Technical Collection

Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers

Building a New Electric World

Use and Maintenance of
ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers
The transformer is an electrical machine that allows the transmission and distribution of electric energy simply and inexpensively, since its efficiency is greater than 95%. Through the brief description of the use and maintenance of the oil-immersed distribution transformers, the present technical leaflet provides useful information for the engineers, who are involved in the selection, purchasing, installation, operation and maintenance of transformers.

Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 1

Contents
SECTION A: USE OF TRANSFORMERS
A.1 Transformer Types A.1.1 A.1.2 A.1.3 A.1.4 A.2 ELVIM Distribution Transformers Transformer Manufacturing Features A.2.1 A.2.2 A.3.1 A.3.2 A.3.3 A.3.4 A.3.5 A.4 Transformer Components A.4.1 A.4.2 A.4.3 A.4.4 A.4.5 A.4.6 A.4.7 A.4.8 A.4.9 A.4.10 A.4.11 A.4.12 A.4.13 A.4.14 A.4.15 A.4.16 A.4.17 A.4.18 A.4.19 A.4.20 A.5 Transformer tests A.5.1 A.5.2 A.5.3 A.6 Transformer electrical characteristics A.6.1 A.6.2 A.6.3 A.6.4 A.6.5 A.6.6 A.6.7 Classification of transformers according to the use Classification of transformers according to the cooling method Classification of transformers according to the insulating medium Classification of transformers according to the construction of the magnetic circuit General characteristics Advantages of ELVIM distribution transformers Magnetic circuit Windings Metallic parts Assembly Cooling medium Tank Cover Lifting lugs Rollers Draining and sampling oil valve Neutral earthing link High voltage bushings Low voltage bushings Low voltage connectors Tap changer Voltage selector Transformer thermometer Oil conservator Buchholz relay Air dehumidifier Filling valve Oil level indicator Rating plate Tank earthing point Accessories of sealed type transformers Type tests Routine tests Special tests Rated power Temperature rise Ambient temperature Altitude of installation Short-circuit impedance No-load losses Load losses page 4 page 5 page 5 page 6 page 7 page 7 page 8 page 8 page 9 page 9 page 9 page 10 page 10 page 10 page 10 page 10 page 10 page 11 page 11 page 11 page 11 page 11 page 11 page 12 page 12 page 12 page 12 page 12 page 13 page 13 page 13 page 14 page 14 page 15 page 16 page 16 page 16 page 16 page 16 page 17 page 17

A.3

Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 2

6.5 B.9. with low losses page 28 Three-phase transformers.2 A.4 SECTION B: TRANSFORMER INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE B.9 A.1 A.9 Transformer standards Tolerances Transformer operation A.3 A.9.8 A.4 B.12.12 Three-phase transformers.11.6 Dimensions of transformer installation area Instructions for transformer installation Instructions for transformer maintenance Instructions for thermometer connection Instructions for the connection of the Buchholz relay Instructions for the connection of the air dehumidifier page 36 page 37 page 37 page 38 page 39 page 40 Services of Schneider Electric page 41 Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 3 .4 kV.8 A.12.6.7 A.13.11 Transformer order form Transformer selection ELVIM transformers series A.4 A. from 250 to 1600 kVA.6.2 A.1 A. from 25 to 1600 kVA.13.4 kV page 30 Three-phase sealed type transformers.1 A.A.2 B.11.2 A.10 A.6 Transformer electrical characteristics A. from 5 to 50 kVA.13 Examples A.231 kV page 23 page 23 page 24 A.1 A.11 A.10 A.4 kV page 32 Calculation of transformer efficiency Calculation of voltage drop Parallel operation of transformers Transformer selection page 34 page 34 page 35 page 35 A. from 250 to 1600 kVA.3 A. 20/0.12. 20/0. from 250 to 1600 kVA.12 A.6.12.9.6.13 A. 20-15/0.5 Electrical utilities Industrial users Single-phase transformers.12.4 kV page 26 Three-phase transformers.13. 20/0.13.1 B.6.14 Rated voltage Vector group Frequency Noise Efficiency Short-circuit current No-load current page 17 page 17 page 18 page 18 page 18 page 18 page 18 page 19 page 19 A. 20/0.3 Overloading Parallel operation Load distribution of transformers in parallel operation page 20 page 21 page 21 page 22 A.3 B.2 A.6.

1 Classification of transformers according to the use According to their use. the transformers are classified into the following categories: (a) Distribution transformers They are used in the distribution networks in order to transmit energy from the medium voltage (MV) network to the low voltage (LV) network of the consumers. (e) Special power transformers They are used for special applications. (f) Instrument transformers They are used for the accurate measurement of voltage or current. Usually their power is bigger than 2 MVA. (g) Telecommunication transformers They are used in telecommunication applications aiming at the reliable reproduction of the signal in a wide range of frequency and voltage. etc. (d) Test transformers They are used for the execution of performance tests with high or ultra-high voltage. A. for starting of AC (alternative current) motors. (c) Autotransformers They are used for voltage transformation within relatively small limits. Their power is usually ranging from 50 to 1600 kVA. according to their: (a) use. (b) Power transformers They are used in the high-power generating stations for voltage step up and in the transmission substations for voltage step up or step down. These categories are presented in the following subsections.1 Transformer types The transformers are classified into various categories. (c) insulating medium. in furnaces and in welding. for connection of electric energy systems of various voltages.SECTION A: Use of Transformers A. (d) core construction. e. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 4 .g.1. (b) cooling method.

As a result. various cooling methods are used including oil circulation by pumps. the transformers are classified into the following categories: (a) Oil-immersed type transformers The insulating medium is mineral oil or synthetic (silicon) oil. The materials of H class are designed in order to operate. The second letter identifies the circulation mechanism for internal cooling medium.2 Classification of transformers according to the cooling method The identification of oil-immersed transformers according to the cooling method is expressed by a four-letter code. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 5 . or both of the above. OFAF: Oil Forced Air Forced. (b) Dry type transformers The cooling is implemented with natural air circulation and the windings are usually insulated with materials of H or F class. (c) Resin type transformers The resin type transformer is a dry type transformer insulated with epoxy resin cast under vacuum. if the internal cooling medium is mineral oil.1. and the external cooling medium is air. which is circulated with natural convection. The first letter expresses the internal cooling medium in contact with the windings. in normal conditions. Combinations like ONAN/ONAF. OFWF: Oil Forced Water Forced.1. In power transformers. which is circulated with natural flow. For example. A. then this cooling method is coded as ONAN (Oil Natural Air Natural). or forced air circulation by fans. The third letter expresses the external cooling medium. ONAN/OFAN or ONAN/OFAF are also applicable.3 Classification of transformers according to the insulating medium According to their insulating medium. under temperatures up to 180ºC and the materials of F class under temperatures up to 155ºC. the following cooling methods exist: ONAF: Oil Natural Air Forced. OFAN: Oil Forced Air Natural. The fourth letter identifies the circulation mechanism for external cooling medium.A.

Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 6 .4 Classification of transformers according to the construction of the magnetic circuit The construction of the magnetic circuit of the three-phase transformers can be done. (b) Wound core The magnetic circuit is of shell type and the sheets are wound. This material has not crystallic structure.1. Two different materials are used for core construction: (a) Silicon steel sheet The silicon steel sheet that is used for the core construction is an alloy consisting of 97% iron and 3% silicon. namely the transformer has non free return of the flux. The silicon steel sheets have thickness from 0.A. This material has crystallic structure. as follows: (a) With three legs (vertical limbs) The magnetic flux of one leg must close through the other two legs and the flux also flows through the windings of the other phases. The thickness of the amorphous metal sheet is 0.5 mm.025 mm. There are also silicon steel sheets for operation in high magnetic induction (Hi-B). It has 70% lower no-load loss than the silicon steel. (b) With five legs (vertical limbs) Free return of the flux through the external legs. (b) Amorphous metal sheet The amorphous metal sheet that is used for the core construction is an alloy consisting of 92% iron.18 up to 0. alternatively. namely it is about 10 times thinner than the typical thickness of the silicon steel sheet. There are two different technologies for stacking the sheets of the magnetic material of the core: (a) Stack core The layers of the sheets of the magnetic material are placed one over the other and the vertical and the horizontal layers are over lapped. 5% silicon and 3% boron.

2 Advantages of ELVIM distribution transformers A potential transformer user has a lot of reasons to choose ELVIM distribution transformers that are manufactured by the industrial site of Schneider Electric.2.A. Less noise.2 ELVIM Distribution Trasformers A. Some of the most important reasons are the following: More than 30 years of experience in transformer manufacturing (the manufacturing site is active since 1969). All the transformer offers are treated very carefully in order to finally give an offer. As a result. As a result. ELVIM distribution transformers are manufactured. the transformer has lower current harmonics (better quality).1 General characteristics At the industrial site oil of Schneider Electric AE. special transformers can be delivered within 3 weeks. The high automation of the industrial process has dramatically decreased the delivery time. A. Three-phase transformers from 25 up to 2000 kVA. The offer is technically complete and represents the optimum technical and economical solution for the specific transformer application.2. The use of the best materials for the transformer construction. The application of the ISO 14001 environmental management system assures the protection of the environment and the reasonable use of natural resources during the transformer production. the best techniques and methods are used during transformer design and manufacturing. For example. The application of the ISO 9001 quality assurance system in combination with the very careful monitoring of the whole industrial process lead in the manufacturing of high quality transformers. which fully satisfies the needs of the transformer user. lower consumption of reactive power and lower magnetization current. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 7 . having oil as cooling medium and the following technical characteristics: Single-phase transformers from 5 up to 500 kVA. with voltages up to 36 kV. in comparison with the stack core technology: Lower magnetization current. The reliability of the suppliers of the transformer materials is systematically monitored and checked. The wound core technology that is followed has the following advantages.

A. Figure 2 shows the assembled active part (cores and coils) of one three-phase wound core type transformer. Next.3.3 Transformer Manufacturing Features A. The quality control department checks the quality of the wound core. The combination of copper sheet in low voltage with copper wire in high voltage plus coated press paper with epoxy resin as interlayer insulation. Important points during the production procedure are the following: Coil heat treatment at 100ºC so that epoxy resin is polymerized giving an extremely compact product. COILS Figure 2: Transformer active part. copper sheet or copper rectangular wire is mainly used. increases the coil’s ability to withstand short-circuit.3. Figure 1 shows one wound core. For the low voltage coil.1 Magnetic circuit The wound core technology is followed and magnetic materials with low losses are used. Next. Annealing treatment follows in order to recover the core’s physical and electrical properties. The high voltage coil is constructed from copper wire or copper rectangular wire. Figure 1: Wound core. CORES Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 8 .A. the sheets are cut to predetermined lengths.2 Windings The type of coil is rectangular concentric winding. All coils pass through quality control. The magnetic circuit is of shell type and the cores are wound. the sheets are wound on a circular mandrel and a circular core is created. The production procedure of the wound core is as follows: the magnetic material is slit into sheets of standard widths.

and electrode) for the welding of the metallic parts. A. Stud welding equipment for stud welding on the transformer cover so that secure insulator placement is achieved. MIGMAG.3 Metallic parts For the construction of transformer metallic parts. one drying chamber to dry the active parts in order to remove the moisture. which is absorbed by the transformer insulating materials during the production procedure. The usual painting procedure includes the following steps: sandblasting.3. Equipment for oil leak detection of the transformer tanks. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 9 .A.3.5 Cooling medium Transformer oil according to IEC 296 specifications is used as cooling medium. This painting procedure results in a durable corrosion protection and therefore lengthy life expectancy. two vacuum chambers.3. machines for the processing of transformer oil. TIG. the oil can be supplied from Schneider Electric or another company provided that the oil is according to the given standard. In agreement with the customer. according to the international standards. the following basic equipment is used: one crane of 35 tons and two cranes of 5 tons. punching and bending of steel sheets. A. The initial filling of transformer with oil is done under high vacuum in order to assure the high penetration of oil everywhere and to remove air bubbles or moisture that could cause dielectric failure of coil. painting with 4 coats (two primer coats and two final color coats) with total thickness of 160 Ìm. decreasing-phosphatizing Fe. Machines for construction and welding of corrugated panels and tanks. Different types of welding machines (i. Oil can also be filled later on without vacuum under the prerequisite that the oil level covers the active part and the oil has been filtered. so that the oil obtains the appropriate characteristics. in which the transformers are filled with oil.4 Assembly For the transformer assembly. Certified technicians and welders are the operators of these machines. the following basic mechanical equipment is used: CNC machines for cutting. Modern painting shop for the painting of the metallic parts.e.

4. The transformer tank has two earthing points.4.A. the thermometer pocket and the thermometer with two electrical contacts are placed on the cover. The corrugated panels do not allow the creation of significant increase of pressure internally. The tank of sealed type transformers (without oil conservator) is filled with oil and is sealed.5 Draining and sampling oil valve In the lower part of the tank side there is a draining and sampling oil valve. The transformers above 160 kVA are equipped with bi-directional rollers. which is caused by the increase of oil temperature during transformer’s operation.6 Neutral earthing link This link ensures the neutral earthing of the three-phase winding with the transformer tank. The tank sides are made of corrugated panels in order to increase the total cooling area.1 Tank The transformer tank consists of the bottom plate. A.4. A. which are used for lifting and carrying the transformer.4.4. a neutral earthing link is also placed on the cover. and the tank sides. The rolling system or the base skid is welded to the tank bottom plate. frame. On request.4 Transformer Components A.2 Cover There are two lifting lugs on the tank cover. A. which allows the oil sampling in order to test the oil dielectric strength. A pressure relief device is usually placed on the cover of the sealed type transformers. Moreover. A.4. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 10 .3 Lifting lugs The lifting lugs are used for lifting and carrying the transformer. A.4 Rollers The transformers up to 160 kVA are usually manufactured as pole-mounted.

4.5.7 High voltage bushings For medium voltage of 6. and 21. If it is desirable to switch from one position (e. The taps positions are inscribed on the rating plate of the transformer. voltages 14.4. 14.8 Low voltage bushings Low voltage bushings of 1 kV series. if we want a 20-15/.4. 15 kV or 20 kV).g. For example.11 Voltage selector The voltage selector (changeover switch) is used for the change of the transformer operating voltage from one voltage level to another (e. The handling of the tap changer must be done when the transformer is out of voltage. 20. The control interface of the tap changer is placed on the cover. Then we turn the handle right or left so that the pin is placed to the desirable tap position.5.5.g. 19. when the corresponding temperature limits are exceeded.g. the tap changer is used in order to keep the secondary voltage of the transformer as stable as possible. position 1) to another (e. 30 kV. The handling of the voltage selector is the same with the handling of the tap changer. are used.g. the handle of the tap changer is pulled upwards so that the pin is released and entered into the fixed annulus.0.5 kV.4.4. according to DIN 42530. taken the primary voltage as granted. voltages 19. positions 2. plug-in bushings can be used. position 5). the only difference is that the annulus has two positions (e. 15. A. A.g.0 kV).4.0. 15. e. according to DIN 43675. then the handling is implemented step by step. in order to measure the maximum oil temperature. A. porcelain bushings according to DIN 42531 are used. Alternatively.0.5. 20 kV and 15 kV.0. through all intermediate positions (e. and 16.3 % for medium voltage 15 kV (i.9 Low voltage connectors Low voltage connectors.e. The tap changer is placed into the transformer tank. when the transformer is designed to operate in two voltage levels.5% position. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 11 .g. the regulation of the primary voltage can be ±2x2. we set the voltage selector at the 20 kV position and the tap changer at the -2. Therefore. For example.0 kV) and ±2x3. then using a 5-position tap changer.e. are used in the low voltage. 4).10 Tap changer The applying medium voltage to the primary winding of transformer is not stable and depends upon the transformer position in the distribution network. 10. 3.A. from 15 kV to 20 kV and vice-versa) in proportion with the voltage of the network that the transformer is connected.5 % for medium voltage 20 kV (i. A.12 Transformer thermometer The thermocouple of the thermometer is set at the higher oil layer. 20. as follows: initially. 20. A. on request.4 kV transformer to operate with primary voltage 19. The electrical contacts of the thermometer are regulated to the desirable temperatures and are connected to the protection circuit for alarm and tripping of the circuit.

4. A.15 Air dehumidifier The air dehumidifier is placed on the oil conservator. the oil level indicator is placed on the tank side or on the transformer cover. Transformers with oil conservator are usually equipped with an air dehumidifier and a Buchholz relay. the air passes through the dehumidifier towards and from the oil conservator.4. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 12 . Soft blue-white (silica gel is full of moisture). The air dehumidifier contains SiO2 crystals (silica gel). which is installed between the transformer tank and the oil conservator. is implemented with Buchholz relay. which cause the development of gases or strong oil leakage. For the transformers with oil conservator.4. The oil conservator is equipped with an oil level indicator with two marks: the first mark shows the oil level at -20ºC and the second the oil level at +20ºC. A.14 Buchholz relay The protection of the oil-immersed transformers from internal faults. it must be dried or it must be replaced. When it is full of moisture and it changes its color and becomes soft blue-white. the Buchholz relay provides protection from oil leakage. Moreover. Drying is achieved by heating it at temperatures between 120ºC and 150ºC until its color becomes yellow again. and consequently the oil volume variation. the internal fault is significant). the first float is moved downwards and the alarm contact is activated.16 Filling valve The transformers are equipped with a filling valve.13 Oil conservator During the transformer oil temperature variation. Because of contraction and expansion of oil volume.17 Oil level indicator For the sealed type transformers (without oil conservator). A.4. The trip contact is also activated in case of strong oil flux to the oil conservator after short-circuit or internal fault. The silica gel should have the following colors: Yellow (silica gel is fully dry).4. an oil level indicator of tube type (glass transparent tube) or magnetic type is placed on the oil conservator. which absorb the air moisture. The silica gel absorbs the moisture until its color is yellow. the oil conservator undergoes this oil volume fluctuation. in order to have the ability to fill the transformers with mineral oil. then the second float is moved downwards and the trip contact is activated. In case of gases creation (as a result of internal fault) or lack of oil.A. A.e. If the gases are sufficient (i.

load losses.18 Rating plate According to the international standards. rated voltage of the secondary winding. ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformer Buchholz relay High voltage bushings Oil conservator Oil level indicator Tap changer Low voltage bushings Lifting lug Air dehumidifier Thermometer Rating plate Tank Rollers Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 13 .4. The DGPT2 relay has an overpressure switch. all the transformer data are mentioned on the rating plate: type of transformer. vector group.4. in order to have the ability for tank earthing. rated voltage of the primary winding. thermometer with alarm and trip contacts and oil indicator with contact for the trip of the circuit. serial number. rated current of the secondary winding. short-circuit impedance. maximum ambient temperature. year of manufacturing. frequency. phases. oil weight. A. windings material. type of cooling.19 Tank earthing point Two tank earthing points are placed near the bottom of the tank (one earthing point in diametric opposite direction with the other earthing point).A. core and windings weight. total weight. rated current of the primary winding.4. power in kVA. A.20 Accessories of sealed type transformers The sealed type transformers are usually equipped with a pressure relief valve and thermometer or DGPT2 relay. positions of tap changer and positions of voltage selector (if one exists). oil temperature rise. no-load losses. winding temperature rise.

2 Routine tests The routine tests are performed on every transformer separately.5 Transformer tests The transformer tests are classified. The routine tests include: (a) Measurement of winding resistance The procedure of the measurement of windings resistance is performed according to IEC 76-1. During this test the resistance of each winding is measured and the temperature is recorded. The short-circuit impedance. For the transformer. Special tests. as follows: Type tests. represents the transformer’s impedance. With this specific test. The objective of the specific test is to compare the measured values of the transformer ratio with the respective guaranteed values. The measurement of the resistance of the windings is performed using a resistance bridge. (e) Measurement of no load current and no-load losses The measurement is performed according to IEC 76-1. The no-load losses represent the active power that is absorbed by the transformer core when it is applied rated voltage and rated frequency in the one winding (e. namely: (d) Measurement of load losses The measurement of load losses is implemented with the secondary winding short-circuited and by increasing the voltage of the primary winding till the current of the primary winding reaches its nominal value. (b) Lighting impulse test The procedure of the lightning impulse test is performed according to IEC 76-3. The test is performed with DC (direct current). b) sudden on/off switching of breakers. The international standards require the short-circuit impedance to be calculated at the reference temperature of 75ºC. The load losses are calculated at the reference temperature of 75ºC. the following tasks are implemented: a) the determination of the temperature rise of the oil. A. These overvoltages are caused from: a) traveling waves (that are caused from thunders) of transmission lines.g.5.g. (b) Measurement of the voltage ratio and check of phase displacement The measurement of the voltage ratio is performed according to IEC 76-1. With this specific test. The no load current represents the real value of current that is required to magnetize the magnetic core.A. A. (c) Measurement of short-circuit impedance The measurement of short-circuit impedance is performed according to IEC 76-1. which are performed on one transformer from every transformer type. primary) is open-circuited. in accordance with the specification IEC 76. Routine tests. the transformer’s withstand against overvoltages is checked.1 Type tests The type tests. secondary) and the other winding (e. are the following: (a) Temperature rise test The procedure of the temperature rise test is performed according to IEC 76-2. c) short-circuits at the substation area. which is expressed as a percentage of the rated voltage.5. U1 U2 = N1 N2 Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 14 . the turns ratio is equal to the voltage ratio of primary and secondary winding. and b) the determination of the average temperature rise of the windings.

resulting in transformer saturation and. With this test. A. b) the insulation between the tested windings and the tank. the volts per turn and therefore the volts per layer are doubled. single-phase voltage is applied to the LV windings. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 15 . Then. the dielectric strength between turns and layers is verified. the magnetic induction is also doubled.5 sec duration and the transformer must withstand these short-circuits. Since this test requires high power. so that the magnetic induction remains constant. according to IEC 76-3. is 1 min. in which the transformer is going to be connected. (a) MV windings The LV windings are short-circuited and grounded with the transformer tank. the following are checked: a) the insulation between MV and LV windings. Finally. and c) the insulation between the tested windings and the magnetic circuit. The procedure of the measurement is as follows. the frequency is doubled. (b) LV windings The MV windings are short-circuited and grounded with the transformer tank. twice the rated voltage. so the noise peripherally to the transformer can be measured. single-phase voltage is applied to the MV windings. However.1/1974. this voltage is determined by the voltage of the MV system. In order to avoid saturation. this voltage is determined by the voltage of the LV system. Then.A.5. (e) Measurement of the harmonics of the no-load current ( f) Measurement of insulation resistance and/or measurement of dissipation factor (tan‰) of the insulation system capacitances (g) Radio interference voltage (h) Measurement of zero-sequence impedance (d) Determination of sound levels The transformer is energized at no-load and at rated voltage and rated frequency. For example. due to the doubling of the voltage.5. the Tests Research and Standards Center of Public Power Corporation executes this test. there is a danger for the transformer to be destroyed. With this specific test. during this test. in which the transformer is going to be connected. it is executed in special test centers. consequently. The special tests are the following: (a) Dielectric special tests (b) Determination of capacitances of windings-to-earth and between windings (c) Short-circuit withstand test According to this test.3 Special tests The special tests are not included in the category of type or routine tests and are executed after agreement between customer and manufacturer. The test is performed in accordance to specification NEMA TR . in Greece.2 Routine tests (continue) (f) Dielectric routine tests The dielectric routine tests are the following: Induced voltage dielectric test Applied voltage dielectric test The duration of the test. is induced to the transformer for 1 min. Three-phase voltage. the transformer is subjected to successively short-circuits of 0.

The top oil temperature rise is 60 K. in order to have the rated current at the primary winding. If the transformer is going to be installed in an altitude higher than 1000 m. and the short-circuit current. the following are determined: the voltage drop due to the transformer loading. the distribution of loads in case of transformers parallel operation. On request.6. The lower the short-circuit impedance. of the three-phase transformer is calculated by the following formula: Pn= Un In √3 where Un is the rated voltage and In is the rated current of the transformer. Transformer typical characteristics: The average temperature rise of the winding is 65 K. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 16 . Based on the short-circuit impedance. the higher the voltage drop. A.6.6.3 Ambient Temperature The rated power of the transformer is typically calculated for the following conditions: Maximum ambient temperature of 40ºC.6.1 Rated Power The rated power.6.6 Trasformer Electrical Characteristics A. the higher the short-circuit current.5 Short-circuit impedance The short-circuit impedance is the percentage of the primary rated voltage that has to be applied at the transformer primary winding. secondary rated current and rated frequency.4 Altitude of installation The rated power of the transformer is valid for installation altitude up to 1000 m.2 Temperature rise The temperature rise is the maximum rise when the transformer operates at the primary rated voltage. this should be mentioned in the transformer specification. in case of shortcircuit. A. A.A. transformers operating under different ambient temperature conditions can be produced. Pn. The short-circuit impedance is very important. The higher the short-circuit impedance. Average annual ambient temperature of 20ºC. Average daily ambient temperature of 30ºC. because it represents the transformer’s impedance. A. when the secondary winding is short-circuited.

6.9 Vector group The vector group determines the phase displacement between the primary and the secondary winding. Table 2 presents the 3 lists (A.1 S1/1992. a transformer has a combination of losses of A-C’. For example. These connections are the following: D (d): delta connection for high voltage (low voltage) winding Y (y): star connection for high voltage (low voltage) winding Z (z): zigzag connection for high voltage (low voltage) winding N (n): the neutral exists in high voltage (low voltage) winding for connection outside the transformer. C’) of no-load losses for transformers from 50 to 2500 kVA. under rated primary voltage and rated frequency. B.6 No-load losses The no-load losses include losses due to no-load current.1 S1/1992. The calculation of the winding insulation is based on the basic insulation level.8 Rated voltage The rated primary voltage (input voltage) is the voltage at which the transformer is designed to operate.6. C) of load losses for transformers from 50 to 2500 kVA.1 S1/1992. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 17 . stray eddy current losses in core clamps and bolts. A.6. according to international standards (IEC 76). A. hysteresis losses and eddy current losses in core laminations.A. according to CENELEC HD 428. according to CENELEC HD 428.6. and losses in the dielectric circuit. since it indicates the transformer ability to withstand the overvoltages that can appear in the network. and its no-load losses belong to list C’. The rated secondary voltage (output voltage) is the voltage at the terminals of the secondary winding at no-load. The BIL is a basic transformer characteristic. A.1 S1/1992. Table 1 presents the 3 lists (A’. The three primary or secondary windings can be connected with different ways in order to have a three-phase transformer.7 Load losses The load losses include losses due to load currents and eddy current losses in conductors due to leakage fields. List A Rated Load power (kVA) losses Pk (W) 50 100 160 250 400 630 630 1000 1600 2500 1100 1750 2350 3250 4600 6500 6750 10500 17000 26500 List B Load losses Pk (W) 1350 2150 3100 4200 6000 8400 8700 13000 20000 32000 List C Load losses Pk (W) 875 1475 2000 2750 3850 5400 5600 9500 14000 22000 Short-circuit impedance (%) 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 Table 2: Lists of load losses according to CENELEC HD 428. List A’ Rated No-load power (kVA) losses P0 (W) 50 100 160 250 400 630 630 1000 1600 2500 190 320 460 650 930 1300 1200 1700 2600 3800 List B’ Noise Lw (dB) 55 59 62 65 68 70 70 73 76 81 List C’ No-load losses P0 (W) 125 210 300 425 610 860 800 1100 1700 2500 No-load losses P0 (W) 145 260 375 530 750 1030 940 1400 2200 3200 Noise Lw (dB) 50 54 57 60 63 65 65 68 71 76 Noise Lw (dB) 47 49 52 55 58 60 60 63 66 71 Short-circuit impedance (%) 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 Table 1: Lists of no-load losses according to CENELEC HD 428. B’. if its load losses belong to list A. The rated primary voltage determines the basic insulation level (BIL) of the transformer.

The transformer losses are divided into no-load losses and load losses.13 Short-circuit current The short-circuit current is composed of the asymmetrical and the symmetrical short-circuit current.6.A. while the symmetrical short-circuit current stresses thermally the transformer. The symmetrical short-circuit current. is expressed as a function of the rated current In. The power efficiency of any electrical machine is defined as the ratio of the useful power output to the total power input. the transformer efficiency is calculated by the following formula: n= where S is the transformer load in VA. if the efficiency is expressed through the losses. In general. Consequently.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 25 50 Î√2 1. Table 3 presents the values of the factor Î√2 versus the ratio Ux/Ur.11 Noise The transformer noise is due to the magnetostriction of the sheets of the magnetic circuit. the following equation holds: The asymmetrical short-circuit current stresses mechanically the transformer. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 18 . A. when rated voltage is applied to the primary winding and the secondary winding is open-circuited.14 No-load current The no-load current represents the current that the transformer absorbs. The efficiency can be defined by simultaneously measuring the output and the input power. The amplitude of the first peak of the asymmetrical short-circuit current is equal to Î√2 times the value of the symmetrical short-circuit current. Moreover.6. A.6. transformer). where Ux is the voltage drop in the reactive components of the transformer and Ur is the voltage drop in the resistance components of the transformer. However. Table 3: Values of the factor Î√2 versus the ratio Ux /Ur A.63 1. The transformer efficiency is increased with the decrease of transformer losses. in case of high efficiency machines (e. The no-load current is expressed as a percentage of the value of the rated current. A. while the load losses are proportional to the transformer load.95 2. The no-load losses are constant.6.56 2. The factor Î√2 depends on the ratio of Ux /Ur. If the secondary winding is short-circuited and the nominal current is applied at the primary winding. especially for large machines.28 2. this measurement is expensive and difficult.51 1.46 2. losses are the losses in W and cos Ê is the power factor. IK .66 2. Ux / Ur 1 1.g.09 2. the efficiency of the transformer is calculated by the following formula: n= S cos Ê S cos Ê + NLL + LL(S/SB )2 S cos Ê S cos Ê + losses where NLL are the no-load losses.6. Consequently.19 2. a transformer operating at low magnetic induction has low noise level.75 1. LL are the load losses and SB is the rated power of the transformer in VA.77 IK In = 100 UK where UK is the short-circuit impedance. ELVIM transformers are designed and tested to withstand short-circuit currents according to IEC 76-5. higher precision can be achieved.38 2.12 Efficiency The distribution transformers are very efficient machines since their efficiency is greater than 95%.10 Frequency The frequency at which the transformer is designed to operate is 50 Hz or 60 Hz in accordance with the network frequency.

5% of guaranteed voltage ratio b) ±1/10 of the measured short-circuit impedance on the principal tapping ±10% of the guaranteed short-circuit impedance +15% of the guaranteed no-load losses +15% of the guaranteed load losses +10% of the guaranteed total losses (load and no-load) +30% of the guaranteed no-load current Short-circuit impedance No-load losses Load losses Total losses (load and no-load) No-load current Table 5: Tolerances on certain transformer items according to IEC 76-1. thermal and electrical withstand of transformers. The above standards are related with the electrical characteristics and the accessories of transformers. πtem Voltage ratio Tolerance The lower of the following values: a) ±0. A list of transformer standards.8 Tolerances Constructional reasons result in deviations between the measured parameters and the values that are defined by the specification of the transformer user (i. From time to time. the guaranteed values). The IEC 76 standard describes the electrical characteristics and the transformer tests that are related with the dynamic. some of the standards may be modified and in that case they are republished. A. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 19 . Number Standard 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 IEC 76-1 IEC 76-2 IEC 76-3 IEC 76-5 IEC 137 IEC 354 IEC 726 IEC 905 Description Power transformers: general Power transformers: temperature rise Power transformers: insulation levels and dielectric tests Power transformers: ability to withstand short circuit Bushings for alternating voltages above 1000 V Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers Dry-type power transformers Loading guide for dry-type power transformers Table 4: Transformer standards according to IEC.7 Transformer Standards The transformer manufacturing is based on the international standards as well as on specific customer needs. according to IEC 76-1. The DIN standard defines the transformer accessories and the CENELEC standard defines the lists of transformer losses and short-circuit impedance. Table 5 presents the tolerances that are applied to certain items.e. according to IEC.A. is shown in Table 4.

1 Overloading The rated overloading of transformer depends on the transformer’s previous load or the corresponding oil temperature at the beginning of the overloading. For example. since there is a danger for the winding temperature to exceed the critical temperature of 105ºC.9 Transformer Operation A.9. Examples of the permissible duration and the respective levels of the acceptable overloadings are shown in Table 6. Previous continuous loading (% of rated power) Oil temperature (°C) Duration (min) of overloading for specific levels of overloading (% of rated power) 10% min 20% min 90 60 30 30% min 60 30 15 40% min 30 15 8 50% min 15 8 4 50 75 90 55 68 78 180 120 60 Table 6: Permissible duration and level of acceptable overloading. since the time constant of the oil is 2 to 4 hours. Therefore. while the time constant of the winding is 2 to 6 minutes.A. without this being visible by the oil temperature. then the transformer can be overloaded to150% of its rated power for 15 minutes or to 120% of its rated power for 90 minutes. if the transformer is loaded with 50% of its rated power continuously. it should be noted that the oil temperature is not a safe measure for the winding temperature. the determination of the permissible duration of the overloading must be done very carefully. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 20 . Moreover.

¨ A. V-v. Consequently.9. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 21 . Their short-circuit impedance should be the same (the permitted tolerance is according to IEC 76-1. Transformer group for parallel operation 5 Group of existing transformer 5 11 Connection between phases High Voltage Low Voltage R S T U V W U W V or W V U or V U W r s t x y z w v u or v u w or u w v u v w z y x or y x z or x z y 11 11 5 U V W U W V or W V U or V U W Table 7: Parallel operation of transformers of groups 5 and 11. i i=1 UK min UKi . A. the transformer with the minimum short-circuit impedance must operate maximum under its rated power. if the connection is implemented according to Table 7. Their vector groups should be the same and the connection should be implemented with the corresponding terminals U-u.3. the same polarity and the same phase sequence. Pni is the rated power of the i transformer UKi is the rated short-circuit impedance of the i transformer and UK min is the minimum rated shortcircuit impedance of the n parallel operated transformers.3 Load distribution of transformers in parallel operation If the parallel operated transformers have the same voltage ratio but different short-circuit impedance. the total power of the n parallel operated transformers is: n ™ i=1 (Pi ) UK min UKi n < ™P.8).13. W-w. Table 5.A. the load distribution is given by the following equation: Pi = Pni where Pi is the load that is distributed to the i transformer. then the load is distributed among them in such a way that each transformer accepts a specific level of load for which the short-circuit impedance becomes the same for all the parallel operated transformers. ¨ A.2 Parallel operation The parallel operation of two or more transformers is feasible. in case that the vector groups are not the same. the parallel operation of transformers of groups 5 and 11 is permitted.9. the transformers must have the same inherent phase angle difference between primary and secondary terminals. In other words. Their voltage ratio should be the same (the permitted tolerance is according to IEC 76-1. when the following requirements are met: The ratio of their rated power should be less than 3:1.8). It should be noted that. Table 5. When none of the parallel operated transformers is permitted to be overloaded. An arithmetic example of the load distribution of transformers in parallel operation is given in ¨ A. Finally.

A. to IEC tolerance acc.5% width 60 outdoor >1000 m other dry type no height others three-phase single-phase Maximum temperature rise of winding Top oil temperature rise Maximum ambient temperature Painting type Accessories 65 K 60 K 40°C RAL 7033 Buchholz relay other other other other DGPT2 oil indicator thermometer air dehumidifier pressure relief valve rollers Distance between rollers (mm) Quantity (items) Unit price (.10 Transformer order form The transformer order form includes the following data: Customer Sales engineer Transformer type Rated power (kVA) Rated primary/secondary voltage (kV) Frequency (Hz) Installation Altitude Cooling Transformer type Oil conservator Transformer dimensions (mm) Taps Short-circuit impedance (%) at 75°C Vector group No-load losses (W) Load losses (W) tolerance acc.) Payment method Order date Delivery date Comments Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 22 . to IEC other tolerance other tolerance 50 indoor ≤1000 m ONAN oil yes length ± 2x2.

and LL are determined by the transformer manufacturer.11 Transformer selection The selection of the most appropriate transformer starts with the definition of the proper and detailed specification. The values of the parameters A and B are determined by the electrical utilities./W) is the load losses factor. A./W) is the no-load losses factor.) is the transformer sales price. The economic evaluation method of the transformers by the electrical utilities and industrial users is presented below.A.11.4.13. A (. An arithmetic example for the determination of the most economical transformer for an industrial user is presented in ¨ A. TOC (. Among alternative transformer offers. where BP (. The evaluation of the alternative transformer offers depends on the transformer user.1 Electrical Utilities The electrical utilities evaluate the transformers based on the criterion of the total owning cost. A. The values of the parameters BP. B (.2 Industrial Users The procurement of transformers by the industrial users is based mainly on the transformer sales price and secondary on the transformer losses. which is calculated from the following equation: TOC = BP + A* NLL + B* LL.11. and LL (W) are the load losses.). Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 23 . The special needs of each project specify the special characteristics or accessories that are needed. NLL (W) are the no-load losses. the economical optimum is the one with the minimum total owning cost. NLL.

53 96. Pole-mounted.71 3.97 4 96.56 10 55 320 3.8 cosÊ =1 cosÊ =1 5 55 150 3.00 4 96.06 95.46 95.96 Rated short-circuit impedance (%)(*) Efficiency (%) 100% cosÊ =0.03 96. The cooling is implemented with natural circulation (ONAN) of mineral oil according to IEC 296.69 30 120 800 2.39 95.42 95.31 97.00 4 96. 20/0.52 96. 50 Hz.32 97. The transformer painting type is RAL 7033.02 96. Valves for filling.26 4.28 4. IEC 76 standard is followed.12 96. filtering and oil sampling.02 97.12.04 3. five indicative ELVIM transformers’ series are presented.1 Single-phase transformers.00 4 96.38 25 105 725 2.33 20 85 650 3.A.8 Order Details Rated power Short-circuit impedance Rated voltages No-load losses Rated frequency Load losses Altitude of installation (if the altitude exceeds 1000 m) Primary tappings Special accessories Ambient temperature (*) Transformers with different losses and short-circuit impedance can be manufactured.56 96.04 96. rated secondary voltage 231 V at no-load. Rating plate.99 4 96.93 50 180 1350 2.08 96.58 97. on request.61 97. Sealed type transformers.94 3. The top oil temperature rise is 60 K and the average temperature rise of the winding is 65 K. Electrical Characteristics Rated Power (kVA) No-load losses (W) (*) Load losses at 20 kV (W)(*) Voltage drop at full load (%) Load Load cosÊ =1 cosÊ = 0.23 4.23 15 70 485 3.79 96. Outdoor installation. Pole-mounting elements. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 24 .74 3.43 95.231 kV General Description Single-phase distribution transformers. A.93 4 97.12 ELVIM Transformers Series In this paragraph. LV and HV bushings. Rated primary voltage 20 kV.93 4 97.8 75% cosÊ = 0. from 5 to 50 kVA. Tolerances of losses and short-circuit impedance according to IEC 76. Basic Equipment 3-position tap changer with ± 5 % tappings at 20 kV.34 96.96 96.

bushings 6.V. Drain and sampling valve DIN 42551 NW22 3.General Arrangement of Single-phase Transformers.V. Pole mounted elements Dimensions (mm) Rated power (kVA) A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) Total weight (Kg) 5 620 540 930 115 10 620 540 1050 140 15 690 630 1020 155 20 690 630 1020 165 25 730 640 1020 210 30 730 640 1020 225 50 805 770 1035 295 Due to evolution of standards and materials. H. Transformer base 9. the present manual will bind us only after confirmation from our transformer design department. Filling plug DIN 42553 form “D” 2. L.231 kV C A 1. bushings 5. from 5 to 50 kVA. Off-load tap changer 8. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 25 B . Rating plate 7. 20/0. Lifting lugs 4.

Ground-mounted.52 4. The transformer painting type is RAL 7033. Basic Equipment 5-position tap changer with ± 2 x 2.74 98.50 98.66 6 98.87 98.96 98. filtering and oil sampling. on request.74 6 98. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 26 .94 4.12. Buchholz relay.62 98. Vector group Dyn11. LV and HV bushings. from 250 to 1600 kVA. Rating plate.A.2 Three-phase transformers.13 98.18 98.21 97.81 98.66 98. Indoor or outdoor installation. Oil conservator with oil level indicator.36 97.82 6 98.43 1000 1750 13500 1.58 98.55 4.59 6 98.4 kV General Description Three-phase disrtibution transformers.41 4.85 98.73 4.59 Rated short-circuit impedance 100% cosÊ=0.79 6 98. The cooling is implemented with natural circulation of mineral oil according to IEC 296.97 400 850 6450 1.47 1250 2100 16400 1. rated secondary voltage 400 V at no-load. Tolerances of losses and short-circuit impedance according to IEC 76.47 98.02 97.24 630 1200 9300 1.53 98. Valves for filling. IEC 76 standard is followed.28 98. Bi-directional rollers.92 6 98.17 500 1000 7800 1.37 97. 50 Hz. Thermometer with oil level indicator and electrical contacts.8 (%)(*) cosÊ=1 cosÊ=1 No-Load losses at 20 kV (W)(*) 250 610 4450 1.33 800 1450 11000 1.09 98. Air dehumidifier. Transformers with oil conservator. 20/0.27 97. Electrical Characteristics Rated power (kVA) No-load losses Voltage drop at full load (%) Load Efficiency (%)) Load (W)(*) cosÊ=1 cosÊ=0.8 75% cosÊ=0.54 98. The top oil temperature rise is 60 K and the average temperature rise of the winding is 65 K.48 4. Rated primary voltage 20 kV.77 98.77 98.78 4.64 6 98.51 1600 2550 19800 1.5 % tappings at 20 kV.65 4.53 98.8 Order Details Rated power Short-circuit impedance Rated voltages No-load losses Rated frequency Load losses (*) Vector group Altitude of installation (if the altitude exceeds 1000 m) Primary tappings Special accessories Ambient temperature Details of cable boxes (on request) Transformers with different losses and short-circuit impedance can be manufactured.68 6 98.

20/0. 14.General Arrangement of Three-phase Transformers. 7. 4. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 27 B . 13. 2. Transformer tank Tank cover Lifting lugs Roller DIN 42561 Draining and sampling valve DIN 42551 Neutral earthing link High voltage bushing DIN 42531 Low voltage bushing DIN 42530 Low voltage connector DIN 43675 Tap changer Thermometer with two electrical contacts Oil conservator Buchholz relay Air dehumidifier Filling valve DIN 42553 Oil level indicator Rating plate Tank earthing point D A Dimensions (mm) Rated power (kVA) A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) D (mm) Total weight (Kg) 250 1475 905 1530 520 1100 400 1700 1005 1490 670 1380 500 1735 1005 1720 670 1700 630 1710 1050 1815 670 1940 800 1855 1195 1890 670 2380 1000 1960 1290 1895 820 2650 1250 1940 1270 2085 820 3200 1600 2155 1450 2095 820 3760 Due to the evolution of standards and materials. 9. 18. 8. 6. 10. from 250 up to 1600 kVA. the present manual will bind us only after confirmation from our transformer design department. 16. 5.4 kV C D 1. 3. 17. 11. 12. 15.

rated secondary voltage 400 V at no-load. on request. The transformer painting type is RAL 7033.8 cosÊ=1 cosÊ=1 250 425 3250 1.85 98.24 4.80 1000 1100 10500 1.84 Rated short-circuit impedance (%)(*) 100% cosÊ=0. Valves for filling. Indoor or outdoor installation. from 250 to 1600 kVA.22 4 98. Rating plate. IEC 76 standard is followed. Tolerances of losses and short-circuit impedance according to IEC 76.07 98.37 3.A. filtering and oil sampling.69 500 750 5500 1. The top oil temperature rise is 60 K and the average temperature rise of the winding is 65 K.52 99. Electrical Characteristics Rated Power (kVA) No-load losses (W)(*) Load losses at 20 kV Voltage drop at full load (%) Load Efficiency (%) Load (W)(*) cosÊ=1 cosÊ=0.22 4.95 98.22 3. with low losses General Description Three-phase distribution transformers.71 98.48 6 98.3 Three-phase transformers.04 98.24 4. Combination of losses A-C’.4 kV.49 6 98.26 4.07 98.56 99.5 % tappings at 20 kV. Ground-mounded. 50 Hz.84 98. Basic Equipment 5-position tap changer with ± 2 x 2.17 3.84 1600 1700 17000 1. Oil conservator with oil level indicator. LV and HV bushings.52 400 610 4600 1. Bi-directional rollers.55 98.12. 20/0.40 98.1 S1/1992. Air dehumidifier.57 99.20 98.46 98. The cooling is implemented with natural circulation of mineral oil according to IEC 296.73 630 860 6500 1.07 98.48 6 98.8 Order Details Rated power Short-circuit impedance Rated voltages No-load losses Rated frequency Load losses (*) Vector group Altitude of installation (if the altitude exceeds 1000 m) Primary tappings Special accessories Ambient temperature Details of cable boxes (on request) Transformers with different losses and short-circuit impedance can be manufactured.56 99.17 4 98. Thermometer with oil level indicator and contacts. Buchholz relay.81 98.25 4 98.84 98.11 3.81 98.47 6 98.99 98.85 98. Rated primary voltage 20 kV.77 98. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 28 .8 75% cosÊ=0.85 1250 1350 13300 1. CENELEC HD 428.05 98.82 800 940 8700 1.56 99.33 4 98. Vector group Dyn11. Transformers with oil conservator.

4. 16. 12. 13.4 kV. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 29 B . 3. the present manual will bind us only after confirmation from our transformer design department. 10. 18. from 250 to 1600 kVA. 15. with low losses C D 1.General Arrangement of Three-phase Transformers. Transformer tank Tank cover Lifting lugs Roller DIN 42561 Draining and sampling valve DIN 42551 Neutral earthing link High voltage bushing DIN 42531 Low voltage bushing DIN 42530 Low voltage connector DIN 43675 Tap changer Thermometer with two electrical contacts Oil conservator Buchholz relay Air dehumidifier Filling valve DIN 42553 Oil level indicator Rating plate Tank earthing point D A Dimensions (mm) Rated power (kVA) A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) D (mm) Total weight (Kg) 250 1580 880 1480 520 1150 400 1710 900 1560 670 1500 500 1705 1020 1580 670 1750 630 1790 1000 1670 670 2100 800 1950 1140 1740 670 2400 1000 2030 1260 1780 820 2800 1250 2120 1350 1880 820 3200 1600 2300 1300 1950 820 4050 Due to the evolution of standards and materials. 8. 6. 14. 9. 5. 2. 20/0. 11. 17. 7.

62 6 98.45 4. The cooling is implemented with natural circulation of mineral oil according to IEC 296. on request.02 98.A.74 6 98.00 98.26 4.75 4.51 99. 50 Hz.82 6 98. Buchholz relay.49 6 98.60 98.77 4.12.70 98.33 % tappings at 15 kV. The top oil temperature rise is 60 K and the average temperature rise of the winding is 65 K. Rated primary voltage 20 and 15 kV. Basic Equipment Voltage selector.49 6 98.79 Rated short-circuit impedance 100% cosÊ=0. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 30 . 20-15/0.66 6 98. Ground-mounted.51 1000 1360 12800 1.31 630 1000 9300 1.81 98.52 4.94 98.81 6 98. Rating plate.34 97.77 1600 1950 17400 1. 5-position tap changer with ± 2 x 2.16 98. Vector group Dyn11.52 98.5 % tappings at 20 kV and ± 2 x 3.50 99.8 Order Details Rated power Short-circuit impedance Rated voltages No-load losses Rated frequency Load losses Vector group Altitude of installation (if the altitude exceeds 1000 m) Primary tappings Special accessories Ambient temperature Details of cable boxes (on request) (*) Transformers with different losses and short-circuit impedance can be manufactured.67 4.39 98.80 98. Oil conservator with oil level indicator. Indoor or outdoor installation.76 6 98. LV and HV bushings. Tolerances of losses and short-circuit impedance according to IEC 76. rated secondary 400 V at no-load. Transformers with oil conservator.65 98.38 800 1180 10800 1.25 4.8 (%)(*) cosÊ=1 cosÊ=1 Load losses as 20 kV (W)(*) 250 575 4000 1.26 98.4 Three-phase transformers.59 1250 1720 13500 1.56 98.03 98.65 4. Electrical Characteristics Rated power (kVA) No-load losses Voltage drop at full load (%) Load Efficiency (%) Load (W)(*) cosÊ=1 cosÊ=0. Valves for filling.21 500 930 7500 1.52 98.87 98.76 98. filtering and oil sampling.24 97. IEC 76 standard is followed.15 400 810 6350 1. The transformer painting type is RAL 7033. from 250 to 1600 kVA.4 kV General Description Three-phase distribution transformers. Thermometer with level indicator and contacts.81 98.8 75% cosÊ=0. Bi-directional rollers.20 97. Air dehumidifier.81 98.

from 250 to 1600 kVA. 11. 18. 9. 14. 20-15/0. 4. 15. 19. 7. 2.4 kV C D 1.General Arrangement of Tree-phase Transformers. 17. 5. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 31 . the present manual will bind us only after confirmation from our transformer design department. 12. 8. Transformer tank Tank cover Lifting lugs Roller DIN 42561 Draining and sampling valve DIN 42551 Neutral earthing link High voltage bushing DIN 42531 Low voltage bushing DIN 42530 Low voltage connector DIN 43675 Tap changer Voltage selector Thermometer with two electrical contacts Oil conservator Buchholz relay Air dehumidifier Filling valve DIN 42553 Oil level indicator Rating plate Tank earthing point D B A Dimensions (mm) Rated power (kVA) A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) D (mm) Total weight (Kg) 250 1530 925 1520 520 1100 400 1650 1035 1530 670 1560 500 1873 960 1718 670 1800 630 1758 1005 1820 670 2100 800 2025 1225 1890 670 2550 1000 1990 1230 1890 820 2800 1250 2135 1280 1910 820 3200 1600 2240 1470 2080 820 3760 Due to the evolution of standards and materials. 3. 6. 16. 13. 10.

11 96.48 6 1.56 98.50 98.27 98.77 4 2. Pressure relief device.19 97. Rated primary voltage 20 kV.18 98.51 3.18 96.25 4.48 97.54 3.33 6 930 1270 4600 6500 1.45 97. The cooling is implemented with natural circulation of mineral oil according to IEC 296.A.09 98.53 6 1.97 Order Details Rated power Short-circuit impedance Rated voltages No-load losses Rated frequency Load losses Vector group Altitude of installation (if the altitude exceeds 1000 m) Primary tappings Special accessories Ambient temperature Details of cable boxes (on request) (*) Transformers with different losses and short-circuit impedance can be manufactured. 20/0. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 32 .95 98.64 97. rated secondary 400 V at no-load.54 4 1.87 4 2.47 98. Tolerances of losses and short-circuit impedance according to IEC 76.57 4 2100 2350 1.07 97.43 4 Rated short-circuit impedance (%)(*) 100% cosÊ=0.87 97. filtering and oil sampling.84 3.86 97.58 97. Basic Equipmemt 5-position tap changer with ± 2 x 2.8 75% cosÊ=0.78 98.52 96.71 98. Bi-directional rollers. The top oil temperature rise is 60 K and the average temperature rise of the winding is 65 K. Valves for filling. 50 Hz.5 Three-phase sealed type transformers.81 3. Rating plate. Oil level indicator.75 98.8 cosÊ=1 cosÊ=1 Load losses at 20 kV (W)(*) 25 110 700 2. IEC 76 standard is followed.20 3.03 4.96 97.12.29 98. Thermometer with two electrical contacts.77 97.75 4 1.85 98.75 3.48 98. Electrical Characteristics Rated power (kVA) No-load losses Voltage drop at full load (%) Load Efficiency (%) Load (W)(*) cosÊ=1 cosÊ=0.50 97.55 97.98 99.46 6 985 1100 1350 1750 2.96 4 40 170 50 180 63 230 100 320 125 380 160 460 250 650 3250 1.05 98.79 99.5 % tappings at 20 kV.97 98. Sealed type transformers (without oil conservator).4 kV General Description Three-phase distribution transformers.73 98.70 98.30 98.32 4.84 98.00 99.97 98. from 25 to 1600 kVA.90 96.21 4.22 4.75 97.96 98. LV and HV bushings.41 97.63 6 400 630 800 1000 1600 1350 1700 2300 8600 10500 13600 1. Vector group Yzn5 (up to 160 kVA) and Dyn5 (from 250 kVA to 1600 kVA).47 4.46 98. Indoor or outdoor installation.36 98.64 98.8 96. The transformer painting type is RAL 7033.54 98. Ground-mounted.47 6 1.37 98.02 96. on request.77 98.38 97.26 3.91 97.

the present document will bind us only after confirmation from our transformer design department. Filling valve DIN 42553 4. High voltage bushings 7. from 25 to 1600 kVA. Corrugated panels 2. Lifting lugs 6. Rollers 13. Oil level indicator Dimensions (mm) Rated power (kVA) A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) D (mm) Total weight (Kg) 25 850 680 1140 520 365 40 870 680 1140 520 435 50 900 680 1140 520 450 63 930 680 1200 520 500 100 950 680 1260 520 640 125 1000 680 1275 520 705 160 1130 770 1275 520 825 250 1370 855 1270 520 1050 400 1530 895 1350 670 1450 630 1820 1160 1350 670 1950 800 1870 1240 1460 670 2220 1000 1900 1220 1570 820 2600 1600 2260 1415 1600 820 2740 Due to the evolution of standards and materials.General Arrangement of Three-phase Sealed Type Transformers. Low voltage bushings DIN 42530 8. Neutral earthing link 14. 20/0.4 kV Alternative position of rating plate C D D B A 1. Thermometer with two electrical contacts 10. Draining and sampling valve 5. Pressure relief device 12. Tap changer 11. Rating plate 9. Tank earthing point 3. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 33 .

816*1)2 = 1.645 % 2 100 Case 2: load 75% For cos Ê = 1.816 * 0. Determine the transformer efficiency at full load (case 1) and at 75% load (case 2) for power factor 1. 630 kVA. where 2 100 SB SB er = LL = 9300 = 0.8.4762 * 0.8 + 1200 + 9300*(1)2 A.5.4762 * 0 .13.75)2 (1.0*(1. 20/0.816 * 0.ex cos Ê)2 = 2 100 SB = 1.4762 * 0.816*0) + + 1 1 (1.816 * 1)2 = 1.0 and 0.2 Calculation of Voltage Drop Let us assume that a three-phase transformer.543 % 2 100 Udrop = (1.0)2 (1.(cos Ê)2 = 0.0 is: Ë3 = 472500*1.75)2 (1.ex cos Ê)2 .0) * (1.6) + + 1 1 (1.8 + 5.816 * 0.0 = 0. the voltage drop is calculated as follows: Udrop = (0. has 9300 W load losses and 6% short-circuit impedance.8 is: Ë4 = 472500*0. The voltage drop is given by the following equation: Udrop = S (er cos Ê + ex sin Ê) + 1 1 ( S )2 (er sin Ê .816 % Case 1: full load For cos Ê = 1 .4762*1 + 5.75) * (1.0)2 Case 2: load 75% The efficiency at load 75% and cos Ê=1. sin Ê = 1 .741 % 2 100 Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 34 .4762 * 1 + 5.4 kV.66 % 472500*1.8 is: Ë2 = 630000*0.8 + 1200 + 9300*(0. Case 1: full load The efficiency at full load and for power factor equal to 1.33 % 472500*0.5.4 kV.75)2 The efficiency at load 75% and cos Ê=0.8)2 = 3.36 % 630000*1.A.4762 * 0.0147622 = 0.0)2 (1.05816 = 5.6.062 . the voltage drop is: Udrop = (0.6 .9836 = 98.0 = 98.8)2 = 4. + 1 1 (0.8 + 5.816 * 0.0 + 1200 + 9300*(0.5.0 and 0.8.8 = 97.1 Calculation of Transformer Efficiency Let us assume that a three-phase transformer.816 * 0) + + 1 1 (0.4762*0 .96 % 630000*0.0) is calculated as follows: Ë1 = = S cos Ê = S cos Ê + NLL + LL(S/SB)2 630000*1.75) * (1. Udrop = S (er cos Ê + ex sin Ê) + SB + 1 1 ( S )2 (er sin Ê .0 (cos Ê=1.0 + 1200 + 9300*(1.202 % 2 100 For cos Ê = 0.6 .014762 = 1. has 1200 W no-load losses and 9300 W load losses. Determine the voltage drop at full load (case 1) and at 75% load (case 2) for power factor 1.8.8 = 98.0.5. 630 kVA.75)2 The efficiency at full load and cos Ê=0.13 Examples A.4762 * 0.e2r = 0. 20/0.13.4762% and ex = 630000 SB U2k . sin Ê=0.8.6) + For cos Ê = 0.

the difference at the annual total owning cost could be more than 0. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 35 . Calculate the maximum total load of the three transformers. Two transformer manufacturers submit two different offers to the industrial user. the transformer of the second manufacturer is finally more economical. The comparison of the two offers will be based on the annual total owning cost. since its annual total owning cost is 0.8 The load of the transformer 3 is: Pn.6 : kWh The annual total owning cost (:) is: TOC2 = OC2 + NLLC2 + LLC2 = 2318. it is concluded that the cheapest transformer is not always the most economical. The load of transformer 1 is: Uk.3 = 728 + 417 + 315 = 1460 kVA. A. Uk. min = 315 Uk. The three transformers have total installed power: P = P1 + P2 + P3 = 800 + 500 + 315 = 1615 kVA. and 315 kVA and 4. The rated power and the short-circuit impedance of the other two transformers is 500 kVA and 4.075 = 617.75 kW * 0.0 %.2 = P2 = 500 4 = 417 kVA. The transformer will operate with 60% average loading.e. Among the three transformers.075 = 788.62 * 8. it is concluded that the maximum total load (1460 kVA) represents the 90.3 4 = 315 kVA. min Pn. 200 working days per year. 4 The maximum total load of the three transformers is: Ptot = Pn.4 The load of transformer 2 is: Uk.06 : less).4 Transformer Selection Let us assume that an industrial user wants to buy a 630 kVA transformer. although the transformer sales price of the second manufacturer is 20% more expensive (i. The second manufacturer offers a transformer with 940 W no-load losses and 6750 W load losses at a sales price of 7045 :.2 kW * 0.e. the third transformer has the minimum short-circuit impedance.94 kW * 0. Considering that the depreciation of the transformer purchase investment is going to be done in 5 years and the energy charge is 0.2 4. 8 hours per day. From the above. The first manufacturer offers a transformer with 1200 W no-load losses and 8700 W load losses at a sales price of 5870 :. 1175 : more expensive). min Pn.62 * 6. which is the sum of the annual buying cost and the annual usage cost.13.760 h * 0.1 = P1 = 800 4 = 728 kVA.A.0%. The first transformer has 800 kVA rated power and 4.3 Parallel Operation of Transformers Let us assume that three transformers operate in parallel.075 :/kWh.1 + Pn.58 : kWh The annual charge (:) for the load losses is: : LLC2 = (200 * 8 h) * 0.9% less (i. 20. An approximation of the annual buying cost can be found by dividing the sales price with the years of depreciation.18 : As a result. 200 working days per year).84 : kWh The annual total owning cost (:) is: TOC1 = OC1 + NLLC1 + LLC1 = 2338. i.4 : kWh The annual charge (:) for the load losses is: : LLC1 = (200 * 8 h) * 0.8%.7 kW * 0. Uk.3 = P3 Uk. or if we use the transformer more (instead of the current assumption of 60% average loading. min = 4. respectively. This will happen.13.4% short-circuit impedance.760 h * 1.1 4. An approximation of the annual usage cost can be calculated based on the annual charge due to the transformer operation (annual charge for load losses and no-load losses). In particular. in order the maximum total load to be equal to the total installed power.24 : The annual charge (:) for the no-load losses is: : NLLC2 = 8. calculate the economical optimum offer. the transformers must have the same short-circuit impedance.4% of the total installed power (1615 kVA).075 = 291. if we consider more years for the depreciation (instead of the current assumption of 5 years).e Uk. From the above.075 = 375. Manufacturer A The annual buying cost (:) is: OC1 = 5870 : = 1174 : 5 Manufacturer B The annual buying cost (:) is: OC2 = 7045 : = 1409 : 5 The annual charge (:) for the no-load losses is: : NLLC1 = 8. 8 hours per day. It should be noted that.9%.2 + Pn.

and the opening for the input of the cold air is placed in the lowest possible location. is calculated by the following formula: 104W . For each adjustable venetian blind. 100 H . For each lattice. the value WM =1. V . the minimum air resistance is: W = Wmin + 2 WM = 4 + 2 x 1. for a transformer installation room with two meshes (one in the input and one in the output of air). should be 10% to 15% larger than the cross-section area of the opening for the input of air (F1). particular attention should be paid to the calculation of the dimensions of the installation area as well as to the ventilation of the installation room. Calculation of cross-section area of the input and output openings The cross-section area of the opening for the input of air. The lowest possible temperature in the transformer electrical room is achieved with the following ways: the opening for the output of the hot air is placed in the highest possible location. The cross-section area of the opening for the output of air.5 = 7.1 Dimensions of transformer installation area When the transformer is going to be installed inside an electrical room (indoor installation). then the minimum air resistance is : Wmin = 4. and t is the temperature rise (°C) of the transformer room.25 . Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 36 .5 is added to the value of Wmin . H is the height (m) of the opening for the output of air from the horizontal symmetry axis of transformer (Figure 3). F1 = 4. the calculation of the air resistance is required. W is the air resistance.SECTION B: Transformer Installation and Maint B. The distance between the walls of the room and the transformer end points must be from 50 to 60 cm. Gravel Pit for oil Figure 3: Dimensions of transformer installation room. The ventilation of the electrical room influences the cooling. The value of the air resistance depends on the existence or not of lattices. meshes and venetian blinds in the input and output openings of the air. F2 (m2). the value of WV = 3 is added to the value of Wmin . and consequently. meshes and venetian blinds. For the air resistance. For each mesh. the symbol W is used in the sequel. For example. Calculation of air resistance For the calculation of the dimensions of the openings for the input and output of air in the electrical room. F1 (m2). If there are no lattices. the transformer’s life. the value WL=1 is added to the value of Wmin . t3 where V is the total transformer losses (kW).

a sample of 1 lt is taken. must be absolutely clean and dry. then it is in good condition. in order to ensure that it has no damage during its transportation or it has no oil leakage. and the coupling apparatus of the high and low voltage as well as the transformer’s protective devices operate normally. Check of the condition of the air dehumidifier. which has on its upper part a metallic mesh and gravel. The whole substation has an isodynamic mesh. the transformer must be optically checked. then it must be dried or it must be replaced. Optical inspection (every three months) Check if the transformer is clean. the transformer must be repainted immediately in order to avoid future rust. Check of the oil level of the oil indicator. must be hermetically sealed. the thermometer and the condition of their contacts. In practice. The cans. Before the connection of the transformer to the network. Oil check (every year) Check of the oil dielectric strength. no deviation is allowed from its horizontal position. When the transformer is installed at its position. The oil collection tank must have the appropriate volume.g. Check for oil leakage. then oil filling is required. overvoltages.enance B. The bottle. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 37 . and connection to the network belongs to the transformer user. If the color of the silica gel becomes yellow. thunders. bottles and funnels that are going to be used for sampling. In case of scratches in its painting. Check for damage in the transformer painting. This is based on the sample that is taken. so that in case of leakage all the quantity of the transformer oil can be collected within the oil collection tank.g.2 Instructions for transformer installation The transformer is delivered at the industrial site of Schneider Electric at Inofyta. by opening the draining and sampling oil valve of the transformer. Under the transformer. which is going to be used for the shipment of the oil. if the ambient temperature is +20°C and the reading of the oil indicator is below the reading of +20°C. this presupposes that the transformer remains clean and it is not overloaded more than the permissible levels of duration and loading. that’s why the following are recommended: 1. Check of the operation of the Buchholz relay. Moreover. electrical utility. there should be an oil collection tank.3 Instructions for transformer Maintenance The transformer is a very reliable electrical machine and it will practically need no maintenance during the many years of its operation. 10 lt of oil are initially taken out and next. If the transformer is equipped with a Buchholz relay. For example. the Buchholz connection instructions must be followed. However. In case of scratches. B. The substation must be constructed after study and design from a certified engineer and the relevant authorities (e. to ground the transformer in order to remove any capacity loads. while if it has a soft blue-white color. Before each action it is necessary: to turn off the medium and low voltage switches. 2. when the transformer is out of operation. electrical utility). unloading. Greece. If the check results in an oil dielectric strength less than 40 kV. The resistance of the earthing must be less than 1ø and generally the substation must be constructed in accordance with the existing instructions and regulations of the local authorities (e. The responsibility for the safe transportation. it is not possible to guarantee all these conditions. The unloading and transportation of the transformer should be done in such a way that the transformer does not deviate by more than 15° from its horizontal position. it also assumes that the network that the transformer serves is not affected by short-circuits. etc) must approve the substation design. construction authority. they should be repainted in order to prevent the tank oxidation. then the oil must be replaced or must be reprocessed with a special cleaning apparatus. especially on the surface of insulators (dust and moisture can cause flashover).

100°C for trip-off (right movable pointer with red end). The suggested activation adjustments of the transformer contacts are: 90°C for warning (left movable pointer with red end). which change status when the transformer reaches the predetermined limits.4 Instructions for thermometer connection The transformer thermometer is used to follow the variations of the oil temperature. A general arrangement of the transformer and Buchholz relay is shown in Figure 4. A typical wiring of thermometer and Buchholz connected to an alarm panel is shown in Figure 5.B. Figure 5: Typical wiring of thermometer and Buchholz connected to an alarm panel. Figure 4: General arrangment of thermometer and Buchholz. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 38 . Load rejection. The thermometer has two normally open contacts. The warning could be: Activation of alarm. Optical indication (warning lamp). The first contact (alarm contact) is used for warning and the second (trip-off contact) is used for tripping off the circuit breaker at the low voltage switchboard.

page 40) Dry type contacts for signaling (alarm and trip) Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 39 . Next. A general arrangement of the Buchholz relay (and the transformer) is shown in Figure 4. In case that it is not full. (“Electrical contacts” and “check of the operation of the protection circuits”. and then the cylindrical piece of wood (which blocks the floats during transportation) must be removed. A typical wiring of thermometer and Buchholz relay connected to an alarm panel is shown in Figure 5.B.5 Instructions for the connection of the Buchholz relay If the transformer has a Buchholz relay. the protective cylindrical cover of the testing button of the Buchholz relay must be unscrewed. the ventilation valve must be closed again. The filling and the free movement of the floats with the contacts are checked through the inspection door. As soon as the Buchholz relay is filled with oil. the following connection instructions are suggested: Initially. it is necessary to check (from the inspection door) if the Buchholz relay is full with oil. the hexagonal cover must be removed and the ventilation valve must be opened so that the Buchholz relay to be filled with oil.

.. Next. Stainless tank 3. . .6 Instruction for the connection of the air dehumidifier If the transformer has an air dehumidifier... when the oil level gets down or the oil pressure in the transformer tank increases suddenly. the dehumidifier must be removed. Tube 5...1 Oil weight 1500 kg . .... . the oil glass (which is under the dehumidifier) is removed.11/TV75 type . .... . . . . which will operate when gases are collected to the Buchholz relay or the oil level gets down. .. in order to avoid the absorption of moisture by the silica gel. During the placement of the dehumidifier to the transformer. ... Then the oil glass is filled with mineral oil until the end of the tube (which goes out of the dehumidifier) to be sink in the oil. . VE. . Draining tube 11... The alarm contacts (3 and 4) are connected to an alarm horn. The air dehumidifier is shown in Figure 6. 1.. .. .. Top cover 2... Oil indicator .. In case of transformer transportation.5 Instructions for the connection of the Buchholz relay (continue) Electrical contacts The electrical contacts consist of two pairs of normally open contacts. the following connection instructions are suggested: Waterproof packing is used for the transportation of the dehumidifier. Check of the operation of the protection circuits The check of the operation of the protection circuits is implemented through the following steps: The cylindrical cover of the testing button is removed and the button is gradually pressed so that to get down the floats. . Air input Type VE. B. the floats are moved to the normal position and the contacts open. . .465 dm3 Figure 6: Air dehumidifier Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 40 .. The trip-off contacts (1 and 2) act on the trip-off coil of the medium voltage circuit breaker and open the circuit breaker..... .air input 7. The required voltage is 24-230V alternative or direct current.. As soon as the testing button is left free. . its tap must be sealed and a cap must be put to the tube of the oil conservator.. ... .. . Transparent silica gel tank 4. Base 8. .35 kg 0. . Rating plate 9. . Transparent oil tank 6. The one pair of contacts is used for alarm and the other pair of contacts for tripping off the circuit breaker.B. . . it is checked if the alarm contacts and the trip-off contacts are closed. . H D F silica gel weight Tank volume 250 mm 100 mm 1/2” GF 0.

Schneider Electric Servises Schneider Electric Services cover: Engineering and technical support Startup Training Preventive maintenance and maintenance after failure Adaptation works Spare parts Maintenance contracts For questions please contact the Services department of Schneider Electric AE: tel. Use and Maintenance of ELVIM Oil-immersed Distribution Transformers / page 41 .: +301 0 6295243. +301 0 6295247.

GR 551 33 Kalamaria Tel.95. GR-145 64 Kifissia Tel.200 Fax + 301 0 62.Schneider Electric SA Athens: 14th km Athens-Lamia N. + 301 0 62.gr Customers service line: 0800-11. + 3031 0 423.R.224 Fax + 3031 0 423.schneider-electric.com.02 .210 Thessaloniki: 7.225 http://www. Adrianoupoleos str.95.62900 Schneider 85-10AD/05.

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