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“With realistic goals for advertising, you can satisfy both those who are investing in the advertising and those who are creating it.” Almost every person involved with advertising wants to measure their advertising’s results. Those who pay the bills want to know the return on their investment, and those creating the advertising want to demonstrate that their work is effective. Research efforts on the part of advertisers, ad agencies, and the media have helped quantify the results of advertising. But most continue to face basic questions such as: Does your Advertising work? How hard does it work? What specifically does it do for your business? Should I increase, maintain, or decrease spending? What’s the best message I can put in my advertising? There are no easy answers to these questions. Solutions are a mixture of science and art.
Marketing versus Advertising
Failure sometimes occurs even before the process starts because companies are confused by the apparent similarity between the purpose of advertising and marketing. Both are meant to encourage consumers to purchase products and services, however, there is a fundamental difference between the two. Advertising is only one part of the marketing process, and its job is to deliver messages that have a psychological effect on the consumer. While marketing, which also includes functions such as public relations, promotion, sales, packaging, and pricing, has the more inclusive job of moving products and services from the seller to the buyer. Companies when asked about advertising objectives almost always reply with marketing objectives. If they have a formal marketing plan, the advertising objectives are typically statements like: to increase sales, or to expand market share. These are too broad and general, making it almost impossible to measure success. More specific objectives such as increase sales by 15%, or expand market share by 5% aren’t much better because they are marketing goals, not advertising goals. Advertising cannot achieve marketing goals all by itself. If a company wants to measure the results of its advertising, it has to be more specific in the definition of what it expects to accomplish through the use of advertising.
The Job of Advertising
What part of the total marketing goal can we expect advertising to achieve? Since advertising is a communications tool, we must assign it a communications task. Its job is to deliver a message that is designed to stimulate specific consumer behavior. The message you want advertising to deliver must be specific. Keep in mind that at this stage you are defining what needs to be said, not how to say it—you’re not trying to write a headline. With a specific communications task that can be performed by advertising, independent of other marketing efforts, you can measure your advertising’s success.
Where does advertising objectives fall in the marketing plan
Market Analysis Consumer Analysis Competitive Analysis Bran d Organizational Realities
Advertising in the Marketing Plan: The Company’s overall marketing plan determines promotional objectives and from these objectives, advertising objectives are derived. Promotion objectives specify what is to be accomplished and where advertising fits in. The next step is to set specific ad objectives and goals.
Marketing Plan Marketing Objectives Sales Objectives
Advertising Tactics Promotions
Evolution Of Advertising
‘From a freelance activity to an integral component of the Marketing Plan’ As a business task, advertising has to meet certain clear-cut objectives. In the past, advertising often operated within organizations almost like a freelance activity. The creative nature of the job often gave it the image of an activity that could not be subjected to established management norms and controls. This position, however, has been undergoing changes over the years. The commercial world will not blindly accept costs that cannot yield measurable results. Since advertising involves heavy costs to the advertiser, it is only natural that advertising slowly got included in those management activities that are expected to yield results proportional to the effort and cost involved. The advertiser started asking: "Am I getting my money’s worth?" Advertising was slowly becoming a Evolution of Advertising management task, well within the rules of the management process. People began to expect tangible results from Freelance Activity advertising; and when such evaluation came, the role of objectives and goals in advertising became crucial. It came to be accepted that advertising had to operate with certain welldefined objectives against which the results of the programme can be later measured.
Objective driven Activity
it also guides and controls decision-making in each area and at each stage Communication: Objectives provide a communication platform for the client. media specialists. When specific objectives are set it becomes easier for management to measure what has been accomplished by the campaign Two Distinct Schools Of Thought What should be or what could be the objectives for advertising? A controversy around this question is still running hot in the ad world. The advertising programme must also be coordinated with other promotion mix elements within the company. budgeting and sales promotion. Advertising and promotion planners are often faced with a number of strategic and tactical options in areas such as creative. Pin pointing the ad objectives also helps in making one’s goals real and not imaginary. . media. so that effective ad programmes can be developed for meeting the objectives . One school holds that ad has to necessarily bring in more sales and therefore ad objectives should certainly include sales growth. Measurement and Evaluation of Results—A very important reason for setting specific objectives is that they provide a benchmark or standard against which success or failure of the campaign can be measured. The second and diametrically opposite view is that ad is essentially a communication task and it should have only communication goals. the advertising agency account executive help coordinate the creative team members and the efforts of copywriters.NEED FOR ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES One of the reasons many companies fail to set specific objectives for their advertising and promotional programs are that they fail to recognize the value of doing so. Choices among these options should be made on the basis of how well a strategy or tactic matches the promotional objective. There are several important reasons for setting advertising and promotional objectives: Direction: Advertisement objectives are essential because it helps the marketer to know in advance what they want to achieve and to ensure that they are proceeding in the right direction. In fact many problems may be avoided if all the concerned parties have written objectives to guide their actions and serve as a common base for discussing related issues Planning and Decision Making—Specific objectives can be useful as a guide or criterion for decision-making. media buyers and professionals involved advertising research. or goals intended to shape the awareness and attitudes of consumers Advertising Objectives Sales Oriented Objectives Communicatio n Oriented Objectives Each of these objectives is explained in detail in the subsequent chapters.
ignoring the dangers of linking advertising directly with sales • Incase of sales as the advertising objective. publicity. • • The time lag between audience exposure to an ad and when that ad may lead to an actual sale could be quite long because majority of the ads usually produce sales effect after a long period of time. Again ‘increased sales’ is not a specific goal – it is only a wish for the future.SALES AS AN ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE Many marketing managers view their advertising and promotional programs from a sales perspective and argue that sales or some related measure such as market share is the only meaningful goal for advertising and thus should be the basis for setting objectives. price. they are usually unsuitable for most advertising. marketing and brand managers are often under pressure to show sales results and their perspective is short term in evaluating advertising. it would be quite simple to evaluate the results of the ad campaign. They need some direction regarding what kind of ad message the company hopes to communicate. but except for Direct Action Advertising. The problem was not with the ads. ad building a brand and establishing a favourable attitude towards the brand is also important. personal selling. In today’s increasingly competitive market conditions. However in good number of cases the matter ended there. Drawback of using sales as the only objective of advertising Sales are a convenient and really attractive advertising objective for many managers. They look for quick fix solutions for declining sales. Thus advertising objectives that emphasize sales are usually not very operational because they provide little practical guidance for decision makers. distribution. Sales objective however may not be operational in certain cases because advertising is just one factor among many others that influence sales. and changing buyer needs. Example: There are many companies of low involvement products like confectionery and sweets whose advertising objective would be solely of sales. Thus they argue that any money spent on advertising should produce measurable sales results. it cannot fulfill its basic functions. but which campaign will generate such an increase? If an objective does not contribute useful criteria on which to base subsequent decision. offer little guidance to creative and media people working on the account. the campaign was very successful attracting and creating product liking but the price and non-availability of peripherals discouraged them. Example APPLE computers advertised their iMAC in some selected print media vehicles in India. No one argues the desirability of a sales increase. the ads were very successful and did in fact draw many potential buyers to dealerships. who will be the target audience and what specific response from the audience is desired. They take the position that the basic reason a firm spends money on advertising and promotion is to sell its products or services. competitor’s moves. However over the time even these companies have realized that sales cannot be the sole objective of advertising. It would be unfair to measure the success of ads themselves by the number of Apple computers sold to home users. packaging. Other factors that may have significant effect on sales are product features. to identify the contribution of advertising alone may really be difficult. Sales as an advertising objective. What percentage increase is the company looking at? By which date? Where are these increased sales going to come from? How are they going .
or encouraging prospects to place orders on phone or through internet. • Direct Action Advertising: Some direct action advertising attempts to induce quick response from the members of the target audience. . or ads announcing contests. There are again many sales oriented objectives. sales oriented objectives are used. which had a scratch and Win offer for about two months.to be achieved? The lucidity of these answers will influence the effectiveness of the company’s advertising objectives. They are given in the following table. Sales Promotion Programs: Many sales promotion programs have sales objectives since their goal is often to generate trial or short-term sales increases • Example Many companies have the “Scratch and Win” offers. • Incase of companies where advertising plays a dominant role in the marketing programme and other elements are relatively stable. Where Sales Objectives for advertising can be applied In spite of problems that sales objectives pose. In such cases evaluation is based on sales results. there are certain situations when sales objectives can be appropriate. which are usually advertised on television. One such company was VIM bar. such as ads offering some kind of incentive. which a particular company can have.
ONIDA launched their colour television sets in rural markets and had related advertisements for it. to people unaware of them. and your company record in other fields New Products to Consider Explain basic benefits and Competitors competitors overcome established Customers media goodwill. . for shaving. FA and NIVEA introducing products for men.Types of Sales Oriented Objectives Type of Sale Increase Media Policy Creative Content Example Existing Products Existing Product Maintain Suggest new uses for your to Existing users insertions in product. Existing insertions in building on existing Customers current media contacts and goodwill DETTOL Antiseptic advertised on the different usage of the product. like for washing baby’s clothes. etc. patterns LAKME introducing new products like Sunscreen lotion. etc. or reasons for current media more frequent use. FAIREVER advertised to switch the Fair & Lovely users to its product. Winter Cream Lotion with Strawberry ingredients. and your company record. PEPSI AHA aimed at advertising itself in bars in order to switch the alcohol drinkers to use Pepsi Aha instead of Thumbs Up as their mixer in the drink. Moisturizer with Peach Flavour. building on existing contacts and goodwill Existing Product Consider new Explain the basic benefits to New users media of your product. New Products to Consider new Explain the basic benefits New Users media of your product. PHILIPS. Existing Product Consider Comparison campaigns to users of rival competitors pointing out the advantages products – Brand media of the product over rival switching patterns brands and of changing established buying habits New Products New Products to Maintain Explain basic benefits.
This stage shows his attitude towards the product. look for information on the intranet. a far more powerful way to look at advertising is by understanding that advertising is a communication task. For example. The Three Stages Cognitive Affective Behaviour . see television ads. For example. which help a marketer to understand. after having the knowledge and developing the liking or disliking towards the product. All these communication models are centered on the three stages of the buying behaviour of consumers. there were eminent personalities who made the communication models. It is at this stage that the consumer will either have preference or liking towards the product or he will develop a dislike. However. read articles. or knowledge. The three stages are: Cognitive Stage The cognitive component deals with cognition. He would first try the product and develop loyalty towards it or he is completely convinced that the product is good and would purchase the product. Hence there are many models. with specific communication objectives. will ultimately lead into a purchase of the product or rejection of the product. which is explained in the next chapter. we just think of great ads that make us laugh or engage us in some manner. whether he is for or against the product. and observe computers in a store. how he should go about communicating his product to the target audience. On the basis of the communication importance. perceiving or conceiving ideas about the product. Behaviour Stage This is the stage when the consumer. We tend to judge ads by these simple criteria. feelings of likes or dislike towards objects are dealt on the effective plane. A customer needs to be exposed to the product and understand its usage before he actually purchases it. The marketer needs to assess which experiences and impressions will have the most influence at each stage of the buying process. This understanding will help marketers allocate their communication budget more efficiently. marketers need to understand the fundamental elements underlying effective communication. it is the power of knowing. someone interested in purchasing a new computer would talk to others. The starting point is an audit of all the potential interactions target customers may have with the product and the company.COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES Often when we think of advertising. It is dealing with the basic information that a consumer needs to know. and therefore we need to understand how communication works. To communicate effectively. which are based on these three stages. Affective Stage The effective component deals with the affections/emotions.
MODELS BASED ON THE THREE STAGES OF BUYING BEHAVIOUR Stages Cognitive Stage AIDA Model Hierarchy of effects Model Awareness Innovation – Adoption Model Communications Model Exposure Reception Cognitive response Attention Knowledge Affective Stage Liking Interest Preference Desire Behaviour stage Conviction Awareness Interest Attitude Evaluation Intention Trial Action Purchase Adoption Behaviour .
Attention. if the film is successful in creating interest and desire among the people. Interest. and have a desire to benefit from the product’s offerings. and Action. It demonstrates that consumers must be aware of a product’s existence. The producers bank on the star cast. Although this idea was rudimentary. form a linear hierarchy. Also the tagline: “Who wants to cook Aloo Gobi when you can bend a ball like Beckham. It shows a set of stair-step stages. To illustrate one such movie through the AIDA model is BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM A: Promos had David Beckham and Football I: Introduced Music and Dialogues of film. The purchase of the music cassettes and CDs is an indication of the interest generated by their efforts. they then release the music and also introduce the theme of the film. Action. be interested enough to pay attention to the product’s features/benefits. To create INTEREST among the consumers. Example: Film Industry Before the films are to be released. music. Desire. The stages. along with continuous promos on television. which describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase. The film also talked about the success of film overseas A: Got 3– and 4–star ratings and publicized that in promos. Later they use the outdoor and the press to create more AWARENESS AND ATTENTION. locations and the crew of the film to catch the eyes of the public. they start with airing their promos on television. there is immediate ACTION which is seen through purchases of tickets at movie halls.” D: A fresh movie with a different theme. They also have interactive programs like the star cast of the film visiting different music shops and creating desire among the audience. press and hoardings. After all these promos and activities. they have promotions through contests and movie tickets as prizes. it led to the later emerging field of consumer behavior research. . the fourth stage. would come as a natural result of movement through the first three stages.AIDA MODEL The AIDA model was presented by Elmo Lewis to explain how personal selling works. Later at the DESIRE stage.
Subsequent objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid to elicit desired behavioral responses such as associating feelings with the brand. Descriptive ads Image/ celebrity Liking: if target members know the product. Direct-action retail ads Purchase: finally. Preference Conviction: a target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it. For product problem it is necessary to first fix the problem and only then can you communicate its renewed quality. some members of the target audience might have conviction but not quite get around to Point-of-purchase ads making the purchase. Magazines are full of ads that will capture your attention. Teaser campaigns Pioneering ads Jingles/ slogans Internet banners Announcements Informative ads Liking Competitive ads Preference: the target audience might like the product but not prefer it to others. This is where comprehension of the brand name and what it stands for become important. knowledge or comprehension are accomplished. offering a premium. with simple messages repeating the product name. or regular use etc. perhaps by offering the product at a low price. Awareness Knowledge Knowledge: the target audience might have product awareness but not know much more. but you’ll have trouble easily seeing the brand name. Consumers must become aware of the brand. Capturing someone’s attention doesn’t mean they will notice the brand name. how do they feel about it? If the audience looks unfavourably Demonstration of towards the product to communicator has to find out why. the brand name needs to be made focal to get consumers to become aware. Awareness: if most of the target audience is unaware of the object. The communicator can check the campaigns success by measuring audience preference before and Testimonials after the campaign. its benefits? In what way is it different than competitor’s brands? Who is the target market? These are the types of questions that must be answered if consumers are to achieve the step of brand knowledge. Thus. The percentage of prospective customers will decline as they move up the pyramid toward more action oriented objectives. Conviction Purchase Reminder ads Informative “why” ads . perhaps just name recognition. What are the brand’s specific appeals. If the unfavourable view is based on real problems. trial. This is where consumers make a move to actually search out information or purchase.HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS MODEL Hierarchy of effects Model can be explained with the help of a pyramid. This isn’t as straightforward as it seems. it is easier to accomplish ad objectives located at the base of the pyramid than the ones towards the top. The communicator’s job is to build conviction among the target audience. In this case. hence this stage involves creating brand knowledge. The communicator must need wait deal offers these consumers to take the final step. a benefits communication campaigns alone cannot do the job. the communicator must try to buildPersuasive copy consumer preference by promoting quality. First the lower level objectives such as awareness. the communicator’s task is to build awareness. performance and other Comparative ads features. value. or letting consumers tried out. such as regular brand use. They may Pricefor more information or plan to act later.
The first step is to determine whether what you sell is a high involvement or low involvement product. Two broad ways exist for doing this. If you sell a product that is mission critical to a customer (that is. if it doesn’t work. The more you know about your customers. With an understanding of the nature of your customer’s involvement and the approach you will take. By looking at this table you can easily see how so many companies (especially Internet companies) who try to make fun ads with lots of music are assuming they are selling a low-involvement product to people who want an emotional appeal. and they are all based on research in persuasion and marketing. for example. consider trying to change the attitude of a customer who is very involved in the product and appears susceptible to rational persuasion. These are listed in the table below. smell.FCB GRID ‘High involvement/low involvement and rational vs. As an example of what the table says. You should use multiple facts. or sound (sensory effects) . rather complex. A decision must be made about how you will influence the customer’s attitude. then it is clearly a high involvement product. the other is through an emotional appeal (also known as the ‘FEEL’). a rational approach would typically (but not always) be best. Think of a high involvement product as one that is risky and important for customers. scientific evidence. expert and credible sources. An artist might be approached more with an emotional appeal. Emotional appeals’ How to achieve a good brand attitude is. But are they? Not always. touch. in fact. If you were trying to change an engineer’s attitude. etc. Alternatively. it is relatively easy to see the different strategies that should be used to achieve a good brand attitude. In fact. But to make it simple. and this suggests they won’t do a good job persuading customers to like their brand. low involvement products are not that important or risky to customers. the easier this decision will be. the customer’s business doesn’t work). How you make this decision depends on what you know about your customers. One is through a rational persuasion approach (Also known as the ‘THINK’). tastes. you see these different types of approaches used all the time in television and print advertising. High Involvement • Very important decision • Lot to lose if you choose the wrong brand • Decision requires lot of thought Low Involvement • Unimportant decision • Little to lose if you choose the wrong brand • Decision requires little thought Think or Rational approach • Decision is mainly logical or objective • Decision is based on mainly on functional facts • Decision is not based on a lot of feeling • Decision does not express one’s personality • Decision is not based on looks. we can break it down into some basic steps.
Quadrant 4 Satisfaction (Social) Do – Feel – Learn Ex. Cars. Think or Rational Approach High Involvement Quadrant 1 Informative (Economic) Learn – Feel – Do Ex. appliances. jewelry. and candy/sweets. Consumer goods. When the car was launched. the result of which was seen as footfalls and test-drives. (Look for press ad) Quadrant 2 • Use dramas • Use sources similar to your customers • Try to create empathy and a vicarious emotional experience • Strong visuals • Large spreads • TV with visual impact Example .Feel or Emotional approach • Decision is not mainly logical or objective • Decision is not based on mainly on functional facts • Decision is based on a lot of feeling • Decision does express one’s personality • Decision is based on looks. "life’s little pleasures" such as beer. gasoline Feel or Emotional Approach Quadrant 2 Affective (Psychological) Feel – Learn – Do Ex. depending on which quadrant his product falls into. it focused on more powerful engine. Low Involvement Communication strategies for each quadrant Quadrant 1 • Convey multiple facts that illustrate the basic message • Use expert/credible sources • Present scientific evidence • Use 2 sided appeals • Present weakest arguments first • Use comparative advertising Example Cars: HYUNDAI SANTRO Zip Plus This car is a variant of the flagship brand Hyundai Santro. it focused on automatic transmission. As it continuously upgraded the model. Quadrant 3 Habitual (Responsive) Do – Learn – Feel Ex. touch. or sound (sensory effects) A marketer can use the FCB Grid for its advertising strategy. cigarette. and fashion clothing. and insurance. tastes. Cosmetics. smell.
attractive visuals • Use likable sources • Attention getting • Impulse purchase • Billboards • Newspapers • Point of sale Example Pan Pasand. Quadrant 3 • Don’t use comparative ads • Use one-sided appeals • Use credible/expert source • Present strongest arguments first • Use a large number of arguments • Draw a conclusion • Reminder ads and repetition • Catchy music and slogans • Small space ads • Point of sale ads Example SUNDROP advertised its Sunflower oil as ‘the healthy oil for healthy people’. talked about how having a Pan Pasand lozenge changes moods from anger to polite and loving. in its ads. Instead of talking about fabrics or colours. celebrities. it always talks about the aspirational value of wearing a Provogue outfit. humor. Throughout the ads.PROVOGUE continuously advertises its line of garments as being endorsed by popular models and actors. it made the golden yellow colour of Sunflower dominant. . Quadrant 4 • Create a likable ad via the use of music. the latest one being Fardeen Khan.
image.DAGMAR In 1961. The book introduced what has become known as the DAGMAR approach to advertising planning and included a precise method for selecting and quantifying goals and for using those goals to measure performance. DAGMAR approach can be summarized as ‘Defining Advertising Goals’. It introduced the concept of communication objectives like awareness. and attitude. The point was made that such goals are more appropriate for advertising than in some measure like sales. DAGMAR also focused attention upon measurement. encouraging people to create objectives so specific and operational that they can be measured. Four requirements or characteristics of good objectives were noted . which can have multiple causes. Russel H. Unawareness/Awareness Comprehension Conviction Action Characteristics of Objectives: a major contribution of DAGMAR was Colley’s specification of what constitutes a good objective. In DAGMAR the communication task is based on the model of communication process DAGMAR has changed the way advertising objectives were created and the way that advertising results were measured. Colley wrote a book under the sponsorship of the Association of National Advertisers called Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. An advertising goal is a specific communication task to be accomplished among a defined audience in a given period of time. comprehension.
Hierarchy of Effects Model DAGMAR attacks the basic hierarchy model. which postulates a set of steps of awareness. These include: Measurement problems: With the adoption of DAGMAR model. an essential part of any planning program and DAGMAR in particular. Example: Tupperware is famous in Indian cities. . a benchmark is also a prerequisite to the ultimate measurement of results. With a time period specified a survey to generate a set if measures can be planned and anticipated. attitudes. The time period should be appropriate for the communication objective as simple tasks such as increasing awareness levels can be accomplished much faster than a complex goal such as repositioning a brand. 1 year etc. etc.finally goals should be committed to paper. and attitude leading to action. For example –if the goal was to increase awareness. which could lead to a contraction. etc.g. knowledge. The marketers question that what should they actually measure? Is it attitude.Concrete and measurable—the communications task or objective should be a precise statement of what appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. The objectives should also specify how much change or movement is being sought such as increase in awareness levels. simple discussion with peers. The benchmark measure cannot be developed without a specification of the target segment Benchmark and degree of change sought—another important part of setting objectives is having benchmark measures to determine where the target audience stands at the beginning of the campaign with respect to various communication response variables such as awareness. Advertising has had no role in it. e. creation of favorable attitudes or number of consumers intending to purchase the brand. it is essential to know the target audience precisely. new paper articles etc all create awareness of the brand. It has happened only through personal selling and networking. awareness or brand comprehension? Example: The VIP Feelings advertisements for ladies undergarments could be successful changing the attitude towards the brand VIP that was associated to be a man’s wear. 6months. unplanned publicity. Thus there are many other elements other than advertising in the hierarchy chain that create awareness. Noise in the system: DAGMAR assumes that the awareness and liking of the brand can be achieved through advertising alone. the less creative the advertisement will be. Inhibiting great idea: The more defined and concrete objective of the client brief. or it could be successful in creating awareness that VIP has started a new line of product for ladies too. which should be discussed. Specified time period—a final characteristic of good objectives is the specification of the time period during which the objective is to be accomplished. All parties involved will understand that the results will be available for evaluating the campaign. as a result. expansion or change in the current effort. basic shortcomings and misunderstandings become exposed and it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach. Example: A campaign with all music and warm human visuals is be loved by everybody but it would fail to meet the company’s standard. Furthermore the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure Target audience –a key tenet to DAGMAR is that the target audience be well defined. the effectiveness of the advertisement is reduced. The counterargument is that it is possible that action may precede awareness. But the underlying fact is that there are many other variables such as competitive promotion. word of mouth. image. Written Goal . comprehension. the measurement becomes a problem. Thus a wonderful campaign would be evaluated on wrong criteria. Limitations of DAGMAR—There are certain problems and limitations to DAGMAR. When the goals are clearly written. Evaluating and measuring this form one single advertisement is difficult.
. or sometimes it is not done at all. are not advertised. It is later that the advertising for the product is done.Example: The foreign chocolates. but still people buy them. which are bought by people from the departmental stores. Another example would be that action is preceded the attitude formation and comprehension with the impulse purchase of a low involvement product.
odour). through proving the consumer a superior quality product at competitive prices in different pack sizes. age 21 – 44 years. Soya) Marketing Objectives: • Leadership in the edible refined oil segment. quality (purity. Sunflower. Target Consumer Defined: • Modern. colour. who was concerned about the well-being and health of her family. coconut) to ‘newer’ oils (safflower. chose edible oil business. primarily groundnut oil. Positioning the brand: • Taste. suggested ‘Purity’ Market Research: • Revealed low brand loyalty. • Market was rapidly growing. • Accordingly production and distribution network was carefully planned. • ITC had the requisite skills and relationship with farmers through Leaf Tobacco Division. demand was much greater than supply. except for ‘Postman’ • Key attributes: taste. Market consisted of: • Filtered Oils • Refined Oils (urban areas primarily) • Hydrogenated fats (Vanaspati) Changes in the market: • Shift from unrefined to refined oils due to: • Increasing affluence • Purity of oil • Awareness of health • Shift from traditional oils (mustard. Aware. groundnut. ITC decided to diversify. Competition: • Saffola (Safflower oil) also used the health platform but was associated with heart patients and less taste • Flora and Sunola (Sunflower oils) Naming the brand: ‘Sundrop’ cued the product category.Example: Sundrop Background Scenario: • Mid 1980’s. using refined branded oils. health and value for money. Price or Health? . educated housewife.
along with a supporting claim for taste. Redefined the category and expanded the Sunflower oil segment from 2. Sundrop became the largest selling refined sunflower oil. • • • Positioning had to be perceptually as far away from Saffola. The ad was shown for over 10 years as the main theme film. .Health was chosen as the platform. modern and premium feel Execution had to be distinct and original to stand out from the clutter Execution: • Did not use the clichéd family at dinner table scene with pack shot at the end. Position Sundrop as the healthy oil for healthy people 2. and 42% in 1997 Still the largest selling sunflower oil brand holds 15% of branded oil market. • Use of yellow colour throughout to reinforce associations with the brand. People who were healthy and energetic were concerned about the long-term prospects of their health. Young. a symbol of good health. • Instead featured a lively and energetic kid. Thus ‘Health’ • Was related to maintenance of good health • Was applicable to all members of the family • Was characterized by lively energetic people • Thus the positioning: ‘The Healthy Oil for Healthy People’ Advertising Goals: Communication task: 1.71% to 23% in 6 months. • Pouring oil becomes Sundrop logo Results: • • • • Within 6 months. Ensure that this did not erode the delivery of the taste benefit.
we can relate them to the product life cycle of a brand. Be your kid’s favourite parent. which is commonly used over the product life cycle. It is seen clearly from the following diagram. It also enlightens the three kinds of advertisements. typically used in the late maturity and decline stage of the PLC Example: Chlormint. also Amul has constant reminder ads using humour related to current events.Advertising Objectives in relation to Product Life Cycle After understanding the different models used for advertising objectives. and what kind of advertisements he needs in order to meet its objectives. Informative: It is used to develop initial demand. typically used in the introductory stage of the PLC Example: Print ad of a Printer giving details about its specifications Persuasive: It is used to increase demand for an existing product. It has a competitive type of promotion and is typically used in the growth and early maturity stage of the PLC Example McDonald’s Print Ad Reminder: It is used to reinforce previous promotion by keeping the name of the product before the market. . This helps a marketer to understand where exactly does his product lie.
Example As in the case of KAMASUTRA condoms – people were against the use and had a negative impression of using condoms. Overcoming Resistance/Changing Attitude: Many companies seem to assume that the public is merely waiting for a suitable advertising message to stimulate them into buying the product. It raised the aspirations of a woman of looking younger. Introduction of new products: For the new products or services. Hence KAMASUTRA had a task of selling not only the product. Hence in all their advertisements they have brought the factor. Their approach was that of being high resistance. which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice. The manufacturer who wants his product ad name to be remembered amid the host of competing products and brand names will go for high public attention. new events at work and the latest films and television programmes. Further more. More than often. Reinforcement advertising: Related to reminder advertising is reinforcement advertising. the activities of family and friends. This was because they saw condoms as a means of protection. reminder advertising is clearly inapplicable. but also the desire of ‘The pleasure of making love’. the ads differentiated the product from the shampoos and conditioners by explaining usage the product. constant reminders through advertisements can enhance the company’s reputation and standing and play their part in cementing customer loyalty. But the people are wary of buying unfamiliar products and the retailers are equally shy of stocking the lines unknown to their customers. Example SANTOOR constantly touched the consumer with its theme of ‘mistaken identity’. Automobile Ads often depict satisfied customers enjoying special features of their new car. Reminding customers: A company has to constantly remind users of their wares. Here the task is one of basic education – informing potential customers of the benefits they will reap by purchasing the new product. The human memory is very short and frequent reminders are necessary.LIST OF COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES Thus the different types of communication objectives that a company can have are listed below. This is a classic example of reinforcement advertising. when introduced. positioning it to be better than the conditioners and how hair become very manageable and silky after using it. people are hostile.all make the consumers mind divert and forget your product. There is also competition for attention faced from the makers of totally different products. there are innumerable distracting factors. which soon make memory fade. Example Livon Silky Potion. Taking a still wider view of the many selling influences at work to make people forget your product – the latest news at home or abroad. . Moreover. Example: Hyundai Santro had some ads quoting how customers were satisfied with the ‘Mobile’ service that helped them in a difficult situation.
Through its ads. And/or are the most profitable. Example ARIEL v/s SURF: When Ariel was launched. A consumer seeing those ads might decide that. This will enhance the preference of the customers to use the particular brand in the market of numerous brands. Example PEPSI might conclude that it is easier to get young coffee drinkers to switch from coffee to PEPSI. which said that its consumption would not lead to any heart problems. Alternatively one should try to acquire those customers of the competing brand who are the most likely to grow their sales volume in the years to come. Brand Personality Example: MCDONALDS . yes they need a cellular phone. but might then end up buying the better-known MOTOROLA or NOKIA. the biggest sales force and the highest awareness is the one most likely to get the sale from a customer just entering the product category. it showed comparisons between itself and a known detergent (Surf packet without its name). the company undertakes various campaigns to build the brand and the company. New customers from other categories: Another approach is to attract people from those not now using the product class. Also. than it is to switch COKE drinkers to PEPSI UJALA. On the other hand such a strategy makes much less sense for a smaller firm that runs the risk that the segment member who is induced to try the product class may buy from a larger competitor. as ‘the best tyres for Indian roads’. For many product categories about 20% of the customers (heavy users) are likely to account for 50% of the sales volume and profits and are clearly worth focusing on as new brand users. cheerful. proved itself better than Neel (blue) and made the users shift to it. telling users to trust MRF for monsoon. For this reason. Genuine. fun Performance Example: MRF Tyres run huge ads in print media on the onset of monsoon.New customers from other brands: One must try to find out which existing users of the competing brand are the most dissatisfied with it and target these switchable consumers.Family oriented. Brand Image / Company Image: The company needs to have a favourable image of it brand in the eyes of the customers. The firm in the industry that has the highest market share. They are: • Unique Selling Proposition Example: SAFFOLA previously advertised the feature of its oil. when it entered the market. There are various factors that contribute to the favourable brand image. it showed how it was better than Surf and thus wanting to shift the Surf users to Ariel. • • . wholesome. the largest distribution. Example A small cellular phone manufacturer might waste its money if it ran ads telling people why cellular phones in general were useful for personal or business reasons. in all its ads it talks about the awards it has won over the years.
but they may not know the improvements made or the new lines added to their range. Example CLINIC PLUS – recommended through its advertisement. In essence the goal would be to increase the amount consumed per usage occasion. they advertise on different mediums to support the sales promotion program in meeting its objectives. Example ZANDU BALM – the advertisement depicted the various pains that could be relived through Zandu Balm. and it is constantly advertised on television and other mediums. . we do it everyday’ was meant primarily for the existing readers of Indian Express. which was introduced consecutively. but this is of little purpose if the customers are left in the dark about them. Increasing usage: It is possible to increase the usage of existing customers in the product class. Ponds have a range of product. The ad conveyed the ‘true journalism’ aspect of the Indian Express. to promote brand loyalty.Creating awareness of new products/brands and new developments in the company: Present customers may know the products of a company. (Though actual experience with the product is probably the bigger determinant of brand satisfaction and loyalty) Example INDIAN EXPRESS ad ‘Hammer home the truth. money and effort in improving their products. Increasing brand loyalty: The company is not the only one in the market who advertises its product.” The other way could be to suggest new usage occasions and opportunities. Sunday. For this. They have used ‘Preeti Zinta’ in their advertisements. Furthermore. Potential customers will not become purchasers unless they know of the new developments and advertising helps to keep them informed. Supporting other sales promotion activities: Many times the company introduces sales promotion activities for its consumers. changes in you product line may open up new market segments for whom the earlier products were not of interest. Firms devote a great deal of time. The competitors are perpetually trying to steal their customers away or trying to increase their own share of requirements. that its shampoo must be used three times in a week – “Tuesday. Thursday. CADBURY’S DAIRY MILK – which showed the marriage scenario and how people consumed Dairy Milk instead of the usual Mithais. Example PERK introduced the “PERK XL and PERK XXL” at the competitive price. existing preference for the company’s brand. Example FILMFARE uses hoardings at the latter part of the month to advertise about the freebie attached with the next month’s issue. without even visiting the doctor. It is very important therefore to recognize the effect that advertising has on reinforcing the present customers.
44crores. Squashes and syrups were the leading product categories. it is unwise to expect advertising to work miracles and reverse the permanent trend: it may however be able to make some contribution by slowing the rate of decline. if advertised properly. but the sales will steadily decline through the natural diminution of the existing market. This overall category masks various types of decline for which different advertising approaches are necessary. emphasizing value for money. Where the market for the company’s product is steadily diminishing. all the products of the company are exposed to the audience. accounting for 84% of the market. etc. Positive advertising. through no fault of yours.REAL TASTE OF INDIA campaign that was quite successful. The manufacturer who claims there is no need to advertise because he has all the business he needs ignore the fact that people leave the area of the country. Soft drink concentrates had a share of 7% only. PARLE ‘world of happiness’. Other purposes might be to slow down a permanent trend or to reverse a temporary decline. Another purpose might be to sustain an existing brand against competition.m Influencer: This was perhaps for the first time in the history of Indian advertising that the child was recognized as the major influencer in the purchase of a household product Campaign evaluation: The consumers off take shot upto Rs 1. It was recognized that there existed a good potential market for Rasna. or the people have sophisticated themselves and use better products.Umbrella campaigns: Many organizations are found active in many activities and have multiple brands for different categories. WIPRO. This also builds up the image of the company and all its brands. but to hold off a decline. One advertising campaign may have as its purpose countering the natural decline in the market. In 1982 non-aerated soft drink market was estimated at around Rs 13 crores. Whereas advertising can make a far more positive contribution is in countering temporary falls in sales. with separate divisions marketing separate products to separate markets via separate advertising and selling campaigns. Other umbrella campaigns are that of CAMLIN. Example AMUL . Share of syrups declined by 4% Campaign to counter natural decline of the market: Reminder advertisements can be effective in maintaining sales. The quality of the product may remain as high as ever. . Advertising objectives: To persuade consumers to try RASNA by creating / reawakening their interest in the brand Target audience: Housewives in the age group of 20+and with household income of Rs 750+ p. Example RASNA was a declining product even after being in the market for 4 years and even though it was an entirely new concept of a branded soft drink concentrate. Market share increased from 6%in 1982 to 9%in 1983. can help people adjust more swiftly to the new conditions. Hence through one advertising campaign. are steadily decreasing in number. thus giving the company time to seek new opportunities in other directions. Campaign to push declining sales: In this the purpose of the campaign may not be to increase or stabilize sales. Many such organizations realize that linking their self-contained business operations would benefit all component companies. ADITYA BIRLA GROUP. but the company must face up to the fact that the existing customers.
So Real. Mumbai which emphasizes on different social messages such as AIDS etc. These advertisements focus mainly on some social issue like–Aids. might enhance their company image and value. and also these kinds of advertisements. . but the retail shops/channels. Example LOWE Advertising Agency. Recent campaign by MCDONALD’S talking about the ‘Aao Match Karein’. Example When KWALITY WALL’S opened its outlets. Example SAINT GOBAIN is a classic example for this point. Cancer. Anti–Tobacco. Once the product is positioned at a particular platform. FCB ULKA Advertising Agency has a hoarding on the busy road near Pedder Road. in order to motivate them to stock their brands. Safe Driving.Example Print media advertising that “nothing can replace print” Social objective: There are many companies or institutions. Glass from Saint Gobain’ Their ads are also focused on how the SAINT GOBAIN glass can be mistaken for no glass at all – it feels so real’. This thus becomes one more advertising objective for the company. etc. Mumbai that said “Drive Safely” Generating trial purchases and store visits Many companies and stores insert coupons in print media to come to the store and exchange them for trials. they are usually positioned at a platform enabling the consumers to relate to the product. which attract and induce young professional to join the insurance company as life insurance agent. Example This was an advertisement directed to the video library owners to stock videocassettes made by the STAR VIDEO PVT Ltd. The companies mainly advertise on these grounds because each company needs to fulfill some social responsibilities. sometimes they have advertisements for more footfalls in the store. where consumers come to the store and match different words on the packages of its products Motivating the channel to stock the product: Many a time the advertisements are directed not towards the consumers. has a hoarding on the Pedder Road. Positioning is to appeal to a specific target audience and induce them to buy the product. which have social advertisements. Also. Product positioning and brand building: When the products are launched. the companies need to constantly remind the consumers and build brand. This also involves many stages and the marketer needs to communicate to the audience at each stage. Another example would be of the Life insurance agents’ ads. Companies position their brand to make it stand out from the other brands in the market. It positioned itself as ‘So Clear. This is called the positioning of the brand. giving free ice cream in exchange of those coupons on the first day of the outlets. it had coupons in newspapers. This ad was released in 1987 in the press medium.
There are innumerable companies. Repositioning the brand: Sometimes. Most companies position their products so as to differentiate their brands from the competition.Countering competition: The market today is no longer a one–man show. The tagline said “Kissi Se Kuch na Batai” Responding to a campaign. Move. and each presenting the van’s spaciousness from a new unexpected viewpoint. the company’s product is not accepted in the market with its original features. Example MARUTI OMNI had to reposition itself clearly different from the Maruti car in the potential buyer’s minds. It also had to generate at least short-term growth in sales to match current production potential. they need to reposition their brand. Move’. which was offered by the shopkeeper and said ‘No. In such a situation. With the MNCs entering India. Example MOOV used its competitor IODEX’s negative point in its advertisements. IODEX launched a big campaign where it had a character entering a shop and refusing to take MOOV. . a lot of Indian companies have been facing tough competition. Thus in order to change the image and become favourable in the eyes of the consumers. It showed how the usage of IODEX (name not revealed in the ad) left stains in the clothes making other people know about it. a company needs to constantly advertise to remain in the minds of the consumers. They also had to enhance the image and personal values of the brand. positioning. Their ads had a vivid demonstration of the spacious car. all of them having their own products to offer.
especially when those attitudes are strongly held and cherished by them. • The cognitive component deals with cognition. But the fact remains that his job is audience persuasion. the company first needs to build a positive attitude towards its brand. Each individual’s attitude is different from others. spread probably over several campaigns. For example. they represent an important link between cognitive and social psychology. When a product is introduced.e. If this attitude is negative. Still. the process sometimes lasting for years. object. Since attitudes often relate in some way to interaction with others. The advertising communicators know that attitudes are permeable and maneuverable through appropriate means. affective and behaviour/conative. it is this year dealing with knowledge. The traditionally accepted view of attitude is that it is made up of three into related components-cognitive. And the advertising message is his tool. They encompass. feelings of lights or dislike towards objects are dealt on the effective plane. attitude changes do take place perennially. i. shaping the attitude of the audience in his favour. or are closely related to. the company needs to strengthen it and make its audience brand loyal. The three components together shape what is known as ‘attitude’. because attitudes are not static. Instead his attempts are a persuasive process of communication. main concern of communicators Attitude changed on the part of the target audience is the main concern of marketing communicators. Ads change attitudes and feelings Behaviour Realm of motives. our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. The company needs to understand the attitude of the target audience towards its brand. Ads stimulate or direct desires. Attitude changed. and situation). it is the faculty of knowing or perceiving are conceiving ideas. Once the attitude is favourable toward the product. or knowledge. He does not venture to bluntly attack the strong held attitudes of its target audience. • And the conative/behaviour component deals with the behaviour or action. Ads provide information and facts. People normally resist change and dislike someone trying to influence the attitudes. . The Three Stages Cognitive Realm of thoughts. the company needs to understand its target audience.STRENGTHENING ATTITUDE AS AN ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE Attitude is the central theme in advertising management What is attitude? Attitudes are usually defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea. How is attitude linked to advertising? Attitude is a very personal issue. But this is not that easy as it sounds. person. • The effective component deals with the affections/emotions. Affective Realm of emotions.
When changing attitudes through advertising. the most difficult task is to change the current brand attitude because consumers already typically have certain types of attitudes toward established products. and surprising. • a message that will break through the clutter. or creating the new brand attitude. prestigious. We remember sources that are attractive to us. and I want to get it out on the market. The Message and the Source People pay more attention to messages and sources that are unusual. and it gets more credibility ratings than newspaper. If I want to have a shot in the cola industry. It is where we go when we want information on breaking news. loud. Of these options. and exotic. They also prefer messages that are controversial. I need to change some attitude.Cola. Brand Attitude A focus on brand attitude is another type of advertising objective. They have been drinking Coke or Pepsi for the past 20 years. and they like it. a soft drink . there are many factors to consider. People connect better with sources they know and trust.I have a new product. and advertising is the way to do it. Television gives us more information than any other medium. changing the current brand attitude. One must choose: • a source who is attractive to the target audience. repetition increases retention. Some companies give a message in several ways to several audiences. We seek information that: • Increases our understanding • Does not attack our self esteem • Helps us adjust in the world • Lets us express our attitudes Comprehension To get maximum comprehension from a message: • Choose a source the audience knows This is why celebrity endorsements are so prevalent today. Attention. so we select information that will be useful to us. and • a channel that will maximize comprehension. • Word the message so it connects with a specific audience This is easier than ever with the segmentation of audience due to cable television.Selective Exposure We cannot absorb all information. The brand attitude objective could be either one among enhancing or maintaining the current brand attitude. • Pick a channel that allows the message to be fully understood • Understand the defensiveness of the audience Retention Powerful sources that are ever-present are more likely to increase retention. interesting. Also. . I must convince people that they want and need my product. Radio and television can increase repetition more than personal selling or face-to-face can. This objective is more appropriate to the stage of growth and maturity in the product life cycle.
frequency.5 Ms OF ADVERTISING Message Message generation Message evaluation & selection Message execution Social responsibili ty review Money Mission Sales goals Advertisi ng objective s Factors to consider: Stage in PLC Market share and consumer base Competition and clutter Advertising frequency Product substitutabilit y Measurement Communica tion impact Sales impact Media Reach. impact Major media types Specific media vehicles Media timing Geographic al media allocation .
MISSION OR SETTING THE ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES Advertising Objectives can be classified as to whether their aim is: To inform: This aim of Advertising is generally true during the pioneering stage of a product category. where the objective is building a primary demand. MONEY This M deals with deciding on the Advertising Budget The advertising budget can be allocated based on: • • • • Departments or product groups The calendar Media used Specific geographic market areas There are five specific factors to be considered when setting the Advertising budget. The aim is to keep the consumer thinking about the product.While making an Advertising program five Ms should be taken into consideration. To remind: Such advertisements are highly effective in the maturity stage of the product. 2. Such advertisements aim at building selective brand. . they are: MISSION: What are the Advertising objectives? MONEY: How much can be spent? (Advertising budget) MESSAGE: What message should be sent? MEDIA: What media should be used? MEASUREMENT: How should the results be evaluated? After the Target Market. market positioning and marketing mix decisions have been taken the First step n developing an Advertising Program is 1. This may include: • Telling the market about a new product • Suggesting new uses for a product • Informing the market of a price change • Informing how the product works • Describing available services • Correcting false impressions • Reducing buyers’ fears • Building a company image To persuade: Most advertisements are made with the aim of persuasion.
For the skin you Cleaner upset completely enough to serve the deserve to have best 5. Competition and clutter: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending. its strengths. According to him. Gets Clothes 2. The flour that 6. A deodorant to 8. dealers. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates the need for heavier advertising. Stereo for the Result-of-Use Experience Product-inUse Experience Incidental-to- . experts and competitors. Established brands are usually supported with lower advertising budgets as a ratio to sales. The portable 11. The furniture 12. The store for needs no sifting great light beer guarantee social young executive acceptance 9. it is less expensive to reach consumers of a widely used brand them to reach consumers of low-share brands. Their feeling about the product. Market Share and Consumer base: high-market-share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share.• • • • • Stage in PLC: New products typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features. When you care 4. Meloney proposed a framework for generating Advertising Messages. Advertising frequency: the number of repetitions needed to put across the brands message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. POTENTIAL TYPE OF REWARD (Sample Messages) Rational Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction 1. on a cost-per-impressions basis. MESSAGE GENERATION Message generation can be done in the following ways: Inductive: By talking to consumers. 3. and weaknesses gives enough information that could aid the Message generation process. soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a different image. Consumers are the major source of good ideas. Additionally. a buyer expects four types of rewards from a product: Rational Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction. Real gusto in a 7. Product substitutability: brands in the commodity class (example cigarettes. Settles Stomach 3. To build share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. Deductive: John C. Buyers might visualize these rewards from: Results-of-use Experience Product-in-use Experience Incidental-to-use Experience The Matrix formed by the intersection of these four types of rewards and the three types of experiences is given below. The plastic 10. a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market. beer.
Use Experience pack keeps the cigarette fresh television that’s lighter in weight. • Lifestyle: Emphasizes how a product fits in with a lifestyle. that focus on lifestyle of persons using their products. words. and pride in making the product. such as beauty. The message’s impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said. exclusiveness and believability. •Fantasy: Creates a fantasy around the product or its use. saying the King of Good Times. and format for executing the message should be kept in mind. Example: Collection. Message execution. easier to lift that identifies the home of modern people man with discriminating taste Message evaluation and selection The advertiser needs to evaluate the alternative messages. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. showed a family enjoying Coke. Asmi and Platinum ads. No claim is made about the product except through suggestion. Example: VIP Frenchie ads. Example: Coke 1litre ad. Any message can be presented in any of the following different execution styles. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. Example: Ads of Old Spice After Shave Lotion • Personality symbol: Creates a character that personifies the product. STYLE. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. Messages can be rated on desirability. with a game of antakshari when there is a power failure. or a combination of them: • Slice of life: Shows one or more persons using the product in a normal setting. •Mood or image: Evokes a mood or image around the product. love. or serenity. Example: GE and Skoda ads . While executing a message the style. tone. Example: Kingfisher Beer ads. The message must also say something exclusive or distinct that does not apply to every brand in the product category. The character might be animated Example: Ronald McDonald for McDonald’s • Technical expertise: Shows the company’s expertise. showing a woman thinking of the Frenchie man saving her from a villain. • Musical: Uses background music or shows one or more persons or cartoon characters singing a song involving the product. the message must be believable or provable. experience. Above all.
The following themes listed on the left would have had much less impact without the creative phrasing on the right: Theme You won’t have to stay at home because of bad hair Creative Copy Get Out. 4. Other companies use emotions to set the ton e—particularly film. and humor is almost always avoided so as not to take mention away from the message. Get Going FORMAT: Format elements such as ad size. MEDIA The next ‘M’ to be considered while making an Advertisement Program is the Media through which to communicate the Message generated during the previous stage. optimal delivery can be achieved. or expert source endorsing the product. The steps to be considered are: . TONE : The communicator must also choose an appropriate tone for the ad. Fourcolour illustrations instead of black and white increase ad effectiveness and ad cost. and insurance companies. color. Example: DuraCell Ads. telephone. they had hair expert Coleen. Example: Procter & Gamble is consistently positive in its tone—its ads say something superlatively positive about the product. It could be a celebrity or ordinary people saying how much they like the product. Example: In ads for Sunsilk. claiming the battery lasts 6 times longer than ordinary batteries • Testimonial evidence: This features a highly credible. likable. This style is common in the over-the-counter drug category. and illustration will make a difference in an ad’s impact as well as its cost. which stress human connections and milestones. endorsing the product. Words: Memorable and attention-getting words must be found. A minor rearrangement of mechanical elements within the ad can improve its attention-getting power. though not necessarily by as much as their difference in cost. By planning the relative dominance of different elements of the ad.• Scientific evidence: Presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is preferred over or outperforms other brands. Larger-size ads gain more attention.
It is done in two ways • Unaided recall . frequency and impact Step I 5.test trial of the advertisement to the sample of people • Finished testing Post-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement’s effectiveness after it has been used.a research technique that asks how much of an ad a person remembers during a specific period of time • Aided recall .a research technique that uses clues to prompt answers from people about ads they might have seen Example: . Researching the effectiveness of the advertisement is the most used method of evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program. MEASUREMENT Evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program is very important as it helps prevent further wastage of money and helps make corrections that are important for further advertisement campaigns.Deciding on Geographic media allocation Step V Deciding on media timing Step IV Selecting specific media vehicles Step III Choosing among major media types Step II Deciding reach. It is done through • Concept testing – how well the concept of the advertisement is. • Test commercials . Research can be in the form of: • Communication-Effect Research • Sales-Effect Research There are two ways of measuring advertising effectives. This is be done by taking expert opinion on the concept of the ad. They are: Pre-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement for its effectiveness before it is actually used.
Sundrop became the largest selling refined sunflower oil. Position Sundrop as the healthy oil for healthy people 2.71% to 23% in 6 months. Young. modern and premium feel Execution had to be distinct and original to stand out from the clutter Money: • Stage in PLC: Introductory. . • • • Positioning had to be perceptually as far away from Saffola. therefore relatively large expenditure • Market share: new product • Competitors: Saffola (Safflower oil) also used the health platform but was associated with heart patients and less taste Flora and Sunola (Sunflower oils) Message: Health was chosen as the platform. • The ad was shown for over 10 years as the main theme film. People who were healthy and energetic were concerned about the long-term prospects of their health. • Redefined the category and expanded the Sunflower oil segment from 2. and 42% in 1997 • Still the largest selling sunflower oil brand holds 15% of branded oil market. Print ad Measurement: • Within 6 months. Thus ‘Health’ • Was related to maintenance of good health • Was applicable to all members of the family • Was characterized by lively energetic people • Thus the message and (positioning): ‘The Healthy Oil for Healthy People’ Media: Primary media: Television ad 30 seconds. along with a supporting claim for taste. Ensure that this did not erode the delivery of the taste benefit.Sundrop Mission: Sales goals: Leadership in the edible refined oil segment Advertising Goals: Communication task 1.
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