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The Human Brain
Human behavior comes from the human brain. This text seeks further definition of man, that portion of man which resides in his brain. It uses prior information found in separate texts on genetics, evolution and developmental history, to further understand the current physical structure of the human neural system. The overall goal of this text, along with others in the series, is to provide a basis in fact of the nature of man for use in developing those social studies (education, psychology, sociology, etc.) so necessary for the formation and maintenance of culture. The basis now used for these study areas is erroneous and the development of these social studies is now pure conjecture and imagination. This following study of the brain is confined to those features of the brain which determine or contribute to human behavior. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS CONCLUSIONS THE NEURAL SYSTEM BEFORE MAN EXPLORATION METHODS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE BRAIN A CASE OF COOPERATION THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OBTAINING INFORMATION ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT PROVIDING FUNCTION DIRECTION AND DRIVE: THE CONFLICT OF LIFE EDUCATING AND TRAINING THE HUMAN REFERENCES

Summary of Findings
During the development of the human neural system, there were six eras of improvement in function:


1. The direct reaction to a sensor signal. This earliest development of a neural system was a simple but fast functional response to the stimulation of a sensor. A given sensor signal resulted in a given fixed action. A pure example of this early neural process is still observable in some single-cell animals using photo-synthesis which will sense the direction of light and swim toward it. Man has many of these reactive neural elements, from the blink of an eye (a physical movement), to apprehension of the dark (a decision coloration). 2. The instinctive response to an inherited pattern which is associated with danger or food. A sensor observes the environment and compares the received sensor pattern with an inherited pattern. A current example exists in some nesting birds. Wave a cutout in the shape of a hawk over the nest and the chick will cringe. Wave a cutout corresponding to the





parent's outline and it will make a noise and open its mouth for food. Although superseded (and largely diminished or perverted by mutations as a result of disuse), many still occur in man in the form of anxieties: sleeplessness during full moon comes from an inherited fear of danger from predators on such nights. Fear of height refers to the arboreal phase of man's ancestry. Claustrophobia (once an aid to survival) developed when confined in dark caves along with possible predators. Racial bigotry came from millions of years of militant tribal relationships, where any difference in personal appearance signaled danger. 3. The development of sensory memory and comparison. The fixed danger or need pattern was largely replaced in the higher animals by sensor memory and comparison. Remembered sensor experiences, all properly graded with descriptions of associated fear, hunger or lust, are constantly compared with the sensor's current view of the environment. Highly developed in man, it is more limited in the other higher species. This memory is not limited to experiences within the environment. It is here that the animal may be trained. This entire process is instinctive (programmed in neural circuitry). We refer to it as 'intuition' and it is highly successful in the day to day living experience. It is the most used thought process in man by far, most humans rarely use any other process. We learn to drive a car, prepare our food, speak a language, and follow the customs of our culture, using this intuitive process. This is an instinctive (intuitive, fixed process, neural signal reconciliation and conflict resolution, state function) process, not an intelligent one. It is so refined in man that it appears to him to be intelligent. It is not. 4. The ability to imagine, to mentally construct sensor patterns, remember them, and then use them as if they were real in the value summation neural circuits, provides a creativity element in the instinctive value summation process. Observable in the other higher animals, it is most prevalent in predators under great food stress. They will develop intricate hunting scenarios. If unsuccessful, they will as quickly develop new ones. 5. Conscious thought, an awareness of identity, a feeling of personal management, is a relative newcomer, and probably (not at all certain) is more developed in man than in the other higher animals. It grew from the ability to imagine, to create experiences in the sensor memories. First, imagine a scene. Now, imagine that you are in charge, that you understand. That you need to do something with it. Now imagine the solution. The power this factor added to the intuitive process is incredible. Man, at least he thinks so, now had the power to stand back and look at himself and the cosmos. Man now had the power to become objective. Not that he ever wanted to, mind you, but it was now possible. 6. Then, quite recently, modern man discovered intelligent thought, a rigid methodology and a mostly painful process. Totally unsung, it came from the artisans (not the philosophers), while seeking repeatable methods to build dependable products. It required the learning and application of provable knowledge and a rejection of that which could not be proven. The engineer was born, vilified by the intellectual from the beginning. The intelligent thought process is not entertaining, like art, music, sports, literature and philosophy, and it isn't easy or fun. It requires a measurable and provable basis, thereby utterly destroying a lot of beautiful and imaginative thought. It requires a careful single logical step at a time, a seemingly terrible waste of a soaring and creative mind. It requires physical verification at every logic step, a terribly boring and rote procedure. And it takes a terrible amount of knowledge preparation. But it produces real and measurable results. And if something is really important, such as developing safe air flight, it is always used, indeed it is demanded. The education of our children, long an intellectual toy, must someday join

reason and intelligence. instead. therefore. frequent verification by measurement. cooperation. competition. totally reactive (instinctive. since he is not limited to functioning only with logic. we operate entirely intuitively (instinctively). however. If we are in our day-to-day mode. careful logic steps. He may be educated (he may be taught knowledge for use as raw material in his decision making). and intelligence when he chooses to be so. intuitive). he is instinctive in his goals (the need for and the application of the reasoning). thus allowing unlimited mental creativity and exploration. it is productive. He has no mental limitation in scope. The human has been provided by evolution with instincts (genetically specified neural mechanisms) which causes him to seek both training and education (he is a competitive social animal).the list of 'important' things that deserve the same treatment. imagination and conjecture in other than theoretical and inventive pursuits). reason. that we are 'intelligent'. The untrained and uneducated human is totally instinctive and not capable of objective reasoning or proper cultural behavior under modern social environments. He is quite capable of logic. . coordination) between his various instincts (genetically determined neural mechanisms provided by evolution for behavioral guidance). All of these neural processes are interwoven in the human mind in various portions. is the direct inverse of intelligence and can only breed mischief. Even then. we are in our 'awareness' (subjective) mode. he is also capable of being an absolute idiot. Man is. the refusal to consider intuition. Conversely. motor and instinct mechanisms. provided that he learns and follows the necessary discipline and rigid methodology. by nature (without special training). intelligent) creature. the more usual case since he is not normally either trained or educated in intelligent thought (solid provable premises. drive and power behind his every action. Being 'intelligent' is not an 'easy' process. But. It is only when we set our conscious minds to it. There is no mechanism for intelligence or memory which is separate from sensory. a logical (reasoning. and rigidly adhere to the process. and the divisions between them are invisible to us. The uncontrolled application of imagination and conjecture to an intangible basis. His behavior is determined entirely by the interaction (conflict resolution. such as now exists in our modern social studies. If we want to lean back and look at things. His instincts provide the direction. capable of being superior to any intelligent mechanism or creature. other than in his self-control over his instincts. Your computer may not have enou TOP Conclusions Man is not. nor is it fun. He is. Man may be trained (his behavior may be controlled by edict). The image cannot be displayed. It requires effort to learn and rigid self-control to use. We never really know which element prevailed in our decision. The self-disciplined and educated (if educated in real knowledge) human is fully capable of both. They are used simultaneously.

through the process of evolution. A single cell is a very complex assembly of biological material engaged in complex chemical processes. Note the process from the simple to the complex. about 680 million years. then the construction of creatures from multiple uses of the cell. Mankind thus constructs entire fields of study in social interaction (psychology. once the cell was established and began forming cooperatives. imagination and conjecture for logic. but since he is unable to sense the dividing line between his instinctive (intuition. Single cell life developed. he functions well. reason. consisted of single living cells. One by one the biological processes were assembled in the cell. sociology. along with the evolution of the human.Unfortunately. Having overcome most of this environmental stress through the invention of shelter. the normal (due to mutations) divergence in instincts across the gene pool of the human. The development of man required. The linked image cannot be displayed. The first multicellular animals began appearing about 680 million years ago. working in harmony. All of the higher animals. and intelligence. man believes that he is naturally intelligent and that he acts intelligently at all times. The evolution of man from the single cell is far less a magnificent process than was the development of the cell itself. human instincts date from times of great stress and so are primarily aimed at surviving under that ancient environment. Note the development. See The Evolution of the Cell for more detail on cell development. The human body is composed of many billions of cells. The modern human nervous system is composed of about 100 billion neural . He does not recognize that all of his social interaction is instinct (intuition) driven. re TOP The Neural System Before Man Early life. including man. The human brain was developed through a similar process. political and social 'science'. Nor does he recognize that many of his instincts are archaic and only partially applicable. over a period of billions of years. he usually substitutes intuition. some 3. and just as unfortunate. then one by one the characteristics of all modern life were built from multiple cells. philosophy. Also. first of collecting individual biological processes into a single cell. from the simple to the complex. Then he swears to its authenticity by virtue of his 'intelligence'. educational philosophy. will always produce divergent answers for the same behavioral questions. and thereby rarely true. Where his genetically provided behavioral tendencies (instincts) fit the particular social problem. many of these instincts have become detrimental. The file may have been moved. These were living creatures composed of cooperating cells.5 billion years ago. The development of the cell itself required about 3 billion prior years. Nor does he recognize that whereas logic and reason would always result in uniform behavioral action.) on false and self-serving premises and follows with faulty logical development which is rarely if ever verified. clothing. reactive decision summation) and logical reasoning. developed from these. etc. food production and medicine. Others are time-consuming and without social value.

since both were developed by the same process. has no basis. unlike an organ such as the heart or liver. for example. they were discarded. The human body is a giant cooperative consisting of billions of cooperating cells. As features were found to enhance survival. The linked image cannot be displayed. and that development would of necessity be of the same kind and within the same time frame. It is instead an organ of many thousands of interlocking functions. The human nervous system. While talking. This is the oldest direct study method. This is to be expected. The first thing to realize about the brain is that. Many thought at that time it was some sort of pump which helped the heart circulate the blood. The idea that suddenly something entirely new. in order to survive. causing it to evolve along with the body. supported by perhaps 10 times that many more. This is the most recent form of study. mutations occurred in the nervous system. the brains of all of the higher animals are the same in construction. All of the elements of the brain structure have been isolated and named. Observation of the functioning brain: Using techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging. likewise. As survival required more complex actions and reactions of the overall organism.functioning cells. Our current understanding of the brain is based on the following study methods: y y Determination of the structure of the brain through dissection: This dissection extends to microscopically thin slices. Other than in proportions of the various parts. the Broca's area (speech function) and the occipital lobe in both hemispheres (seeing function) will show activity. re TOP Exploration Methods The function of the brain was not understood as recently as two hundred years ago. While reading-aloud. Those mutations were tested against the environment in the same manner as mutations involving outward physical changes. The file may have been moved. a particular area in the parietal area of the left . it is not a single organ with a single function. the Broca's area on the left frontal lobe shows activity. the neural control of those sensory enhancements developed alongside. they became permanent residents. As man evolved. The active portion of the brain during any particular function will require more blood and so shows up on the scan. If features were not successful. is constructed of many thousands of cooperating functions. As ancient ancestors of man gained new and improved sensors. These micro-functions developed along the same game plan as the body itself. While moving the right foot. appeared only in the lineage of man. See The Evolution of Man for more detail on man's development. the brain may be observed while the subject performs various functions. those also developed in the form of neural circuitry along with and often a part of the sensory enhancement circuitry. a wonderful new intelligent mechanism.

For example: The eyes developed slowly over time. the walking ape/man of 4.". As presented here. Comparative behavioral studies of modern man. It is a spongy mass (and not very pleasing in appearance). the relationship between regional damage and resulting neural performance offers good physical correlation. By carefully noting the effects of damage then performing post-mortem examinations later. Current studies are far more 'politically correct' than 'scientific'. if carefully used only for that purpose and maintained free of ideological and political tampering." or "Any fool can see that the reason for teen-age births is the low self-esteem of the young mother. re TOP An Introduction to the Brain The size of the modern human adult brain is about 1350 cc. The neural system which supports (1) eye control and movement. was about 575 cc. This is the way of the philosopher. an ongoing concerted coordinated effort among academics to map the functioning areas of the entire brain. and other higher organisms can supply supporting data and guidance. in size. the social direction of man. educator and sociologist. therefore. as did those for all other functioning parts such as legs. the study of genetics and evolution combined with the data from the above studies offers great insight into the construction of the human neural system.5 million years ago. that of Homo habilis. (5) imaginative scene construction. leading to such utterly stupid statements as : "Ebonics is a valid language". all developed along with the eye. "It is logically obvious that if a child receives low grades. (4) scene analysis. This is probably the largest source of correlative (function vs location) data available. he will not be able to learn due to his loss of self-esteem. The linked image cannot be displayed. was about 400 cc. The brain of Ramidus. (2) care (blinking). the first human at about 2 million years ago . Introspection is the most questionable of all thought processes. at present. The file may have been moved. primitive man. There is. The neural systems for all of the other senses developed in the same manner. etc. (3) scene storage (memory) and recall. Cataloging the functional effects of brain trauma: Brain damage from automobile accidents and strokes is quite common. The brain is then the accumulation of all of these systems into one coordinated whole. arms. psychologist. Worse still. .y y y y hemisphere will show activity. The largest human brain was in the Neandertal at about 8% larger than the Homo sapien sapien. that education then forms the culture of the next generation. "Whole language is superior to phonetics for the teaching of reading. and (6) functional judgment of scene elements. but is the prevalent modern opinion source about the functioning of the mind. leading inevitably to a spiral downward of ever increasingly foolish 'knowledge' being taught to the ever increasingly receptive. The mind is turned inward to inspect the mind." Unfortunately. such intuitive (for some) observations form the basis for all modern education and.

which forms the cortex (outer surface). The cortex is folded to get more surface area. The brain consists of many parts. The file may have been moved.000 individual sensors. the left one is shown. the eyes well over two hundred million. and then open the file again. much is lost in the explanation of the detail. or the image may have been corrupted. re TOP A Case of Cooperation Usually it is best to approach a complex problem by way of simple detail first. smell and touch come from outside the brain cage (the upper skull). that it becomes confusing. Each element of each sense has a direct connection to the brain. If the red x still appears. parietal (top). .The image cannot be displayed. the Digital Machine for more detail on the neural cell mechanism and its functions. etc. The brain is divided into two hemispheres. If one should be unsuspecting. The end result of that approach in the study of the brain is so bizarre with respect to the way we appear to ourselves. the ears to another. Each small area on the body has its own touch sensor. Taste. The senses are connected into the brain in parallel. See the latter part of Man. It functions as if it was a flattened surface. Taste provides about 40. The hemispheres can be divided into lobes. The division of brain cell bodies and their connections causes the cortex to be either white matter (connections) or gray matter (active neural cells on the outer surface). The brain stem is a communications trunk between the brain and the rest of the body. It is at the surface that the cortex brain cell bodies are especially situated. The left side of a human brain is shown. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. then the combinations leading to the complex. All sensing elements enter the brain at the same time. Restart your computer. Two of the five senses which provide current environment information from the outside world (eyes and ears) are connected directly to the periphery of the brain. and frontal. The eyes are connected in one area. There is no time sharing or switching. The linked image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. occipital (back). corresponding roughly with deep fissures: temporal (side). the most conspicuous division being the two hemispheres. while the internal parts of the cortex carry the connections between the cells.

consider the partitioning of the brain into hemispheres. over time and with much trial and error experimentation.The cause of this unusual situation is the manner in which the brain developed. of 'mini-brains'. is composed of two thinking mechanisms. It was not built at one time. where the image processing area on the surface of the occipital lobes is both inverted and reversed. Our self. The human brain. Early neural mechanisms were quite simple. There is an optimum ratio severed. the left half of the brain is associated with things on the right side of the body and the right half is associated with things on the left side of the body. by a deep fissure. One of the surgical procedures consists of severing a large portion of the corpus callosum. or the image may have been corrupted. To gain this concept of more than one contributing to our single consciousness. Between these two halves and hidden from view. Indeed. which. The cooperative is so much in tune that it appears and functions as one. the overall system becomes. and as quickly. This inversion idea also extends to sight. The human developed from one of those early creatures. anything known by one side is also known by the other. Under normal conditions. in fact a great many. which connects the two. the human brain. it is obvious to us that we are one. it functions as one. is a cooperative composed of perhaps thousands of individual reactive decision mechanisms. As can be seen. It is not an entity that one can explain as an entity. allowing information to pass between. Figure 2: The image cannot be displayed. is a cooperative of hundreds. and judgement. so totally interconnected that it appears to us to be one. The voting of these mechanisms is so fast and so in harmony that we perceive the entire system as being the thought of one mechanism. Certain forms of epilepsy do not respond to drug therapy and surgery becomes necessary. whereas. In general. Three views of the brain are shown in figure 2. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. then. there is a massive communication link. As we use our minds. nor as a single object. interconnection with all others. Restart your computer. Evolution. each with its own memory. If the red x still appears. most of the brain is split into two hemispheres. perhaps thousands. thereby almost completely isolating one half of the brain from the other. increased the number of neural components while constantly increasing the complexity of each. The end result. Too much will unduly harm the function of the patient. then. and then open the file again. Neural decision mechanisms in mobile complex organisms have been around more than 680 million years. too little will not sufficiently diminish . There is no hint that we are actually many. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. the left and right. and that our consciousness (awareness) is the summation (vote) of these entities in the closest possible cooperation. the corpus callosum. in effect.

A new vocal and external communication link is established between the two sides that partially offsets the internal one that has been partially disabled. both are as nothing compared to the evolution of the human neural system and its product. As astounding as that process was and its product is. It is a way of overcoming the communication difficulty introduced by the surgery. they are now partially isolated. if not impossible. Whereas formerly each side of the brain was kept informed of the happenings to the other by way of the corpus callosum. The awesome complexity and exquisite beauty of the human neural system is staggering. Things seen with only the right eye are not recognized when viewed again with only the left. They still have common control of the bodily functions and they still think they are one being. Bizarre effects result. The left ear picks up the verbal symbols (phonemes). the two sides of the brain functioned as an entity. then the right side of the brain knows how to verbalize it also. as we turn toward studying the entire nervous system. The file may have been moved. Before the corpus callosum was severed. The point is that these two sides of the brain are now separate entities with respect to conscious thought. It is now possible for one half of the brain to have experiences and learn things that will never be known by the other. The linked image cannot be displayed. to verbalize (the left hemisphere contains the speaking vocabulary). re TOP The Development of the Nervous System Fig. When the right eye sees anything. so harmonious in fact that the division between the two is intellectually and consciously invisible. Keep this in mind.the rate and severity of seizures. but external communication between the two is now necessary for cooperation. 3 . As we study the process we are continually amazed at the intricacy of its action and the beauty of its final product. The evolution of the human body was incredible in its complexity. Behavioral decisions were in perfect and immediate harmony. Things seen only with the left eye (right hemisphere) become difficult. The patient begins to talk a lot. the left side of the brain will verbalize it (speech center is on left side of the brain). throughout the brain. Adjustments are made quickly. repeated many times. The idea of separate entities cooperating so closely that they function as one is a common theme.

Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. (2) Its mutations (changes) are random. (4) Evolution does not develop functions not currently needed. This miniature nervous system set the pattern for all mobile life. The sensor sees a condition. merely reactive. There are single-cell animals. for example. The decision matrix is not a device which is located in one place. If the red x still appears. which live by eating others. it is a fixed circuit which sums the input data (some of which may be a summation done separately elsewhere) and delivers a particular action command for each set of input data. They move aimlessly around until they feel that they have bumped into something and then start chomping away on whatever is next to them. each with hundreds or perhaps thousands of other terms needed for the decision. light or touch. and passes that information directly to a fixed process which converts this real time information directly into a motor control command. These five statements together strongly imply the gradual development of a decision system and as strongly denies the possibility of the sudden invention of a super thinking machine which the organism later advances into using. more terms (things to be considered in decision making) were added to this decision matrix. nor is there evidence of any different kind of structure. In electronic engineering terms it is a state machine. It does not learn. There are others that rely on light to power their photo-synthesis energy system. This decision module is fixed. Note! This form for the behavior controlling device is surmised from observation and study of the evolution process. (5) The environment selects (allows to live) mutations which are helpful for survival.) and new sensors were added (eyes. instead. ears. This system has been around more than a half-billion years and is still used by many primitive creatures. It is. As new devices were added (arms. as are all nervous systems. it produces a certain fixed response. etc. such as heat. or the image may have been corrupted. it only reacts to the current environment as reported by the sensor. (3) The mutations occur on existing material. Figure 3 shows a primitive nervous system. etc. In examining brain trauma (strokes and accidents). the new functions were added to the old. As life became more complex. It is reasonable to assume that evolution works the same in all species. The primitive nervous system works as we have described. nose. billions of years ago.The image cannot be displayed. As nervous systems became more complex through evolution.) new terms were added into the decision mechanism. With a given set of input information. An advanced modern form of mobile life may have a decision matrix composed of thousands of lessor decision mechanisms. Starting with the lowest order of mobile animals and observing the change in nervous systems from those to the most advanced (including man) there are only gradual changes in system complexity. This is a reactive system. mainly through autopsy after the . legs. It is diffused throughout the brain with major portions located close to major complex functions. It is not intelligent. These will sense which direction has the most light and then swim toward it. The decision mechanism is not an intellectual device which manipulates data while judging its end effect. We do not know how the brain works as yet. in general. Restart your computer. so there is no reason to believe that the methodology changed. Therefore man is an extension of the same process. and then open the file again. Evolution always builds on existing material. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. We do know however: y y y y (1) Evolution does no planning.

for example. more detail being needed in times of danger. the existence of specialized portions of the brain can be demonstrated. would be preprocessed into an entirely different judgment symbol with different accents tailored to the needs of the cat. They are genetically organized and assigned circuitry. Although it. is an integrating device (summation. it does not plan ahead nor does it build in excess of requirements. 4 The image cannot be displayed. in its trial and error method of development. along with its preprocessor. Evolution is a reactive process. Add millions of other inputs from taste. for the needs of the host. hearing and touch and the decision matrix would become monstrously large and also monstrously slow. If the red x still appears. As the sensors became more complex (capable) the signals they generated also became much more complex. For example. data compression). Consider the human eye for example. genetically set aside for the specific purpose. and then open the file again. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. not useful for anything else and not replaceable through retraining . With about 110 million sensor elements per eye and a color definition equivalent to at least 8 bits per primary color. Pentium for eye processing alone). this compression (scene analysis) must also make allowances for urgency at the time. Rather than build a huge decision mechanism in order to handle unnecessary detail and allow for future needs. It became necessary to preprocess this sensor data into a more compact symbolic form. Data compression is a part of the data preprocessing from each of the sensor sets. it produces similarly to a sampling device (such as a TV camera) operating at about twenty frames per second. The file may have been moved. through fixed processing. Only a small percentage of that information from the eye is needed for proper decision making. was forced to adjust the amount of the detail (data compression) before entering the decision mechanism. or the image may have been corrupted. it. Sensor preprocessing is performed in certain specified areas of the gray matter of the brain. The resultant compressed symbol representing current sensor status is particularly customized. and the smaller the decision matrix the faster its throughput. See Magnetic Imaging Techniques. a data flow into the decision matrix equivalent to 2. though the eye is similar to the human in capability and construction. the scene processed through a cat's eye. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.000 megabytes per second would be an overwhelming load to provide for using slow biological circuitry (would require a 200 mhz. Restart your computer. The linked image cannot be displayed. becoming increasingly more difficult to feed into a decision matrix directly. Physical measurement basis for these assumptions may be observed by various forms of magnetic resonance imaging. and has been known for a long time. Of necessity.y patient's debilitation had been chronicled. These areas are trainable memory. re TOP Obtaining Information About the Environment Fig.

the movement and focusing of the eyes would require . The occipital lobes are well developed in all mammals. providing a given function. it is mechanical training and has little to do with intellect. Also. etc. the total area used for preprocessing for certain senses are not localized. The preprocessing (data compression. A simple command to say. symbol generation. For example. the output of the decision matrix was required to drive ever more complex devices and to coordinate those devices. As the organism became more complex. and then open the file again. complex and slow. The limitations of that capability are input terms for consideration in the decision matrix. Figure 5 shows the addition of a motor controller between the decision matrix and the motor to be controlled. Although this is training. for example. indicating that the evolutionary development process for the function was not uniform but occurred in sporadic time episodes. If the complexity of the drive signals was required of the decision matrix. sensor judgment) for the human eye takes place in the occipital lobe of each hemisphere (see figure 1). Although primary areas for various preprocessors are relatively fixed in location in the brain between individuals. re TOP Providing Function Fig. the focusing and movement of the eyes along with sight correlation usually takes at least a year. or the image may have been corrupted. Similarly. The human voice alone. 5 The image cannot be displayed.elsewhere if damaged. The file may have been moved. "ah" is enormously complex with tongue and mouth position. The sensor and its preprocessor are integrated. it appears that some preprocessing is scattered. Restart your computer. If the red x still appears. Turning the eyes toward a danger and concentrating mental attention there would be an example. data analysis. The mutation which produced the improvement in a given preprocessing function did not happen at an aesthetically pleasing location. data integration. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. The sensors may in turn be controlled as a part of the output of the decision matrix. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. requires many thousands of simultaneous signals in the formation of phonemes. The coordination of the eye with body movement takes much longer. In scanning the human brain for metabolic activity while performing various functions. The linked image cannot be displayed. Further physical training and adjustment occurs throughout life. The capability of the integrated function effects behavior. breath control. it would need be enormously wide. there is variation both in location and size. The preliminary training for these preprocessor areas takes place during the early development of the individual. but once established was the likely loci for future beneficial mutations.

whereas in woman it is located in roughly equal parts on each side of the brain in the same location on both frontal lobes. This indicates that sensory memory is a part of the sensory perception mechanism. Vocabulary additions and pronunciation corrections may be made throughout the life of the individual. tongue. then. the phoneme processor translates that phoneme demand into the multitude of muscular controls needed to accomplish that task. finger. The linked image cannot be displayed. Here again. Each motor device (leg. When the decision mechanism makes the decision to say. touch. etc. an area of gray matter set aside and specifically designed for that function. The basic speech elements may be obtained in less than two years. but any scene memory will show defects in that same area. it takes the same amount of time either way. All of our memory scenes are stored in that same layer. If a subject is given a map to study then asked to trace the route from a given location on the map to another both with the eyes and from memory. eye. to the generalization that all sensory memory is stored in the sensory perception area for that sensor. it can be shown that that the seeing is damaged in an exact reflected way. A final important finding: if a visual perception area in the occipital lobe is damaged. a post-processor device. by building a device which performs the detail translation from decision to performance. It has been shown that the act of seeing provides a scaled version of the scene along the gray matter surface of the occipital lobe. This controller is trained as the child learns to talk. and is not able to recall any historical scene detail in that same area but from before the damage. trial and error adopted the controller option. the subject not only loses the ability to see in the damaged portion. Other small patches of the brain show that they are also a part of this same mechanism. It is an easy step. It is located primarily in man on the lower portion of the left frontal lobe.many thousands of instructions. A memory recalled which is complete with sight. re TOP . The human 'builds' a scene in the sensory areas as he invents. not only is the visual perception damaged. even though the eyes were not damaged. This gives insight into the human creative process. the subject is also unable to 'imagine' (construct a mental scene) in that damaged area.) has a trainable controller for the expansion and translation of the command to that device . arm. "ah". These are provided by an eye controller mechanism rather than directly from the decision matrix. sound and smell is an assembly from the various sensory memories. The phoneme processor is an excellent example. An important finding with respect to the eyes is that if a perception area is damaged (in the surface layer of the occipital lobes). The file may have been moved. If a portion of the visual area in the occipital lobe is damaged.

Whereas before. post-processing and command translation). The idea of survival or safety had not been developed. the animal will flee. perhaps more than 90%. all under the general heading survival. food. the signals from the senses were translated directly into commands for motion and eating. respiration. The blink of the eye to prevent injury to it when something moves toward it is an example. The first drives (instincts) developed in genetically specified form were the ones that concerned body functions. now this translation depends to a certain degree on a new factor. The senses determine the amount and quality of current environmental information. Decision conflict was the method which developed as the result of evolution. The first animal which moved around as it sought food but changed directions rapidly when a moving shadow appeared. the basic element of 'intelligence' in animals. The animal is no longer ever completely comfortable. is required for body maintenance (heart. became more complex. The emphasis is hunger. arms. As organisms. We call that factor fear. There were conflicts in the environment and often there were choices which needed to be made. Safety. When the fear emotion exceeds his hunger. The decision conflict between safety and food was probably the first developed. actions taken in direct and immediate response to a given sensor input. Under a comfortable environment. the animal always sought food. and care of young are some of the focal points. As multiple requirements grew. The physical construction and mobility of the body determines the behavioral capability and capacity of the individual.). The jerk of the hand away from something hot is another. the animal forages. since it lives in a constant decision conflict between hunger and fear. But man's behavior goes much deeper. those whose only function was finding food continually blundered into disaster. As long as the hunger is greater than the fear. tended to survive better than those that doggedly stayed on path regardless of movement around them. These are referred to as reflex actions. etc. These together describe the physical abilities and limitations of the individual. As predators developed around them. the fear is small and the appetites may be attended to. the central decision matrix gained terms to be considered. the conflict is fear. animals developed a repertoire of actions. . The decision on which to do became necessary before the command could be issued on what to do. and motor control (legs. and their perceived environment. etc. the sensor gave not only information but also supplied it in such a way that it provided the command signal required to satisfy the error in that information.Direction and Drive: the Conflict of Life A very large percentage of the brain. information gathering (sensors and data preprocessing). Before this decision conflict developed. The simple organism shown in figure 3 did not need an impetus to do what it should do and its guiding mechanism did not provide decision conflict. In this simple animal. It is the balance of the brain which provides much of what becomes behavior. Implicit in the sensor's data was the command to do a specific thing about it. memory. sex.

Without conflict. is a perversion.) The modern attitude of mental conflict avoidance. espoused by modern psychologists and philosophers. Where are these various instincts located? Most sensory and motor signal processors contain . TGIF is a death mantra. what difference does a solution make? Who cares? The forage/danger conflict along with the fear function which regulates the balance between those factors is one we see often. Soon. regardless of the species involved. The actual sensory image. constant fear and constant hunger. Thus bravery was born. (Investors on the stock market play the same game today. became probable. Feed the animal a constant amount regularly. until the danger reached a certain threshold. Man needs that inner conflict. then. will tend to grow without limit. These three instincts become more adept with time. This was gained by developing a fixed mental sensory image which more closely resembled the danger. in this case. Instincts which favored problem solving: If the animal became more adept at identifying his food. the instinct which allows function in the face of danger. even though danger was allowed to be recognized as being present. As the crowd grows. therefore he tended to survive better. all of the modern higher animals. The amplitude of the output signal (fear) was in direct proportion to the degree which the two matched. It is natural that they do and the growth should be expected. The forage/danger ratio becomes quite desirable in his decision matrix and the animal will strive to enjoy it. including the human. was compared with the genetically fixed (instinctive) memory pattern. the animal wasted less time in fleeing without diminishing his safety from being eaten and thereby became more efficient in the use of his time. This was done in part by developing a hysteresis in the decision mechanism which diminished the fear. His value. so that sensory input could be compared and the decision could more easily be made between danger and no danger. All welfare systems. A similar process exists in human welfare systems. he became more efficient in his foraging and made better use of the time he was not fleeing from danger. the two are balanced. This. lies in his unique solution. Your backyard becomes a foraging location of relative safety and some constancy. has been the position of man. Once these three trends (natural occurrences of behavior modifying instincts under the selection process) became established. and the crowd will increase as others gather for a handout. he had more time to find food and tended to survive better. each ebbing and flowing with the experiences of the day. Instincts which caused the organism to be more dynamic: If the decision matrix became more sophisticated so that the flee or eat decision was brought into sharper focus. it's a battle royal between competing animals. and many new instincts grew from these. it is the essence of his life.Under a stressful environment. The crowd will continue to grow even when the amount of food available for each approaches a starvation diet. Feed a wild animal or bird in your back yard and you will enslave him. or to be eaten. neither of which exists elsewhere in his habitat. Evolution then favored three kinds of changes to the animal: y y y Instincts which provide for problem avoidance: If the animal became more adept at identifying his danger so that he more often fled when he should and less often fled when there was no need. and the animal is extremely uncomfortable. the food for each shrinks. barely able to decide whether he wishes to eat. historically. The food image was developed in the same manner as the danger image above: an image in fixed memory (actually composed of many images related to the senses) to which the sensory image could be compared.

Those parents who do not have this attachment. bear only a few young which require lengthy care to become adult and have their own offspring. Usually it is triggered by a sensory input: we see a child. Early animals had no notion of reproduction. like all instincts. to a point. It is believed that the central portions of the instinct set reside in the frontal lobes. Sexual drive was provided genetically (another instinct). There is no central location for the instinct. Segmenting instincts in the human mind is an intellectual aid but does not reflect physical condition. Those who engaged in a lot of sex had a lot of offspring and therefore tended to thrive as a species. invokes an emotion when triggered. So where does one leave off and the other begin? Instinctive man is a skull full of lumpy instinctive stew. What is the extent of the development of neural behavior mechanisms (how many instincts are there?) in the brain? It is not that simple. The prior cell division method of reproduction had resulted in great stability in the various forms of life. is an instinct developed under tribal conditions for the purpose of sharing tribal goods (which enhanced the ability of the tribe to survive). we smell the characteristic odor of a baby. Its roots are in parental love (care for the helpless child). Plants follow this path. In the beginning. and in fact. Almost everyone loves a puppy. we feel the softness of their skin. . then the parent is quite casual toward them. in turn requiring a great attachment between parent and young. we hear it gurgle in baby laughter. Increased sexual drive tends to be intensified by the process of evolution. Take the one we call parental love for example. as a means of segmenting knowledge for ease in communication and understanding. If a species has so many offspring that sheer numbers provide the species continuation. with some plants providing millions of seeds each year with the hopes that in their lifetime at least one of those will live to bear seeds also. sex was for the purpose of reproduction. the evolutionary process will tend to eliminate those species with lusts which are too strong. parental love in the human extends to all children. Those who have great attachment are more successful in raising their young and their lineage tends to prosper. It became so strong in many species that it transcended food and even danger. These sensory experiences are decoded in the various sensory control areas. as we do almost everything whether the process fits or not. The selection process favored a strong sexual lust. Other animals. such as the human. to try out against the environment. It. it is distributed but inter-linked. The others tended to disappear as a species. The instinct of compassion. Thus parental love became an instinctive driving force in the decision matrix and now competes (conflicts) with all selfish instincts. In that case. The sexual animal provided more variations. for example. These offspring require lengthy personal care.that portion of the instinct which effects them in the analysis of their requirements. do poorly in raising their offspring and their genetic lineage tends to die out. Male mammal sperm also follow the route that success depends on large numbers. somewhat extends to the young of other species. Most variations were worse and quickly died out but some were improvements and these tended to survive by crowding out the asexual animal. We categorize instincts. Rabbits are known for this approach. in most species. Chance mutations when life was young developed the sexual animal. And the instinct itself is not discrete. it creates problems which in turn may be so serious that the continuation of the lineage is harmed. than the asexual reproduction could provide. Since this instinct was developed during tribal conditions where the intermingling of cooperating families was necessary. dolphin and elephant. Lust becomes another factor in the decision matrix. If it becomes too strong.

it does not strike off looking for a new way to do things. If by chance it should find a better method. So rest assured. a mechanism which is successful in surviving.) The Broca's area is a neural mechanism which provides the function of motor processor for the human voice mechanism. if one way solves a problem in the body. Evolution is inventive in the sense that it is chaos squeezed through a filter. Cells in the outer thin area of the cortex which are extensively used during a given action show visible change under the microscope. (This should tell you something about how we should handle criminal prisoners. The containers were then swapped and the remainder of the mice returned. After a period of time. One container was bare. no reason. But. Applying the knowledge gained from the mouse experiment. Observation of other motor areas bear this theory . in the same manner as the brains of the mice. one would expect that there would be physical difference between the Broca's area of the average person and that of an opera singer. too. There was a decided difference in the appearance of the brains. and no more. After the same period of time as the first part of the experiment. half of each group was sacrificed and their brains examined.The linked image cannot be displayed. Mutations are accidents and are. the balance of the mice in each group was sacrificed and their brains examined. therefore. He idiotically runs through a bunch of impossibles before finding the invention he was looking for. The other contained many toys and innovative runs. (The fact is this is the way man invents things. re TOP EDUCATING AND TRAINING THE HUMAN There is a physical change in gray matter with use. you will not find another way to do the same thing anywhere in the body.) Once evolution finds a solution. Cells in the 'busy' group appeared much more robust. then all other neural mechanisms which perform the same kind of function (a set of signals in. A classic experiment involved a large group of mice. tongue and throat muscles to properly form the word. There is a marked difference. It was found in each case that the appearance of the brains had shifted back. If the Broca's area responds to activity. The same process will be used wherever needed. It receives a word in the form of a string of phonemes as input. the creature incorporating the new and superior idea crowds out the old. It's a competitive world. Both groups were placed in identical containers and given identical food and water. also. and. The brains from the formerly sedentary mice had become more robust with the new stimulation and the formerly robust brains had shifted to the appearance of those from the sedentary container in the first half of the experiment. The file may have been moved. They were first divided into two groups of equal size. The end result of the entire process appears to be inventive. The environment is what it is. processed to a new set of signals out) will respond in a like manner. It has no planning. when the mutations apply to the environment for survival. Such is the case. It always works from (happens to) that which already exists. bereft of reason. and they perish. then provides the multitude of exquisitely timed and controlled commands to chest. most are found wanting.

pure and simple. It can be strengthened. . These problems lend themselves to objective attack. If the instinct is one that fits the culture. Conclusion: Our current public education system is precisely backwards in intent. Man has been developed to be the greatest problem solver yet produced by evolution. Only the modern educator scoffs. The construction of man's neural system shows his nature specifically. he conquered them all. Others adapt nature to fit themselves to a certain extent. Education on the facts of man and his fit in the universe will in most cases supply the information for proper control of the instincts (and consequent acceptable behavior). practice (repetition) is the only way that it can 'learn'. Medicine was developed. In fact. Fire for warmth and cooking was developed. motor skill or instinct control) through repetition. He has overpopulated the world and dominates all other life. the human is quite trainable). The most successful of the latter has been man. the Broca's area can't be trained to do a different function. As long as the problems were outside of man. Tell him it may be understandable but any form of racially bigoted behavior is forbidden. Racial bigotry is an instinct formed during the two million years that man developed from habilis to sapien as a tribal warrior and hunter. It can be exercised. it will atrophy to a low level influence. it can be strengthened through attention and use. In the same manner. An instinct which is deleterious can be over-ridden by conscious control (unless defective. If the Broca's area gets damaged. The neural mechanisms in each instance. Ask any basketball player. Man is a problem solver. Some life forms. It can't be trained into a new function. an impossibility. operate on the same principle. The most they can do is make the child lie and feel inferior because he 'thinks wrong'. If made inactive through inattention. No other brain area can be trained to take its place. no matter the activity (education. content and method. Nature is inexorable. The process of evolution produces life forms which can survive within the fixed constraints of nature. A constant and reliable food supply became available through agriculture and animal husbandry. With proper behavior the instinct will wither.out. Man is a successful problem solver. It receives a set of signals and produces another set of signals. Modern educators waste time trying to educate it into something else. that man learns best (whether in knowledge. you are through talking. Tools that make tasks easier were invented. It is not a reasoning mechanism. Forget educating the instinct and train the child's behavior. though specialized. practice or training). each of which has one goal in mind: the solution of a particular set of survival problems or portion thereof. pianist or mathematician. It is clear from this description. An instinct is a neural mechanism. It is composed of thousands of individual neural functions. adapt themselves to fit the requirements of nature. Tribal militancy was the necessary norm. such as plants. It is possible that the instinct is strengthened every time the attempt is made to educate it. Shelter was constructed from available materials. one by one.

Man does well in objective pursuits. Indulge in food and drink. in spite of the fact that he believes he is brilliantly intelligent in all things. would survive indefinitely. His conflict summation matrix (intuition). with all of the skepticism. Above all. . In turning his 'intelligence' from the solving of objective problems. were designed for an entirely different set of problems. Since man's nature is that of solving problems. are no more and can be no more than pure drivel. Allow traditional teaching techniques to remain until enough is known. . Man. as a species. Those problems did not exist when man evolved and evolution now supplies problems. Let somebody else do it. Man's social thought must be restructured. He needs to scrap his non-science education system and enlarge his scientific studies. should be an engineering field. for instance. This solution does not mean forsaking a rich standard of living or a compassionate society.suicide. He has two solutions from which to choose. if he wishes to survive: y y 1.He is successful to the point of negating the cleansing portion of his own evolution. Man's philosophy and psychology. But. not solutions. those for which he was designed to solve. As a superb problem solver of outside things which effect him. Return to the law of the jungle and recreate the life of the last two million years. All of man's remaining problems are those he has generated himself. abandoning medicine. or 2. rigor and methodology that shift implies. do not allow academics to reshape the culture. The natural forces of evolution would then cleanse his gene pool and keep it lean. All three give away man's freedom and vitality in return for producing nothing. he is dumb as a rock when it comes to subjective problems. This means forsaking a rich standard of living. then treat himself as his own worst enemy. it is natural that he tend to take the easy way. and he has solved the ones provided by nature. His cultural structure must be rebuilt. and a rocket to fly to the moon. rejecting a compassionate culture and requiring a reduction in population to a small percentage of that now. See The Degeneration of ManHe is faced with species extinction if he does not solve this problem. Educational psychology. he has generated fatal subjective problems. to cover subjective man himself. And then there are the three ultimate cop-outs . Man is born to be challenged. Relax. Develop and enforce rigid and objective social thinking. He can build a better rabbit snare. That removal may have been his death call. Take conflict (competition) away from man and those attributes which make him human will atrophy. as they are defined today. all thousands of elements. Force the proving of new teaching methods before applying them. drug dependency and socialism. He is not equipped. always skeptical of all that he does. with all of its rigor. These are problems which he is not equipped naturally to solve. with all its death and misery. translate man's problems into objective goals. man removed the problems.

Restart your computer. If the red x still appears. The image cannot be displayed. The linked image cannot be you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. for imaging the body and the brain are now available. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. and then open the file again. A fabulous listing of relevant sites is available at the Centre of Medical Imaging Research. re TOP The image cannot be displayed. He has even provided a quiz: Neuron Structure Quiz. University of Leeds Many Other Interesting Links The linked image cannot be displayed. or the image may have been corrupted.html . or the image may have been corrupted.onelife.Harvard Tel-Aviv University Washington University Evolution (Biosciences) This WWW Virtual Library page offers links to genetics and the theory of evolution. re TOP REFERENCES The Whole Brain Atlas . URL: http://www. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. MRI. The file may have been moved. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. renamed. If the red x still appears. CAT. and then open the file again. The file may have been moved. The file may have been moved. Human Behavior and Evolution Society Title Page MendelWeb Basic Neural Processes Tutorials and Basic Neural Processes Tutorials II John Krantz at Hanover College has provided students with tutorials on neural functioning and the action potential.The linked image cannot be displayed. Restart your computer. Many of these can be explored through the WWW. such as Xray. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location. an excellent introduction to information processing in the nervous system. or deleted. and PET. A variety of methods.

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