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Nama : Bella Riska

Kelas : IX che

“Declaration Of Independence History”

August 1945

On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima in Japan, the
United States which began to demoralize the spirit of the Japanese army in the world. A
day later renamed BPUPKI PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence),
or also called Dokuritsu Zyunbi IInkai in Japanese, to further emphasize the desire and
the goal of achieving the independence of Indonesia. On August 9, 1945, a second atomic
bomb dropped over Nagasaki, causing the Japanese surrendered to the United States and
its allies. This moment is also used by Indonesia to declare independence.

Sukarno, Hatta, as lead manager and Radjiman PPKI Wedyodiningrat as the former
chairman of BPUPKI flown to Dalat, 250 km northeast of Saigon, Vietnam to meet
Marshal Terauchi. They were told that Japanese troops were on the verge of defeat and
will provide independence to Indonesia. Meanwhile in Indonesia, on August 10, 1945,
Sutan Syahrir have heard the news over the radio that Japan had surrendered to the Allies.
Underground fighters preparing to declare independence, and rejected the independence
of Japan were given as gifts. Syahrir poet Anwar told about the atomic bomb dropped on
Nagasaki and that Japan has received an ultimatum from the Allies to surrender. Syahrir
know about it through foreign radio broadcasts, which when it was forbidden. This
information is then spread in the environment of the youth especially the supporters
Syahrir.

On August 12, 1945, Japan by Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, told Sukarno, Hatta
and Radjiman that the Japanese government will soon give independence to Indonesia
and the proclamation of independence can be carried out within a few days, depending on
how the PPKI. Even so Japan wants independence of Indonesia on August 24.

Two days later, when Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman return to homeland of Dalat, Syahrir
urged Sukarno declared independence immediately because he considered the results of
the meeting in Dalat as a ruse Japan, because Japan has been at any time be surrendered
to the Allies and for the sake of avoiding a split in the camp nationalists, among which
anti-and pro-Japanese. Syahrir Hatta told about the meeting in Dalat.

Meanwhile Syahrir prepare his followers who would demonstrate and perhaps even be
ready to face the Japanese army in that they will use violence. Syahrir has prepared the
text of the proclamation and has delivered all over Java to be printed and distributed.
Sukarno did not believe that Japan had surrendered, and the proclamation of
independence when it may cause great bloodshed, and can have fatal consequences if
Indonesian fighters were not ready. Soekarno Hatta reminded that Syahrir not entitled to
declare independence because it is the right of Preparatory Committee for Indonesian
Independence (PPKI). Meanwhile Syahrir consider PPKI are bodies made in Japan and
the proclamation of independence by PPKI only a 'gift' from Japan.

On August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered to the Allies. Army and Navy of Japan was still in
power in Indonesia because Japan has promised to restore power to the hands of the
Dutch in Indonesia. Sutan Sjahrir, Wikana, Dervish, and Chaerul Saleh heard this news
through the BBC radio. After hearing rumors of Japanese going to his knees, the young
faction faction urged parents to immediately proclaimed Indonesia's independence. But
the older group did not want to rush. They do not want bloodshed at the time of the
proclamation. Consultation meetings were conducted in the form PPKI. Young Group
does not approve the meeting, considering PPKI is a body established by the Japanese.
They want freedom for our nation's own efforts, not giving the Japanese.

Sukarno and Hatta went to the military rulers of Japan (Gunsei) to obtain confirmation at
his office in Koningsplein (Merdeka Square). But those empty office.

Sukarno and Hatta together Soebardjo Bukanfu then to the office, Admiral Maeda, on
Jalan Imam Bonjol no. 1. Maeda welcome them with congratulations on their success in
Dalat. As he answered he had not received a confirmation and are still awaiting
instructions from Tokyo. After the Maeda, Sukarno and Hatta immediately prepare a
meeting of the Preparatory Committee of Indonesian Independence (PPKI) on August 16
at 10 pm the next day at the office Pejambon Road No. 2 to discuss all things related to
the Constitution which had been prepared the day before Hatta.

A day later, the turbulent pressure that requires the takeover of power by Indonesia's
followers waged rapidly escalated Syahrir. PPKI Meeting on August 16 at 10 am was not
implemented because the Sukarno and Hatta did not appear. Meeting participants did not
know had happened Rengasdengklok events.

Events Of Rengasdengklok

The young fighters, including Chaerul Saleh, Sukarni, and reportedly burned allegedly
Wikana heroismenya surge after discussion with the title of Datuk Tan Malaka, Ibrahim -
who joined the underground movement to lose patience, and at dawn on August 16, 1945.
Together Shodanco Singgih, a member of PETA, and other youth, they brought Sukarno
(along with the new Thunder Fatmawati and 9-month-old) and Hatta, the
Rengasdengklok, which later became known as the event Rengasdengklok. The aim is
that Ir. Soekarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta is not affected by the Japanese. Here, they re-
assured Soekarno that Japan had surrendered and the fighters were ready to fight the
Japanese, at whatever cost. In Jakarta, the young group, Wikana, and old groups, namely
Mr. Ahmad Soebardjo negotiations. Mr. Ahmad Soebardjo agreed to proclaim the
independence of Indonesia in Jakarta. then is sent to escort Ahmad Yusuf Kunto
Soebardjo to Rengasdengklok. They pick up Ir. Soekarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta returned
to Jakarta. Mr. Ahmad Soebardjo managed to convince the youth to not hurry - hurry
declared independence. After arriving in Jakarta, they come home each. Given that the
Hotel Des Indes (now the shopping complex in Harmony) can not be used for meetings
after 10 pm, then Rear Admiral Maeda bid to use his house (now museum formulation of
the text of the proclamation) as the venue of the meeting PPKI accepted by Indonesian
leaders.

Conferences Soekarno / Hatta with General Major Rear Admiral Nishimura and Maeda
In the evening, Sukarno and Hatta returned to Jakarta. Major General Moichiro
Yamamoto, XVI Army Chief of Staff (Army) who became head of the military
government of Japan (Gunseikan) in the Dutch East Indies did not want to accept
Sukarno-Hatta, who was escorted by Tadashi Maeda and ordered Major General Otoshi
Nishimura, Public Affairs Department Head of government Japan's military, to accept the
arrival of the entourage. Nishimura pointed out that since the late afternoon of August 16,
1945 has received an order from Tokyo that Japan should maintain the status quo, can not
be given permission to prepare the proclamation of Indonesian independence, as had been
promised by Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam. Sukarno and Hatta regretted that
decision and sarcastic attitude Nishimura whether an officer who was eager Bushido,
break a promise to be pitied by the Allies. Finally Sukarno-Hatta requested that do not
hinder the work PPKI Nishimura, perhaps by way of pretending not to know. Seeing a
hot debate Maeda quietly leave the room because it was warned by Nishimura in order to
obey Tokio Maeda and he knows as a Navy liaison officer (Kaigun) in the area of the
Army (Rikugun) he has no authority to decide.

After the house Nishimura, Sukarno-Hatta airport to the house of Admiral Maeda (now
Jalan Imam Bonjol No. 1) accompanied by Myoshi to conduct a meeting to prepare the
text of the Proclamation. After Sukarno-Hatta airport to greet the left arguing with
Nishimura, Maeda resigned to his bedroom. Preparation of the text of the proclamation
made by Soekarno, M. Hatta, Achmad Soebardjo and witnessed by Soekarni, BM Diah,
Sudiro (Mbah) and Sayuti Melik. Myoshi half-drunk in the back seat listening to the
preparation of the text but then there are sentences from Shigetada Nishijima as if she had
come to interfere with the preparation of the text of the proclamation and advised that the
power transfer means only administrative powers. About this Bung Karno stressed that
the transfer of power that means "transfer of power". Bung Hatta, Subardjo, BM Diah,
Sukarni, Sudiro and Sajuti Malik nothing but justify the claims in some quarters
Nishijima Nishijima claims still buzzed.

Having completed the concept was agreed, Sajuti copying and typing the manuscript
using a typewriter taken from the German Navy offices, owned by Major (Marine), Dr.
Hermann Kandeler. At first reading of the proclamation will be conducted at the Field
Ikada, but for security reasons since moved to the residence of Sukarno, Pegangsaan
Road 56 East (now Jl. Proclamation no. 1).
Script Readings seconds Proclamation

The original document placed on the proclamation of the National Monuments


Negotiations between groups of young and old groups in preparing the text of the
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence took place at 2:00 to 4:00 a.m. in the morning.
Text of the proclamation was written in the dining room at the Admiral Tadashi Maeda
Jln Imam Bonjol No. 1. The compilers of the text of the proclamation was Ir. Soekarno,
Drs. Moh. Hatta, and Mr. Ahmad Soebarjo. The concept of the text of the proclamation
was written by Ir. Soekarno himself. In the front room, was present Sayuti Melik BM
Diah, Sukarni and Soediro. Sukarni suggested that the proclamation was signed text is Ir.
Soekarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian nation. Proclamation of
Indonesian text was typed by Sayuti Melik. In the morning, August 17, 1945, at the
residence of Sukarno, the East 56th Street Pegangsaan have attended, among others
Soewirjo, Wilopo, Gafar Pringgodigdo, Tabrani and Trimurti. The event began at 10:00
with the reading of the proclamation by Sukarno and spliced a short speech without text.
Then the flag, which had been sewn by bu Fatmawati, flown, followed by a speech by
Soewirjo, deputy mayor of Jakarta at the time and Moewardi Hospital, chairman of the
Barisan Pioneer.

Trimurti initially asked to raise the flag but he refused on the grounds pengerekan flag
should be performed by a soldier. Therefore, it instituted a Hendraningrat Latief, a soldier
of PETA, assisted by Suhud for the task. A young woman emerged from behind a tray of
Red and White (Sang Saka Merah Putih), which was sewn by Fatmawati few days earlier.
After the flag flying, the audience sang Indonesia Raya. Until now, the inheritance flag is
still stored in the Museum Monument National Monument.

After the ceremony took place, approximately 100 members, led Barisan S. Brata
Pioneers came in a hurry because they do not know where the sudden change from the
Pegangsaan Ikada. They are demanding Sukarno repeated readings of the Proclamation,
but refused. Finally Hatta gave a brief message to them.

On August 18, 1945, Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) make
a decision, approved and set the Basic Law (Constitution) as the basis of the Republic of
Indonesia, hereinafter known as the Constitution 45. Thus, the State Government formed
the shape of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia (Homeland), with sovereignty in the
hands of the people who carried out entirely by the People's Consultative Assembly
(MPR) to be formed later.

After that Sukarno and M. Hatta was chosen upon the recommendation of Oto PPKI
Iskandardinata and approval of the president and vice president of the Republic of
Indonesia first. President and vice president will be assisted by a National Committee.