiration. n to form boggy patches at intake areas and resurgent overflow springs elsewhere. However low the latter’s permeability. Any natural increase i discharge could only come about through the loss of head i the aquifer tapped n n causing an inflow from another aquifer or seepage through the confining strata. It occurs if the aquifer tapped has others alongside. T w o types of replenishment situation require to be contemplated: 1. T h e actual replenishment here is a function of the amount of rainfall reaching the soil or seepage from streams. above or below it and in contact with it over a certain area. there is a lapse of time before the limits are reached. i e . However. it cannot be left out of consideration. In this case a hydrodynamic eqdibrium is created by the gradient of the piezometric surface decreasing so that the discharge equals the recharge. In the normal w a y insufficient allowance is m a d e for the third form of recharge. EFFECTS OF WATEX EXTRACTION BY The WELLS AND BORINGS W h e n water is p u m p e d from a well or discharges from an artesian boring. the amount of additional water thus reaching the tapped reservoir m a y be a far from negligible fraction of its replenishment supplies since the yield per unit area must be multiplied by the total surface of the confining bed. wl interfere with the natural cycle of movement il i the aquifer. the loss of head causes water to sweat through the positive or negative confining bed. Any alteration i groundwater discharge by well extraction. T h e intensity of the annual or seasonal phenomena effecting the recharge is such that the quantities of water available i a given period exceed what the aquifer n can absorb i that period: having filled up completely. they discharge as m u c h water n as they receive. or water of infiltration arriving indirectly from another aquifer. THE SITUATION IN THE INTAKE AREA regular replenishment m a y derive from: rainfall. influent streamwater. the extraction of groundwater can be increased beyond the amount of the natural . n il Extra withdrawals of groundwater from ‘improved’ springs or wells wl either reduce the flow from the other points of natural discharge or wl necessitate an increase il i the supplies to the aquifer. In this case it is impossible to raise discharge above its original figure unless the amounts of water reaching the intake area can be increased.. E v e n when a n subjacent or supejacent aquifer is separated from that being tapped by an impermeable stratum. Any decrease or increase i inflow wl produce a corn n il responding decrease or increase in the discharge at the natural outlets. particularly when extraction lowers the piezometric surface of the groundwater. However. i. w h e n the loss of head i it reacts on these and causes t h e m to discharge water into it.Groundauater prospecting and development reservoirs are more or less i dynamic equilibrium. it accordingly overflows. terminal discharge. It is thus possible to raise the discharge of the aquifer by tapping it lower down. T h e intensity of the seasonal or annual replenishment phenomena is such that quantities are below what the aquifer can absorb.c.
and T the coefficient of transmissibility i cubic metres per second per metre. the spread of the cone for time elapsed as shown in the ‘free groundwater’ column below. It is extremely important to bear in mind that. andstorage coefficient 0. In a n unconfined aquifer of transmissibility T 1. until the limits of the aqui€er are reached. 1 day 10 daya 100 rluys 1 000 days Free groundwater Confined horizon 0. If the rate of pumping does not exceed the rate of recharge or the rate of f o of lw water out of the aqui€er. usuallycorresponding. . n If the pumping rate is higher than this. and o n reaching the zone t of discharge. and very quickly attains the limits of the aquifer.25 x 10-3 m. at this point. i the neighbourhs n hood of 10-3. the cone wl become stable concurrently with the attainment il of the n e w water balance i the aquifer. its horizontal dimensions are independent of the yield extracted. the draw-down at any point is doubled.Arid wn hydrology oe with A the draw-down i metres at any point.11 318 34. 10-4 or 10-5. But there is n o corresponding increase i the cone’s diameter. Hence the cone extends very rapidly.that is to say. = Spread of the cone of depression in metres: 1 min. Only after this lapse of time can the groundwater achieve its n e w equilibrium. through the stoppage or decrease of flow from the natural outlets. no n e w water cycle equilibrium-i. enabling the n e w equilibrium to be reached comparatively early and a n e w circulation regime to take shape. T i means that the values of S are always extremely small. On the other hand. anything from 100 to 10. i a confined n horizon of transmissibility T = 1. It wl be helpful. S = n x 10-1.8 1558 110 4930 348 15580 1100 49300 Modifications i the cone of depression take place both w h e n i reaches the recharge n t zone.e. T h e n e w equilibrium only occurs w h e n the cone of depression reaches the zones of recharge and natural discharge. 26 .91 41 7. w h e n i is affected by the inflow of water at the point. In confined formations the coefficient of storage capacity no longer corresponds to the specific yield but to the aquifer’s compressibility and to the dilatation of the water. T h e speed of propagation of the cone is inversely proportionate to the coefficient of storage capacity. balance between inflow and outflow-becomes established for the groundwater outside the cone of depression. If the yield is doubled. to the specific yield. the piezometric surface sinks steadily lower and the wells or borings begin to draw on the accumulated reserves which are of only limited duration.31sec. S In free groundwater. A l that is actually happening is that withdrawals are being m a d e from the aquifer’s l water reserves.. Q the yield of the well i cubic metres n n n per occond. to give a n idea of the rates of propagation of cones il of depression. demonstrates that during the transitional period in which the cone i s i l s tl spreading outwards. gives a very slow rate of travel. broadly speaking.2.25 x m. while the cone of depression is still spreading. the volume of groundwater shrinks.000 times faster than with free groundwater. 1 hr. its spread being determined exclusively n by the properties of the aquifer and by the time factor. T h e spread of the cone is then very slow and t a long time is required for i to reach the edges of the aquifer. and storage Coefficient S = 1 x lo-‘ the rate of spread of the cone is m u c h higher.a/sec.
the withdrawals from the reserve supplies are spread over a long period without appreciably affecting the general groundwater regime.000m 3 of water . Once the new regimen has reached stability. no amount can be extracted from the formation in excess of its normal flow. With phreatic formations the amount of water lost to the reserves is consideribly greater as it equals the effective porosity multiplied by the volume of that part of the aquifer lying between the n e w and old piezometric surfaces. W e should therefore consider first the question of the preliminary withdrawals of water from permanent storage and then that of normal exploitation on a sustained yield basis. when water is extracted from underground reservoirs by wells or borings. the high speed of propagation of the depression cone means that only a short time is required to exhaust the reserve.000. which is in fact the normal flow of the reservoir. the ‘safe yield’. and transmissibility and width of flow cross-sectionof the aquifer which are more readily calculable. However. Tapping the ‘ Throughput’-i. ding these withdrawals over a year would give a yield of 2. which can never be determined direct with sufficient precision. However as the cone of depression only propagates very slowly.000 m 3 for a normal formation with a surface area of 1. SAFE YIELDS The question thus arises as to what quantities of subsurface water it is proper to extract and what is the m a x i m u m quantity.will m e a n a loss of 60. a pressure drop of 10 m.s of the water-bearing SUIil or face. As has been pointed out. the loss in permanent storage is represented by the initial drop in pressure plus the effect of compression of the aquifer through an increase i n the effective pressure of the overburden on the confining stratum corresponding to the internal pressure loss. from the permanent storage. accordingly the best method of estimating the flow is from the gradient of the piezometric surface. above which there would be a risk of draining the aquifer dry. On the other hand.700 m.e.2. Nevertheless the amount of water thus released is not as negligible as might be thought at first sight. the initial withdrawals amount to inroads on the accumulated reserves and only thereafter is a proportion of the normal flow through the aquifer captured.000. T h e storage coefficient based on effective porosity m a y easily reach 0. 27 . lowering the piezometric surface by no more than 3 m.of water wl give a volume of 10-3 m. In a confined formation. Supposing the storage coefficient to be 10-4. say 1. Withdrawals from Permanent Storage T h e position differs according as the formation is phreatic or confined.s 1 litre/m. T h e safe yield must therefore be determined.20 and even with a phreatic formation one tenth the size of the artesian formation instanced. T i aspect hs of the problem of groundwater exploitation cannot be too strongly stressed.2.000 km.Groundwater prospecting and development PERMISSIBLE EXTRACTION OF SUBSURFACE WATER. as rock is relatively incompressible. say 100 km. It is difficult to arrive at this from the area of the recharge surfaces.. Natural Yield-of Aquifers It follows from the foregoing that the stage at which the drawings are on the ‘throughput’ proper of the formation is reached early with artesian horizons but only very slowly (often m a n y years later) with phreatic water. the loss due to the second factor is minimal. Sprea. T h e fact of getting an initial bonus of extractible water must not be allowed to engender false ideas about the subsequent possibilities of the reservoir: the position is simply that a substantial non-replaceable reserve has been expended.a/day or 310 litreslsec.
the problem n . the aquder below the zone of extraction wl dry out. areas where the aquifer breaks the surface-when the depression spring flow and evapotranspiration losses are recovered. and areas where the aquifer rises near enough to the soil surface for there to be recoverable losses by evapotranspiration. In the case of a body of groundwater i which there is no movement. the safe yield must be recalculated on the n e w basis so that it is not exceeded. (b) of the lowering of the piezometric surface eliminating the losses by evapotranspiration which occurred w h e n the original water-table was near enough to the soil surface for water to be extracted i subn stantial quantities by plant roots. however. Thus. Next. it might seem that if groundwater extraction by wells or borings equals the input from the recharge area. but subject to that there is everything to be said for dispersing the extraction points so as to avoid concentrating draw-down too exclusively i a single area: it needs to be n spread as widely as possible. Relaionship between Discharge through o Aquifers f Wls el and Borings and the Natural Discharge O n e of the most important tasks of hydrogeology is to ascertain the relationship borne by discharge through wells and borings to the spontaneous discharge of waterbearing horizons. the extraction points should be aligned transversely over a cross-section of the formation in preference to positioning along the axis of water movement. aa w e have seen. there are two types of normal flow to be taken into consideration: 1. Again. The whole breadth of the aquifer must be drawn on. Thus it is sometimes advantageous to plan for the extraction of more water from an than its original discharge. It is advisable to h d il out the amount of water a horizon w l yield and the m a x i m u m extraction which can i l be effected without the risk of draining the aquifer dry. Arising. seer Locaion o Wls f el The remaining question for consideration is that of the best arrangements for exploiting the underground reservoir. There is more to the latters’ exploitation than sinking a well or borehole haphazard and extracting whatever water it wl yield. out of this. before any artificial abstraction of water.Arid wne hydrology However. the extraction areas should preferably be in or near the places where the aquifer outcrops or comes near to the surface. (c) of the increased pressure difference between the exploited horizon and its neighbours created by the reduction of pressure in the former causing an inflow of water from those connected with it and i addition n lateral seepage from parallel beds and seepage through upper or lower confining strata. there are ways of acting on the economy of an underground reservoir to get the m a x i m u m yield from it. T h e original discharge. but observation il has shown that discharge through wells does not stop discharge from the natural outlets. Examples are: recharge areas with resurgent overflow -when extraction enables the water wasted i this w a y and by evapotranspiration n n to be retained i the aquifer. which m a y be greater than the original discharge as a result: (a) of increased infiltration in the recharge area of water-if any-formerly lost by overflow run-offin that area. 2. so as to recover the quantities which might otherwise be lost by resurgent overflow and by evaporation and to draw on neighbouring horizons for extra water. The ‘post-tapping’discharge. the first factor to be taken into consideration is the rate of pumping. Obviously. incidentally. Clearly.
in movement) the surface slopes. or zone. prudence suggests not depleting an asset which should be kept for an emergency.n. or zone. is given by the equation The yield of an ordinary w l is given by the equation el RIR . the well’s ‘extraction frontage’.e. figure-and a specific yield of 0. If the total breadth L of the aquifer is known. It is always worth while making a few very simple calculations. with a surface area of 10 km. is created around the well or boring. for 63 years. a cone. = H 2 ~ -ha 2i H With this last equation it is possible. h =1 29 . there is actual lowering of the water-table. Whereas any body of subsurface water in which there is no movementnecessarily has a horizontal piezometric surface. It m a y be remarked that the amount is often enormous and m u c h larger than the first rough initial estimate suggests.Groundwater prospecting and development is simple: w e are then dealing merely with an underground reservoir without i f o . an aquifer 10 m.2. in either case. nlw T h e m a x i m u m quantity of water withdrawable wl be the volume of gravitational il water calculated from the measured dimensions of the aquifer. whereas i confined water only the piezometric surface is lowered.000 m 3 of water or 10 litres/sec. would give a total of 20. Finally the t e r m ‘imaginary’ radius is here used to signify a radius reproducing the hydraulics of the radius of influence. For instance. the cone. of attraction is distinguishable com) prising all that part of the aquifer in which the percolations are diverted towards the boring or w l .a-which is not averyhigh . el T i being so. a cone.thick. However. of depression. i those discharging and receiving recharge n (i.. when P can be worked with equation 3 and K or T with equation 1. it follows that the total discharge of the formation i given by the equation s Q In the case of a confined a+er q and we thus get = TiL the yield of a boring ie given by the equation A = 2xKH InRf/r RrlnR. to determine the imaginary radius of the well. the drawings should be m a d e not on the reserves but on the natural yield. which is given by the rate of flow of the aquifer. When pumping is carried on. With phreatic groundwater. i which the percolations are deflected by the suction of the well or boring but are not captured by it: this wl be known as the cone or zone of influence il or reaction. of attraction will have an attraction radius and an hs attraction or intake periphery. If i is the ’ gradient of the piezometric surface. F.000. el T h e part of the subsurface percolations extracted by a given w l  or boring is that passing through a cross-sectional area of the aquifer of breadth E. 2. or more accurately a zone. n However (fig. KT the transmissibility of the aquifer and q the yield of the well. without knowing the permeability. Outside the zone of attraction is another zone of n the formation.
30 . \ I FIG.Arid zone hydrology \ Cross -sectionoI area / \ . Piezometric surface of an unconfined aquifer around a well or a forage. equipotential 2 lines and flow lines..
The extraction figures thus calculated are equivalent to the natural discharge. Clearly therefore it w l el i l be advantageous. between the pumped aquifer and adjacent formations. The writer  has himself used this method to investigate the relationship of the yield of borings to recharge for the subsurface water i the Palaeocene sands of the n Aquitaine basin. recharge and economic yield remains a difficult task. with a further supplement i the shape of seepage through the confining strata from subjacent or superjacent n water-bearing horizons. When water is pumped from an underground storage system. which very frequently fits the case i practice. as already mentioned.resulting in its receiving additional supplies by discharge from these. This represents a positive gain i resources.applicable to all regions. when balance sheets are to be drawn u p for groundwater development. n It is given i a very thought-provoking article by Loehnberg on the conditions n governing the utilization of water supplies in a c o m m o n type of semi-arid region.Groundwater prospecting and development It is possible i the same manner to determine the imaginary radius R . Accordingly. The extraction frontage of each w l or boring is above it. to position the borings i such a w a y that n their extraction frontages run end to end over the whole width of the extraction zone and do not overlap. the natural surplus of the formation. Each region presents an individual problem and the procedure appropriate depends not only on the geographical. a l the considerations set out above must be taken into account. marls and shales. geological and hydrological conditions but also on the object in view. However. However it is worth quoting a hypothetical example. the latter is reduced over an increasingly extensive area radiating from the boring. to adjust the extractions from wells and borings to the natural discharge of aquifers. i. T h e plain itself is argillaceous. H takes an imaginary region of plain country bordered by mountains with foothills e along the base of the chain. striking the correct balance between natural. plus artificial supplementary.e. e T h e above method makes it possible. consisting of detrital soil. in m a n y instances water wl be recovered which normally escapes through the springs when aquifers il emerge above the soil surface. Next the n il lowering of the piezometric level in the recharge zone wl stop resurgent overflow il and concurrently wl assist infiltration by partly preventing the evapotranspiration of the recovered supplies which would have run to waste. underlain by clays. with a comparatively pronounced plainwards dip. MODEL WATER ARID REGION SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE APPRECIATION FOR AN There is no universal blue-print.. A l these items added together give us what might be called an artificial supplel mentary recharge by drainage. for the preparation of regional water inventories and the investigation of availabilities and drainage requirements. Finally. It wl be clear l il that preparing the inventory is not as simple a matter as it might have been thought at hst. In actual practice it is possible in very m a n y cases to extract larger quantities without exhausting the aquifer. T i creates a difference of head. the mountains being of moderately permeable rock. the permeability K or the transmissibility T and from them the total discharge of the formation. as w have seen. supplied by yearly recharge. frontage P. the extraction n . and the foothills are formed 31 . or increases any existing difference. and eventually involving more or less the whole area of the groundwater surface if the extractions hs approximate to the natural discharge.
they do afford extremely useful and valuable pointers on h o w to prospect for and develop groundwater i semi-arid regions. Loehnberg’s stipulated conditions are not found i their entirety in all semi-arid areas. there m a y be no folding n i the mountain strata. Lastly. (c) springs in the foreland and the plain emerging from il a fan or. of clay and marl composition. lw iln The springs fall into three groups: (a) mountain springs. A mountain chain (with folding strata) m a y (and indeed very frequently does) have foothills below it in which the stratification is horizontal and runs on well into the plain. but are liable to persist on heavy soils. n (c)i very slow circulationi the argdlaceoussediments of the low-lyingpart of the plain. increases in yield of small and large springs). The run-off is divisible into three categories according to volume and duration: (a) short and sudden floods directly caused by concentrated heavy rainfall.A d w n e hydrology from coarse debris which builds the fans protruding from the massif. (b) run-off following prolonged precipitation.in the plains and 600 mm. flooding and s w a m p conditions developing particularly i the lower n levels. But this does not greatly modify the hydrogeological condin tions. which drastically alters Loehnberg’s premises. (b) i the valley fills and outwash fans. advantage must be taken of all water resources and the m a x i m u m acreage of suitable land must be brought under cultivation. Plains of this type are extremely frequent i n arid areas. (c) runoff traceable to prolonged rainfall but having its immediate origin i the retarded n f o from the major springs after the f l i g up of the principal aqufer. the substratum of the alluvial formations m a y include more or less permeable water-bearing horizons getting their replenishment from the uplands and containing artesian water often at high pressure. On the edge of the argdlaceous formations large patches of marsh occur i conjuncn tion with depression springs. n n Marshy areas in the mountains are confined to the neighbourhood of seeps and springs. (b) foothill springs emerging at the contact between h l and valley formations. due to favourable local tectonic and lithological conditions. In the lowest part of the plain. Quite obviously. Nevertheless. Hence: (a) a l possible water supplies should be impounded so that m a x i m u m quantities l 32 . as also i the higher-lying part of the plain as a result of the loose texture n of the subsoil. The assumed rainfall is about 300 mm. For instance. the plain itself m a y consist not of relatively argillaceous but of extremely permeable sandy and other sediments of great thickness. The types of groundwater which m a y be expected are: (a) in the moderately permeable formations of the mountain area. along a terrace near the contact of debris and n the less permeable valley N. n C i i a Factors rtcl For optimum area development. resulting from direct rainfall as wl as from shortel term subsoil storage (seepage. Oversaturated patches dry out during the rainless s u m m e r months. It is compressed into a period of 3 to 5 months and the result will be periodic strong surface run-off. Thus i a plain of this type attention wl have n il to be directed to the possibilities as regards artesian as w l as phreatic subsurface el water. i Loehnberg’s arguments are not directly applicable to all arid counf tries. Most important of all. as has been said already. i the lower part of the plain. T h e boundary line between mountains and plain m a y be a simple or compound fault or just a stratigraphical unconformity.in the mountains. the marshes are extensive and the conditions persist w t only minor variations ih of intensity on a permanent footing.
water extraction from wells located at different elevations on . 6 T h e drainage canals initially dug to shallow or m e d i u m depths wl become in. but later on the consideration of making the most of the floodwater will require a reduction of gradients and lengthening of the distance travelled by the water to encourage intiltrations for the replenishment of the groundwater. Wells which were oriil ginally satisfactmy w l in m a n y cases no longer be so and a further difficulty wl be that the ratio of the optimum m e a n yield at the end of the rainy aeason il tothat at the end of the dry season can only be established after prolonged experience. for harnessing springs and handling their water at the lower end of a mountain valley m a y prove redundant as a result of the subsequent or concurrent harf nessing of springs higher u p the valley. It must first be definitely accepted that water supply takes precedence over drainage. However the circumstances of prospecting and f n development m a y be opposite: 1. but several irreconcilables still remain: (a) it would be desirable to take advantage of the winter surpluses of s d c e run-offand groundwater. water requirements for irrigation are generally in excess of the resources readily accessible in summer. 3. (b) all marshy conditions shodd be avoided. 2. the plain is liable to bring about a drop in the piezometric surface necessitating costly alterations to the pumping equipment. Work. 33 . by rainfall or by the rise o the water-table i winter. f Obviously some of these complications can be planned for. 3 semi-arid conditions. In semi-arid areas. il adequate when the water-table sinks as a result o continued extraczion. The only satisn factory solution i either case would be to create stocks of water i undexground n n reservoirs. The reasons are the following: 1. conduits and reservoirs. Flood control considerations suggest the deepening and straightening of the beds of wadis. it w o d d seem necessary to draw off water from such areas throughout year and more especially i winter. particularly i the lower-valley springs are mere resurgences of those ‘up-stream’. whether caused by flow from terminal springs or depression springs w h e n the piezometric surface cuts the soil surface. W o r k on and i connexion w t springs i the plain on the upstream edge of the n ih n thick argillaceous fill is wasted i part w h e n the flow from the springs is cut o f n f or reduced by wells tapping the aquifer above or below them. by overland flow. Under 2. the greater part of it lies fallow during almost the whole of the dry season whereas irrigation increases the value of a given parcel several times. If the area is dependent on rainfall alone. (b) to n n eliminate waterlogging on heavy soils equally saturated i winter and summer. T h e relative quantities of fossil and cyclic ground water cannot always be determined before the start of regular extraction from artesian or driven wells. 4 As with springs. but the very high rate of evaporation in s u m m e r is a stmng argument against impounding the surpluses i costly open reservoirs. Water supply and drainage. irrigation is the prime factor i any extension of agrin culture. Priorities T h e foregoing leads on to the relative priorities to be accorded to the considerations operative in prospection and development.Groundwater prospecting and development m a y be conserved for use during the dry season. 5. but this would amount to wasting water. It is therefore extremely difficult i the developmental phase to work out the eafe n yields and n e w stable levels of the underground reservoirs.
34 . n However. perhaps. Development of groundwater concentrations and springs. such of it n n as is not discharged from springs or lost from paludal seeps reaches the submontane reservoir in due course. especially if consumption continues during the wet season. A lower elevationt the groundwater cannot be harnessed as the high clay content and low permeas b l t of the formations lower down the plain make it impossible to extract the iiy water i them. In view of the m a n y uncertainties involved and of the fact that it is to some extent a function of normal spring discharge and underground run-off. In contrast to Loehnberg’s imaginary n situation. this can only be confirmed by a thorough hydrogeological survey. In addition water-tablesand piezometric surfaceslie at great depths. The preferred area for wells and f hydraulic works drawing on subsurface water should be the submontane tract. But. the principle of priority for direct withdrawals from the underground reservoir over the harnessing of springs should not be followed blindly: allowance must be made for the disparate hydrogeological conditions encountered respectively i the mountains. l to the extent that they reduce the amount of water moving down to the heavy soil areas. i the hills. The next point to be laid down i that direct exploitation of groundwater reservoirs should be given priority over the s harnessing of springs. like drainage. in addition to what Loehnberg tells us w e need to consider the case of a plain made up of ultra-permeableformations. flood control-in so far as i involves engineering works-should. n n Mountain or hl areas contain several aquifers and because of the great differences il i altitude between the recharge areas and evacuation points there i often a high n s pressure gradient. Hence the harnessing of the reservoirs by wells or borings can proceed without il regard to the question of capturing springs: either there wl be no springs or they wl be unconnected with groundwater being tapped. and while there is groundwater higher up.be relegated to a later t phase. It constitutes the main groundwater reservoir of the region. so that it is difficult to draw on the supplies otherwise than by harnessing springsresurgent. the piezometric surface l e deep down and rises increasingly near the soil is surface ‘downstream’. However. rlig routed thence to the consuming areas. lowers the water-table. il n s Another possibility to be borne i mind i that a plain will have deep-lyingwater horizons the tapping of which m a y have no effect on the water situation higher up. Thus increased exploitation of springs and groundwater i i itself a first step i s n n flood control and the rehabilitation of marshes. allows additional quantities to infiltrate and effects a corresponding reduction in the volume of flood water. for the following reasons: 1. In this instance there are no longer overflow springs i the higher-lying part of the plain. the latter marking the end of the aquifer and receiving some of the water. in the plain and i the intermediate zones. Springs are either the normal discharge from the aquifer or il overflows from i and optimum extraction of water by wells wl cause a temporary t or permanent drop in the water-tableor piezometric surface which will have the effect of reducing and even i certain extreme cases cutting off the flow from the springs.Arid zone hydrology 3 A l withdrawals of water for domestic use or agriculture are tantamount to drainage . 2 D i l n and pumping cost less in the submontane tract and the water is easily . from higher areas. Utilization o mountain and submontane groundwater. overflow or discharge. The utilization (and storage) of spring water and of groundwaterfor irrigation.
and designed capacities harder to calculate and achieve though ever greater progress is being made.Groundwater prospecting and development 3. T h e winter run-off and. WATER STORAGE In rainy seasons there is a surplus of water which it is quite obviously advantageous to conserve until the dry period during which needs are greatest. particularly if downstream the water-table rises too near the soil and tends to form marshes. it is often a sound policy. etc. The correct sequence for developing the individual springs and water horizons in the mountains i deters mined by h o w they are connected a m o n g themselves. Since these regions receive part at least of their water from the upstream aquifers i the hills. Nevertheless they have certain obvious disadvantages: planning and construction are more difficult than with a n open-air d a m .8 n to 3 m. over free water surfaces). The point at which work should be begun on the mountain groundwater will depend entirely on the degree of connexion between these hydrogeological systems and those in the foothills. military operations. Underground reservoirs. recovery of the water i an underground reservoir involves an expenn diture of power whereas i an open-air d a m the water runs off b y gravity. n 35 . are indisputably far superior to the surface type. it pays to build up groundwater reserves upstream rather than downstream. Moreover. it m a y be wondered whether it is not worth making further w l s and n el n boreholes there and i fact. in most cases they are completely independent. which are often heavy i dry areas (from 0. They avoid losses by evaporation. Secondly. we also have to reckon with the possibility of the plain being permeable il and then the best place to work the groundwater wl not be the submontane tract but the lower-lying areas where the water is nearer the surface and the soils are more suitable for irrigation. water loss is reduced correspondingly and the quantity saved i available s for use during dry periods. They are usually less costly and are less vulnerable to the effects of earthquakes. The abstraction of water i the submontane tract directly reduces the water reachn ing the saturated areas i the plain and i more effective for the purpose than n s similar operations in the hill country. However. Suitable sites for constructing t h e m are more numerous and often more extensive than those for surface dams. Lowering the water-table assists increased groundwater storage during the rainy season by preventing run-offfrom overflow in the recharge area or from resurgent springs. incidentally. particularly in arid or semi-arid regions.
n i accordingly outlined below.Weneel. no. w e know. L K.S. condihs tionally. for calculating permeability simply from the observed water level decIine in the boring. T h e lowering A is observed at distance R (metres) from the w l or boring. Permeability. f pages 519-24. 33. vol. This time is measured from the beginning of steady yield of pumping. can be determined in the laboratory by granulometric methods or better still b y permeameter readings. However. on ignoring the points i the well’s immediate neighbourhood. THEIS’S FORMULA^ T h e non-equilibrium formula gives the steady yield i cubic metres per second of a n wl or boring as a function of the transmissibility T (in cubic metres per second) and el of the lowering A (inmetres) of the piezometric level i the aquifer at the time t (sen conds). T h e Dupuit-Thiem method needs no introduction and the writer has himseu suggested a method. - . C. T i method. n 1938. V. Theis. Hence the non-equilibrium method.C H A P T E R I 1 1 Calculation of permeability and transmissibility from pumping tests by non-equilibriumformulae The calculation o groundwater discharge i one of the essential tasks of hyhogeology f s i arid regions but is impossible to execute unless the permeability. which allow for the amount of water seeping through the positive confinmg bed. 1935. of the aquifers has previousIy been ascertained. W l ?Supply f ae Paper 857. followed by an account of the methods of Bodton and s Eantush.in the latter case. especially with unconfined groundwater. or preferabk the n transmissibility. which is applicabIe both to confined and phreatic horizons. It wl be recalled that the transmissibility T is the product of the coeffiil cient of permeability K in cubic metres per second multiplied b y E. ‘The Signification and Nature of the Cone of Depression i Groundwater Bodies’. pages 889-900. 8. Melhoda o Determining Permnbility of Water-bearing Mnlerinls. the corresponding yie€d and the hydraulic gradient. initiated by Theis. U. discussed on a later page. Transactions o rhe American Geophysicnl Union. E c o m m i c Geology. to measure the permeability of a whole horizon and not simply of samples there is no substitute for pumping tests or wells or borings. ‘The Relation between the Lowering of the Piezometric Surface and the Rate and Duration of Discharge of a Well using Groundwater Storage’. 1942. The yield q el is steady. is far preferable though unfortunateIy still unknown in m a n y parts of the world.Geological Survey. a prerepuisite in either case i that a n e w #post-pumping’ s equilibrium state has been reached by the hydraulic system and this is a very slow business. the thickness of 1. Nevertheless. 46th Annual Meeting.
In most cases. T h e former gives a more general value of T and S.0797 a T w4 (3) (. or by noting the d r a w d o w n A at the same time for each of an array of piezometric tubes at a distance R from the pumping w l . S (coefficient of storage) is calculated by introducing the U and T values into equation 5. the volume of water yielded by gravity drainage from the .004 R Z 0) The values of W(u) U varies. Hence. n T i method can be used both for artesian formations and for free water-tables hs el provided the observations are not m a d e too near the w l where the vertical component i the water movement is particularly important. Transmissibility m a y be determined in either of two rm ways: either by observing the variations of the draw-down. saturated rock.0. Log A is then plotted for each el w l as a function of log R*/t. The basic equation is: i U = -R*S 4t T i which S is the storage coefficient.it is equal to the specific yield. T h e resultant values of A and W(u) are then inserted i equation 4. if i be the gradient of the piezometric surface. ie. An arbitrary value of A is selected on the curve on the transparent paper and the W(u) and U co-ordinates corresponding to this position of A are noted from the matching curve on the undersheet. after Theis. For phreatic groundwater S. After this.2! 3. 37 . ie. there being only one possible position. as a function of the time i a single piezometric tube and plotting the curve of log A for the w l for values n el of log lit. S is the volume of water n released from a vertical column of water-bearingmaterial of height equal to the thickness E of the aquifer with a base 1-metre square for a reduction of pressurecorresponding to a 1-metre loss of head.3! 44 . T = K x e. can be found from tables (Wenzel. it is preferable to use the log A-log RZ/t equation based on the reading of a number of piezometers at the same m o m e n t rather than the log &log l/t equation reflecting the readings of a single piezometer at successive points i time.Calculation of permeability and transmissibility the aqui€er. In a confined aquifer. This is a factor which Theis's equan tion does not allow for. S is expressed as a decimal fraction. . T h e log A-log R / (or log Ailog l/t) graph is then superimposed on the at logW(u)-lcg U graph.! U3 4rI and hence A=. The coefficient S is of the order of 10-4 to 10-6. and each time the result is a curve which is simply a section of the log W(u) curve for values of log U. el In either case the graph is plotted on transparent paper scaled identically with that used for the log W(u)-log U graph. 4) Ut T s = 0. A.577216 -In U + U --+ --2. the discharge Q per metre of frontage = T .to give T n ... T i volume of water is released as a result of the pressure of the overlying strata hs and the expansion of the water due to the lowering of pressure within the aquifer. 1942) as or f o a log-log graph (Theis). We then have: JA W(u) U2 U4 = -0.
1 0. (d) T is constant at all places and at all times.. (c) the discharging well penetrates the full thickness of the aquifer. ie Errors mainly derive. 0. ie.8 0.02 I 0.5 04 .OBO. as is also the case i the aquifer is only of relatively great.3 0.1 01 . from the appreciable t m taken for the water to leave the aquifer and are proportionate to the reluctance of the waterbearing material to release its water. of infinite areal extent. . Theis curve. (b) it is 38 . cone of depression reaches the lateral boundaries of the aquifer. 0.07 O.1 I. but not infinite.03 0.Arid zone hydrology I1 5 I ~ 0. f areal extent. In any case.! 1 3 11 .3. Thus Theis’s formula presupposes that: (a) the aquifer is homogeneous and isotropic. E 0. (e) the radius of the well is extremely small.b 0.V I U No method is of unlimited applicability and it is necessary to bear constantly i n mind the assumptions on which any method was designed. to the smallness of the pores.0s 0. (f) there is instantaneous evacuation of the water from the aquifer i the part where the draw-down occurs.1 U 0.OPO.3 0.! I 1 3.0003- I I.b I 0. with free water-tables. n T h e errors arising where assumptions (c).8 07 . the formula remains accurate throughout that part of the pumping time before the.04 0.06 FIG.(e)are not confirmed are normally insignificant. 1 0. E 1 0.5 0.9 0.
(fig.0. 'Flow of Groundwater' i Rouse H u n ~ e rEngineering Hydrarrlics. 5) is then plotted and T can be calculated from the rectilinear asymptotic part of the graph.d o w n A/q i a number of wells is observed simultaneously at successive n times t The wells are located at varying distances from the pumping w l . no. A P P R 0x1 A T E C A L c U L A T I o N M E T H O D ] M After pumping has been continued for a sufficient time.376 d(A /Q) d log R A/q is then plotted as function of log R. John Wiley and Sons. el 3. n pages 321-86. de Gelis [go]. so that n R A is observed in a single piezometric tube at successive points is fixed.303q 4xT I ! thereupon A/q as a function of log t (fig. any one of several procedures can be adopted: T h e draw-down A can be observed. E.Jacob. i several piezon metric tubes. ' Generalized Graphical Method for Evaluating Formation Constants and Summarizing WellA field History'. This graph can be used direct on the discharge wl of radius of influence r. Then t is fixed and equation 6 can be written: dA d(1ogR) whence -=- 2. 1950. M. 4) and T is got from this. E. Transaddiona o the American Geophysical Union. the alternate series i equan tions l and 2 becomes negligible in the relation to the logarithm and the constantterm.303q 2xT TI. vol. 39 . C. D r a w . New York. T i simplifies the equation and a 'short-cut7 method becomes usable after a suffihs cient period-not less than 48 hours-of pumping at a constant rate. f . Equation 6 then gives us: dA -=d(1ogt) 2. pages 526-34.25Tt (6) (7) Thereafter. equations 1 and 2 can be rewritten: 2. T h e draw-down i time. 4 1946. At that point. G.Calculation o permeability and transmissibility f Theis and B r o w n [lo21 have designed a slide-rule and R e m s o n and V a n Hylckama  have worked out nomographs for easy working of the calculations involved i Theis's n method without recourse to graphs. 11. We . at the same point of time. el k n o w that: 1. E. Jacob.Coolwr. 27.
FIG. A/q-log .curve.6. AJq-log R curve. FIG.4.Arid z o w hydrology log R. A/q-log t curve. t R 2 40 . logt FIG.5.
with draw-down n nearly to the impermeable substratum. 41 . BOULTON’S METHOD F O R WELLS I N WATER-TABLE AQUIFERS A w e have seen. The piezometric surface of the water-table must be horizontal before pumping. 3. .25T. However. The aquifer must be homogeneous and isotropic. From the rectilinear portion of the resultant curve. . for ie. Theis’s exponential integral is not applicable to free surface waters tables. The errors arising can be corrected as follows: T is first determined from either equation 8 or equation 9. the following conditions must be fulfilled: 1. The Theis method i directly applicableto wells i artesian aquifers when no account s n n need be taken of seepage through the aquiclude. R a 2. There must be no rainfall recharge of the water-table i the neighbourhood of the n well.T i gives u values as functions of t.25H provided that S i everys f s where the same. extend right down to the impermeable substratum. .the foregoing calculel ations of S are not hopelessly falsified by the fact of time being needed for the exhausn tion of the water i the cone to take place. while the impermeable substratum must be horizontal.Calculation of permeability and transmissibility t constant R . For it to be usable. 5. Perfect correspondence i secured i A > 0. It involves very heavy pumping. at S w e extrapolate up to very high values of t If Ae/2H (H being the thickness of the aquifer) is subtracted from the observed values of A. Obviously the points for each individual well are given a distinctive symbol. Nevertheless. as a result of the fact that near wells there is a vertical component for which n f no allowance is made i Theis’s formula.The values of A/q obtained for the different wells at the same timet ) n should be i a straight line. One thus obtains a synthetic chart giving the mean of the permeabilities at the various locations of the wells at various times. The storage coefficient must be constant. T can be determined as already described. and to arrive hs s . equation 6 is used to calculate the value of S for differenttimes t and different values of A. The straight asymptote cuts the time axis at a point given by the equation log R a The values of A/q for each well are then plotted as a function of log -( . ie.Next. If the draw-down i the wl pumped is less than 2 per cent of the thickness ofthe aquifer. .ot s The equation T t S = 2. 4 Flow must conform to Darcy’s law and permeability be constant. extend right down to theimpermeable substratum and be of infinite lateral extension. and S is a h calculated for various values of R. .25-’ Ra’ is thus easily worked after calculation of T . 2 The well must be perfect. more precise values of T are secured and the values of S are nearer the true ones. that formula can be used i r=-=->5 K t SH T t SHa Boulton  gives a method whereby the integral can be employed even for points i the neighbourhood of the well. with wells i water-table n aquifers Jacob points out that there are certain limitations..
P @ = . t) and introducing the coefficient of trans- T = KH. the Bessel function of the first kind of zero order. Y J. = S H as the variable. + sinh-' 2 P -sinh-' P 42 . S the storage coefficient. Thus the exponential integral is applicable to free water-tablesw h e n the pumping times used for the calculation are exclusively of adequate length.+ Z representing the specific weight of the water. T < 0. being a correcting factor which T i gives us hs 2xKl is small w h e n r itself is small. No tables are as yet in existence for the V-function in equation 4. i i Xiis a correcting term which is small w h e n T is great. Designating the definite integral by V missibility (p. K the coefficient of permeability.T) 2xT (4) which is the equation suggested by Boulton for the draw-down of the water-table.r) = sinh-' -+ sinh-lz -sinh-l lf7+XO P P P (7) X.but the rudiments ) of such a table appear below (Table 3. h can be substituted for tanh h i equation 3 without appreciable change i the value of the integral.05.Arid zone hydrology 6. For working the calculations i is convenient to introduce the non-dimensional quant tities: q=- R H and T=- K t SH By adopting ? . the foregoing equation becomes: A 4 =V(~. where @ is the pressure plus the potential at every point in the saturated portion of the aquifer. Pumping must be at a constant rate of discharge from the instant t Boulton gives the following formula for the draw-down: = 0. For small values of T. the V-function is given approximately by the equation 1 V (p. Using n n Weber's first integral w e then show that: or E is the exponential integral used by Theis in W(u) = -E ( U). R the horizontal distance from the axis of the well. z the level of the water-table at distance R. w e get A being the draw-down at point R. W h e n the r factor-and hence also ti -s sufficiently great.
0150 0.0021 0.Z p-0.785 p = 0. T) is calculated from the equation sinh-1 1 .0250 0.10.220 0.-1 sinh-'2 P -sinh-1 1 +P T P 43 .if X is left out of account.358 0.032 0. TABLE 1. the error in the calculatioa 4 = of A does not exceed 6 cm. 8 p=1.00 0.1575 0.0564 0. Numerical Determination o f V T h e values of V are determined by finding the values of Xofor the smaller and of XI for the greater values of T by quadrature.0077 0.0 p=1. to calculate the draw-down A.0312 0. 2 Values of X.416 p = 1.1810 0.844 2.0398 0.1331 0.0264 TABLE Values of V 3.00 5.00 5.051 0.599 1.088 0.2 0. p=O. The values of V can be determined from equations 7 and 5 by using the published sinh-' x and E ( x) tables.0541 0.4 ~ ~ 0 .20 0.20 1. For V the interpolation is more difficult.0125 0.203 It can be seen from Table 1 that for values of T 70.0338 0.443 1.096 p = 0.T) ! A zz 2xT 1. T (p.0787 0. Finally.4 0. the error i the calculation of n the exponential integral in lieu of V does not exceed 3 per cent. With values of T < 0.5 0. (p.8 0.0306 0. 7 ) p = 0.~) = (p.832 0. equation 4 is used: A using 7 V(~.5 0.183 2.207 0. T h e values of V are then carried to equation 4 which gives T as a function of A and q from a piezometer.05 0.696 p = 0.0330 0. .132 0.214 0.756 1.0101 0.0143 0.0320 0.0343 0. i The intermediate values of Xoand XIcan be determined from the tables by linear interpolation.0 p = 1.Calculation of permeability and trammissibili6y 1 being the height of water in the w l when q = 0 in the case of an aquifer of unlimited el height. when .0480 0.05.008 0.00 0.O T) p=O. T Value of X.0234 0. for a value of T = 5. T) 1.6 0.0056 0. 2XT Table 2 shows that. 6p z 0 .0344 0.021 0.092 0.0099 TABLE.05.05 0. (p.1747 0.826 1.1057 0. V V (p.035 0.
Calculation of Draw-down in the P u m p e d Tell T h e calculation of the level i the p u m p e d wl itself should be m a d e from the equation n el A Where =(-In ep.i which two cases are n discussed: 44 .00 5. With values of T > 5. no allowance is m a d e for the delayed discharge produced.(c -1 2 . ) and the result is carried into equation 4 A must however be corrected by adding . i the case of p u m p e d wells in water-table aquifers. p = --E . of A (draw-down) i equation 4. ) It should be pointed out that this method makes the determination of transmissibility no easier.T A B L E S . Admittedly. V (p. ) are carried into equation 4.05 < T < 5.H the thickness of the aquifer and m a value to be taken el from the following table of the variations of the values of rn with those of T. diameter or. T) is calculated from the equation v).228 M E T H O D S A L L O W I N G F O R T H E D E L A Y E D DISCHARGE.512 + 1. with phreatic groundwater. 9 + rn) 2xT r Pw =H r being the radius of the w l . obviously. V (p.15 to 0 8 mm. 7)d be added to the value. 3. O R C A U S E D B Y L E A K A N C E IN T E E C A S E O F C A P T I V E A Q U I P E R S In the foregoing formulae. 8 . by gravity drainage from the n part of the aquifer lying above the depression cone. with confined aquifers. the delayed discharge is not an important factor when the aquifer consists of sands and gravels which drain out veryrapidly. REPRESENTING T H E B A L A N C E O F T H E SPECIFIC Y I E L D IN F R E E W A T E R .Arid zone hydrology But the corrections m a d e by Boulton’s graph (fig.5 coarser. . the values given in Boulton’s graph (fig.00 1. 7 is calculated from Table 3 and the values . TABLE 4 T m 0.087 + 0.05 1. n 2 With values of 0. i Boulton’s Method *rr_I A n initial study of the question has been m a d e by Boulton .00 .by leakance through the confining strata as a result of the drop of pressure around the borehole. or.( .0. and Boulton contends that with sands from 0.043 + 0. it m a y be neglected.
05. 45 .5 180 p (logarithmic scale) FIG. Curves for correcting drawdown of free surface when 7 01 .Calculation of permeability and transmissibility .g U j t5 t10 E 0 C +15 +20 +25 F D +30 a.40 Curve rw/Zhe hw/he Q/khe . E.25 -20 -15 U -10 I 0 2 -5 0 A 3 . T < 0. Curve for correcting drawdown of €ree surface when 7 >5.3 0. p (logarithmic scale) FIG.35 -3@ . .
A ii(3) 4xT or =- - equation 4 being usable when Ei ( x) -In x tables are available. A water-bearing horizon of coarse sand. T i is obviously the exact position with large numbers of groundwater reservoirs hs in fluvial alluvia of recent date. c=a- S' T a=- T S T being the transmissibility. z the time elapsed reckoned from the beginning of the delayed discharge.Arid zone hydrology 1. and the cone of depression does not spread ie downwards into the coarse sand. The w l passes completely through the aquifer and the latter's water retains its el konfined' characteristics even during pumping. a good approximation can be obtained by the use of the well-known exponential integral: 4 [Inq + E ( at) E ( qat)] A.xT o eu) -t Jo 1 . possibly of coarse sand.S +S ' S where Jo is the Bessel function of the first kind of zero order. the el formula for the discharge of wells tapping captive water can be m e d .~ unit of draw-down. 2.8A + a 6Rz R 6R C' L: e -' U+ ( - A being the draw-down at distance R. When R is sufficiently small. - 46 . is topped i its turn b y a bed of very fine sand and silt. the item to be allowed for i the well's yield being the delayed flow from the semi-permeableupper n bed as a result of the creation of an area of reduced pressure within the well's radius of influence. qa a-U A = p [~=(14./:(-I \()> U + in which ac q=1+--U . resting on an impermeable horizontal stratum. Boulton shows that the differential equation giving the relation between drawdown. S the storage coefficient. . distance and time elapsing is : PA 1 6A 1 -+--=-. n A w l traverses the full thickness of the aquifer but pumping only lowers the actual el water level in the f n sand-silt stratum. between two impermeable confining strata of h e sand or silt but compressible and of constant thickness and yielding a delayed discharge under compression. and S the delayed yield per unit of aurface and ' By integrating equation 1 we get: . As the amount of water from the overlying horizon of fine sand and silt passing downwards into the aquifer through the area of the cone of depression is very low. t the time elapsed reckoned from the start of pumping. The second case is that of a water-bearing horizon. particularly if the wl is tubed or concreted where it pierces the upper horizon.
as this equation makes no allowie ance for leakance Accordingly.SB’ 47 T t A being the draw-down. .18 calcdated. Take the case of a body of groundwater which can be considered as of infinite areal extent and constant thickness and stored in a completely elastic aquifer. before accepting these values of a.Calculation of permeability and transmissibility AI A is the correction to be deducted from the draw-down given by Theis’s formula. they should be introduced into equation 2 and the integral calculated using the data for the highest vaIues of R at which a draw-down has been observed. tm) S‘ W t 7. T = However. Hantush’s Method Further research on accretions by leakance during pumping has been carried out by Hantush .is thus obtained. Hantush and Jacob [92. Boulton’s method thus gives the leakance S’. ih S S‘ . the values of S reached b y Theis’s equation m a y vary from one point to the next or even with the relative passage of t m . and S. equation 3 or 4 is worked for trial values of U and q until the values of A thus arrived at correspond to the observed values of A for the several values of t s’. With a the value C a . However. q and a. is retained and to get S w e use the coefficient obtained by prolonged pumping which is introduced into equations 3 and 4 above. Given a w l drawing on this aquifer at a constant rate. q the yield of the w l . . from using T and S. (ie. Next. which normally varies from point to point.931 el have worked out the following equations for the draw-down at the non-equilibrium stage: (14 (1 6) in which: R a !I=--4BBu . the ‘Theis’coefficient of transmissibility. with leakance from semi-impermeable confining beds above and below proportionate to any reduction of level. The real d r a w d o w n is then obtained by allowance for the delayed yield. el T the transmissibility. q=- - s +S’ S T o resolve the equation. the first step is to apply Theis’s equation for obtaining the transmissibility T.
0 . . . . c l o.. .0 m m ~ o 1 0 ~ 1 v.V ) - . 000 . . . . 0. . . . . .. 0 0 0. o o v-hvnc-hmv~ N O C ~ O . o o . 00 . o .Arid zone hydrology hooeoomoom vmnPINN---- --oooooooo ~ ~ N N N . . . .~ " . . 6 .. . .1 . o o o. .. . . .0.. . 0 0 0 0 0.V ~ . . . .
Calculation of permeability and transmissibility .
semi-impermeableconfining stratum for a decrease of one unit i the aquifer's pressure n i relation to it. the m a x i m u m draw-down. W (U. t3) The stage of equilibrium. B = dT b'/K'the leakance factor in which K' and b ' T r i g now to the question of w l discharge and draw-down in the state of equiunn el librium.2xT B. KOthe modified Bessel function of the second kind of zero order..all that is needed is to give t values progressing towards inihity. n 1. 2xT .the inclination dA/d (logl. ) = (5) from which B is extracted. . T K ' The leakance S = . el The leakance constant. Non-equilibrium (transitory) stage. the volume of water delivered per unit and of the relevant . T i method is only suitable when it is possible hs . Equation 1b then reads: Am . i e . 9 . the straight line can be extended to a point R at which A = 0 and B is worked from the equation :3 0.i e . . the logs of the distances.. R)of the most satisfactory straight line through the points of the graph is introduced into the equation: To 6nd B. A being . 50 . (0. T h e pumel page data are plotted on semi-logarithmic paper. any point is taken on the straight line and its A co-ordinates. . Observations with a single piezometer. . being shown on the abscissa and the arithmetical values of A (draw-down) for each distance on the ordinate (fig. from the cessation of pumping. m a y be expressed as: n S the storage coefficient. R the distances from the axis of the boring. Alternatively. and R are introduced into the equation: A 5 2. Transmissibility T and the leakance factor B are then calculated as follows: To find T. R. The calculations can be m a d e from observations either with a single piezometer at intervals over a period or with several piezometers at one point i time. to extrapolate the values of A to reach the m a x i m u m value A A graph is plotted of the values of the draw-down A observed for the various values oft (time) using an arithmetical scale for the former and a logarithmic scale for the latter.303q log.L K ( Z ) .89 R .R/B)what m a y be called the wl function for the draining system. The operating wl and the aquifer are in dynamic equilibrium. in the case of a resurgence. A . in which the cone of depression is still extending.89 . In this case the depression cone is no longer sinking and spreading. t the time elapsed reckoned from the start of pumping or. T h e majority of the points plotted should then lie i a straight ) n line..= -can then be ' B2 ' b calculated.Arid hy&ology are respectively the hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the semi-impermeable bed through which the leakage takes place.
i which case this and mimust be n adjusted. Ai. Finally the relation between the draw-down inflexion is: A i and the gradient m iat the point of (9) R (a) is calculated from equation 9.m iand K/Beither into the equation md=-e 2. (iv) A.. KO () (E) (b) B is calculated from R/B and R. the answer being Alternatively the value of Ai at the point of inflexion is read from the graph.. the leakance S is ' calculated: When the various values thus calculated are inserted into equation 1 we should get the draw-downs actually observed on the ground. is badly extrapolated. Observations with several piezometers. The coefficients worked out i the manner described above are inserted in equation 1.3036 e-- R 4'ZT B (7) and likewise ti being the corresponding time. First and foremost the observations and calculations outlined i the preceding paragraph can be m a d e with each piezometer. (c) T is calculated by introducing the values of q. the gradient miof the curve is mi=- 2. though this does not always happen.. n Sometimes the value A.ti. and m iare then introduced into equation 9 above and R/Bis calculated from the table of the function e. 2. is noted from the graph. R and R/B into equation 8 which can also be written: (e) Finally.3036 4xT -(+) or into (d) S is calculated by introducing T. T o do this (i) A iis first calculated by extrapolation of the curve to arrive at the maxim u m draw-down A. n 51 .. (ii) Concurrently the related time value t.Calculation of permeability and transmiasibiliry T h e curve shown i n Fig. (%) T h e gradient m. of the curve at the point of inflexionis then calculated. 10 is then traced and exhibits a point of inflexion at At the point of inflexion.
FIG.10. FIG. Graph showing A-log t for non-equilibrium conditions with several piezometers. 12. Graph showing R-log mi. 52 . 11.Arid zone hydrology FIG. I logr FIG. Graph ehowing A-log R p equilibrium conditions. 9. Graph showing A-log I fop non-equilibrium conditions with one single piezometer.
4xT -( K: Then A i is carried to the graph of the appropriate piezometer. R. of the rectilinear section of the A-log t curve for each piezometer is calculated. 11) the part of the rectilinear section corresponding to the point of inflexion be of adequate length. Observations from at least two piezometers are needed. is calculated from the equation (b) T h e value of B =4 - B 0.T i value is determined from the graph log m i is hs by extending the straight line to the point where R = 0 . from which t. A. the value of m. (d) leakance S’ is then calculated: K’ S’=--. and all that is required is that in the semi-logarithmic curve A-log t (fig. With the method which follows this is not necessary. T h e procedure is then as follows: (a) For each piezometer the curve A-log t is plotted on the same semi-logarithmic paper. 53 . B. T. 4 o.Culculution o permeability and transmissibility f Values of T. S. is calculated equation 6: T i leaves t.303B [lOg10lg. m. -J~) ’. 0 (c) The transmissibility T is calculated from the equation T=-2. mi)] (1 0) for each piezometer. (11) 4xT = = - The gradient at d R/d(logIo m.B.T -R b’ - B 9 (e) The storage coefficient S is calculated from equation 8 which gives: still to be calculated. hs by inserting the values of 4. W e thus have the values of S for each piezometer and strike the average. be obtain. and K’/b’ thus obtained for each and the most suitable values are selected.. (ii) a curve is plotted on semi-logarithmic co-ordinate paper from the mivalues scaled on a logarithmic abscissa and the distance R of the piezometers to which they relate on an arithmetical ordinate (Fig. T h e result should be a straight l n since ie 2 303q R 2. An obvious prcrequisite for this method is that m a x i m u m draw-down A.434 [dR/d(logl..)is calculated and inserted in the above equation 1 .when R = 0. can be obtained. 12).. able b y extrapolation.303q 4xmi. T o do this: (i) the gradient m. i n A. For each piezometer.
the water has to be fit for use. Hence i m a n y cases the key factor i no longer s n s quantity but quality. Courr d'hydrogdologie. n Finding water is not everything. DIS s O L U T I O N 1  Groundwater gets its mineral solutes primarily from its attack o n the upper level of the topsoil mother rock. It also affords invaluable information on groundwater storage conditions and movement. There i of course a n abundance of studies of the chemistry of water but few of s them deal with the geochemical phenomena as such. 1 H. . In the present paper only a general outline can be given. the phenomena of mineralization are complex. 1949. A knowledge of the laws of groundwater geochemistry is therefore important to throw light on the chemical composition of supplies and the causes of salinity. 1 vol. t n There is no doubt that the initial dissolution of salts occurs i the topsoil which is itself only the end product of the action of infiltrating water on rocks. 364 psges.C H A P T E R IV Geochemistry of groundwater T h e geochemistry of groundwater i of considerable importance i hydrogeology. n for i the zone of evapotranspiration downward water movement towards the aquifer i the result of infiltration and evapotranspiration and i is the resultant of this ress t pective associated chemical phenomena-dissolution and precipitation-which determines the composition of the water of infiltration finally reaching the aquifer. Paris. and in a n d zones groundwater i very frequently saline.Schoeller. During percolation through the zone of aeration there is little chance of any changes i composition taking place. Further. and what change m a y come about in i . the thickness of the layer of decomposition varies according to the geological formation and the climate and i certain cases amounts to no more n than a mere corrosion surface. s n particularly i arid regions. n but i the underground reservoirs water movement i usually very slow and there i n s s time for the reactions between water and rocks to reach a m u c h more advanced stage. However. merely touching on the problems involved. owing to the speed of the water's passage through it. Institut Franpeis du Pdtrole. 54 . T h e main question is to k n o w h o w groundwater acquires its chemical compoeition. secondary phenomena such as base exchanges and mineral concentration m a y occur and completely change the characteristics of the water.
of biotite. that on certain formn ations such as unfissured limestones.g. In the soil and i the zone of decomposition of the mother rock. limestone CaCO. H. (ii) that with certain other very c o m m o n gases. 2. The water’s attack on the mother rock is then limited by the almost entire absence n of the principal agent of decomposition.. i the upper part of the soil. CO./kg.S. 0. Hydration.. In most cases the oxygen cannot penetrate very n deeply as it is gradually consumed in its descent and there is thus no decrease i the bedrock‘s reducing properties.Ca. ..000times in the case of NH. However. the aridity m a y be so great. dissolved by rain from atmospheric air.Geochemistry o groundwaier f In temperate climates the chemical phenomena occurring i the soil are mainly n n dissolution i the A horizon and some dissolution.1 107 15.926 236 82.0 . and deserts i particular. . To this must be added the further amounts deriving from the action of the soil’s organic 55 . the main attack on mineral n elements is still i the upper layer of the mother rock.. i which n connexion it should be noted that the oxidation of sulphides produces sulphuric acid. NaC1. In the a n d zones in general. Oxldation is m a x i m u m nearest the atmospheric air whence the oxygen is derived. and NH. anhydrite CaSO. vegetation cannot take root and create soil. O .. of anhydrite and of haematite. Only a very small proportion of the CO. CO. H.0003. Na. oxygen-short oxides.8 1. but also precipitation. o solution a l0OC f t CaCO. Study . particularly with the silicates. and He. the pressure of the gas is only sufficient to dissolve 50 mg. pressure of from 0. Oxidation of sulphides. gypsum CaSO. (2H. e. e . at 0. but the transitory phenomena n of precipitation of minerals in the soil acquire m u c h more importance owing to the higher degree of evapotranspiration and lower rainfall. In actual fact almost all the CO.. and NH.o solution a 1OoC f t g. n 4.. a powerful corrosive. i.. etc. etc. Obviously the main attack on mineral elements takes place i the zone of n decomposition. even 60.01. though not all equally so. from the point of view of their permanent effect.e. Hydrolysis.are of approximately equal solubility n .O). of C0. with the highest degree no more than double the lowest.5 394 349 263 In actual practice the essential factor i the dissolution of minerals i the soil and n n the zone of decomposition is chemical action including the following forms: 1. Chemical attack. at work comes from the CO. in which.001 to 0.CO. their respective coefficients of solubility being as follows: g. dolomites and calcareous dolomites (CaMg)CO. H . water picks up N . from 40 to 200 times the minimum. from the respiration of plant roots and from various living organisms of the topsoil creates CO.H of the respective solubility of these gases shows: (i) that the majority of the commonest gases i contact with water. in the B horizon. solubility is very m u c h higher. MgCO.g..014 0.with the precipitations in the B horizon to be reckoned. particularly i deserts. the carbon dioxide produced i and by a l v n topsoil.. e. 3. CaSO./kg. certain elements n are in any case soluble b y water. The principal agent of chemical change acting on the minerals present is undoubtedly carbonic acid gas. acting on earth formations comes from the soil air when the combined yield from the biological and chemical combustion of the organic matter in the soil... NaHCO. as no more than a transitory phenomenon i the n dynamic equilibrium. iig Immediately it enters the soil. N. ferric manganese.
O -+ SiO. n though the part played by sulphuric acid. pp. and C o w s d'hydrogiologie. H Sohoeller. 1. pressures comparable to those i cultivable soils. Bull. W A T E R FROB1 T H E M A I N T Y P E S O F R O C K 1 Thus the chemical composition of water depends on the nature of the terrain. Admittedly there i initially a true dissoluiion of silicates but the chief factor deters mining the extent of the attack is the acidity or high alkalinity of the water and the acidity of water i fundamentally due to carboiiic acid gas. 1 vol.+ SiO. 364 pp.. (5). In Calcareous Terrains T h e dissolved CO. T h e ferromagnesian minerals also contribute the elements listed above but with Mg and F e i addition. pressure. Thus the feldspars release K. + 3 H+ i+ SiOF + H. it wl be clear n il that there is a n inherent chlorine-alkali imbalance which is a Characteristic feature of water from crystalline and crystallophyllian rocks and not to be confused with the imbalance due to base exchanges.. + 2 OH- - + 16 OH- The aluminium and silica then react to produce kaolinitc under acid and montmorillonite or illites under basic conditions. k . . carbonic acid and the solubility product of CaCO. and k. Paris. gdof. k. the NCO. . [HZCO3] the concentration i mols of free CO.O. content varies between 180 and 550 mg.O + K[MSi.. are respectively the first and second dissociation constants of n . quickly reaches its C0. However. 1. Institut Franqais d u Pdtrol~. n In normal groundwater. T h e decomposition of silicates is also ultimately due more or less directly to the action of carbonic acid gas. 11. and rarely exceeds 600 mg./litre./litre . [HCO..Ca saturation point. 267-89.. N a and C a ions and molecular silica but very little colloidal silica.+A ( H . 56 . U the coefficient of dissolution of the free CO. Sur. i e corresponds to CO. dissolved i the water i equiis n n n librium with the solution of [HCO. T h e action of carbonic acid gas on limestone can be expressed by the following equation: i which 6 i the CO. n It is the carbonic acid gas which is the active agent i the decomposition of rocks. i the n s n water.] and [ea++].] K+ + 3Si4f + A' I + AI3++ 3 OH. [Ca] are the concentration i mols. 1941. vol. lO) S 4 + 3 OH.1949. s For orthoclase the process could be expressed: 8 H. and since.. sulphuric acid produced by the oxidation of sulphides and nitric acid formed i the course of the nitrification process. Fr. T h c usual values arc between 180 and 360 mg. As the silicates release far less C1 than alkalis.L'inBueuee d u dimat YUT la composition chimique des eaux souterrainen vadoses'.Arid zone hydrology acids. nitric acid and the organic acids mentioned earlier is not negligble.
giving an enormous area of contact between water and rock. 57 . n Broadly speaking the water i limestones circulates mainly.Geochemistry of groundwater as w e have seen. once CaSO. In dolomites the phenomena are of the same kind as i limestones but broadly n n n speaking the rMglrCa ratio would appear to be smaller i the water than i the rock. with very fine and hence very numerous pores. Again. s n Naturally the position i not the same with limestones of high porosity. Water moving through gypsum speedily acquires a high content of CaSO. A limestone is generally poor s i chlorides and sulphates. water from i will be rich first and foremost i carbonates n t n i l n and w l be poor i chlorides and sulphates. the values n n of CO. m a x i m u m penetration being a few decimetres at most when the limestone i i process of decomposition. The lack of pores prevents the water reaching them at any depth. This then is an automatic limit to the dissolution of the calcium carbonate.the most soluble salts.H and Ca i the water. saturation is reached the Ca can no longer increase and only MgSO. The ratio rMg/rCa+ then has a tendency to increase. They are commonly rated as impermeable and water movement through them is very slow.the extent of solution wl depend on the nature n il of the actual formation.the chlorides and sulphates.vary only within the narrow limits indicated above. so that the rock surface exposed to attack i considerably reduced s i relation to the volume of water circulating. very n often reaching actual saturation. through fissures. the chemical composition of the water i bound. yielding dry residues which m a y rise to more than 200 g. n Lastly.remains near the normal and even tends to remain below rather than rise above it when SO.and C and Ca. the colloidal nature of The symbol I indicates thut the clrmeuts b e h e which it ia plarrd arc cxprcssed in milliequivalents. With the other salts found i limestones. while the dry residue will be low. Mg and Na. the CO.entails an increase not only of calcium but also of magnesium.Ca. to some extent. sometimes exceeding 50 per cent. can still be dissolved.Hence.is high as a result of the influence of the solubility product S0. It is to be noted that the concentration of combined CO. as chemical analysis shows. argillites). these particular salts can only be released after carbonates i which they are s held have first been dissolved. clays or shales (rnarnolites. n particularly i dolomitic limestones. since calcite is more soluble than dolomite.water high i sodium chloride is apt to have a higher SO. to conform to that of the limestone. as the solubility of lime sulphate increases with the amount of chloride i solution. n Further. even if not entirely. and. Water in Contact with Mads and Clays Groundwater m a y be i contact with marls. Similarly water i saliferous terrains contains a very high quantity of chlorides.but i either s n n case. which fluctuate correspondingly. 1 It then comes about that the water is extremely high in SO. with consequent speedy dissolution.and Ca content than n merely gypseous water. pressure i the soil varies only very slightly. of which gypsum always contains a fairly large proportion. In G y p s u m and Saliferous Formations Water quickly picks up salts./litre. are locked i the limen stone and in highly compacted or crystalline formations. It should be mentioned that the increase of SO.not because it is in contact with extensive rock surfaces or for prolonged periods but because of the high solubility of gypsum and because of the high content of other very soluble salts. n The porosity of these rocks is often very high.
round about 6 or 5. t Water in Contact with Organic Matter Water m a y be i contact with organic matter such as peat. in the former case there are of course corresponding high values of C a and Mg. remains at the ordinary level but the proportions of SO. content. T h e rock surface exposed to attack is thus very large and the water quickly takes up large quantities of cations and anions. since the rock consists almost wholly of quartz. lignite. produced by the chemical and biological combustion of organic matter. Hence the HCO. from a few milligrammes to a few centigrammes only. Thus there i active CO. coal and hydron carbons which are reducing media acting on sulphates through these bacteria. left. of C a and Mg ions for N a ions from sodic. T h e combined CO. content is so low that either m a y equal or.Ca) s C1. content i greater than with other types of water. and C 1 are higher than i water from other rocks. exceed i . content is the same as for a l other water i the l n same climatic region. They are highly resistant to the solvent action of water which is immeasurably lower on them than on the main sedimentary rocks. than that from limestones. are often lower 1 than i water from calcareous formations-they amount to a few centigrammes at n most-the HCO. Crystalline and crystallophyllian rocks yield water which i completely different s from that of sedimentary formations. T h e SiO. which are all the greater for the lengthier contact between water and rock as a result n of the m u c h slower rate of flow compared with that i limestone. As the amounts of Ca and Mg ions are very low. n Base exchanges are extremely c o m m o n when water is in contact with argdlaceous rocks. Mg. as more often happens. T h e CO. content and hence also of rSO.. there are very few elements that the water can pick up even i arid regions. and sometimes C1. Wtr from Purely Siliceous Sands and Sandstones ae In this case. (b)some n production of H S (c) a rise i the amount of combined CO. While C and SO. ions by dissolution. Hence water from sands and sandstones i normally more heavily charged with salts (SO.ion content is low. but this type of rock contains no carbonates and the additional ions which would be provided by their dissolution are lacking. and usually exceed the HCO. T h e consequences are: (a) a lowering of the SO. n Of course. sulphatea) by adsorption either by the sediments during deposition or from connate sea water which can sometimes have amounted to 50 per cent of the total volume of the sediment. and of N a and Mg ions for C a ions from calcareous clays./rCl. C a and Mg are low and N a m a y exceed Ca. and CO. 58 . T i last phenomenon . T h e higher of the two is sometimes SO. ion content is a low pH. and i the latter of Na.compared to water of similar origin which has not been i contact with organic matter. n hs is a consequence of the large amounts of free CO. s Water from Sands and Ordinary Sandstones Sands and m a n y sandstones are highly porous. provides a proportion of HCO. as elsewhere. the dissolved CO. It follows s n that water in contact with argillaceous rocks i extremely high i salts with a dry residue often amounting to several grammes. with the exception of gypseous and salifen rous formations. Na. not al of the equilibrium quantity l s of carbonic acid is saturated.Arid zone hydrology part of their constituent elements and the fineness of their pores have enabled the marla and clays to retain large quantities of salts (chlorides. A final result of the low HCO...
but the water can only retain relatively small quantities i solution (10 to s n 40 mg. generally speaking. With the exception of amphibolitic granites. T h e water from such rocks s tl s generally has corrosive qualities. content and oxide n n reduction potential of the water and is accordingly found i the water i quantities n n varying only from a few tenths of a milligramme to a few milligrammes. the N a is more important than the K content i the water. running to about 20-30 mg. m u c h the largest item released from the rock s i silica. N a i s i l low and does not normally exceed 2 milliequis tl valents. While there are m a n y exceptions there is commonly more r N a than rC1. can only remain i solution i limited quantities varying with the acidity. ions are always low-less than 2 milliequivalents. (traces). W h e n granite i attacked by CO. the large quantities of C a and Mg released from the rocks result i C a and Mg predominating i the water. 1 content i s i l small and p H i low as for all igneous rocks. and C are also very low. On the other hand the alkalis which are dissolved out of the rock in proportions near or sometimes even superior to those of iron. In ordinary granites - K. granite rocks release smaller quantities of their bases and metals than of their alkalis. 59 . however. s Amounts of C and SO. can be held i solution in larger quann tities. T h e alkali/calcium ratio wl depend on the caln il cium content of the plagioclases and on h o w they compare in quantity with the orthose.Iron. SiO. water accordingly is predominantly alkaline. however the difference i small. K being retained by adsorption to the residue from the decomposition process. T h e water wl therefore be extremely acid to begin with. T h e HCO. water from basalt does not contain more iron than other water of like pH [HCO.too.O + Na. and is accordingly very low. CO. As with a l igneous rock. alkalis and calcium and of HCO. since this wl not have been cancelled il il il out by bases. K + Fe. plagioclases. which is often the next largest item lost after silica.] and oxide-reduction potential. so that p H is less acid. Basalts T h e loss of silica from the decomposition of basalts is less considerable than from the granites. T h e alkali content of the water i a function of the rate of the rock’s reaction s to CO. With basalts. but with the loss of its carbonic acid gas m a y become highly alkaline. below 2 milliequivalents.Geochemistry o groundwater f Granite and Gneiss T h e water from their formations will gain the following elements from the decomposition of the rocks’ mineral components: quartz. + N a + + Ca*. K. muscovite. SO.that yielded by granite formations w l be very low in a number i l of ions and wl always show a n excess of CO. the solutes being predomil nantly alkalis. and imbalance which is inherent and not due to base exchanges./litre. though there are only about 3 m l i n n ilequivalents of C a and 2 of Mg. t s t water to attack granite. A s i is always difficult for . the dry residue is low owing to the slowness of the decomposition process. il ions got from the CO. There is thus a tendency for C a and Mg to be less abundant than Na. + K. orthose. biotite.. SiO. rMgJrCa < 1. as is HCO. richer i n silica than water from granites... It wl therefore contain large quantities of silica. While more iron is extracted from basalts than from granites.O CaO 37 i e i i high. Nevertheless water from basalt rocks is. SiO. i the soil air.though this last is a little higher than in 1 water from granite. Despite the predominn n ance of K i the rocks.).
the hydrogen donor is an organic compound or even molecular hydrogen. The hydrogen acceptor is initially the oxygen dissolved i the water. -+ SOH. etc.H. SO9.(e. from pyrites but always in small quantities. the acceptors become n SO. The low SO. However. water which has n n long been i contact with atmospheric air) has a high pH i consequence of the predominance of alkalis able to remain in solution. content is always associated with the presence of organic matter and also sometimes of one of the reduced elements mentioned above. C very low./he. coal or petroleum. It was formerly thought that the reduction of the sulphates was brought about by the organic matter itself. -+ SO. or contains none at all but. Alkaline elements normally predominate.Arid zone hydrology residue is naturally very low and rarely exceeds 400 mg. hyposulphites. 1 rC1 < rNa. n groundwater undergoes frequent changes in chemical composition. n Mg always on the low side.the most important of which are reductions..O + Ss 60 + 8e . SiO. only reaching a significant figure i diorites amphibolites. often contains sulphuretted hydrogen. Ca very low. Y e from ferromagnesian minerals such as magnetite. Organic c o m pounds are oxidized anaerobically by the action of a dehydrogenase while molecular hydrogen is activated directly by a hydrogenase. The most important elements affected by them are the sulphates though it must nevertheless not be forgotten that reduction of nitrates m a y also take place. Once this has all been used up.with its varieties aestuarii and Sporovibrio rubentschicki). in complete contrast to other water emerging from identical geological formations or even from the same underground reservoirs. it is n o w k n o w n that it is caused by a very specific anaerobic micro-organism (Sporovibriodesulfuricans. lignite. This gives us the total resultant: SO. The organic matter m a y be decomposing vegetable or animal remains. Possibly some SO. -+ SO. sulphides. However water which has lost its free CO.+ SH. to which a multitude of publications has already been devoted. base exchanges and concentration. Reductions It is not proposed to enlarge on these phenomena. on the other hand.g. In the biochemical processes of which these micro-organisms are the agents. p H initially low. and SO in a four-stage progression comparing to the stansuccessively SO. is abnormally low in SO. dard Kluyver scheme: SO. The dry MODIFYING PHENOMENA  During its passage underground and even immediately on accumulation i the sod. abundant.H.H. owing to the rarity of chlorides. S o m e groundwater. T o recapitulate. + 8H+-+ 4H. water from igneous rocks exhibits the following characteristics: Dry residue: low as a result of the great difficulty with which the elements are dissolved. reduced to solution as a result of the acidity of the water. peat.
content and on the other produce the ions of and hence of H S . where fixation of cations takes place mainly on the outer surfaces.. the chlorites etc. halloysite.S HZS CaS + CO. HZCO. (b) zeolite minerals. Thus the reduction of the sulphates w l on the one hand reduce the il SO. Base Exchanges S. H2O CaSH. At an equal degree of hydration.14 at 250 = Eo f 0. The colloids from alumina are positive while those from . ferric hydroxide are amphoteric. and H+ ions Groundwater is also liable to come into contact with a variety of substances having the property of exchanging some of their o w n ions against ions contained i the water. the illites. Catt-+ CO. Exchanges m a y likewise be produced by zeolites.S H2CO3 H+ + HCO. HCO. In these rocks the exchange capacity is high. T h e substances occurring i geological strata and liable to adsorb elements from n or exchange ions with groundwater are the following: (a) argillaceous minerals. between two extreme forms. glauconite. glauconite and organic matters. The power of fixation. and H+ ions.g.. i l O. i Clays and humus give positively charged colloids which are thus able to f x and exchange cations.e.. In the argillaceous minerals such as kaolinite. they m a y be either positive or negative according to the pH of the water and hence exchange either cations or anions as the case m a y be. e. (c) organic substances.O& S-.Geochemistry of groundwaier and the following equilibria: Eh with E. H+ + CO. i e bases. It is not the case with such minerals as montmorillonite. H+ + OH- Ti hs reduction is accompanied by oxidation of the organic compounds and hence by the production of CO. n T h e powers of adsorption of these substances vary widely through a whole gamut of intermediate degrees. Hence there is an exchange of bases and it is to be noted that a similar exchange of anions m a y also take place if the physical characteristics of the adsorbant permit of it. f. when exchanges m a y likewise take place within the foliations and there is extensive fixation on the surface faces. and chemical adsorption with strong valency bond. is thus broadly: f H > fRb > f B a > fSr > fCa > fMg > f K > fNa > fG 61 . physical or V a n der Waals adsorption in which the attraction between adsorbant and adsorbate is weak. HCO. and vermiculite. n The degree of fixation is not dependent solely on the nature of the rock but also on the nature of the cations.0075 log [SOT][H+I8 r= s1 L - SCa* Cas HzO + 2H+ + S= + H. = 0. HCO. humus. Thus there is not only fixation on these surfaces or the interior of these substances but an exchange of their cations with those of the water takes place. i. As it is often difficult to k n o w which are the substances which have exchanged bases with bases i the water it is proposed to call t h e m all permutolites. fixation of bivalent ions is stronger than that of monovalent ions. which in turn w l produce large quantities of C . the strength of cation fixation being inversely proportionate to the degree of hydration of the ion. CaCO. the exchange capacity is relatively low.
rNa.... w h e n base exchangers have established a n equilibrium with water i which n the relative proportions of the cations are: rMge/rCa. + %e.e. o r rNa. rNa. both expressed i milliequivalents.. n According to Wiegener and Seeny the ratio between the initial stable concentran n tion. el If another kind of water comes into contact with these base exchanges. Turning n o w to the case of a concurrent exchange of more than one cation. In addition i has the exact dimensions (ionic diameter t 3. NH./rMg. i the sense of the definition given later.e.. n 62 . or the values being known./rCa. i : n s where a x represents the quantity of cations exchanged and moving from the liquid to the clay and vice-versa. = ka 2 (-: ”)/ a-x Lastly i should be noted that the base exchange index w l be the more completet i l i e the nearer equilibrium-in proportion as the solution has been longer i contact . (b)the relative quantity of salts i groundwater is the greater. e.b. i proportion as the concentration was low and the n n time of contact great. i the post-adsorption stable phase./rCa./& ]~l perm. It w l be clear that the modification of the n e w water’s i l cation ratio wl be i a direction tending to approximate them to the values of the il n corresponding ratios i the original water./rCa. between a permutolite and water. with w l defined values. or i other words the exchange is n n more complete i a given time./rMg. rNa. If w e call i.g. a. It i held i the illites by chemisorption and is s n extremely difficult to dislodge.Arid w n e hydrology Potassium plays a special part. T h e concentration i the adsorbant varies much less n rapidly than that i the liquid. the cation ratios in the exchangers themselves w l be: i l rMg. x. Adsorption is likewise proportionate to the respective cations concentrations in the adsorbant and the liquid. rKa. has a role similar to that of K. - = () T a-x the base exchange index.\‘ [a Hence. w e have: r ~ g water l L C ~water I - /[Mgj perm. there wl il be a tendency towards the establishment of a n e w equilibrium between the exchangers and the n e w lot of water.b. n with the exchanger.66 A) to be able to fit into the interstices of the oxygen layer. of cations i the liquid and their concentration. w e get: n i. To conclude: (a) the absolute quantity of salts in groundwater is the greater i n proportion as the water was originally richer in exchangeable elements. C a and Mg. rea.
Fr. Ca + 2Na+ + Mgft perm. 3. 5. 1919. 2. M l s Roger C. Van A. ‘The evaporation and concentration of waters associated with petroleum and natural il. therefore get the following exchanges: perm. n To evaluate the degree to which base exchange has taken place. 1948. - Concentration 1 Mineral concentration m a y be effected by evaporation or by dissolution. Mg + 2Na+ + Mgft %perm. As regards mineralization by dissolution. Ca++. 2Na perm. Soc. Alkaline chloride. This is why the mineralization of groundwater is progressively greater from the temperate to the tropical regions and falls again from the tropical to the equatorial regions. ‘Les modiGcatious de la composition chimique de l e u d a m une mCme nappe’. Mg/Ca. W e k n o w from Nernst’s law that the rate of dissolution (of a solid) is proportional to a saturation deficit. K+. pp. . 5 fig. Bull. 124-9. Wells. 623. H Schoellcr. Evaporation takes place mainly i groundwater catchment areas. R. I 1941. 2Na + Ca* perm. the gas drawing up water vapour with it. Caft perm. 267-89. Geological S’uruq. gas’. ’a d’hydrdogie acientihipue. where rC1 > rNa n r and in K water from crystalline rocks..2 It should nevertheless be noted that there m a y be concentration by evaporation in deep-lying water bodies w h e n there are escapes of gas from them. as i sea water. Na/Mg. Mgff. the following indices can be applied when N a and K i the water are exchanged with Mg and C a in the n permutolite (i. and H+. T h e soil water thus becomes progressively more mineralized and the next fall of rain of sufficient magnitude for deep infiltration carries the concentrated solutions i more n or less diluted form from the soil to the water-table. idem. The term ‘base exchange index’ w l be abandoned as there m a y i l be an inherent disequilibrium already. Association inlermtienals .b. the sparser the rainfall in general and the higher the temperature and the deficit i atmospheric saturation.e. where rC1< rNa + r without any base exchange having K occurred. 104 pl. Mg + Caft +2K perm.S. Na/Ca. the main factors are temperature. the volume of the water and the time elapsing. Hence the mineralization of underground water w l be the higher i l 1. T i occurs more particularly with the water in certain petrohs liferous formations from which gaseous hydrocarbons and carbonic acid gasa are released. 2 + 2Na+ K T h e base exchanges are thus liable completely to alter the cation ratios i the water n and i particular the ratios K/Na.b.. e can W T h e principal cations contained in water are Naf. being then negative). the higher w l be the mineralization of the n i l waters of infiltration. being then positive): w h e n the exchange of ions is the opposite w a y round (i. 2Na perm.e. the term index of disequihbrium would then be appropriate. pp. ‘L’intlueuce du climat sur la composition chimiquo des earn souterraines vadoses’. In concentration by evaporation there is a basically climatic influence at work. It wl readily be appreciated il that the greater the interval between infiltrating precipitations replenishing the water-table.() t X . the area of the interface. Aswmbkk #Oslo. W. gbl.Geochemistry of grourulwa&er These basic ratios provide a background for the study of the relations between base exchanges and the origin of the water. Bull. w h e n inatrating rainfall first n reaches the soil and then returns to the atmosphere from the evaporation zone. pressure. 63 .
T h e salts can be tabulated i ascending order of solubility. C . under Nernst's law. 2. CO. i.06. S (number of grammes per kilon g r a m m e of water) as follows: Grammes per kilogramme o water f Solubility prodim CaCO. dissolution cannot produce a n increase i the carbonate and bicarbonate content n of groundwater save obviously if the water picks up ions other than Ca. il content wl usually remain between certain limits.SO.e. Mg. 96 at 200C. op. and HCQ. CaSO. 0. i e between 0. CO. 358 at 20OC. CaSO. 193 at 20°C.. 355 at 2OoC. Na.005 and 0.Arid zone hydrology i proportion as the water lies deeper below the surface-i.. SUI la composition chimique des eaux souterrainen vadoses'. as water tends towards a state of physico-chemical equilibrium with the rock i which n it circulates.013 at 18OC. 3H. the length being conditioned by the nature of the formation and. wl have the cffect il of reducing the CO. this wl increase the solubility product though never to any great extent. 284. Equilibrium is usually only approximated after a fairly extensive lapse of time (perfect equilibrium being reached only after a n infinite time).ion content.48 x lo-@ at 25OC.. F r o m the other side. pressure which m a y rise slightly according to the content of ions other than Ca..g. 745 at 2OoC. and the question for discussion is therefore the respective 1 solubility products of the salts resulting from the combination of these ions. 64 . Obviously mineral concentration by dissolution cannot go beyond a certain stage. and HCQ.. and NaCl.O NaHCO. 546 at 2OOC. SO. n Except from exclusively siliceous or silicified rock formations groundwater i already s pretty well saturated w t calcium carbonate and bicarbonate to begin w t . oscillates between 75 and 240 mg. On the il other hand the dissolution of salts containing C a ions. 6. p. Leaving aside the acid water from crystalline or from sandstone rocks. as i would necessitate combined CO. M g C O S . the main radicals found i water are: Ca...500 mg. n as its temperature is higher-as aquifers of primary permeability are finer grained or those of secondary permeability more diaclastic..500 to 7. and HCO.CO. NaCl MgSO. N a H C O .. which are never found i meteoric groundwater of this kind. n Na. MgCO.CO.CO. Thus concentration by n .w e m a y thus 1.. 0.1 x 10W5 at 16OC. 1. by the actual concentration of salts i the water. T h e others are only found i trace n n quantities or quite exceptionally i certain formations. n n Turning n o w to the main changes i the water's chemical composition resulting from concentration by dissolution. and HCO. T h e upshot wl be that the combined CO. a n upper limit determined by the il CO. M%CL CaCI. H Schoeller. c t . and Na. while ih ih n the carbonic acid gas pressure i groundwater always remains approximately the same1 as that i the soil air of the topsoil.g. the main salts found i rocks and hence dissolvable i large n n quantities are CaCO. values of 2.4 x lop4 at 16% Na. W e can already reckon that some salts can never be precipitated from vadose ground water. and a lower limit which m a y decrease i proportion to the content of n C a ions.. Broadly speaking the combined CO. as pores or fissures are more constricted and circulation consequently slower and if the length of the reservoir is greater. 213 at 2OOC. e. 'L'inBuence du climat . e.016 at 18OC./litre at t least.. CaSO.
according to the water’s richness i CO. 60 m l i il- and above a still higher concentration. However the dissolution of sulphates. rC1 or rSO. the aquifer itself needs to be saliferous.> rC0.. carbonate or sulphate.1 g. being precipitated. radicals. du Congris d E f . n and SO. Concentration by evaporation obeys approximately the same rules as above and the variations in the ratios of the different radicals occur i the same order. When water dissolves gypsum Ca ions are taken up which automatically lower the combined CO. 41-54. usually i the neighbourhood of 180 m l i n ilequivalents. above a given total dissolved mineral concentration. of higher solubility than those already dealt with. ‘Sur la concentration des sels dissous dans lea eaux souterrainen’. > rC1 or rSO. It is thus the exception to find values of this magnitude. e. first and foremost. i the form of calcareous concretions to be found i temperate n n n regions or tuff in steppe or pre-desert areas.its mineral content must be almost exclusively calcium bicarbonate as calcium carbonate is the first salt to be dissolved in the topsoil. n T h e commonest mineral i groundwater. Transits of great length. ‘r0d &a e a u souterraines.g. There can be n no doubt that a solution of magnesium sulphate does occur i gypseous formations n as it is observable that groundwater with high SO. The writer has found that. Such precipitations of calcium sulphate have been observed i rocks. The lmt of solubility of CaSO. content. but not saturation which only occurs quite exceptionally. since underground water is pretty w l saturated with calcium carel bonate.O . the greater must be the decline of the SO. The 6rst salt to be precipitated i the soil is CaCO.). is gypsum. or MgSO. is practically non-existent i rocks and CaCO.. up to 7. f the values of SO. H Schoeller. m a y become m u c h higher.w wl usually get. for all practical 1. in solution. 1934. F r o m the foregoing it is to be concluded that. C. values always has a very high Mg content which brings with it an increase in the Mg/Ca and Na/Ca ratios.SO.. the second is gypsum i desert areas follown ed by sodium salts. Rabat./Cl.> rCO. falling back again for NaCl concentrations higher than that. For anything near a saturation to be reached. normally the NaCl concentration i the water only increases to parity n with that in the rock. Na.. m a y result in the solubility product being exceeded and CaCO. can easily be ii reached owing to the salt’s abundance and can even be exceeded i the course of nature n if the water dissolves salts containing ions other than Ca and SO. In this n instance however.R. 300 to 400 mg. if no magnesium salts have been dissolved. du ComW d’Plu& . precipitation m a y be more frequent.3 g for a concentration of NaCl = 146. is already at n m a x i m u m concentration. N a / M g and even Mg/Ca ratios. at 200 C for NaCl = 0.e. usually approximately equivalents. rC1) rSO. 5 65 . pp. corresponding to the saturation level of calcium sulphate. O course. Indeed it is notable that water very high in CaSO.2H. The solubility of CaS0. T h e salt of next lowest solubility. always has a combined CO. rises from 2. very prolonged contacts or vast intern faces all raise the level of NaCl i the water. Water with NaCl in solution can thus have a m u c h greater CaSO.2 g. if the mineral concentration is equal to or lower than the normal solubility value of CaCO. content not exceeding 300 mg. but of these salts CaCl. (counted in terms of CaSO. water1 i which: e i l n rCO. content below the normal. and also one of the commonest. is NaCl. given a combined CO. i. if magnesium salts are present. Solubility could be diminished by the solution of further calcium salts. and the increase of the Na/Ca. Finally it is observable that the greater the mineralization of water above a certain concentration.Geochemistry of groundwaler conclude that.
0 m m N 0 3 m hl w c03 2 d d e W m O rl \ o t- e m f m w mIn t-t- Nhl 66 .0 P-03 4 3 e w t-m In w hl hl W a N W I n 0 m t- @ J W 3 W 0 In 0 w 3 3 v) I w m m m 3 co 3 N 0 m N I n 0 3 r ( e W e4 m w m c-a w e & m In t3 @ J 3 I 0 d r- m w I I m o N O \om i m a t0 In 0 3 0 v) 0 3 t- m 0 a ot3 In W m 0 0 l - m 3 t- 0 % hl rl 0 3 W r ( m hl e tW m I m n W 3 m 0 w 0 4 o m W W 3 w m m o w m In rl I In a N t- d 3 I t otm m m e t .Arid zone hydrology 9 9 N N rl t- a t- m 3 N I O D 10 m I4 I I 0 3 I 3 0 ID I rl 0 10 I 3 0 2 0 3 I I I m m N N 3 X rl t - X m hl N X w e mt- X m m 0 0 x x m 0 0 03 0 e e4 0 0 0 0 m tP .
Take the case of a rock of density d containing n per cent by weight of NaCl. These proportions are those for outcrop rocks which have already undergone n leaching.65 contains only 2 Oio0 NaCl. if for any reason whatever. only very small quantities of soluble salts i the rock and of elements n liable to chemical attack by the water are needed for mineralization to be high.there m a y be circulationi part ofa reservoir only with stagnant water i other parts. groundwater becomes highly mineralized. s Below are quoted a few specific cases of water very near saturation point either i NaCl or i S0. since it i c o m m o n to other types of water. that water completely changes its nature approximating progressively to a type of composition: rC1> rSO. n The investigation of concentration and its effects on the chemical composition of water can only be effected by reference to the solubility products: Thus for calcium carbonate it wl be a matter of examining the product il [CO.2 and m = 0. For calcium sulphate the product to be examined wl be il [SO4] = K8 [Cal 67 ..=l [Ca++] = kc.4 g of NaCl per litre of water. thereafter becoming ‘fossil hs s water’. Indeed. and one litre of the imbibed water contains 1. and rNa > rMg > rCa which i more or less the composition of sea water. however.en.water i equilibrium with the rock would contain 4.240g.2 to 26.40. s concentrationswhich are m u c h higher. and it follows that deep-lyingwater i nnleached horizons m a y show salt sal. if rock of porosity 0. . In stagnant n n water of this kind. whether through evaporation from an aquifer rising near to the surface even i the soil of the replenishment zone or through progressive accumulation through n slow circulation.] = K‘K‘c[HCO<jaLCa++] K’2 22 4 6‘ eq. A high NaCl content does not necessarily indicate fossil sea water but m a y s m ip y mean that there has been salt concentration by evaporation or merely by dissol lution. n the Clays can contain from 1 to 2 per cent of NaCl.. volume for volume. Similarly. either because the external hydrostatic pressure at every point on the reservoir’s periphery equals the internal pressure. Taking d = 2. or through the length of transits bringing time and interface factors into operation. of NaCl per litre. n n given a state of equilibrium i which the concentrations i water and rock.CO. This means that one cubic metre of rock contains 1OO dn (I-rn) kg. and the water should therefore be at or near chemical equilibrium with the rock. i the latter case often by stagnant groundwater.. as the C .Ca. are equal. component i the water depends on the O n proportion of dissolved CO.000dn (I-m) grammes of salts. i e water trapped i . Thus.Geochemistry of groundwater purposes.CO. W e thus see that. = [H. Hence. and of porosity m. 290 mdliequivalents can be taken as the level above which w e invariably get rC1) rSOI> rC0.] eq.> rC8. there being no limiting time factor.20 and real density 2. calculation gives u a concentration of from 13.. or because the aquifer is completely enclosed. of NaC1. mineral concentration m a y be total. the sedimentary rocks at the time they were deposited. In actual practice t i cannot be one. n n n There are subsurface reservoirs i which there is no circulation. above s . In this instance.consideration must also be given t the equation o [H. u u l y the high NaCl content i taken n as the characteristic allowing the recognition of connate water.
too. content if the value of the product is reached. and not necessarily to reduction of the sulphates by base exchange. the ratio cannot but diminish. to the length of the trajectory. the absolute value requires consideration.0003. and the water in lakes and rivers. low SO. etc.][Ca] product must be studied. pressure is lower than in soil or interstitial air. 68 . in soil and interstitial air and this itself varies only slightly.Arid zone hydrology And in certain cases where saturation in NaCl m a y have been reached. T h e absolute values of Ca.Generally speaking it is fairly constant as it is governed by the pressure of CO. Examples are sea water. Here. for instance. coal. Absolute Values and Products HCOB The most important absolute value for consideration is that of HCO. and of gypsum in particular. ratios and products which should be treated as significant. it emerges that there are certain absolute values.][Ca] solubility product as an addition of Ca. However. hydrocarbons.the . Relative Values The following are the important relative values.Ca solubility product permits. concentration nowhere reaches the m a x i m u m which the S0. c1 T h e absolute value of chlorine is one of the most important pointers to the degree of stagnation of a body of groundwater.. m a y have the effect of lowering the HCO. content m a y very well be due to a very large quantity of calcium being taken up. but once again. by base exchange or by the dissolution of gypsum. in abnormal proportions of volcanic or metamorphic origin or generated by organic materials (lignite. values are below normal when the water comes into contact with air in which CO. Mg and N a are dependent on those of the anions and base exchanges. less than 0 5 of rSO. and to the degree of evapotranspiration. so. When this is exceeded. where CO./rCl Is often characteristic of an entire groundwater reservoir in so far as the SO. and apparently abnormally. to assess the phenomenon correctly. in considering the absolute value of [HCO. PRESENTATION OF ANALYSES It should From the foregoing. the product il examined wl be [ a [Cll = K N ~ c ~ Nl be borne in mind that these products vary with temperature and the ionic strength of the solution.it is essential to take into account the [CO. When the mineral concentration of water is very low. the [SO. [HCO?]values are above normal when the water is in contact with CO. or rC1. Thus an extremely. T h e dissolution of sulphates. gives extremely high concentration of SO.]. to its time of contact with the rock. HCO.) which always have a tendency to oxidize. pressure in the ambient air is only 0. rSO.
/rCL.rHCO. Bl. T h e chlorine-alkali imbalance is apparent at once. from the inclination of the ih t connecting lines.Geochemistry o groundwater f rSQ. a d nrMg Ca Ca Mg + r - C1. Analyses and graphs expressed in percentages are therefore to be strictly avoided. n rSQ. Thus the water from petroleum-bearing formations is characterized by high absolute HCO. 651-57. 1935./Cl ratio tends to vary either w a y as a very small addition of very large variation in the ratio. e. r--. rNa/Mg. t.][Ca] remains fixed and since the SO. and rC1. rHCO. rSO. c1 . are taken off the milliequivalent values of each of these elements (fig.r N a + 2 K are entered successively from bottom to top and i the right-hand column likewise. P r o m the ordinate. S c ul o . In the lefthand column the values of rCa.rNa/Ca. + rCO. Moreover. graduated on a logarithmic scale. However. the curves wl fall one above the other on the paper. T h e n if the types of water under examination differ i composition.. the ratios of the elements in a given type of water to each other. and expresses either the existence of a n inherent imbalance. particularly of NaC1. the presentation of analyses as percentile values cannot be suitable as i involves the loss of the pointers provided by the absolute values. pret n sentation i this form is liable to conduce to false interpretations. or C1 causes a rMg/rCa Is also often characteristic of a body of groundwater.Schoeller.N a c1 Is the index of chlorine-alkali imbalance. rSO. type. r?uIg/rCa. 1 Semi-logarithmic paper is used. H.Na . from bottom to top. hs Graphs and Tables T h e most suitable graphs and tables are the following: Collins's comparative table. T i leads to the question of h o w the conversion is to be effected. in water from crystalline rocks. more particularly those elements which are deemed characteristic or of prime importance. the Mg and C a contents generally increase with increasing SO. W must accordingly keep to analyses showing the anions and cations in grammes e or milligrammes per litre or kilogramme and then convert into milliequivalents. 13) and the points thus plotted are joined by straight lines. The semi-logarithmic graph. n il w h e n the straight line joining the points for t w o elements A and B i one type of n water is parallel to that joining points for the same t w o elements A' and B' i another n n 'B. m la cornparaison des eau= souterraineo vndoses'. T h e abscissa is scaled arithmetically and the radicals rCa. + rCOB. often brings Mg and C a with i . rMg.g. the ratio of these elements is the s a m e i either case: A/B = A / ' W t this type of graph i is also possible to determine. Other values which are also t often extremely significant  are Na Na Na r--. r C1. 5. values. pp. 69 . Fr. (5). then. SO. But a n analysis or graph reducing the milliequivalents to percentages would suggest that these values were very low simply because water from petroleumbearing formations normally has a very high concentration of salts. 1. arranged along i from left to right at regular intervals. each equal to one-tenth of the value t of the total concentration. rC1. rNa. Clearly. and C1 contents since [CO. T h e table consists of t w o parallel columns. or a base exchange. ' t l t de la notion dee 6chanEeo de bases p Uii€ gPo2. rMg.
Arid sone hydrology 70 .
2 Scale of k . calculation of tensions. Logarithmic scale of solubilities. 2H. 1. 3.O for various ionic strengths and various temperatures.Geochemistry o groundwater f 1 3 FIG.. Scale of solubility of CaSO. 4. . 71 . Scale of kr as a function of ionic strength and of temperature. Scale of equilibrium pH. 14.
Arid zone hydrology also possible to find whether the solubility products have been reached. For instance, for the product [SO,] [Ca], all that is needed is to join the points rSO, and rCa by a straight line: if the straight line cuts the vertical CaSO, (located half-way between rSO, and rCa) below the point of saturation S, saturation has not been reached. On the other hand, if the point of intersection i above S, there is supers saturation. T h e position of S on the vertical i such that: s
1 1 s = - log (rSO,)(&a) = - log (4[S04][Ca]) X 10-O 2 2
[SO,][Ca] = K, of the solubility product.
For the solubility of Co,Ca, w e work the equation
A straight line is then drawn between rHCO,and rCa cutting a vertical erected at apoint between rHC0T and rCA one third of the distance between the two from rHC03 and two-thirds from rCa. If the point of intersection falls below kr, there is no saturation. If i is above kr, there is supersaturation. Allowance w l , of course, be m a d e t il for temperature and ionic strength. For further details the reader is referred to .
T H E C H E M I C A L C O M P O S I T I O N OF T H E W A T E R IN U N D E R G R O U N D S T R A T A
Rules can be deduced from the examinations m a d e of the chemical composition of subsurface water: 1. Water from rocks of the same petrographic nature, whatever their respective ages or whatever the nature of the storage i them m a y exhibit c o m m o n characteristics. n Thus with water from limestones w e shall usually find rCQ, > rSO,or rC1 and rCa > rMg or rNa; water from pure sandstones and sands and water from crystalline il n rocks w l have a slight dry residue, and combined CO,below normal; water i contact with clay or marl materials will have a high dry residue and a sufficiently higher proportion of rC1 and r N a to give rC1 or rSO, > rCO, and r N a > rMg or &a; water from gypseous formations wl have high dry residue and rSO, > rCO,. il Nevertheless, water from rocks of the same petrographic nature will not necessarily exhibit exactly the same chemical composition with identical characteristic proportions i all cases: chemical differences are produced by differences i the n n quality of the replenishment, in the length of transit through the aquifer and i n climate. 2. Water from formations of the same petrographic nature, of the same age and i n the same region usually has c o m m o n characteristics, and is m u c h more closely akin than water coming from formations of the same petrographic nature but of different ages and belonging to different groundwater systems. 3. Nevertheless, the water from t w o separate bodies in the same geological horizon m a y differ i chemical composition even if they l e side by side. T h e greater the n i distance between groundwater bodies, the greater the likelihood of their presenting chemical differences. T h e recharge water m a y differ chemically, or the facies m a y n n change from point to point, or trajectories i the separate systems m a y differ i length, with consequent variations i the characteristic ratios. Again, i some n n groundwater systems the main circulation m a y be through the heart of the actual n aquifer, and i others via the interface between the aquifer and the upper or lower confining bed, which is another source of differences in chemical composition.
Geochemistry of groundwater
4 On the other hand, waters from the same system i the same geological formation . n
have relatively constant chemical characteristics which are m u c h more so than those of the water from two separate systems even coming from the same horizon n from petrographically identical rocks i it of the same age and even with the same substratum.
T H E PROGRESSIVE C H A N G E S IN CHEMICAL A SINGLE G R O U N D W A T E R B O D Y 1
It should not be imagined that the chemical composition of the water i a groundn water reservoir remains constant from the point of entry to the point of exit. On the n s contrary, i moat cases there i a distinct chemical evolution. First and foremost, w e f n an increase i the total mineral concentration through id n n the dissolution of further quantities of salts. Naturally,the increase i the total mineran lization i the more appreciable, i proportion as trajectory and time of contact s .. are longer, and rate of flow slower and as the rock pores are smaller, i e the waterrock interface more extensive. T i general increase wl largely govern the other changes. hs il C Thus, generally speaking, the ratio of rSO, to r 1 decreases from the head of the system downstream: as the speed at which a salt is dissolved is proportionate to the saturation deficit, chlorides are dissolved faster than alkali earth sulphates. Obviously if an aquifer is rich i sulphates and relatively poor in chlorides,the oppon site happens and the ratio of rSO, to rC1 rises. But the concentration rises increasingly down the course of the aquifer and SO, soon reaches saturation; after that the ratio C of rSO, to r 1 is bound to decline. The ratio rMg/rCa usually tends to diminish downstream. In the first place, the increase of C a by dissolution of C0,Ca stops almost immediately as the waters are quickly saturated.Further CaSO, dissolves less rapidly than MgSO, and MgC1,. The index of disequilibrium also changes downstream from the recharge area. n It m a y be positive to begin with i the zone of replenishment, diminish progressively and finally become negative, reaching progressively higher negative values as the n water moves further downstream. However, i certain cases,when the chlorine concentration becomes very high, generally above 500 millicquivalents, the ion exchange index becomes positive again. The intensity of these phenomena becomes progresn sively greater i proportion as the duration of the contact between water and rock i more extended. In other words, the intensity of the exchange depends not only s on the length of trajectory but also on the slowness of ebb and the magnitude of the water-rock interface. The sulphate reduction which m a y take place if there i organic matter present i s s also progressively more complete as the length of contact is greater. However, the aquifer is not invariably homogeneous throughout its whole extent. It i thus perfectly possible that water runlets underground quite near together but s n moving through different materials m a y dissolve elements i different proportions n and hence diverge i chemical composition. n n s Lastly, the water circulating i an aquifer usually moves i ‘channel lines’ and i rarely i active motion throughout the whole mass of the aquifer. A a result the n s runlets can develop individual characteristics,and mixing is checked so that complete n homogeneity of the water i storage becomes impossible. In conclusion, a word should be said on what happens when a free water-tablerises sharply to or near the soil surface (depths of less than 2 m.or even less than 1 m ) .. In this case, particularly i arid regions, there wl be progressive concentration by n il
1. H SchocUer. ‘Lesvariations de la composition chimique de l’eau dane les nappes souterraines’, Association internationals . Ghydralogia scientifique, Assernbk d’Oslo. 1948. pp. 130-44.
Arid zone hydrology
evaporation because of the vertical circulation of the water alternately rising by capillarity and descending by infiltration. The dry residue wl increase and concuril il rently rSO,/rCl will diminish and rMg/rCa wl increase as S0,Ca and C0,Ca are precipitated. To get an accurate picture of the chemical evolution of groundwater it is advantageous to plot on maps the isocones or curves of equal concentration, isochlores or curves of equal C content, and similar curves for equal values of rSO,/Cl, rMg/rCa, 1 C1- N a r etc.
ZONATIONS REFLECTED GROUNDWATER
As w e
have seen, the mineral content of water can be increased by chemical action or by time dissolution. W h a t happens i this respect and to what extent depends n on the nature of the geological formation,as CaCl is dissolved m u c h faster than SO,Ca, and limestones yield to chemical attack faster than crystalline or crystallophylean rocks. The degree of concentration of the water is thus determined not only by the length of trajectory,and by the duration of its contact with the rock,but also by the n nature of the rock. W e thus get essentially geological factors i operation. n n The chemistry of the solute i the water depends on what the rock contains i the w a y of substances which can be dissolved or attacked chemically and additionally on the possibilities afforded for certain secondary reactions i the strata, e.g. base n exchanges when there are permutolites,such as certain clays,glauconite,etc., sulphate reduction when organic matter is present. These again are essentiaIly geological factors. As types of geological strata are distributed by recognized sedimentation zones, it follows that areas can be found yielding groundwater of broadly similar quality. Thus there are some areas where the water has a low calcium content, light dry residue,etc., and is usually chemically active. These areas coincide with areas of crystalline rock or very pure siliceous sand, e.g. the Landes sands of France and the dune sands of the Sahara. Alongside these areas there will be others where the water is, say, highly sulphated and chlorated, corresponding to outcrops of the Triassic. There will thus be some degree of zonation by geology.
The rate of circulation of groundwater becomes progressively slower and its displacement by water of other types (water oi infiltration from the surface particularly)
less as its depth below the surface increases. In proportion as aquifers are at greater depths, leaching i less and the retention s s of the water can be more prolonged. It i a legitimate inference that the concentration of salts i the water increases with depth below the surface and this has long been n n confirmed by observation notably i the petroliferous basins (Rogers 1917, Minor 1934, Torrey 1934, Case 1934 in ). W e therefore get a degree of vertical zonation. Hence, in the natural course of things, as the depth increases the composition of the water wl change and the predominant component wl be converted from caril il sequence bonate-bicarbonateto chlorine at the lowest level by the Ignatovitch-Souline n quoted i Siline-Bektchourinewhich follows:
SOT --f SOT + SOPCI- + Cl-SOP
30 C 75 .59 Constant ralio curvc Cl 1 TSO notio rC1 4 e :m a p of rMg/rCa ratios OM . rllx Conslaut ralio curve TCa m g Ratio TCa a 11. aao e 0. a :m a p of the isocones 4367 Dry residue Isopiezonietrir r u n e Constant dry rrsidue curve I W b : m a p of rSOl/rClratios 150. Mornag aquifer (Tunisia) 15.Geochemistry o groundwater f a b FIG.
t . n and CaSO. 1934. 267-89.Bull. 1941. gypseous and even saline crusts. Soc... the n Sahara and other arid regions differs from that of groundwater in cold or temperate regions. 76 . and progressively lower from the Sahara on to the Equator. ‘L’inlluencc du climat sur la composition chimique des eau= souterraines’. i e i circulating systems. i the water.. It increases the concentrations of chlorides and sulphides and hence the dry residue i the soil water and the ascent of water by capillarity from greater depths to m a k e n n good. the losses from above results i a definite accompanying rise of salts towards the surface.2 W e n o w have to consider what are the climatic factors exerting this influence and h o w they operate. on the t edge of the desert w e find calcareous tuff appearing first on the temperate side of the line whereas the crusts are gypseous on the desert side since this mineral needs a higher degree of concentration to precipitate. whence the NaCl .as the writer’s o w n researches have demonstrated. is the first to be precipitated since. T h e chief of them is the rainfall. i is always very near saturation. loc. that the chemical composition of water from springs and wells i Africa. i is well known. hs s n W h e n evaporation becomes very high. howil s ever. T h e sulphate chlorine and chlorine sulphate combinations normally c o m e in the intermediate zone of retarded flow while the chlorine type i found i the zone of s n ultra-slow circulation. and m a y be disorganized by geological. the salts i solution m a y reach supersatun ration and precipitation to form calcareous. 5. H. Concentration increases proportionately with evaporation potential. Zonation b Climate y W have seen that concentration m a y occur as a result of evaporation and that. the chloride and sulphate contents and dry residues should become progressively higher going from France southwards to the Sahara.1 T h e first three types are found is the upper zone of brisk groundwater circulation. Hence. according to the severity of the water loss.Schoeller. Fr. affected by basically climatic factors introducing a measure of zonation. pp. s Evaporation also has a marked effect on the chemical composition of water. Schoeller. as e i increases. i l Since rainfall is progressively lower as w e m o v e from the temperate to the tropical zone. n Thus the amount of unleached soluble salts in the soil and the concentration of the solution w h e n they are dissolved w l vary inversely with the height of the rainfall. i solution. more or less. and secondly. T i i clearly observable i tropical and sub-tropicalregions. primarily. t firstly. CaCO. zonation factors. Concentration is particularly marked after rainfall too light to penetrate to the 1. Hence. () t. the more arid the climate. 2. H. It i . This i what w e actually do find. For the CaCO. Naturally.And zone hydrology T i is a straightforward schema of the variation in chemical composition with hs increasing concentration. gkol. the higher the mineralization of groundwater. increasing again from the latter zone onward to the equatorial. T i i proof hs s that climate influences water’s chemical composition. XI. the process i different: its solubility n s i very low and its interaction i dependent on the intervention of a factor quite diss s connected with the rainfall. i e as air temperature rises and air moisture falls. It also increases in inverse proportion to rainfall. that mountain water is purer than plain water. the nature of the solution’s chemical composition changes entirely. namely the amount of free CO. Although research on zonation by climate has so far been scanty. the zonation o n this basis is influenced by climatic. cit. T h e mechanism of the concentration process wl be discussed later. Rain leaches the soil and carries the most soluble salts into the surface and subsurface.
Lastly.cnrbouique des eaux souterrames en fonction d e l a t t d ' . For i l lack of a surface run-offit is the exception for this water to go from the springs direci to the sea. il down to the water-table and it w l emerge. at values. Paris. at 15oC. 230.1 T h e relatively constant value of bicarbonates i water is a consequence of the relatively constant n pressure of CO. and SO. Mg. T h e author has traced the evolution of the chemistry of water from the temperate d o w n to the equatorial regions and the following are his conclusions with regard to the various elements. which is precisely what i used for the values of HCO. of 2-8 milliequivalents n only. with some dilution. T h e progressive increase i the HCO. and accordingly.found. according to climate. the essential factor i the chemical breakdown of the minerals. still mineralized. . the bicarbonates remain steady n between very narrow limits. T h e effects of evaporation thus reinforce those of low rainfall. followed by a progressive decrease towards the desert (Sahara) and the equatorial regions. The solution of the bicarbonates is m a d e possible by the solution i water of infiln tration of the CO. T h e more abundant n the vegetation and the more vigorous the micro-organisms i the soil the greater wl n il be the quantity of CO. Sei. when-given specially strong evaporation-it becomes progressively higher as salts are alternately leached out of the soil by infiltrating rain and returned towards the surface i solution and concenn trated..005 and 0. with a subsequent decrease in the equatorial belt. There is a strong probability that the southerly rise in bicarbonates as far as the steppe area begins back in the Arctic. Vegetation becomes more abundant and the micro-organisms more vigorous as air temperature and rainfall rise (up to certain optima. of course). . the bicarbonate content i all formations shows a very gradual n rise southward from the temperate zone d o w n to the central Tunisian steppe region where it is at a m a x i m u m . Nevertheless. Dy r residue. as w l as being a key factor in the evaporation process. it controls the activity of the soil microorganisms and the combustion of organic matter which produces carbonic acid gas. 'liue. or selenitic water w t a high dry residue whereas i e ih n temperate regions mineralization w l be low. 'Les variations de la teneur en gaz. A gradual increase i the dry residue i h s t observable southwards from n s the temperate regions d o w n to the Sahara. 1950.06. C1. i the soil a r of topsoils proper. 77 . 560-1. in conjunction with humidity. n i In cultivable soils the partial pressure of CO. produced. i 75 per cent of cases. is also el of great importance in the chemical processes at work. pp. the higher its pressure and hence the larger the bicarbonate content. from the springs. Na. since a comparable downhill increase is found all the w a y from mountain crests to plains. t. Acad. to be produced on a significant scale. ie. In particular it assists the chemical breakdown of silicates and accelerates the ordinary dissolution process. Thus the bicarbonate content of water is definitely modified either w a y by climatic influences. C R. 1 H Schoeller. 2. Bicarbonates. Whereas water from all types of formation exhibits definite variations i Ca. i l T h e temperature. in the soil air which comes exclusively from the biological activity and the decomposition of organic matter i the topsoil itself.5-7 milliequivalents s . . content from north to south as far as the n Tunisian steppes is due to rising temperature in combination with sufficient humidity for CO. usually varies between 0.Geochemistry of groundwater water-table and merely soaking the surface layers. in tropical regions w get saline. Only heavy rain wl carry this highly mineralized water. silicates and carbonates n in the rock.
Arid zone hydrology FIG. 1951). (In She-Bektchourine . 1 Zone of siliceous bicarbonate waters. 5. M a p of the hydrochemical zones of the European part of Russia. after Garmonov. Zone of calcic bicarbonate waters. 4 Sub-zone of continental saline waters. . .16. Zone of calcic bicarbonate waters i the mountains of Crimea and in n the Caucasus.Zone of predominantly sulphated and chloridic waters. ?-3. wA 2. 78 .
2. Mg and Na. the evolutionary sequence m a y be disorganized by geological factors. not with HCO. 1. (d) evaporation of underground water from the soil surface. in SilineBek. 1 ) 1. linked with chlorine and t id 1 hence varies with i and w e f n the C content increasing gradually from the temperate zone down to the desert region. In the equatorial areas on the other hand. the northern coast of the Kola peninsula.and chloride-bearing groundwater becoming identifiable i Southern Russia below the above boundary line within which an n inland saline-i.chourine .. south i is soil moisture.. such as large amounts of gypsum in the sediments of the desert areas or of sodium chloride in some formations in the temperate zones. 3. with the Arctic Circle as its approximate southern limit. The processes contributing to the mineralization of groundwater are likely n n to be: ( ) dissolution of the salts i the soil.1 s To summarize Garmonov’s argument. the whole of the Kanin peninsula and the littoral eastwards.S. n il Thus i going from the temperate zone to the desert Ca wl increase. n n The same climatic influence i the zonation of groundwater i the chemical types i revealed by the zonation m a p published by Garmonov. n l Further south i the equatorial regions w e again get very low quantities of a l three cations. Ca. the rSO. usually markedly lower than rHCO.This is undoubtedly due to intensive leaching of all formations by the heavy rainfall.Nu. North of the steppes region t the controlling factor is temperature. the rate of dissolution being proportional to the saturation deficit. A zone of silico-bicarbonategroundwater coinciding with the Tundra region. The combination of higher evaporation n n and lower rainfall i bound to cause concentrations of salts which are the greater i s proportion as the salts are non-soluble. but with SO. That C should increase more rapidly than SO. n 6: Garmonov distinguishes four zones i European Russia (fig. they increase rapidly towards the Sahara.S. A zone of calcium bicarbonate water comprising the whole of central Russia and bounded approximately to the south by the line Mogilev-Dnepropetrovsk-KharkovPensa-Ulyanovsk-Taschly . Whereas i temperate zones. Germonov.R.. V. A HCO. 1948. Sodium is. and rC1 contents are extremely Z n low. i e .e. increases more slowly than C . and C ions. Mg. broadly speaking. Ca.w e f n the Mg/Ca ratios becoming higher i proportion as the sulphate id n concentrations are greater. Mg follows the same course as Ca and for the same reasons but tends to increase more rapidly. A zone of predominantly sulphate. n is due to declining soil moisture and lack of vegetation. despite the continued rise i temperature.and C figures. as a result of intense leaching by the heavy rains. it i the variations of the latter 1 s i l which w l cause those of the cations. though SO. Volume 111.. basically chloride-bearing-sub-zone can be distinguished overlying the region east of the Caspian and the depression on its northern shore. However. I. The anion modifications involve corresponding cation changes. (b) leaching of the salts i the rock formaa tions i which phreatic water circulates. 79 ..often below those for water 1 in the temperate zones. w e again get extremely low SO. U. and C . 1 The explanation lies i the climatic factors. f Academy of Sciences. s varies negligibly compared with the SO. he maintains that the quality of phreatic water vanes with the zonation of types of climate and overburden and other changing factors.i therefore 1 s normal. SO. F r o m the steppe region onward both of them are higher than rHCO.Geochemistry of groundwater The decrease southwards to the Sahara. *Zonation of types of phreatic water i the European section of the Union of Soviet Socialiet Republim’ n Innutigalions o the Hydrogeological Research Laboratory. ( ) aeolian transport of additional salts from n c elsewhere.
as against brackish. with mineralization higher il i proportion as the underground trajectory is longer-which amounts to what w e n have already seen. 80 . Naturally the climatic zonation m a y be disorganized locally by geological conditions. It thus emerges that there is a primary ‘macrozonation’ on purely climatic lines exclusive of any geological factors and governed solely by the relative acidity. water. I. there i another inland saline zone. T h e principal t factors however are unconnected with the composition of the rocks. It accordingly reflects conditions so general as to tend to override the other zonation factors. 8. SILINE-BEKTCHOURINE O N T H E B U I L D . e. the type of water changing from the north southward from carbonate through chlorosulphate to chloride. that the concentration of the groundwater solution varies with the length of time water and rock are i contact.Arid zone hydrology 4 A calcareous-carbonate zone i the mountain area of the Crimea and Caucasus.U P O F T H E C O N T E N T O F G R O U N D W A T E R IN A R I D R E G I O N S CHEMICAL A. T h e mountains of the Caucasus and the Crimea merely represent a n enclave of intruded northern-type water in the south. T h e chemistry of groundwater is influenced to some extent by the formations through which i moves. 1934.5. Kounine thus gives striking confirmation of what has already been indicated.8 m.. Within this framework of zonation by climate. In short he is describing a n effect of concentration of which the end result is a type of water approximating chemically to sea water. KOUNINE ON TEE CHEMISTRY OF WATER IN DESERTS An outline of Russian work wl not be without value here.1 In saline. s In a word Russia exhibits the same zonations as described earlier. i contributes some general il t ideas. n Further south.5. Lastly some vertical zonation i everywhere found.with a north-south variation in the quality of groundwater. cit. . H e also notes that the lower the n salinity of water the greater the variety of its chemical composition and conversely the greater the salinity of the water the less varied its composition and the greater its approximation to a standard type. due to the circumstance that the s speed of circulation of groundwater declines progressively with increasing depth. T h e distinguishing criteria principally applicable are the higher or lower levels of concentration or dilution of the water. evaporation within the aquifer which gradually increases the concentration and produces chemical changes.5 and 10. n 1 H. on the basis of laboratory experiments conducted with monolithic samples of rock. however. and has some illustrative value. there m a y occur cases of geological zonation with variations in the chemistry of the water caused by the nature of the rock. T h e geological considerations are. Kounine points out that the shorter the distance from the recharge area to the groundwater reservoir the less saline the water wl be. . the most typical mineral element is NaCl and often CaCl. i the low-lying area of trans-Caun casia.g.5. loc. Siline-Bektchourine  has carried out a n interesting experiment ‘On the problem of the build-up of the chemical content of phreatic water in arid regions’. particularly during the first stages of mineralization. merely special factors introducing irregularities into the m u c h broader climatic zonations. Schoeller. extracted i the Caspian coastal plain at depths of 2. Thus what Kounine  has to tell us about the formation of groundwater in deserts confirms the conclusions already reported. according to Priklonski’s data. 4. 6.
71 % 1.037 0.036 0.31 2. T h e Achtuba water is sulphato-chloride with r N a > rC1.27 15. .054 0. . . With the first water paased through. m. the filtrate from that through the next sample and so on. .5 10. . .070 1. .25 % 1. . . .5 6.5 8. rC1 > tNa.062 0.5 1. . . .057 0. . . .247 As proportions of the total.150 0.8 % % 1.5 m. .070 0.90 6.level. .5 4.278 0. rNa > rC1.90 1. .044 0.5 6.006 TOTAL . .5. in each instance with water from the hs Achtuba.90 1.Geochemistry o groundwater f H e placed part of each sample in a kind of permeameter and then passed fresh water from the river Achtuba (a branch of the lower Volga). . . . 9.47 4.56 HCO.075 0.0.041 0.78 T h e chemical composition of the Achtuba water in milliequivalents per litre is as follows: HCOi so.level. .45 1.30 - 2. .15 2. .79 0. .26 4. having been greater than 1 in the first two samples.08 TOTAL .64 3. .033 HCO.050 0. after the ratio rSO. .20 0. . n 6 8 1 .150 0. . . .31 2. .918 0.037 0. 0.0 8. .077 0. ca so.97 21.5 4. o dissolved minerals in the aqueousfiltrate f Depth i metrea n 2. . 0. .002 0.12 47. decreases.14 1. . .35 c1 ca M g - Na Total 0.56 15. . whereas at 10 m. level. . T h e resulting filtratewas then passed through the next sample from the 5.077 0. in milliequivalents per litre. . and is less than 1 i the remainder. . ..037 0. . 2.93 3.28 1. . . T i operation was repeated three times. .02 4. .033 0.066 0. there is initially an overall rise of concentration with each sample percolated d o w n to and including that from the 6 5 m. . .211 0.41 1. . .21 % 1.51 16.046 0. . .016 x 0. through the &st f o the rm 2.70 0. ./rCI.32 4. 08 % % 0.420 % 0. .074 0. . .072 0. Mg Na . c1 .56 2. so. .012 0.52 3.5 8.400 % 0.34 2. . .Ot 2. . .96 2.65 7.90 It wl be noted that the water extract is sulfato-chloride at the top level and chloroil sulphate at depth and that d o w n to 85 m. . . There. T h e chemical composition of the water extracts from the soil was as follows: In percentages of tho dry weight of the sample Dmth i metres n 2. C 1 Ca Mg Na .411 .009 0.04 1 . . Q .
. .R./rCl and rise i r n with increasing At the third c1 are n o w greater.07 + 68. .I. with increasing magnitude. . content. so./rCl becomes less than 1 c1 creases with depth but similarly only becomes positive at increased depths. . in m y view.2 + 323. . i samples 2 and 3.44 + 19. . . at the third filtration and remains negative at the same level during the fourth. . and exchanges base with the so-called permutolites.38 - 1. Bektchourine also introduces substitution reactions. . .16 $. S i Paris. the same processes are observed.5 m. C. .5 m. ~ depth. d o w n C1.54 + 145. However.5 and 6.5 m. . . In reality then reactions can only be taken into consideration if there is precipitation. . . .5 m.68 + 2. The relative decrease of the SO. 1951.00 With the second filtration the end solution was less mineralized but the phenomena occurring were on the same lines: (a) progressive decrease of the ratio rSO. u c. . In a word. the successive percolations leach the formations and as the process is repeated it brings the composition of the water at depth into increasing approximation to that of the water at the higher level.5 snd 4. The [SO.5 m. + 15. n T h e elements i the solution showed the following rises: n Between 2. .' 1. a general fall C1. the fact that rC1-rNa.80 + 3.5 m. the rCl/Na or rCl/Na c1 ratio is found to change from negative i the first n sample to positive. . for the third filtration. . ~ c1 and fourth filtrations. c1. it would be better to work from the solubility products. EI.N a of concentrations at all levels. ./rCl from greater than 1 d o w n to the 6. . . . drop in rSO. depth downwards at the second filtration and reduced rate of increase from the same depth at the third and fourth liltrations are more likely due to the fact that the solubility product [SO. rises increasingly as the depth grows greater and even becomes positive.Arid zone hydrology Similarly. - 1. As the N a content of the solution increases it ceases to be i equilibrium with that of the permutolite. SiIine-Bektchourineshows.(b) increase i n C1.N a into 10 m. .][Ca] has been reached or nearly so as a result of Ca increases through base exchanges. . . .63. As A. 82 . . is less readily dissolved than NaCl and I also think that the decrease in the absolute value of SO. .07 + 57. . 1432-34. . . infiltrating water both picks up salts by dissolution. W e then get an exchange of N a from the solution against Ca from the permutolite.N a the ratio r from negative d o w n to 6.. But the depths at which rSO.69 + 19. . HCQF . . . . Again. . indicates a similar trend which can be correlated with the overall increase in the concentration in the water. 'Relation entre la concentration en chlore des eanx souterrsines et le8 6changes de bases avec les teneinm q i les renfcrment'. . Schoeller. 10. depth to positive beyond that. . . . . . which is initially negative. . . . .83 + 25. Mg . . as the same phenomenon is observable when the filtrates from successive leachings of the same n sample are compared.04 TOTAL . . pp. Between 4. . In the fourth it remains greater than 1. Acad. .] [Ca] solubility product is undoubtedly a major factor. Na . from the 8. is due to the fact that CaSO.. C a . t 232. level to less than 1 at 8 and 10 m. .54 + 12.
e. Stage 2 1. 1 T h e same qualification as before applies. SO.] solution +colloidZNa. miving with the water of the water-table. as actually happens i Tunisia. Bektchourine. and other salts by the water of infiItration. 2. or even of CaSO. MgCO. In most cases precipitation of CaCO. but the salinity of the groundwater wl rise progressively il 83 ..(Mg)S04 + Ca (HCOa). SO4] M g s M g [ H O ) . Substitution reaction: CaCI. Ca [(HCOJ... 2 NaCl + Ca (Mg)? Ca (Mg)CI. = Nap(Mg)C . In particular the exchange of N a f o solution against colloidal Ca m a y occur i cerrm n tain instances i the first stage. Base exchanges. n n However the basic three-stage sequence remains valid: dissolution. Ca solution colloid or infrequently: Ca [(HCOJ. Obviously this sequence is only true for geological formations and water comparable with those under consideration. and elsewhere the order of the phenomena differs. which discounts chemical reactions and considers only the conjunctions of ions. CaCO. m a y be brought about increase of the Ca content through base exchanges...] +colloid Na. Substitution reaction: NaM)HO) a(g(Csa + = Na.SO. + CaSO.Geochemistry of groundwater Thus m y o w n approach to these phenomena. Siline-Bektchourine’s work exhibits the build up of water’s chemical content as a three-stage process: Stage I 1. by not to be considered unless there is precipitation of CaCO. 291 FEATURES OF DESERTS AND SEMI- As w have just seen the chemical composition of the water i deserts and semi-deserts e n depends on the geographical conditions which are themselves affected by the hydroil geological situation. S O M E GENERAL GEOCHEMICAL D E S E R T S [17. Concentration of solutions. Sweet water wl be found immediately below mountains or on the edges of closed basins. differs somewhat from that of Mr.SO. 2 Base exchanges: . solution 3. CaSO. (Mg)SO.. + 2Na z solution colloid solution caUoid 3 . [(HCOa). concentration.g. + Na. Dissolution of NaCl.. Stage 3 M x n of the water of infiltration with that of the water-table with reactions described iig as substitutions but in fact due to the attainment of solubility products.] + Ca f (C.
in certain cases. n Contemporary hydrogeological phenomena are not by themselves an adequate clue to the geochemistry of groundwater in deserts and semi-deserts. n . Consideration must also be given to the effects of the rising and sinking of continents (and palaeogeographical conditions). but w h e n it is subjected to evapo-transpirationbefore it can reach the depths. Palaeogeographical conditions undoubtedly have their importance too: cold and rainy periods w l have favoured the storage of sweet. salt. of the types of water found which m a y be sweet. the processes of leaching and desalination of the rocks have produced a reduction of the salt content not only i streams and closed basins but also n of the sub-surface stored water. super-or ultra-sal. Infiltrations from surface water or direct from rainfall m a y represent an addition of sweet water to the underground reservoir. On the other hand when the land mass sank the opposite effect has been produced: the rocks have been impregnated with salts and salts n have increased i the groundwater. salt and ultra salt subsurface water often occur in close mutual proximity. It is also apparent that the physicd conditions productive of accumulations of sweet. have been held i deep-lying aquifers until our o w n day. W t the geological time required by the passage of water through the major ih reservoirs both types of water from that period may. chemically. ni T h e chemistry of the water also depends on the nature of the rocks and the duration of the water’s passage through them. dry periods that of saline i l water. Another factor affecting it is the m o d e of recharge of the aquifer. and hot. the ratio wl become first slightly brackish and then increasingly saltier il u t l it reaches supersaturation at the centre. working in from the perimeter.Arid zone hydrology as the distance from either locality increases. there wl be an increase in minil eralization. There are examples both in the Russian deserts and i the Sahara where the so-called Albian sweet water n horizon is found under saline water i the late Tertiary and Quaternary formations. In those arid regions which underwent general upheaval i n the Quaternary epoch. Thus in closed basins. Again zonation by depth does not always follow the rules: sweeter water can sometimes be found in deep-lying confined horizons than on the surface. Thus a feature of desert hydrogeology is clearly the variety.
most often.e. Measuring the velocity of groundwater flow: this time the requirement is to calculate the time taken by the tracer to go from one point to another. Their uses are as follows: 1.. Measuring discharge: a known quantity of water containing a tracer at known concentration is introduced into the current upstream and the concentration of the tracer i the stream is determined at a point lower down. i e . Determining whether or not particular formations are permeable: observations are m a d e of the spread. i must remain readily i suspension or be highly soluble. i a groundwater reservoir: the tracer is n injected into a central well and a watch is kept at a series of other wells sunk in a circle around this to see where the tracer wl emerge. is not as simple as i seems at first.g. It must not be subject to decomposition or precipitation i the water either of the n injection mixture or of the underground reservoirs.just any substance wl not do as a tracer: certain specific qualities are required. 3.microcirculation of water i aquifers. 4. of a tracer beyond the point of injection. Determining the direction of flow. .radioactive tracers n Tracers have long been employed on an appreciable scale i hydrology to study the n flow of underground water. the tracer must either not be present or at worst be present only i minute quantities i the underground reservoir or water currents SO n n that useful differences i concentration between the points of injection and the points n of measurement can be obtained. t n It must be easily transported by the water. if any.. making this a quantitative operation which as w e shall see. t 5.. With respect to the water.C H A P T E R V Types of tracer. n CHARACTERISTICS OF AN IDEAL TRACER Clearly. its amount must be easy to determine even w h e n its concentration i the water is very low: i wl always be greatly diluted at n t il the observation point. 85 . 2. Determining whether there is direct communication between one point and another: a tracer is dropped into the groundwater reservoir or discharge system at the upper end and its reappearance is watched for lower d o w n at those points where i is t thought that i wl arrive. il Its appearance and even. a n operation of similar il type to that just described. i is thus a purely qualitative investigation with no t il t time values involved.
M. i must not cause n t dangerous contamination of the water under examination. B. Nevertheless they have certain faults. Nor. those suspended from surface floats at a predetermined depth-are s i l less usable than the buoyant type as their bulk is s i l greater. a brief account of the solids. THE VARIETIES OF NON-RADIOACTIVE TRACER Until recent years the tracers used were solids transported by the water. particularly w h e n the concentration i high s 86 . and tracers are necessarily used i high concentrations. almost all of t h e m detectable i extremely low concentrations. chemicals easily soluble and easily detectable. Soluble Chemical Tracers T h e great advantage of chemical tracers i that i i easy to come by highly soluble s t s kinds which accordingly really ‘marry’ the water transporting them and i m a n y n n cases. must they be liable to become fixed on the water-rock contact surfaces i any of the aquifer’s component rocks. at the time of injection. the tracers of the future are probably the radioactive types. n A very wide variety of solids have been used as tracers-oat chaff. particularly beyond a reasonable time. S o m e of them have a short n half-life. t n Finally. tl tl Suspended tracers are more easily transported by the water and are therefore usable n particularly in well-fissured rocks. and not the m e a n velocity.the tracer must be neither absorbed. aceti). starch grains which are easily detectable with iodine.Arid zone hydrology It must be i m m u n e to destruction by micro-organisms during its underground trajectory. and above all dyes s i l detectable by eye even tl l greatly diluted.prodigiosus. chemicals and dyes used as tracers. Al have rendered great service and each has its advantages but also its defects. N o w . for they too are not perfect. Solid Tracers Solid tracers are divisible into three types: buoyant. which is extremely useful for some purposes. which is the most important. detectable on emergence i sufficiently high concentration by chemical tests or even by measurements of electric conductivity. i must be sufficiently nont poisonous to involve no danger. the rock must not release i too slowly-as this would m a k e tests i short-intervalseries impossible. They need to be able to stay i suspension indefinitely and to be small enough themselves not to be held back by rock pores and cracks. yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. non-buoyant and suspended.really large fissures are necessary. There follows. i must be easily obtainable at low cost . i must not react chemically with the porous medium. speedy and low-cost routine techniques. t F r o m the user’s angle. first of all. M. the size of which is accordingly the essential consideration for or against the use of these tracers. This wl m a k e i possible to form a better idea of the qualities of the radioactive il t tracers and of their defects. Buoyant tracers floating on the surface only give the surface rate of flow which is the fastest.e. bran. under normal conditions of use.pyocyaneus.e. t T h e ‘contamination’of the rock by i must not be too prolonged-i. Saccharomyces mycoderma) and bacteria (B. Finally. For them to be carried along at a l n l satisfactorily. Submerged tracers-i. the long half-lifeof others is a considerable advantage in the study of water movements of very long duration. if very finely pulverized. In addition the il n near certainty that they wl get j a m m e d makes t h e m unsuitable for use i groundwater even i the average limestone formation. In reference to the rock-formation.its use must involve t only simple. adsorbed or trapped by the rock pores.violacetus.
which has a solubility of 2. l veniences due to the density of the solution already mentioned. T h e result is that the tracer tends to sink to the bottom. bromoform. lo4 times more NaCl must be used than fluorescine. pp. L C . about or lo-’.g. some tracers react with the aquifer. n M a n y other chemical tracers have been used-boric acid. sugar.1 v a d a = the discharge i cubic metres per n = L= V= second at springs.. s Accordingly it is often advantageous i such cases to use bichromate of sodium n (Na2Cr. Hours. Ba. i t often has to be used i very large quantities which makes the operation costly.38 kg. commercial detergents. Thc best tracers therefore wl be anions which are very difficult to fix. In some instances. n Moreover. ‘Note sur des d6terminations de cheminements soutcrrains par Is methode chimique’.Scheebeli [ZlO]): p = 3 d L + 0. with groundwater high in chlorides such as is found i the arid zones. Suppldment . n Again. does not mix evenly with the water and is often removed from circulation. Their greatest advantage is that the C ion is not liable 1 to adsorption and does not react chemically with rocks. il T h e most widely used chemical tracers are the chlorides. 1954. the distance i metres to be travelled underground. but i that case the tracer solution becomes m u c h n denser than the groundwater.’ T h e number P of kilogrammes suitable with calcareous formations is given by the equation (Ravier. Ca.O). e. a l highly soluble.high concentration injections are the only possibility i the tracer f is to be detected downstream. Further. particularly with clay. i the anhyn n drous state per litre of water and can be detected i dilutions of 1 to 2 x lope with a dyphenylcarbazide reagent. NaCl. T h e sugars have the disadvantage of being attacked by micro-organisms. which is detectable at lope dilution. the clay or organic material i the aquifer strongly adsorbs certain cations.330 kg.2H. change the velocity of the water.0. of fluorescine i sufficient the corresponding quantity of NaCl needed is 10 tons. However. . dextrose and phenol which is detectable by smell or taste particularly if transformed into chlorophenols. giving a n excellent s t yield. In other words s instead of injecting a 50 litre solution of fluorescine in water at low concentrations. Their solubility is high and they are detectable at very low conccntrations. NH. of tracer per litre of water. n the velocity i metres per day of the underground current n the reserves of groundwater i thousands of cubic metres. Tracer Dyes Tracer dyes have very great advantages. etc. i m a y then g o astray and not re-emerge. 87 . according to its composition.. M a i high conn centration m a y peptise the clay and by thus reducing the permeability of the aquifer.. and il NaCl. Finally. W h e r e 1 kg. However the majority of thcrn 1 E Genet. Mg. K. scientifique N o 3. readily detectable by the standard chlorine test or by measurl ing the electric conductivity. Na.. Li. Terms et eaur. one would need to inject 38 m 3 of water saturated with NaCl with a l the incon. Thus n to get a content of 10 mg. at 00 and 4. 73-81. Hence its onward movement i not subject to too m u c h delay and little of i is lost en route. the use of chlorides as tracers becomes still more difficult as the rise i the chlorine concentran tion at the observation points i lees easy to perceive. CaCl. the trap consists i the temptation to use i i excessive concentran t n t tions at the point of injection. while C a ions coagulate the clay and produce the opposite effect. tetraborate of sodium.Types of tracer and the velocity of circulation of the water is extremely low their diffusion is likely n to be irregular and i most cases this is only their smallest fault.
Arid zone hydrology are adsorbed by argillaceous materials or organic matter.02 V a k = 0. while some react chemically with the CO. Ravier's formula [ZlO] for the weight P of fluorescein to be used is: P when k dL . it is simply fluorescein rendered more soluble by the addition of carbonate of soda.3 are needed with the Trillat fluoroscope.O. I can be detected with the naked eye i concentrations of l-. the equation is: P= where x 10-9 d x L b P is the weight of fluorescein i kilogrammes. 1. Uranine is also used.. o' P is the weight of fluorescein i kilogrammes. n L. the length of the trajectory in metres. d = is the discharge from the springs i cubic metres per second. Fluorescein i adsorbed by argillaceous elements and reacts with organic matter s and ferric oxides. T h e fluorescein i first diluted hl s with alcohol to which a little a m m o n i a has been added and then dissolved in the water (0. In general their use is inadvisable i interstitially porous aquifers particularly if n they include argillaceous matter. w i e 250 cm.5 for circulation through fissures or channels. water only. Against this they are almost perfect tracers for the study of water movement in karsts with rapid circulation and restricted flow paths.H. those used i addition to fluorescein are eosin. n = If the rate of stream discharge or of injection over a 12-hour period is less than 125 5 litres/sec. n L is the length of the trajectory in metres. with the t n o' T d a t fluoroscope to concentrations of 2 and sometimes 1 x lods and with the Dienert electric fluoroscope at 1 x 10-e. In the latter case however it can be regenerated by alkalinizing the water. to 5 litres of alcohol for a solution of l kg. n d is the spring discharge i cubic metres per second.. It is destroyed by light and weakened by dissolved CO.+ 0. V is the volume of the stored water i thousands of cubic metres. 462 pp. Dienert. erythrosin ih n and congo red. Thus their success has not been complete. l. T h e best known tracer is fluorescein (Na.dL .C. F. or ferrugineous substances and organic matters. 1932. b. W t alkaline waters. Before the dyestuffs are introduced into the groundwater they are dissolved in a small amount of alkaline water. Paris.25litre of NH. In acid waters methylene blue. fluorescein in 50 litres of water). and the acidity of water. aniline blue and ponceau red are used..5 >. T h e latter instrument requires 45 ~ r n of~ . n M a n y other types of dyestuffs can be used. BaillPre. 8% . k = 3 for interstitial circulation. the m e a n discharge i cubic metres per second delivered over a 12-hour period. being then dissolved in slightly acid water before use. Hydrologie agricole. dissolved in the water. n Dienertl used to use the following formulae: If rate of the stream discharge or of water injection over 48 hours is above 5 litres/sec.). the equation for the quantity of fluorescein to use is: P 2. are fine pored and only alIow a very low velocity of flow. n a is the velocity i metres per day of the underground current.
comprises individual trajectories of velocities s both above and below the mean. following Darcy's Law. Irregular trajectories of velocity below the m e a n as a result of lower permeability along or across certain sections of the general flow path. In turbulent flow there is sufficient mixing for the velocities of all the water molecules to work out at about the same m e a n value provided the trajectory is long enough. 3. T h e resultant less hampered flow m a y be parallel or at an angle to the overall line. The Variety of Trajectories There are numerous flow trajectories. 4 Conformably disposed trajectories of velocity above or below the m e a n i a h o m o . so that the times of arrival of the corresponding fractions of the tracer injection at the observation point vary. flapizine. Velocities i a single conduit above and below the mean. F r o m these differences the inferences have to b e drawn. A general trajectory determined by the sector of greatest gradient of the velocity potential. mixing wl take place between trickles of differing n il il n velocity and there wl be very little likelihood of finding. or even by the most direct. However. 5-20 10-40 20-80 20-80 10-40 2-10 10-30 &* 2-20 10-40 20-80 20-80 10-40 g . n T h e threads of liquid i the middle of a conduit m o v e faster than those running n alolig the sides. However the trickles carrying s the tracer d o not all m o v e at the same velocity nor along parallel. l n 5. acid violet and acid fuchsine. acid green. of n trajectory. 89 .Types of tracer Other tracer dyes worth a venture are phenolphtalein. paths. T h e following are the quantities i grammes of dyestuffs required per 10 m. Thus w e have: 1. according to She-Bektchourine . indigo carmine. n i a sand of very heterogeneous granulation-coarse and n geneous rock. Dyestd Argillaceom rocks Sandy rocks Fissured rocks Krt pss Fluorescein Uranine Eosin Erythrosin Congo red Methylene blue Aniline blue Ponceau red i 1 \ OF g. 2. downstream. However as there i intercommunication between a l the s l pores i a homogeneous rock. Irregular trajectories of velocity above the m e a n w h e n coarse and more opentextured stretches of rock or channels i the rock m a k e certain sections of the n aquifer more permeable. trickles i which a l the water has throughout been moving faster than that i others. this general trajectory whose velocity i the m e a n of that of the whole mass. 2-10 10-40 20-80 20-80 10-40 20-60 20-70 10-30 CIRCULATION WATER IN ROCKS Tracers are introduced at a given point and carried downstream by the water to a predetermined point where their appearance i observed.g. Here-e. n fine pores and found together i the same rock and accordingly the individual trickles are fast or slowly moving o n certain trajectories or more accurately certain portions of trajectories.
Suppose a tracer to be mixed with water with each tracer molecule moving with a n ‘escort’of water molecules. or the equation for the apparent velocity of turbulent or mixed flow.A d zone hydrology In laminar flow. It is the apparent or average velocities which i is sought to determine by the use t of tracers. by a distance equal to that n given by the average velocity. No general law can be laid d o w n about deviant trajectoriesbeyond noting the possin bility that they exist and allowing for that possibility i interpreting the data logged at the observation points. As the forward movement goes o n the concentration of tracer molecules assumes a Gaussian distribution around a centre. T i centre coincides in time with the point of injection displaced by a distance correshs ponding to the mass flux of the liquid. 17). o n the other hand there is more probability of finding some trickles downstream which have travelled the whole w a y at velocities above or below the m e a n than i the case of rocks with interstitial porosity.T h e average velocity which i greater than the apparent velocity is the s velocity arrived at by dividing the unit cross-sectional discharge by the total crosssection of the conduit or conduits. T h e m e a n square of the tracer’s displacement i relation to the point of injection n 90 . It is however conceivable that interference occurs between deviant and direct tracerbearing trickles at the point of arrival. and i a conduit n n n of section identical i form and dimensions at every point. The General Trajectory T i is the trajectory defined by Darcy’s equation for the apparent velocity of laminar hs n flow i rock. the threads of liquid m o v e parallel to each other. Drc iet Trajectories Turbulent $ow trajectories. It is thus apparent that cases 4 and 5 are proportionately less likely to arise as the n pores or fissures of the rock are smaller and more numerous. In turbulent flow the movements of the molecules are independent and random. the probabilities are m u c h greater. ie of the average velocities (fig. the centres of gravity give the m e a n times to cover the distance. or i other words. T i probability n hs is hovewer relatively low if the course travelled is long. However i rocks. whereas i a limestone mass with large fissures widely spaced and where there is n o turbulence i the flow n of the water. T h e apparent velocity is thus obtained by dividing the discharge through a cross-section of rock by the area of that cross-section. the capillaries are irregular i section throughout the trajectory n n of the trickles. Deviant Trajectories These wl show tracer-bearingtrickles either before or after the direct trajectory and il their peak concentrations m a y be independent of that of the general trajectory.. W e thus get symmetrical curves of tracer concentration as a function of time and . the velocities vary i a regular positional order. and the point for consideration i h o w they can be arrived at from the range s of velocities shown by the tracers. Accordingly a possibility exists i this case too of threads of different n velocity being mixed.
researoh and analysis'. 'Radio isotopes in petroleum rehing. V with = K (R2 T') - y being the viscosity of the water. A. Symmetrical curve of concentration as a function of time. increases as the square root of time elapsed. 1949. 187-8: . Fries. A t a distance r from the axis. T h e m a x i m u m velocity is at the point w h e n r = 0: Thus whence V . R. Take a n imaginary circular conduit of radius R.Kent. Peaceful Uses of Atomic Ewrgy. . 15.17. -2). D. pp. As the average velocity is: 1 D.E.B. J. Hl. 1956.Types of t a e rcr c= ' 0 100 50 0 FIG. D. ul United Nations. World O l Vol. = KR2 (1 v =v . W. sides. T h e times logged t must be given by the centres of gravity of the curves. n i. T h e velocity V declines from the centre where i i V ( m a x i m u m velocity) to the t s . 236-50. Lee. 91 . Clearly the time of first appearance of the tracer cannot be used for calculation as i varies with distance and also indeed with the Reynolds number. Vol.1 Thus the length of the base increases with distance whereas the curve flattens out. pp. Laminar $ow trajectory in a capillary. E A d . 129. 'Radioactivity i pipe tine flow studies'.
It is perfectly possible for a particular thread passing a given point to fan out downstream and on this fanning out Danel’s 2 views are worth attention. op. 18 and 1 ) 9.Arid zone hydrology i i apparent that in cross-sectionthe velocity ofthe swifiesttrickles is double the average t s velocity of the water i the tube. the diameter of the cone of diffusion wl become equal to the thickness of the aquifer. fg il If the original trickle contained a tracer. pp. For each cross-section the curve of concentration i bell-shaped very s n like a Gaussian distribution. threads of both wl m o v e onward together.. tertiary etc. Meanwhile the n primary trickle flanking the h s t will have done the same thing and the secondary. with distance covered. whereas in a tube there is no lw mixing of the ‘stream lines’. the trickles wl tend to diverge increasingly from the il direct path and a cone of diffusion ( i . i wl tend to split up into two. which corresponds to the centre of gravity. 92 . but usually about 6 degrees. should give the time of detention. 20) wl develop. cit. il that distance i about equal to 10 times the thickness of the aquifer. ie the average time of transport of the tracer and that the . the peak angle varying with the nature of the grains. A t a given distance from the point of injection. ‘The meamrement of groundwater f o ’ Rmeedingr lw. the position is otherwise i a rock of the kind w e are conn sidering. In the latter there are no definite lateral boundaries for the threads of water apart from the top and bottom confining beds. If the angle of the cone is indeed 60. Dend. T h e same equation shows that the median is equal to two-thirds of the theoretical time of ‘detention’. Further OII the s 1. There wl therefore s i l be a tendency for a ‘tail-end’ il tl tracer cloud to subsist. Thus each time a trickle travelling from pore to pore has to m o v e around a grain. 2 P. Thus. In the cases already considered f w e were concerned with passage along a channel. strictly bounded laterally. 99-107. 1953. P. Danel. T. detention is the 70. that tracer wl accordingly fan out into il the form of a cone. the best measure of the period of s . It is thus perfectly conceivable il that the threads of liquid m a y mix. such as sand-when each pore i directly connected to others on six or eight s sides at once (fig. However no experiment has been m a d e to check this equation. Trajectory in a sand o unlimited lateral dimensions. However. harmonic m e a n i at 3/4T According to Archibald. This situa- tion would occur in water-bearing fissures such as m a y exist in limestone but would n be less c o m m o n i rocks with interstitial porosity.Axially the concentration i the cone varies as the inverse square of the distance measured from its peak. water moving through rocks with interstitial porosity is in laminar f o ..0th centile. i is found  to be: rm t 1 U = T h e curve of concentration of the dyestuff at distance x as a function of time always has a n exaggeratedly long tail. In other words. Under normal conditions of groundwater circulation. . the velocity of trickles transporting n the first of the tracer dye to appear w l work out at double the effective average veloi l city of the water? Turning n o w to the average concentration of the tracer at a time t and at a distance x f o the point of departure. three or four separate threads which will each do the t i l same on reaching the next grain i their path d o w n course and so on.Uneieo. It should be pointed out that m a n y authorities consider that the median. o f Ankara Synposium on Arid Zons Hydrobm.
) M(r: 1 + ri + ri + . . ra etc. t i . cone w flatten out increasingly and w h e n the lateral diameter of the cone is m a n y i times the thickness of the stratum.. n Circulation i a sand can be likened to that through a series of capillaries roughly pardd and of varying cross-sections of radius rl. FIG.Types o tracer f 19 20 FIG. T h e average velocity wl therefore be inferior to the average velocity of the capillary rl.. n T h e maximum velocity d then be: l and the average velocity for the whole will be: U -g-2 -S - .19.18. i a decreasing series. there will be no further decrease of the concentration except inversely with distance.. il 93 . I t r t t d flow.20. rl.MK(R! + R f R + . neaii FIG. Interstitial flow.I q being the discharge through the cross-section S of the stratum. Diheion cone or dispersion cone.
calcareous and dolomitic rocks often il found.. i i s extremely easy. The adsorption m a y be chemical with an energy bond or merely physical (Van der Waals’ adsorption with low cohesion between adsorbant and adsorbate). n T h e lapse of t m between the first appearance of the dyestuff and its appearance ie in m a x i m u m concentration depends only on the thickness of the tracer wave at the start.. and CO. T h e materials i rocks with adsorbant and ion-exchange properties are: (a) argillaceous minerals. (c) hydroxide of n iron. It must not be forgotten thet certain substances m a y react chemically either with the rock or with other substances in the water: S: and Ba++ precipitate w h e n they O meet. The strength of the bond is i inverse proportion to the n degree of hydration of the ion.. m a y indeed operate simultaneously. Rb. the m a x i m u m velocity is about 2 or 3 times the effective velocity’. SOT.. Hence when a salt is being used. Mg.Cl. Adsorption wl be low in the purely siliceous. i descending order of base exchange capacity. group. but are m u c h less copiously adsorbed than the cations. HCO. L . Br-.g. halloysites and kaolinites. w i e chemical reactions occur in the case of calcium glycerophosphate and of hl the dissolved CO. T h e retention of Cl-. . T i must hs be borne i mind i using cationic radio-active tracers and d necessitate the use of n n carriers. the anion and not the cation should be taken as tracer. -are more abundant. CaCl. Thus this m a x i m u m cannot be used to calculate the average velocity. T h e degree of fixing depends on the nature of the cations. i fact. humus. Thus the adsorption of cations.etc. glauconite. ADSORPTION AND RETENTION OF TRACERS Tracer-carrying water m a y come into contact with substances in the aquifer which have the property of fixing ions contained i the water and exchanging these against n certain of their own. LiCl. C . Anions and non-ionized elements m a y undergo some degree of physical adsorption and exhibit typical adsorption isotherms. These ion exchangers are known as permutolites. with the chlorides. Finally the possibilities of exceeding n solubility products must be kept constantly i mind.Arid zone hydrology Thus Dane1 writes: ‘we can. These two forms of bond between which there is every sort of intermediate n stage. more particularly vermiculites and montmorillonites. NO. NH. Experimental evidence shows that. and to a lesser degree illites.. and boron anions is so low as to be practically negligrble. the obvious tracer element is the chlorine component. T h e exchange of A and B ions between water and rock and vice versa can be expres- sed: [A] . particularly Ca. .. etc. that is to say that the point of m a x i m u m concentration depends only on the quantity of dyestuff injected originally and the length of time taken for the injection. and both it and exchanges w l be on a scale increasing in proportion as permui l tolite elements-argdlaceous and organic substances. I-. Sr. (d) organic materials. NaCI... Na. (b) zeolitic minerals. Thus. e. 94 . K. At an equal degree of hydration bivalent ions are fixed more powerfully than monovalent. conclude that for flow i a porous m e d i u m the n effectivevelocity is generally less than. r O .water [B]water I [B]permut. half the m a x i m u m speed corresponding to the appearance of the dyestuff. or at most equal to. hydroxide of iron. . NH. The ease of adsorption varies inversely as the extent to which certain fixation by the rocks has already occurred and directly as the water is rich in cations.
the concentration remains the same over the whole trajectory. and will then mix with slower moving tracer-free trickles from ahead. T h e concentration at the upstream end is very low. and C/Cowl grow from 0 to 1. il If. Further on the tracer m a y again c o m e into s n contact with a rock short of its cations and there wl be fresh adsorption and so on. As the tracer moves through the rock its concentration diminishes progressively down-course. VermeuIen c and Hister give i as: t 1 where ra i the number of milliequivalents of the tracer adsorbed per g r a m m e of the solid s phase. that formation wl release the il tracer ifwater is passed through i which contains none of the tracer substance. (b) of some trickles advancing faster than others. In fact. w h e n there is exchange.i which t n the tracer concentration [A]is: A [A]water < [B]water H r i pernut. I/P (1BJpermut. If the water-bearing material has no lateral boundaries the concentration decreases as the inverse of the square of the distance from the point of injection. Hence at a given distance from the starting point the tracer cloud takes on a somewhat elongated shape coaxial with the direction of flow. concentration decreases inversely n as the distance. When the whole liquid mass moves i parallel trickles-as inside a cylinn der i which concentration over the whole cross-section is C O at the starting pointn the concentration C of the dyestuff w l vary progressively from the value 0 at the i l head to the value C Oat the tail of the front. i e after a tracer has passed . 95 . the tracer front wl be retarded. (c) of the retention of tracer by the rock. il T h e effect is to retard the front. desorption wl take place as the liquid il i undersaturated i relation to the rock. T h e kind of contamination of the rock which thus develops i proportionately s greater as ion fixation is stronger and the quantity of ions exchanged greater. W e therefore need to turn to K a u f m a n n and Orlob on the ratio of the velocity of the liquid front itself to the velocity Ua of the retarded tracer front. A t some point below the starting point base il exchanges w l take place and cause a progressive reduction of the cation concentrail f tion of the tracer downstream. If the f o is confined laterally o n all sides and if the threads of liquid all m o v e lw with the same velocity. T h e n i a volume of tracer-freeliquid comes into contact with the formation which adsorbed the tracer. however. W e have seen that the lateral fanning out of the trickles results i the tracer becomn ing progressively less concentrated from upstream downwards. there is cation adsorption by the rock. given the same conditions of flow. however. pb. If the tracer-bearingflux is limited by t w o parallel planes as i the case of aquifers.Types of tracer T h e retention of adsorbable tracers contaminates rock.. through a formation which has adsorbed a part of it. increasing progressively towards the downstream end where i attains its t normal value. the apparent density of the porous medium. some tracer-bearing trickles m o v e forward faster than others. as a result (a) of the lateral fanning-out process affecting the trickles of water.
Constant Input Dilution Evaluation Mto ehd introducing a coastant flow. the discharge actually measured will relate to the discharge at the point downstream.d~ = ra. 96 . the rLA1. the passage of the tracer w a v e over a distance (Ua/U) wl be such that: dx il r[A].n. At a point downstream where mixing m a y be reckoned to be complete. However.Arid wne hydrology concentration in milliequivalents per cubic centimetre of the tiquid phase. small in relation to c. A fortiori velocity cannot be estimated either.dx moving slowly through a porous m e d i u m for a distance ax. Suppose that between the upstream injecs tion point and the observation point downstream a lateral current enters that being measured. but their n velocity cannot be calculated by it when the average cross-sectional areas of the rivulets over the distance between the upstream and downstream points are unknown. T h e discharge Q is then given by the . Given an exchange of tracer between water and rock reaching equilibrium instantaneously.rn. the tracer front wl be of the same length and degree of definition il il as the liquid front but wl simply be retarded. ion exchanges between liquid and rock require a certain amount of t m ie and thus the tracer front not only wl not m o v e forward as rapidly as the lipid front il but wl become increasingly attenuated.pb UUa dz. the concentration e i the discharge Q + q is measured. it is impossible to calculate either velocity or total discharge as the discharge arrived at cannot be identified with that through any particular cross-sectional area of the aquifer. great caution i always required. This method can be used for the currents circulating i limestone massifs.rne UUa dx = If the rock has no adsorption properties. q. We can develop equation 1 for the hypothetical case of a wave of liquid of volume m. If the rock has adsorption properties and if adsorption and desorption are instantaneous.so that U a = U and the two fronts m o v e together. and rn is the porosity. While equations 1 and 2 are suitable for the study of constant discharge through columns of soil. this equation can be simplified to: However. In aquifers with interstitial permeability. If on the other hand the stream divides between the point of injection and the logging point the volume of flow measured xvill be that past the injection point. n equation: e T i consists in hs Q = q -T e” W e e is very hn . ra 0.d~ milliequivalents of tracer. transporting r[A].r[A]. il METHODS OF INJECTING TRACERS INTO AQUIFERS There are two methods of injecting tracers: the constant input method and singleshot injection in bulk. It is a fractional discharge of unk n o w n proportions. of tracer solution at concentration c into a current whose discharge Q it is sought to determine. they demonstrate the impossibility of using tracers to determine the n variations of velocity of a liquid i a porous medium.
op. but with a n extens ded ‘taper-off’. ie the percentage of tracer .the result is a more or less bell-shaped curve. too of the ninetieth centile. and extensive adsorption. Beyond this point. T w o types of situation are possible: 1. and the time tm of the mode.--tl.. found compared to the amount introduced. n the tracer concentration at the point of observation increases up to a m a x i m u m value as the tracer in the fastest threads i progressively augmented by that i slower and s n slower trickles. the effective velocity is at most equal to half the m a x i m u m t velocity and m a y be as low as one-third of i . 21). . and the time. As i the previous case. to the ‘staggering’effects of adsorption phenomena. Here allowance must be made. T h e recovery percentage gives not only the losses but also the extent of dispersion of the threads of liquid below the point of injection. at which the tracer appears. the time ti by which the tracer has disappeared and the m e a n time tm 1 = . As Dane1 1 has shown. n If a graph of the concentration in the water at the point of observation in function of time i constructed. this is a costly method as large quantities of tracer are required. As w e have seen the time at which the tracer content reaches m a x i m u m concentration cannot be used for this purpose. 2 In addition to the foregoing elements the following wl be marked on the cumulative il curve: the time. of the median. the swiftest moving runlets add water containing no more tracer from the upstream part of the injection and this mixes n with the tracer-bearing water of the slower runlets. The difference D between the t w o deciles t.(tf-tc)..the height Eh of the mode. ut. t. It i also advisable to plot a cumulative curve of the concentration s i function of time (fig. and the curve of concentration will accordingly show a concentration front which grows with increasing rapidity up to a time tz. ie the m a x i m u m concentration observed. after which the concentration wl remain il constant. Single-shot Injection Methods W i t h this method a n injection of dyestuff of very brief duration is m a d e at a point upstream and the time taken by the tracer to reach a point downstream is then m e a sured. A s a result of the difference i the rate of progress of individual threads of liquid. the time. then progressively more slowly up to time t. These are the values used as a basis for determining the velocity of the current. too. and finally the percentage of recovery of the tracer is calculated. Little detailed work has so far been done on this. in addition. however. . all the tracer-bearingthreads of liquid wl have reached il the point of observation. Here. R o c k with no adsorption properties. ml 7 97 . this is given by the surface below the cumulative curve.Types o tracer f Constant Input Velocity Determination Method A s before there is continuous injection of the tracer solution at the upstream point as far as possible at a constant rate and the time taken by the tracer front to reach n the point of observation is calculated.. of the tenth centile. 2. n On the non-cumulative curve. the latter successively behave i the Bame w a y i descending order of velocity. 1 D e .. R o c k with adsorptive properties. t. corresponding to the centre of gravity. In this case the flow of tracer i the fastest n i l trickles w l arrive at time t. is then determined. some remarks follow on the t w o types of case which m a y arise-no adsorption. continuing as progressively slower tracer-bearing trickles c o m e in. A t time t. the elements to be marked are the time t.. of tracer.
Arid w n e hydrology
No adsorption. W h e n there is no adsorption, the curve of concentration as a function of time i more or Iess bell-shaped and practically symmetrical. s T h e width of the ‘bell’ depends chiefly on differences i velocity of the various n threads of liquid circulating within the aquifer, the variations in velocity across the width of individual capillaries or water-bearing channels, and the fluctuations due to variations i the diameter of individual capillaries and channels. T h e ‘bell-mouth’ n becomes wider as the range of velocities increases. T h e height of the curve, i e to the peak, i governed primarily by the factors deter.. s mining the shape of the curve. As the surface beneath the curve represents the quantity of tracer flowing at the observation point, then for equal volumes, a n increase i the n width of the curve means a decrease i the height of its peak. n However the height of the peak i also affected by the degree of dispersion of the s threads of liquid below the point of injection downwards. If the dimensions of the water-bearing m e d i u m are so great that the injection can be deemed puncta1 and if a regular cone of dispersion develops below that point, the concentration along a straight line from the point of injection is inversely proportionate to the square of the distance. In any cross-section at right angles to the axis of the cone, concentration is greatest along the axis and diminishes gradually outwards on either side. If the tracer entirely fills the whole thickness of the aquifer, the decrease i concenn tration thereafter becomes proportionate only to the distance after which the tracer has filled the whole thickness of the aquifer.
Multiple peaks. Deviant trajectoriesm a y have the effect of making the curve asymmetrical by increasing the concentration i the ‘tail’. n Alternatively, the arrival of deviant runlets at the observation point m a y produce secondary peaks usually located behind the main one. It is, however, perfectly possible that a deviant runlet moving via a very free-running channel m a y reach the point of observation before the peak of the general Bow and even before tracer from the general flow appears. T h e principal point to be ascertained is the average velocity of the water since that is usually the significant fact for practical purposes. The average velocity i a given formation can be calculated from the porosity, n m, and the volume of water, V, displaced ahead of the tracer font. i n il Let V be the volume of the liquid contained i the formation which wl be displaced ahead of the front, i e the volume between the point of injection and the point of .. observation. Let V be the volume of liquid necessary to displace Vi. W e then get:
VI can Le calculated by graphical integration of the area located above the volume representing the front. Alternatively i wl be apparent that volume values can be replaced by time values t il on the graph as the conversion from volumes V to times t can be effected by introducing into the equation above the constants of m porosity and v velocity, 80 that
=j’ 2) (1
t being the m e a n time taken
by the tracer cloud to reach the point of observation.
As w e have seen from Danel’s study, the average velocity is likely to be either greater
than or equal to half the m a x i m u m velocity as determined by the &st occurrence of the tracer. Dane1 finds by experiment that the average velocity is i fact from a half n to a third of the m a x i m u m . n F r o m the m a n y experiments carried out i the laboratory on earth-filled cylinders,
Types of tracer
the average velocity is given b y the position of the centre of gravity, i.e. the point i time at which 50 per cent of the tracer has passed the point of observation and 50 per n
cent has still to pass it. Archibald on the other hand contends that the best measure of the theoretical time of detention is the 70.7th centile.
Adsorption occurring. When adsorption and desorption phenomena are found, m a n y
additional uncertainties are introduced. F r t and foremost the time of first occurrence of the tracer is no longer the time at is which the runlet of greatest velocity reaches the observation point: the whole tracer front is held back behind the liquid front. T i is because the processes of adsorption hs n n and desorption m a k e a time lag which increases i magnitude i proportion as the tracer is more strongly adsorbed and the trajectory longer. In addition to the various factors for elongation of the tracer cloud operative independently of any adsorption and desorption, others must n o w be reckoned with. If adsorption and desorption were instantaneous, the tracer front would be of constant length through its whole trajectory. However, ion exchanges require a certain amount of time and accordingly the front becomes increasingly elongated as it travels along. If the speed of desorption is low, some tracer lingers in the rock and the cloud develops a very long tail. Wie the height of the peak decreases w h e n the processes just described, quite apart hl from a l those operating in a non-adsorbant medium, extend the depth of the tracer l cloud, it wl also be affected by the permanent losses of tracer i the formation. In il n other words, the peak height declines i proportion as the m e d i u m is more adsorbant n and the trajectory longer. T h e average velocity can no longer be estimated from, say, the time of appearance of the tracer since this is retarded in relation to the arrival of the swiftest water runlets and the time lag is not calculable. n Similarly the centre of gravity of the tracer is retarded i relation to that of the threads of liquid leaving the point of injection and reaching the point of observation and again the delay cannot be calculated. A l this goes to show that while there are i any case certain doubtful elements with l n tracers not liable to adsorption, these elements are a thousand times more numerous with tracers which are adsorbable. Accordingly the use of the latter should be avoided.
Most tracers are used i extremely low concentration. Hence where there is adsorption, n the proportion of tracer adsorbed m a y be very large if the trajectory is of great length and there is prolonged contact with the rock, so that the tracer w l no longer be il detectable at the observation point. On the other hand if a radioactive tracer and its non-radioactive isotope are used together, the adsorption process wl operate simultaneously and indiscriminately on il both and the proportion of the radioactive tracer adsorbed wl thus be considerably il reduced; for instance ordinary iodine would be used with tracer l a l L Thus the use of carriers in addition is often necessary. T h e proportions i which they should be n used wl be given later. il
As a general rule the use of radioactive tracers is only essential w h e n chemical or dye tracers have failed or for some reason cannot be used. In any case it is usually advisable wherever possible to try a chemical or dye before resorting to radioactive tracers. With chemical tracers, the values measured are the variations in the concentration
Arid zone hydrology
of the chemical body added. T i means the drawing and analysis of samples or i hs n certain cases measurement of the electric conductivity which can be done on the spot. Wt dye tracers, the variation in the concentration of the dye is measured from ih samples. W t radioactive tracers, the variations of the concentration are determined b y ih measuring the radioactivity. This, of course, necessitates allowing for the variation of the tracer's radioactivity as a function of time. It wl be recalled that i the degree of radioactivity at time t il f 0 is A , at t m t , ie it becomes: 1 ,
If w e
designate the period, i e the time required for its initial activity to ..
diminish b y half, i.e. its half life, we get:
the decay constant.
But radioactivity is the product of several kinds of radiation varying i penetran tion, energy and ionizing power. OL radiation, helium nuclei of velocity one twentieth that of light, is of high energy and strongly ionizing. Its penetration, however, is low: it is stopped by from 3 to 8 cm. of air at normal temperatures and pressures. Thus despite its high energy it ie of little practical use. p radiation--electrons at a velocity near that of light-is less ionizing than a radiation but more penetrating, needing 0.477 mm. of lead to stop it at an energy of 0.961 MeV and 0.92 mm. at 2.2 MeV. T h e effective thicknesses of water (in millimetres) for successive energies (in M e V ) are the following : 1
0.004 0.35 0.70
0.36 0.714 0.961
6.6 8.0 10.1
It should be noted that the absorption of p radiation gives rise to secondary radiation-X rays-on a scale proportionate to the activity of the @ radiation. y radiation i of the same physical nature as visible light and X rays but is of m u c h s shorter wavelength. Its ionizing power is comparable to that of @ radiation but penetration is m u c h higher. Thus the following thicknesses of lead are required to reduce the intensity by one half: 0.89 MeV, 8 mm.;1.72 M e V , 12 mm.;2.76 M e V , 14 mm. Radioactivity is measured by the rate of disintegration per second. T h e unit of 0 measure, the millicurie, is equivalent to 3 x 1' disintegrations per second. Modern detection apparatus gives accurate measurements d o w n to some hundreds of disintegrations per minute. Thus radioactivity need only amount to a small fraction of a millicurie to be measureable. Not all radioactive substances are suitable as tracers, for which a combination of certain specific features is required. These are as follows: 1. The substance must be sufficiently soluble for injection in concentrations large enough for detection at the point of observation.
1 Commiesariat B I'Energie Atomigue (France), Radidio-BUmsntsartificielsprdparks par le Commissarial h I'Energie Atornigus. . Liata N 4 Gif-sur-Yvette. M r h 1957, 137 pp. o . ac
Arising out of the final stipulation. following are highly toxic: 4%a. and that of tritium 10 millicuries (104 p c. energy 0. 1s1I. Exposure to radiation from radioactive substances located outside the h u m a n il n body wl arise primarily i connexion with the handling of radioactive tracers during dilution. measured i the air where the whole person is exposed. n 5. T h e approximate dose i roentgens/8 h. soFe. the figure is 0.‘WO.5 r/week for the hands. p radiation attacks the skin and exposed tissues. . cit. The toxicity of the following is low: 24Na. n 3. radioactive bodies present dangers against which it is essential to be on guard. a radiation is the least harmful on account of its low penetration. 137Cs. F o u n d in the form of hydrogen 1.. at a distance of 1 m. H 14C. half-life 12. 7. i air. It must not be dangerous under normal conditions of use.4 EC 2. the ionizing power of the radiation it emits (U> p >y) the degree of selectivity with which it settles i a particular part of the body and the difficulty of its elimination n G o m that part. Pure p Tiim rtu eitr mtes (3H). DIY. 108Au. It is only proposed to list those most easily il obtainable and available at reasonable prices. The outside radiation dose to which the h u m a n body can be subjected without after-effectsi the case of permanent workers is 0. 6’Wn. 1. op. from a C curie n soume of y radiation of energy E M e V is: R = 4. These wl be subdivided into those emitting pure p radiation and those emitting both p and y radiation. 84Cu. 2 The rmntgen is a quantity of X or 7 radiation such that the associated corpuscular emission per 0. F r o m the point of view of m e r e exposure. It must have a half-life conformable to the duration of its passage between the points. 1k4Ce. 96Zr.Types of tracer 2 Liability to adsorption must be low so that the tracer is not held up i transit. of air produces. the danger of any radio element is proportionate to the length of its half-life.a The m a x i m u m for tritium is 2 x 10-4 mclcm.‘SAS. In the n case of partial exposure only the tolerance is m u c h higher. n 101 . It must be capable of being detected even i borings and wells.001293 g. 140Ba. if possible with portable apparatus. It is therefore w l to k n o w the tolerance doses : el 1.8SKr. . ions carrying one electrostatic unit of quantity of electricity of either sign. aeC1. “Fe. emitting p and y radiation and concentrating i the thyroid.3 T h e m a x i m u m level of iodine 131 in the body. 3 P 3 5 . n 6. n whereas for chrome 51. In the case of contamination by radioactive substances. In drinking water the m a x i m u m degree of radioactivity permissible in concentration is 10-4 mc/litre for p radiation emitters. the following are fairly toxic: S . with m a x i m u m concentration in the thyroid. It must not contaminate the rocks. 85r.019 MeV. It must be readily and cheaply obtainable. . .. ) Usable Radioactive Tracers There are m a n y tracers which can be used. and the a.5 curies/m. aloBi. aaK. the m a x i m u m is as low as 10-5 mcptre. is 0 3 microcuries. i e of their absorption. y radiation is m u c h more dangerous as its high power of penetration enables it to reach the internal organs. O n the other hand adsorption of substances emitting a radiation is very dangerous as its extremely high powers of ionization then come into play. It must be detectable i low concentrations. For iodine 131. a pure y emitter and hence less dangerous to absorb. Commissariat P 1’Energie Atomique.3 roentgens per n week a or 60 mr/8h. 4.5 years. 8.
14.the cations can be used as tracers.98MeV.. Iodine 434 (1311). The y radiations from lanthanum.therewl be no tendency il to the fixation of 24Na or 46Ca respectively.7 mc. . Rb.3 days. 9 p and y radiation emitters Sodium 24 (24Na). Moreover these cations can serve as carriers. say.25-0. Phosphorous 32 ( P . 4 mc/mg.3 P 45Ca.Sug.. ( ) Isotopes of very short half-life. ~ ThuEium 4 0 ( 7 T . alkaline bromide. and while Ba wl be precipitated by S . F n l y i the formations contain no adsorbing elements. 28 .5 and there are types of situation when this tracer can be employed: over short distances for n for water circulating at low velocity and over sizeable difitances water i swift flow as i limestone massifs. y: 1.55E’e. @OSr.084 7 1 0 m) MeV. However.3 days.498MeV.076 MeV.698MeV.34M e V . Target: CaCO.4 Strontium 8 (8sSr).). since the adsorption of this iodine is nevertheless not always negligible. Cobalt 60 (60Co). p: 0. 1. y: 0. 129 days. saturation..81 MeV.3 Carbon 44 (14C). n In view of its high activity it can be detected with appreciable sensitivity without using a carrier. years.. days. 137Cs.39 MeV. as with.19 MeV.38MeV.3 Calcium 45 (46Ca). saturation: 2 mc/g.H3i hydrochloric n n acid solution of 5 to 10 mc/cms or i neutral sodium phosphate solution at 2 mc/cm.5. Ruthenium 103 ( O R ) 39.166 MeV. 90Sr. P is also unsuitable for use.29-1.716MeV. . y: 0. y: 2. 0.10-1.Arid zone hydrology with 10 per cent 3 H or tritiated water at 200 mc/cm.97-0.S04i a diluted hydro71 . Target: Fe. saturation. if the groundwater has a high content say of Na or Ca and is i geon chemical equilibrium with the rocksthroughwhich it is passing.6 n chloric acid solution at 1 to 10 mclcm. Energy 0.46 MeV.56-0.32 MeV. y: 1. saturation 99 yc.822-0.Target: Ru.17 MeV. P0. half-life8 .64-0. 53 days. are measured. 6 95 saturation 9 9 mc/g. 12 days. (b) Normal short half-life isotopes.27MeV. 102 .46-1.8days. 1. BrNH.61-0. more penetrating 4 than thoEe from barium. a With a half l f of only 35. Cobalt chloride 2 to 50 mc/mg. p: 0.. Energy 1.8 0 days. y: 0. Cs.36-0.155 MeV. Rubidium chloride. 35. p: 0. hence Na.Target: Na. n il i Fe can likewise not be used i water where it is liable to precipitation by oxidation. 1 .03.9 hours. Target: SrCO. 8.9 hours.24 MeV. p: 1. p: Saturation 39 mc/g. 990 mc. Isotopes not readily adsorbable. H.28-0. 530 yc. Rubidium 8 (Wb). lS11.700 years. days. p: 0. INa: 10 to 50 r n ~ / c m . p: 0. o 131Ba.465 M e V . half-life 5. Iron These isotopes can be classified on the following linea: Isotopes liable to adsorption or t react with water or to rocks. Target: Sr(NO. Bromine 82 (@*Br).05 days. n il O .Ba. saturation. 1 to 5 mc/cm. 1. Target: CO or Co. Energy 0 1 6MeV.C03 or NaCl. Ca and Sr cannot be used 2.. this isotope can seldom be used i groundwater hydraulics ie n as the need to measure trajectories of this kind of duration arises relatively rarely. i argillaceous or organic media which wl fx the adsorbable cations.9 hours.. @eRb. agBr. 164 days. 24Na. This is a more useful half-life . saturation. 3. 0 5 and 2. lsu.2 years. However.547-1. Strontium 90 (sOSr).712 MeV. pure limeial f stones or purely siliceous sands or sandstones. 59E’e. 59 (Ks1’e). y: 0.Target: Tm. Barium 1 0 (‘4OBa). y: 1. 46.2 curies.312MeV.Fe.33-1.217-0.76-1. “ ) half-life 14.O. p: 0.S Sulphur 35 (ass).
Types o tracer f CI C 100 90 50 10 tc L10 trn L50 190 tf FIG. Concentration curve as a function of time.21.22. FIG. Tracer f o through a lw permeameter filled with sand . 103 .
informis n ation is desirable on h o w it wl disperse i the rock and h o w far it m a y be retained il n by adsorption. 22. to that m i n i m u m value. as nearly as possible in its natural state and of known volume. A graph is then plotted with the c/co concentration ratios scaled on the ordinate and the cumulative volumes of water on the abscissa (fig. and a diameter of 0. hs (c) Long half-life isotopes. 12. is If earth columns of different length are used the reduction of yield as a function of the length of the trajectories can be determined (fig. 3H.5 years. F r t of all the yield 2 (Vc)/ (V)col is calculated from the cumulative curve.2071) or i glass with heights of from 1 to 3 m.46 m.). the amounts of water flowing out are measured. i6 loaded into the permeameter and is then soaked to saturation with water. ih T h e tests are m a d e w t a large model water permeameter-suitable types are in metal with dimensions of about 1. given by the peaks of the curves. expressed in y/l. is poured on to the top surface of the column.5 m. the beginning of this operation being used as the zero point for the time values. it is worth combining it with non-radion active iodine as a carrier. The water is introduced into the permeameter at the top and runs out at the bottom. Its activity is about 2 10l6 disintegrations per minute per g r a m m e and its natural specific activity is extremely low. A second graph is then plotted with the cumulative values of the successive c/co ratios scaled on the ordinate (fig. ). n there is little prospect i the field of the tracer re-emergingat a concentration notably inferior to that m i n i m u m and w e shall therefore adjust the lmt of sensitivity of our ii detection system..Arid zone hydrology particularly i view of its low concentration. the flow of water into the permeameter is started. with the overflow maintaining it at a constant head. Next. 21).’ 104 . In other words. in height and 90 cm. The great advantage is that tritium becomes a component of the water and forms a single body with it. with extraction of samples at regular intervals. In this connexion Hours  writes: ‘The choice of the m i n i m u m quantity of carrier isotope can be based on the following l n of reasoning: to m a k e the best use ie of the “tell-tale” qualities of our millicuries. Yield tests should accordingly be m a d e on samples in the laboratory and the results also compared with those for fluorescine and more particularly for NaC1. T i is a thoroughly useful half-life. 23). 21. before a radioactive tracer is used i a particular aquifer. it is of course desirable to use the same water as that of the underground current whose velocity it is sought to measure. enabling the isotope to be employed when velocities are low and trajectories are of great length. [206. and determination of the tracer concentration c of each. diameter (Kaufman and n Orlob. x M e t h o d s for the U s e o Radioactive Tracers f F r t and foremost. n A sample of the earth material. As soon as the tracer solution has been completely absorbed by the sample and has disappeared from its upper surface. our object wl be to preserve a detectable il degree of radioactivity with the m i n i m u m concentration of tracer still giving appreciable yield in a permeameter experiment (of the order of several y/l. Thereafter an attempt must be m a d e to calculate the quantities needed respectively for the radioactive tracer and the carrier isotope. T h e water level i the upper part can be kept constant by an overflow pipe. (Hours. a volume V of tracer solution at concentration co. Throughout the operation. 24). T h e t m lag can be calculated by using sodium chloride as a control and comparing ie the points of m a x i m u m concentration. It wl then il be an easy matter to compare one tracer with another.
Types o tracer f FIG. 1 2 3 1 1. 2800 cc Influence of the length of the column  9/0 Curve Length OlltflOW ~~ of tracers recuperated ~~ m.24.85 100 I 4 1 2 min 100 m1/14 min 100 m / l min ll 95 87 85 105 .9 2. INaItracer at 50y/l.23. Tracer flow through a permeameter filled with silt . C 6 5 FIG.
Urbain. Sons . 4 Extracting the tracer fiom the water and pressing it near the detector. n However.a. Watkins and Mardock . by Archibald  Hull. Brown. In addition the operation i too costly. Hours and Geslin . Watkins and Dunning . Comparatively few tests have been carried out on groundwater. Lagrange. T h e iodine is then n restored to a n aqueous solution as INa-I0. etc.g.2 pcurie/m. e. boring or spring. Immersing a portable detector i the groundwater body. of B r N a were needed to achieve a n activity of 250 pcurie of (this activity being calculated for the time of reappearance of the tracer. 3. of a Geiger-Muller counter though this instrument has a m a x i m u m efficiency of only 2 per cent for y photons. Vessey and Czerny . There follow descriptions of a few specimen tests on groundwater. Mardock . more particularly to detect the direct channels of communication between the different points of a petroleum-bearing formation. Campbell. of a Lollow centre crystal. Kent and Lee (1949). say.. no better than about 5 pcuries/m. i BrNafor a n detector sensitivity of 0.2071. Hours . K a u f m a n and Orlob [206. owing to the screen which the soil itself constitutes against p and even y radiations.Josendal. s T i was followed by m a n y other experiments to calculate the discharges or velohs cities of streams. The solution is then dried out i an evaporation dish which is placed w t the n ih residue under the aperture of a bell-shaped counter. For p radiation its efficiency i high. T h o m a s Junior (1956). Flagg.a with the scintillation counter.g. the most important being those by Fox . Harold A. using radium. e. 106 .g. However radium i not really suitable as i s t can be precipitated by SO. Aebersold . days after injection). Hull and Fries (1956). ions as RaSO. e.. i e about three . radioactive iodine used as a tracer (with the addition of I N a as carrier) i first s oxidized with nitrosyle sulphate and then reconstituted i CCl. the well. the sensitivity of the majority of these detectors is poor. by Montens . Russel .2 pcurie/m. Allen and Grindley to n a m e only a few. above the soil surface.. Truesdale . Obviously there can be no question of measuring the radiation at a distance from the water. Experiments in which Radioactive Tracers have been Used T h e first experiment was probably Hess’s  on the Susquehanna River i the n United States of America. T o detect the tracer use m a y be made. Myers. Pumping water from the tracer-bearingmass and passing i through a tank housing t the detector.etc. in the neighbourhood of 100 per cent. Puttman and Jefferson (1956). around the crystal of the detector. il T h e detection procedure (Hours )wl therefore be one of the following: 1. Terry.though sensitivities as high as 1 pcurie/m. Radioactive tracers have also been used to study the flow of liquids i conduits n and to detect water leakages. For instance . by Comber and Tiratso (1950).8 can be obtained with the Geiger-Muller and 0. Edwards and Holter . and Seligman . 2. Another detector which s can be used is the scintillation counter with a n efficiency percentage for y photons well into double figures.Arid zone hydrology Take the case of Serre-PonGon. or l) l) into the well (3-20m . In bringing a small sample of water into the vicinity of the detector by fitting it either into a ring-shaped recipient (10-20m . Simane . where the minimum was about 4 y/l.a Thus 5 kg. Parker and Smith .Na by agitation with a soda solution. It is perhaps for the investigation of petroleum deposits that the largest call has been m a d e on radioactive isotopes. Sandford.
/ 1 1 ' 10 100 i a confined aquifer .6 8. through a wall 12 inches in diameter into a captive groundwater body at a depth of 27.8 15 1.34 m.4 m. I . 3..) 2./kg.5 (100 ft.500litres of sugar solution at a concentration of 6 g. 17 g.95 (13 f.) and the porosity (0. well ai a d i s t a n c e well ai a d i s t a n c e 10 well ai a d i s t a n c of 100 It. and it consisted of gravels and sand of an effective gauge of 0.35) of this oqnifer. of the tracer. n dextrose and iodine 131 and they were injected at a rate of 140 litres/min.8 65 160 1. Distance from injection well T i m e of arrival of first detectRblo traces 1 Calculated ..9 coefficient of uniformity and porosity of 0. a chloride. 6.1 29 15 0. t) 30.2 (63 f . Fig. t) 19. 25. T h e tracers used were fluorescine. M e a n time of arrival of liquid front estimated on the basis of injection at 140 litreslmin. The object was to see h o w the rate of advance of bacteria of the coli group compared with that of the liquid sewage front i a water-bearingformation. Trajectory of iodine 131 107 . 2071.Coli Dextrose Fluorescein m.35. The quantities introduced into the aquifer were: (a) 170 litres of a sodic fluorescein solution at a concentration of 100 mg.Very large quantities of sodium chloride had to be used and its density caused rivulets to divide and sporadic delivery of the tracer at the observation points. of the tracer. Twenty-three wells of 6 inch diameter were driven at distances up to 152 m.2 16 0./kg. n 700 hours FIG. i. 1.The average thickness of the aquifer was 1.Types of tracer T h e Calijornia Research Laboratory test (1954)[206. The table below gives the observations m a d e at three wells on the same meridian.811 B.56 mm. or 9 kg. (c) the bacteria were introduced by a continuous injection of a mixture of 10 per cent of decanted lipide sewage and recharge water.4 m.4 23 24 0. and the average thickness (27. (b) 420 litres of water containing 20 millicuries of iodine 131 (three minutes' injection time).. 25 shows the iodine 131 results for 100 I the same three wells.2 2.e.
lakes..2 10.a T h e fluorescein reached this well at a peak concentration of 0 4 mg.00 14 23.s/min. Large amounts of fluorescein and eoscin were injected into the piezometer but throughout 10 days’ pumping no trace of them appeared in the gallery.5 strokes/minute/cm. 0 7 curie of iodine 131.83 6. The tracer front was fairly steep and n the tail very long. . The ratio of the estimated m e a n time of arrival to the actual times of the tracers.Arid zone hydrology Thus all the tracer fronts travelled very fast. with an estimated direct trajectory to the discharge point of 21 km. initially of 2 litres and finally of 15 litres. it was necessary to evaporate the samples (of 20 cm.8 108 .66 7. As to why the progress of the other tracers was so irregular-i. In v e of this failure. and reduced to approximately 100 cm.93 10. with a tail comparable to that observed i the permeameters.which means that part of their course underground is at great depths. 3./kg.5 m. at a velocity several times greater than the average velocity which should have been achieved i a homogeneous medium. These are hot springs. in the form of sodium iodine. n Serre-Ponpn test (France) .5 2. a solution of 5 kg. a w a y on the other side of the river.2 30. Water waa then p u m p e d from the gallery at a rate of 3. of sodium bromide in 25 litres of water with iw one curie of brome 82 as a marker was injected under pressure equivalent to a 30 m. Tests ut Cuuterets and Luz (France) . why their behaviour so strongly suggests extensive by-passing-it is possible that the method of injection affected the result.95 19. Lac d u Labas. Samples were taken on 13 successive days. and radioactivity was detectable i it 24 hours after the injection. save for the first w l where there appears el to be a time lag. i other words the ratio of tracer velocity to calculated m e a n velocity is shown in the n following table: Well S.T h e task was to determine whether the principal recharge of the thermal sodic sulphur springs of L u z and Saint-Sauveurwas from vadose water. T h e graphs of the variations of the iodine concentration i time for each of the wells have centres of gravity n little removed from the calculated m e a n time. n It follows that there must have been ‘bypass’ channelling on a considerable scale. In the outermost well the activity of the iodine did not exceed 6. T o detect the extremely small amounts of radioactive iodine reaching the two outermost wells.54 2.Coli l0lI Dextrose Fluorescein m. The springs emerge at the interfall between granite and lower carboniferous schists and there are lakes up i the mountains lying on the same interfall.e.66 4. the m e a n annual temperature of the air being approximately W C .24 2.16 7.00 2. was dropped into one of the . The object was to find out whether there could be intercommunication between a gallery passing under the Durance and a piezometer n borehole sunk i stony alluvial deposits 100 m. head followed by a swift wash through with 500 litres of water.66 T h e most regular results were given by the iodine tracer. which are assumed n to feed the aquifer system.* each) and determine the p radiation with an internal flow counter.
n T h e obvious initial step. a y radiation ray logger was placed i front of the permeable formation and when the radioactive tracer started n to come through.018 25/1 5611 130/1 109 . is to collect all available documentation assembled on the lithology and structure of the permeable formation. the experiment was by no means useless as it permitted a study of the movements of the water i the lake. These tests are of special interest as they indicate the w a y to set about a hydrogeological investigation.384 m. After that the sampling interval was shortened. If samples of the rock are available. n el T h e next step is to log the y radiation and neutrons.Types of tracer Counter tests revealed no systematic tendency for the total radioactivity to rise.A. it m a y be judicious to carry out a test w t a colour tracer h s il to begin with.7 m. . n T h e cone strainers of the boreholes topped a 13.8 litres per quarter hour. Their object was to estimate the permeability of the formations i question by determining the direction and velocity n of water measured i them. In any event the behaviour of the colour tracer at the observation wells confirmed the existence of suspected channels and enabled the required quantities of the radioactive tracer to be calculated more accurately.S. y radiation logs were recorded at frequent intervals.9 2. i the Bartlesville sands by water injections. and the test demonstrated that either the flow through the aquifer-not surprisingly i v e of the length of trajectory-was much slower than had been thought. Before the tracer reached the first observation well. Oklahoma. and the fullest particulars of the characteristics of the injection w l with particular attention to its el hydraulic properties. The radioactivity of the fluids yielded by all the observation wells where the tracer might appear was kept under continuous observation with y-sensitive Geiger-Muller tubes lowered vertically. depth of sand and the arrangement of the wells is shown i fig. 190-Wbeing the injection w l . permitting a definite identification of the horizons through which the water circulated most freely.19 11. before any test. 26. using standard apparatus for n the y radiation and ionization chambers for the neutrons. i the n iw f springs were indeed of vadose origin. it is advisable to begin by testing its absorption of tracers by the permeameter method described earlier. If the preliminary data suggest that the water should pass rapidly from the injection el ih to the observation w l . The injection was m a d e at a fairly steady rate of 3. U.215 0.3 1.a 0.0476 0. T i wl give the approximate duration of the trajectory and hence the time w h e n the y-logging team should arrive on the ground to detect the first appearance of the tracer without having to wait too long. T h e yields of oil n el and water respectively from the individual extraction wells are given below: Wl el Water Ol i Ratio R R-2 165-P m. However. was carried out for a scheme for repressing n a petroleum deposit at a depth of 155 m. Samples of liquid were taken at varying intervals up to the m o m e n t when a definite increase over the background level of radioactivity was shown. Test B i Nowata County. both i the injection wl and i the observation wells where the tracer m a y appear. or alternatively their replenishment really c a m e from elsewhere. n Tests in the petroliferous formations in Oklahoma (Nowata County) and Kansas ( A n derson County).
of fluorescein to roughly every 43 litres of water was introduced into the injection well (190-W)at a constant rate and the colour traces appeared i well R-2 approximately 11 hours later.910 litres of the n solution had been put over into well 190-W and 3. n N t 165-P 0 190-W H-16 H-14 e R-1 G-15 R-2 G-17 F-16 . there was channelling i a specific direction.which strongly . n T h e data thus obtained showed that the water passed directly from well 190-W to well R-2 through one or t w o channels at a depth of about 158 m . The ‘anchor packer’ hydraulic tests carried out on the injection well (190-W) showed that the water from i entered the sand at a depth of approximately 158 m.340 litres of petroleum and water had been extracted from well R-2. T h e rate of injection of water into well 190-W had been raised since the test m a d e with the colour tracers.e.e. about 80 per cent-of the radioactive iodine reached the well. i. after about 1. An increase of radioactivity was detected at the surface of the liquid produced by R-2. t A tracer solution of 226 g. No radioactivity was observed i the four other wells. Integration of the observations m a d e of the water in well R-2showed that 70 mli ilcuries-i. during which time 1. 110 . From the level in the tubing at which the radioactive liquid stood w h e n the first reading was logged. Counting from the time of injection the first increase in radioactivity took place 41/2 hours and the peak 7 hours later. i was calculated that the tracer had reached well R-2i t w o t n hours only. T h e distribution logs gave a precise pinpointing of the zone of entry into well R-2. An increase of radioactivity was noted i well R-2.260 litres of water 41 had been injected. 1 . However the peak was lower and the decrease of radioactivity swifter.310 litres of water had been put over into well 190-W. Next a solution of approximately 87 millicuries of iodine 131 to about 119 litres of water was injected into well 190-W for 15 minutes. during which time 2. FIG.26.N o fluorescein was detected i the water from n Thus the prescence of colour tracer in well R-2 confirmed that wells R-1 and 165-P. hours after the injection. a F-14 . A slight increase in radioactivity was observed in well R-1approximately 72 hours after the injection of the tracer.27. FIG.Arid zone hydrology T h e excessive amounts of water i relation to o l appeared to indicate the existence n i of a line of flow through fissuresbetween the injection and the extraction wells. Twelve days after that the radioactivity of the water was still a little above its natural basic level. hours after the injection of the tracer. n 281.
during which period 19.000 litres of liquid extracted from well H-16.T h e depth n of the sand is between 8 and 13 m. H-16. H-16. The y radiation logs for this w l showed that water was entering at these levels el at 258.Fluorescence reached a peak intensity of 0. There can accordingly be no doubt that each peak relates to the influx at a separate level. n T h e tip of the petrol-bearingformation lies at a depth of from 236 to 241 m. b s t y radiation logs were m a d e which showed increased radiation and located the zones of water influx of which the most important was between the 256 and 257 m. A n initial test with colour tracer was carried out to confirm the existence of such a zone and to determine the duration of the trajectory between the wells. levels. decreased rapidly.000 litres at the t m the colour tracer was injected. respectively. T h e 14-hourtime difference between the first appearn ances of fluorescein (58 hours) and of the radioactive tracer (32 hours) respectively in the w l water is perhaps due to the facts.500 litres per day against 8. therefore be laid on the latter. However tests m a d e on other injection wells showed that the behaviour of 6-15 was abnormal and that it might nevertheless be the major cause of the relatively high water output of M-16 and its neighbours.8 g. T h e first trace of fluorescein was detected at the water surface in well M-16 58 hours after the injection of the el tracer. and (b) that there m a y have been parn tial adsorption of the fluorescein. Kansas. Samples were taken at random intervals before. Continuous measurements of radioactivity were carried out on wells F-16. the appearance of the tracer i extraction w l s and revealed no appreciable increase of radioactivity at any time i wells F-14and 6-17. i the immediate area and the wells are arranged as shown i fig. (a) that a larger quantity of water was el used i the injection of the radioactive tracer. A similar example is a test in the Bartlesville sandstone i Anderson County. 260 and 262 m. the whole blame for the excessive yield of water could not. As it had been calculated that water entering the well required 2 hours 48 minutes to reach the top of the tubing. the rate of water input at the time was 10. first traces appeared 29 hours after the injection with intenIn the sity rising to a peak initially after 43 hours and again after 75 and 105 hours. it follows that the tracer reached the well i 29 hours. A tracer solution of 226. 27. of fluorescein i about 83 litres of water was injected n and samples were taken every two hours for 72 hours counting from the time of injection and every day for the week following this period. The relatively low yield of water from 6-17which lay almost on a straight line between the injection w l (6-15)and 6-16pointed to the presence of a channel zone of very el high permeability between the last two wells. n 6-15 was the injection well. H 1 -6 and H-14. or between 190-W and R-1via R-2over a distance of 84 m. F-16and to a lesser extent M-14and F-14were discharging too m u c h water and the amount from H-16alone was more than was being fed into 6-15. with secondary influxes on a smaller scale at 252 and 255 m.5 p p m and remained detectable for at least two weeks. No traces were observed i the water of wells H-14. After making y radiation logs for all the wells of the group a 15-minuteinjection el n was m a d e into w l 6-15 of a solution of 44 millicuries of iodine 131 i about 96 litres of water.300 litres of water had been put over into wl 6-15 and 31. The extraction wells.approximately. n F-14and 6-17. The first traces of fluorescence in F-16’swater were noted after about seven days at a m a x i m u m concentration of less than 0 5 ppm. and frequently and regun el larly after. thereafter the degree of fluoresence . Measurements of the variation of radioactivity in time in wl F-16 also showed el 111 .Types of tracer suggests the existence of a continuous fracture either between 190-W and R-1over a distance of 80 m. ie After the tracer injection. n In well H-16the first traces of radioactivity were detected i the surface 32 hours n after the injection of the tracer.
the distance covered about twenty kilometres and the dilution factor between injection and emergence. Ottawa. the el second 132 and the third 170 hours after the injection. the first 108 hours. there was a considerable rise i the tritium content n of rainwater i Chicago and Ottawa. Research on hydrological balances . and were m u c h greater than i the other w l . About a hundred millicuries n of rubidium were used. 28). unlike the other boreholes. n New Mexico. the heights of the peaks increased successively. In well H-14 there were again three peaks at 134.Arid tone hydrology three similar peaks. but lower and decreasing progressively. T i is n el hs probably connected with the presence of zones of higher permeability. Wadi Raiyun test. T h e aquifer was a very pure siliceous sand. 158 and 182 hours after injection. Libyan Desert .depth and a steep rise at 262 m. from March to May. These showed that immediately after the operation. However. of the order of a thousand million. after which all particles have the same average probability of precipitation is about 500 400 300 200 100 1954 112 1955 1956 FIG. Here radioactive rubidium chloride was used to test the impermeability of the substratum of the W a d i Raiyan. there n waa a rapid decrease followed by a period of stability lasting about a year with a further rise thereafter from the beginning of 1956 (fig. . Other tests with rubidium chloride were conducted i Egypt and revealed links n between the Nile and groundwater bodies i the vicinity. Mexico. ie the period n . Calculations showed that the retention period of tritium i the air. Between June and September.. Before and after the operation tests of tritium concentrations i rainwater and n surface water were carried out i large numbers. In this w l . In the spring of 1954 the origin of the rain falling on the Mississippi and the balance of water movement between the ocean and this basin were established by Operation Castel. 28. Western Europe and Greenland. but the amplitudes were lower. notably in Chicago. water was entering at three levels clearly indicated by increases i the y radiation recorded on n the logs which showed two slight rises at 240-241and at 244-245m. however. Tritium content of rainwater and mow in the northern hemisphere . too.
- - 8 113 . For the purposes of this calculation. come direct from the sea and 250 mm.) equivalent to one third of the atmospheric moisture which forms the rain. W e hs n can thus assume that there was an average precipitation of tritium i the Northern n Hemisphere of 200 x 107 atoms per cm.which puts the level of evaporation i the Mississippi basin at 490 mm.7 m.000 520)of ‘oceanic’ n water and 240 mm.n the Mississippi.2 (107 atoms of tritium give one disintegration per minute). As w e have seen. T i is shown i the right-hand column of the table above.and it is possible that further mixing could take place later on. five units were subtracted from the river water tritium content and seven from that of rainwater to allow for tritium additions from cosmic radiation at the time the b o m b was exploded. increases in the tritium content were observed in the Northern Hemisphere as shown in the table below: :++ Increase (TJHx lo8) Tritium atoms precipitated per Lake Michigan Lake of Zurich Lake Tahoe (California) Crater Lake (Oregon) North Atlantic North Pacific 5.or say. Thus the mixing of tritiated rainn water with continental waters does not only take place superficially. representing an increase of 39 x lo-’@ T/H. It s l rainfall consists of re-evaporated water from land masses and two thirds of water freshly evaporated from the sea. from re-evaporated inland water. After the decrease of the tritium to normal.of annual precipitations falling on the Mississippi basin. On the other hand. i the rain and snow i Cbicago had a steady content of 21 x 10-18 T/Hand seawater n one of 2 5 x 10-ls T/H. . n Run-offis reckoned at 280 mm. other In words 7. 520 mm. of water was mixed with the rainwater transporting the tritium from operation Castel. per year) from subsurface waters in the Northern Mississippi Valley returned to the sea by the winds is less than that (280 mm. T i means that there was a complete mixing of the waters right from the first hs months onwards. The quantity of tritium precipitated per square centimetre after Operation Castel was also calculated. During the period of constant tritium content (44x 10-18 T/H). It follows that the balances of 480 mm. the tritium content of the river run-off remained constant for a period of one year.5)to 44 x 10-18 T/H. (770-280 mm.(1. The tritium content of the Mississippi rose from n 4 7 (4.6 26 7 6 2 2 (187 f 20) 67 190 1800 100 100 x x x x x x 107 107 107 10’ 107 107 T h e normal tritium content is 10-11 to 10-18 per atom of hydrogen. Thus the other two thirds from the sea amount to 980 mm. i calculated from this that an average of one third of a l . Thus of the 770 mm.per year) transported by the Mississippi itself. The result was a notable rise i the tritium content of stream and river n water i the Northern Hemisphere. The shortness of the retention period explains why rainwater and surface water n analyses i the Southern Hemisphere did not bring to light any excess of tritium over the normal content. of this moisture is returned to the earth’s surface i the form of rain.Types o tracer f forty days (against a retention period of only three days for troposphere humidity). 1 m. 520 mm. Thus the moisture (240 mm. (409 250) of subsurface water remain i the vapour phase i n n the air. Rainwater was no more enriched in tritium than river water as a result of recurring evaporation i the water cycle.
Arid wne.29. Water balance i the Mississippi Valley . n 114 .hydrology t I 5 L t u a l I I I W 5 E L 0 L L FIG.
Types o tram f
W e can therefore conclude that rainfall i the Mississippi valley includes a n admixn ture of evapotranspirated subsurface water, i the space of a few months, equivalent n to 8 m. of rain. About 520 mm. of ‘oceanic’ water are precipitated as rain yearly, 490 mm. are re-evaporated,280 mm. return to the sea by w a y of the streams and 240 mm. return by evaporation. T h e following diagram (fig. 29) shows the resulting water cycles. Observations were also carried out on thermal-springs-Steamboat Springs i Nevada n n and the Yellowstone Park geysers i Wyoming. It was already k n o w n from the recent researches by H.Craig 1 based on the D/H, 018/01@ ratios that the water from these springs should i all probability be of meteoric n
T h e tritium rates showed that small quantities of extra tritium brought by the l rain had appeared with great rapidity in almost al the springs and that the full mixing process had most probably not been completed. The age of the water i these springs n should therefore be about fifty years.
1. II. Craig, G.Boato. D. E.White, ‘Nuolear processes i geologic settings. Second conference, September 8-10 1955’. Publin cation No. $00. National Academy o Science, (1956). f
B I B L I O G R A P H Y 1
BALANCE AND RESOURCES
1 BAKER, ‘Safe yield of ground water reservoirs’, Association internationale d’hydrologie . D. Assemblie de Bruzelles, 1951, t. 2, p. 160. (Publication no. 33.) scientifipue, 2 BAUMANN, P. ‘Groundwater phenomena related to basin recharge’, Proceedings o the . f American Society of C v l Engineers, 1955, vol. 81, no. 806, 25 pp. ii a 3 BERKALOFF, E.‘Etude du bilan d’eau Axn Ketena’, Bulletin konomipue et social de l Tuni. sie, no. 44, 1950. 4 BOGOMOLOV, V. ‘Classificationdes ressources d‘eau souterraines e evaluation de leurs . G . t rbserves’, Association internationale d’hydrologie scientijique, Symposia Darcy, 1956, t 2, . pp. 262-271. (Publication no. 4 . 1) 5 . ; PLOTNIKOV, A. ‘Classifying the underground water resources and appraising N. their reserves’, Congrhs gblogique international de Mexico, 1956, t. 2, p, 48. 6 -;. .‘Classificationdes ressources des eaux souterraines et leur representation sur des cartes’, Abstracts o the reports a the X t General Assembly of the International Assof t Ih ciation of Scientijic Hydrology, Moscow, Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., 1957,pp. 45-7. 7 BOLELLI, ‘Coefficients d’infiltration, coefficients d’bvaporation. Etude d’un can precis . E. dans les calcaires greseux (PliocBne et Quaternaire de l cBte du Maroc)’, Association intera nationale d’hydrologie scientijique, Assemblie de Bruzelles, 1951, t 4, pp. 12-15.(Publication . no. 35.) 8 CHEBOTAREV,I. I. ‘Principles of the estimation of subterranean waters’, Wat. & Wm. . Engng 1951. 9 CLODIUS, S. ‘Neue Zahlen zum Schema des Wasser-Kreislaufes’,Bohrtechnik-Brunnenlau, . 1955, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 21-3. R. iir 10. COLAS, ‘L’alimentation en eau des rgions arides’. Societe des IngenieursC v l r de France, . 1956, pp. 396-412. (Mimoire 109, no. 5) 11. COLLINS, W. ‘Ground water i the hydrologic cycle, w t special reference to CanterB. n ih bury, N e w Zealand’, Report Seventh Science Congress, Christchurch, N c Zealand. Royal a Society of N e w Zealand, 1953, pp. 127-39. P. 12. DANEL, ‘La reserve des d6bits des eaux souterraines’, Tech, mod., Construction, 1952, p. 245. 13. DBOUHIN, ‘Incidences de l’utilisation des eaux souterraines EIV I’dquilibre hydroloG. gique’, Tech.de l’eau,no. 122, 1957, pp. 15-22. 14. DUBIEF, J. Essai sur l’hydrographie superjicielle au Sahara. Birmandreis, Algiers, Direction du Service de la Colonisation et de 1’Hydreulique. Direction des Etudes Scientifiquee, vol. 1, 1953, p. 457, 41 f g i.
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