Elements of Electrical En~ineering
ISBN 9788184317 664
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Chapler-1 .Chapler·2 Chapter- 3 Chapter-4 Chaplel-5 Chaptsr-6 Chapter-7
Chapter- B Chapter- 9 Chaeter- to

D__C_ eireJ tits Elec!roswtics and Ca~acitanoe Elect~~g!lelics
Elmdameolals of A C Circllits

(1-1)10(1 -100)
(2"

1) to (2 -50)

@-ll~H-1Q"l
(4 -1)
IQ

(4 - 58)

Single Phase AC_ Circuits
Ibr:eeEbase CillJli!5

(5 -1) to (5-90) (6 -1) to (6-50) {7 -1)10 (7 - 40)

Battelies a od Cables

ElectricalWiring
lIlllw.blalic!J

(8 -1) 10 18 - 34) (9 ·1) 10(9· 32)
110 - 1) to 110 - 2B)

Protective Devices and sare\~Precau~ons

U rheberrec htl ieh gese hutztes M a\eria

D. C. Circuits :- Effect of temperature upon resistance, Solutions 01 series, parallel in brief Star-delta combinatian of rgsistances KYL and KCL (Chant" . I!
.. EI~dro.latic. and C"pacltanc~ :- Dofinitions ofoloctmstatic, Types of capacitors, Selie., Parnlie,1 comb inaljons ~~nd related drcuit"",]culations in brief charsi ng and discharging of capacitor. En ergy ,toTed in capacitoT.!Cho pier • 21 between "Ieclric and magnetic

III

Eleclroml1gn

,,11cs :- Magnetic c;<cuit, Comparison

circuits, Serte;,ll' arallel magnetic circuit calculations, Magne1; c hysteresis, Hystere,is and eddy rune"t IOSl, M<lgnetic, m.!J<rial, ,. Electromagnetic induction, St~~ cally and dynamically ;nduc~d ~.m.f.s in briol, Fleming's risht hand rule - left hand rule, Coefficients of self and mutual inductances, Coefficient of coupling. Serias/Paralle I com bin~tions of inductances.. and de"",>! of current in ind uctive circuits, Force experienced by current carrying co "ductor placed in magnetic field. (Chopl ... 31

ru""

IV

Sinsle Phase A.C. Clrcuit~ :. G"ner~tion of alt"m~ting voltages and cunents, Th~I, equation" D"flnilions, R_M.s~ and average values. Vetlor representation 01 alternating quantities, Addition and ,ubtrac:ti on of vectors, Complex algebra, Phasor r~lations between voltage and cu nent in each of resistance, inductance, and capacitance, A C. es and pamllel circuits. Power and power factor. Methods of cirwit .olution (analytically and vectorjally), Resonance in series and parallel dTcui.ts,

,en

(Ch.ptll!!l1Ii ... 4. 5)

V

PQlypha5e Circuits ,. Generation of polyph ase voltages, 3 phase svstem, Phase ,eguence, Inter conn ..ction of 3 phase,. Voileg". Current and power reliitionshiRS in balanced three phase clrrui ts, Power m€asurcment in single phase and 3 phase ci,cuits. lCb.Dlu .
6)

VI

Batt~d~5. Cables ,. BMery, life of batteries, Ch"'QmQ and dLScharoinQ of baHe", Cables, 2, 21/2, 3 and 4 core armored and unarm ared cables. (Cbopt..r - 71
installation, installation, WIring :. Connectors and SWitches, S~stem of wiring. Domestic wiling Sub circuits in domestic wiri ng, Simple ron [wi circuit in domesli c Ind ustrial clectrirLcatio n. 10.p'., . 81
~...

VII EleclTlcal

VIII

IlJumlnatlon

Types or lamps,

Fixtures

and

reller;_tors.

lHuminaUon

:schemes for

dome,tic, categorie,.

Indu,trial ~nd commercial (Chopl., . 91

pramises,

Lumen

requirements

lar dillemnl

rx

S~fetv and Protection :- Safely, Electric shook. First aid for electric shack other hazard. 01 electrical laboral.ories and ""Iely rules" U,e of muIltmel""s, Grounding, Importance of grcunding. Equipm"nl 0 I grcu "ding for ",lely ~ CircuJl protection devices. Fu""s, MCB, ELCB and relays. (Chop''''' 101

Urhcberrec hthch ges c h lillies !vi a erla

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Table of Contents
1.1 Introd_uctLQIJ 1.2 The Structure of Matter .. _."", _

(Detail)
" , __ •.. "",.:
",m", ... "

j;liilG~ii55.::QI~giit~.mRWt+rJ7iTTl?%fi)J¥:~~i11iri91{mOJOO
1- 1 __".:.. , . _" _.. ,1 - 1 .. 1-2
: .... " ......

1.2.1 StrucI!JreotanAlom_

_." .. ", _.',.

...• ,,""'''',.,.,.,.,
.. ,:., ....... " " •••

1.3 Concept of Charge " ...",... ", ...,,"'''' ......... 1.3,1 Unit of Charga '" _.• ''''.'' ,_

1- 3 _.1-4 ,,1 - 4

,_. _"'.,"

,_ "" _

,_ .• _.".,,,. "

1.4 Concept of Electromotive Force and Current. ~.~ 1.5 :Relation between Char_ge and Current , ~

r ••••

' •••••••••••••••••

, •• ~ •••••

1 ·5_

·~;._h6Concept of Electric Potential and Potential Difference 1.7 Electromotive Force and Potential Difference 1.8 Resistance ,..,..,.., , , , ,. ,. _. , _ _ ' " ,

,

,..1 - 6 l -7 , , 1- 8

,.,

1.8.1 Factoi'll Affecting tile .Resistance. ,. , 1.9 Resistivity and Conductivity ,

, " ,. , .. ,. , .. , . , ., . ,. ,. ,1 -10 _....... _ ,...,.,1 -10 ....

1.9.1 Conductance (Gl.,
1.9,2 Conductivity

,
, ,.,.,

_. _ _
, , ,.,.

_
, ,

,. _
, .. , . , "

_.. , .. _.1 -11
, . , 1 -11 " 1 -12
_1-13

1.10 Effect of Temperature on Resistance """

1,to.l Effect ofTemperature on Metals, . , . , _
UO.2 Effect ofTemperature on Carbon and Insulalcrll . , 1.1 0.3 Effect of Temperatu re on Alloys , ., ., . , . , 1.10,4 Effect ofTemperature on SemicCllductars 1_11 Resistance Temperature Coefficient (RT.C.)" t11.1 UnitofRT,C , , , ,

" ... 1-14 , ., . , 1-14 , . , . , .. , " .., 1 -15

,. 1 - 15 , 1-17

1,11.2 Usc oIRT,C. in Calculating Resistance at t "C.,

,., .1-11

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri"

1.11.3 EffectolTemperature
1.11.4 EffectolT emperalure

on R.T.C on Resistivity .. Conductor. .. . .
on

.

.

1-18

..,1-19
. •. 1 - 22
on onm .. m

1.11.5 RT.C. of Comp!lslle

1.12 Network Terminology
1.12.1 Network 1122 Ne!wpr!; Ele ment .... . .

1 - 27
1 "27 1-27

................ .

1.12.3 Branch 1.12.4 Junction Point .. 1.12.5 Node

.
. .... "., .....•• ,., ...... "., ....

"
, ....

,
, .....

1-27
1-27 1-27

1.12.6 Mesh lor Loop)
1 13 Classificatjon of Electrjcal Networks 1.14 Energy Sources
1.14.1 VOltaqa Source . . . 1.14.2 Current Source ... 1.14.3 Dependent Sources •... ,.
m

1-27 ,,' "." " "' ..""",, " .... " ..",,,,,,1 - 28 "
m mm .. mm

l - 29
1 •.29 1-31 .. 1-32

. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .

. ......

1.15 Ohm's Law
1.15.1 Limitations Ohm's Law of

1 - 33
1. • 34

1,16 Series Circuit
1.1 6.1 CharacterisUcs of 5e rie s Circuits

,,,

,

., 1 - 34
t . 35

1,17 Parallel Circuit
117.1 Characrerisfcs of Pa@lIel Circuits ...
m on .. "' .. "'

1 - 35
1- 36

1.18 Comparison of Series and Parallel Circuits .. 1.19 Short and Open Circuits
1.19.1 Short Circuit.. 1 ,19.2 Open Circuit .... . ., ,

l " 37 1 - 39

,......

.1-39

.1-39 . ..... 1-40 1 - 41 , 1. - 42

1.19.3 Redund an I Branches and Comb in allons ..

1.20 Voltage Division in Series Circuit of Resistors 1.21 Current Division in Parallel Circuit of Resistors

Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes M aleria

1.22 Source Transformation 1.23 Kir·chhoffs Laws
1.23.1 Kirdlhoffs

, " "

,. ,

,.

,.. ,

'" ,

1 - 44 1 - 47

" .. ,.,,,.,,. .."
, ,. "''''''''''''''''

CUlTlmt Law (KCL) "

•••• "

",.,1-47

123.2 KIrchhoff's Vol1agBLaw (KVL)

,

1-47 "",1-48
..1-49 . ,." 1-50

113.3 Sign Convenlio'lS 10 ne Followed while Applying KVL 123.4 AppUcation 01 KVL 10 a C!(lsed Path .. , .....•. , ...

1,23.5 Sleps 10 Apply Kirchhoft's Laws to Gel Nel'Mlril Equalioos

1 24 Cramer's Rule 1 25 Star and Della Connection of Resistances
1.25,1 Della:Star Transformation., ,, , . , .. , .....
,u.u., •• ,. u •• ,

1 - 51 1 • 53 .1·$5
t ·58

1.25,2.Star·Delta Transformation.

, .. , . ,. " ......

, .....

1,26 Concept of Loop Current... ..... ,.. "".,. EJ::amples with Solutions ,., ", ,

, ,.,

" .. ,", .. " ,., ,.. " "'"

",.. ",

1 - 63

1 - 64
' 1 - 71
.. m."

Examples from G. U. and G.T ,U, Papers"",., Review Questions '..,m
.. ' m ·.. , ., ".".".,

.. ·" .. '.' .. 'm .. " •.,.'

1 - 95

University Questions .."

,

,

,

"

,.. .,...

2.1 Introduction

,.,." .. .,..

........ , .,

" ., ,.. , , ,

, ,

."

2-1 2•1 2-2 " .. 2 - 4
. ... 2- 4

2.2 Concept of an Electric Charge

2.3 Laws of Electrostatics 2.4 Electrostatic
2.4.2 Proparties

., .. , , " .., "

Field

2.4.1 Eleolrlo Lin es of Perce .

of Ele<:tric

Lines of Force.

2-5 "." , ,,,.,,
on" ..

2.5 Electric Flux 2.6 Electric Flux Density

""."."."

.,.. ,.. ,,,
, .. "' .. m ",n

,.. ,,,.,,,, .. ., .. 2 - 5 2-6 , 2 -6

2.6,1 Surface ChalJle Densi!;(

,

,.,

, .. ,

Urheberrec htl ich gcsc hutztes Materia

2.7 Electric Field Strength or Field Intensity
2.71 Relali!1u between 0 and E . ....

2-6
2-7

2.8 PermitUvity
2.6.1 Absolute PermiHivity 2.8.2 Pe rmillMly and Free Space. . .......

2-8
2- B

2-8
F}

2.8.3 Rel"Uve Perrniltivi~

.; .•..• ;•...
~!.~

.

2-9

29 Electric Poten Iia I and Pote mraI 0 ilfe rence
2.9.1 PotenDsl Differencs
. 2.9.2 Expressions Potential andPotential Difference for

2 -10
..2-11
2 -11

2.10 potential Gradient

2 - 13 _ _
on .. on _

2.11 Capacitor
2_12 Capacitance

_ .._
_.on

_._ _ _.2- 14 .._
on •••

2 - 14 2 -14

2.13 Action of a Capacitor
2.15 Capacitance of a Parallel Plate CaPa~itor ._ 2.16 Dielectric Slrenglh
on m

_

_ _
on

2.14 Relation between Charge and Applied Volta.ge .,._,. _
•••••• _

2 - 15 2. -16 2 -17 2 -19

2.H;.1 Dielectric Laaklijle and Lor.s8S 2.17 Capacitors in S8[les
2.17.1 Voltage Distribution in Two Capacitors in Series

"'

2 - '19 2·20

2.18 Capacitors in Parallel
2.19 Parallel Plate Capacitor with Multiple Plates 2.20 Composite Dielectric Capacitors 2.21 Energy Storeo in a Capacitor 2.22 Current in a Capacitor 2.23 Types of Capacitors 2.24 Charging a Capacitor through Resistance
2.24.1 Mall1ematlcaIAnalysis"., _, _, _,., ••• , _. _ .•••• ",. .
m

m

2 - 22 2 - 23 2 - .24 2 - 26 2 - 27 2 - 28 2 - 29
. .. 2 -30 ... 2-31

_

2.24.2 Time Constant.

Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia

2.24.3 Inilial Rala of Rise of Capacilor Vollage 2.25 Discharging a Capacitor through a Resistanet. 2.25.1 Mathematical Analysis ... 2.25.2 TIme Conslanl . . : Papers

.

.

2-32

_.2 - 34 . .2-54
.. 2· 36 . 2· 36

2.25.3 Significance Time Co nstanl. of Examples with Solutions Examples from G.U. and GTU. Review questions University Questions

2 - 37
" 2 - 39 2 - 48

2 ~50

3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................•...... 3.2 Magnet and its Properties 3.3 Molecular Theory of Magnetization 3.4 Laws of Ma.gnetism 3.5 Magnetic Field
35.1 Magnatic Lines of Force ....
U.2 Direc~o n of Magnetic Field ..

3- 1 3- 1 3•2

:

3 -4 3 -4
. .... 3-4 . .... 3-4 ..... 3-6

3.5.3 Properties 01 Lines 01Force

3.6 Magnetic Flux 3] Pole Strength

(11)

3 ~7
. " ,'

,3- 7 3· 7
3- 8

3.8 Magnetic Flux Density (8)
3.9 Magnetic Field Strength (H)

3.10 Magnetic Effect of an Electric Current (Electroma.qnets)
3.10.1 MagneUc Field due to StralghICOnductor
3 1Q

3-8
,
_

3·· 9 J. 1Q

l' 1 Buies to Oetetmine Dir.oc~Qn Flux Armmd C'ooductot 01

3.10.2 Magneticield due to Cirwl arConducto, i.e.Solenoid . F

"'.. , .. 3 - 11

3.11 Permeability
3.11.1 Absolute Permeability (u)

u

3 - 13 .
n :

3-13

Urheberrec htl ich gcsc hutztes M a\e,ia

.. . . 3 -16 . . ..1.••••• 3. . . 3·33 ... .. .... .16 . ..1 S·H Curve arld PSmleabilltv .. . 1 Steps in Obtaining Hv.iCtical Use of Hysteresis Loop.."....1 Hvsteresls ..19 B-H Curve or Magnetization Curve 3. ... . .3·37 .12 Magnelomolive 3.... .... " "" ." 3...3 .. '. ..3 Parallel Magnetic Circuits .27 3. ' .. . ' .•• 3 .. ...•••. .. .15 Magnetic Circuits 3.2 Thoory Beh 3-31 ... 3.. 3. .20 Modem Theory of Magnetism 3.. .3·23 ".tamsis 3. . .5 3 .. . ..13 Reluctance 3..1 lea~~age Coefficient or Hopklnron's CoeffiCient ' .15.22. . ' . 3 Eddy Current Loss 2 .2 Series Circuit \11th Air Gap... .36 . 3 .' ... .. ..••. (M.2 Magnetic Fringing .". 3:19... 3 .2 Kirc!Jhoffs M.. . .....'. ' .." ..•• 3.2. .3· 36 ioo HysteresisEffed ". .21. .21.. 3 • 32 3.. .. ..Air Gap .... ...22 HysteresIs loss ..18 Magnetic Leakage and Fringing 3... . . .•••• ..1 Series MagneficCircui!s.3·18 . ' . ..2 Pr. .. 3.40 Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia . ..11.15 3 . . .... .... ....22 . ... 3. .3 . .14 Permeance (S) Force .3-14 . 3·29 3 .17 Comparison of Magnetic and Electric Circuits 3.30 ...19.F.11.33 . or F) '"... . . ..'.18. .. . .2 PracUcal Use 01 S·H Curves .F. ..16 Kirchhoff's Laws for Magnetic Circuit 3 16 1 Kirchhoffs FIyx law 316.••.21 Magnetic Hysteresis .1 8.6 .... . .3.........4 Parallel Magnatic CirculI with ... 'Loop .15... .. .15. ...'''.34 3.. 3 .. . ..3 Relatlve Permeabmty {!J .. .. '''''''.... .3·26 3. .}"....3... • . ..3 ..3· 14 3.. . . .15.' 3. .28 ... ..26 3 . .3-2D .28 3.. 3· 39 Loss Per Unit Volume 3. . . 3..2 Permeabilily of Free Space or Vacuum (uo) . .. . . ..•..' 3. Law .. .. " . .M. .••. 3. .M. . 22.

tl4 3 . .. ... . 3...3.••.1 Fleming's Hand Rule Left 3.. .•..•.M. .E...M..•. . .. "..52 Induced E. • ' •.27 Faraday's Experiment . 3. .... .•. of Force Experienced ...64 ..252 Magnitude ..3 ElIpresslon5 lot Coefficient of Sellinducia 3. ... •• ...1 Series Aiding or Cumulatively 3.2B 1 First Law 32B.. . ..64 ..2 Second Law .3 Expressions 3.46 3·46 3 . ..•..1 Magnitude 3 332 Definitions 3.32.•... •....55 3-56 .Aiding CIlnneclion or Differentially Coupleli Connection Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia .. 3. .. ..." ....57 3 ... ..M.34.•. t Magnitude 01 Dynamically ... 3 .32 Self Induced E.. .2 Eguwalenllnductance J. . 3 . .tanco 01 a COil •..M. .. .. 3 .F 3. 3. . .. bV the Conductor . .33. .56 01 Self Induced E. . . ••. .. 3 .•.... .30.34. .47 ... .. ... . .33. 3 .26 Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induclion 3.45 3 . . ..42 .. . 3.. . ..... 3 . 3... . 3 .3 ..... .•. .62 3 . .24 Magnetic Loss [Core Loss or Iron Loss] 3. .41 in a Magnetic .. .2 Magnitude ... •. ~. 3 .43 .•. " 3. Field . ..25.. Unit of the Mutuallnductanoo (M)...•..M.3-47 . .. • .F . .. ..1 Self Inductance. ..54 3 .30. .. .'.44 .. .. .32.. . ••••••• .••••. •••• .32.••••••. . .. 3.26 Introduclion to Eleclromagnelic Induclion 3...2 Direction 01 Dynamically Induced E...25 Force on a Current Carrying Conductor 3. . .•• .61 of Mutually Induced E.••.•.M...34. 3 .29 Nature of the Induced E.3 Series Opposition Coupled Connection . 63 01 Coupwng or Magnetic Coupling Cosfticient ..55 of series .M.F ..•. 3 34 Effective Inductance of Series Connection 3.MF 3.. . .33.. •• ..30 Dynamically Induced E. F 3. . 3 ..•. ••. ...60 . . ..58 Self Indu<...M. .3....45 3..••.•.3 .4 Factors Affecting nee ILl.....3·47 3 .46 " .33 Mutually Induced E... • .F.31 Statically Induced E.4 Coefficient . . ..•. .3 .. . . .. • ..F.32.. 3 ...F of MIi~lal Ind uclance alldit..... ... 3.60 3 . '••.

1 Single Tum Alternator ••. .1 Expression for Ena rgy Stored in the Magnetic Field 3. .87 3 ..37..2 Parallel Opposing or Differentially Coupled.. ...3.•....•. Voltage " 4.••••• 3 • 74 3 -75 " '. 3....100 3· 103 4 1 Introduction 4.••••.35...... .Time Constant. • •.75 ... 4..38.. " """ "..6 4-7 4. .4 Generation of AC...3.39 Current Decay in Inductive Circuit 3....... "...... • 3 • 68 3· 69 3 ...... ... ...F. .•••...35 Energy Stored in the Magnetic Field 3.."" "" ...76 3 . .3 Types of AC.3 .1 Mathematical AnalyslJ.3 4.........•.•.•.36 Lifting Power 01 Electromagnets 337 Effective Inductance of Parallel Connection 3.•.73 "" " 3......... ... .4... .2 A. Papers Review Questions .• ... ..'" . " m .3 ..••. .....35.38.. 4 .U.U...dvantages of A.". •••••.77 3 -77 3 . and G. ....5 Standard Terminology Related to Alternating Quantity Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia . •.. University Questions m m .• 3. .. 4..1 Advantages of Purely Sinusoidal Waveform .••••.1 Parallel Aiding or Cu mulatiVely Coupled .3. 3..M. "" ".3 ..37. . .39 2 Time Clmstant Examples with Solutions Examples from G.. .. ..2 Energy Stored Per Unit Volurns 3....•...•.71 3-71 3 -72 3 38 Current Rise in InducUve Circuit " .39 .. 4...... . 3. .•. •..2Graphical Representatlon oltha Induced E.. Waveforms " " "" """''''' m 4-1 .•......•...4 .....4.34. Mathematical Analysis 1 3. .4 Equivalent Inductance 01Series Opposition Connection 3.•••.4 • 2 4-2 4..T..65 3 .2.••••.... .C 4..67 . 3 .. .70 3 .

. .2 Analytical Method. . 4·28 . . T4. . .. . 4.6 Equation of an Alternating QUantity 4..4· 15 .. 4·7 . .... 4.4· 7 4.13 Concept of Phase of an Alternating Quantity 4.... . " .5.7 Effective Value or RM. _.2 Analytical Method .10 Crest or Peak Factor (K.5.13.1 Graphical MeIIlod 4. .. ... 4._ .7 Angular Frequency (m) .8..1 Graphical Method __ _ .. . _.M. . Equation. .5 Frequency m 4.8...14. .. . 4.6 AmpliltJde . ....) 4.2 Phaser Diagram. . 4...4 -17 4·17 4.. . ... . ... m . _. m _..6 4. . 4· 7 .9 Form Fador (K!) _.4 ..•. _. .S A ··19 " 4 ...7.5.". . . Value 4..3 Cycle .18 m m 4." " . .5..F. 4. 4·10 .. . .. .. _. _. .. .1 Instantaneous Value . . m ..4·13 . .S...4·7 . . ... .. 4. ... m.4· 23 .3 lmportanca of AveraH~ Value .... .5.20 Value of Combined Waveform . ..30 : .. _... . 4·1.• 4. Importance of RM. . . _•.4·7 ....14 Addition and Subtraction of Alternating Quantities 4. 4. 4..2 Waveform .. ..4 Time Period (T) .. _4·30 A·30 Urheberrec htl ich gcsc hutztes Materia ..5.8..13.S.8 Average Value 4.12 Phasor Representation of an Alternating Quantity 4.. .6..4 . 4·8 4·8 4-9 4. 4.7. .. ..11 RM.•.. . Value 3 .2 Analytical Method 4· 22 .. ...4. . 4·17 4·18 4.13 ..1 Phase Difference . ..5.. 4·25 .4 .7. .1 Different Forms of E...1 Graphical Method . .

Number Representation. • .6.... ..5...... .1 Power 5 -1 .J . through Series R-C Circuit 5.1 Conceet of Capacilivo 5... .. .lJ .. 5·14 ..3 Apparent Power (S) 5.. through Pure Inductance 5.. .. .4 ~57 5.. 5.1 Another Way of Comple~.46 4 . . . .... 5 -16 5 ·16 .6 AC.....T... through Pure Resistance 5.5. .2. . .. 4· 3f 4. u 5• B . and Review QUestions University Questions .1 ' . •....5 -18 5·19 U rheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes M a\eria ....51 Impedance 5.4 .1 Impedance ..32 Power 5.2 AC.2 Power Reactanc.....5 Reactive Power(Ql 5. .. " .. Papers.. 5. .1 Concept 011nductJva Reactan ce 5....1 Introduction 5.56 "...• 4·36 Examples with Solutions Examples from G.5 5· 6 5-7 ..... through Series R-L CircuIL 5 . ... .. ... .3 Mathematical Representation of Phasor ... 5-15 5-15 5.15 .U.4 Real or True Power (P) .15 MulUplicalion and Division of Phasors 4.... . . . 4-35 .U.. 5 .4. .9 ..3. • •. . through Pure Capacitance 5.5..5...5.... .4...5-14 5.3 AC..5 A. ....4 AC. " m 5.5...e 5 .. "' 4·37 G.4......C....2 Power and Power Triangle .. ...14. . "' 5··2 5...6 Power Facror (cos ¢I) 5.

. .•. "".10.... . ...7......1 XI ~ . ..2 Power and Power Tfia~gle .. . ..3 x.24 Xc . .._ .11 Multiplication and Division of Impedances 5.. .•. through Series R-L-C Circuit 5...12. . .. '" Xc " ..5-42 ...30 .... .. _. . ... 5. .3 Bandwidth ·ofSeries R·L-C Circuil....2 ExpreSSion for Resonant Frequency.....4 Ccnductance (G)..•... . ..7.. ..5-38 5. .10... ... ...6 Admitlance Triangles... .5-:l4 alSerie... 5. • ' . . fOr Resonant Frequency.4 Expressions fOr Lower and Upper CUt-off Frequencies. . . 5·35 . ". . ..1 Imp!!dances Two In Parallel . . ... Parallel CircuiL... .3 COm[!On~nls 01 Admitla nc~ •• . ._ .... ... . ..9. ..9... .. . .. .2 ConGepl of Admittance 5..6 Power and PowefTria~gTe S.. .7.2 5.. _ . . ..... 5.....•.... . ... .6. . .. . . .C..". . ".5 -43 5 . ..27 .33 5-l3 . ..5·42 .7 A. . 5.•. .. .43 5.. ......10. ... . . "..12. . .5. . _ ..•. ..... .. . .5 Quality Faclor .7.•.." .47 5 .10...... .25 5}. .. 5·40 .5-26 .2 Expression 5 . .. 5· 26 . 5..•. 5 • 49 5. . 5... ..4 Impedance ... <Xc.•.. .9.1 Characteristics 01 Parallel Resonance... 5 .. . ... .. .47 5 ..27 5.....5 -:l4 . .. 5-41 ... .10..9. . . Resonance. 5 • 20 5 . . •. ..· X.. . 5·40 . .. ....9 Resonance in Series R-L-C Circuit 5. . .•.. . . . ..10 A... .•....5·42 5.5. 5. Urheberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes Materia . 5.".. .. . • . . .....C. .10..'" . . _ . •.9.12 Resonance in Parallel ClrcuIL 5. Triangle" .5 Susceptance IS) . .4B .... .. 5 ... .. .... 5. . 5.3 dynamic I mp!!danca 21 Resonance . .12. ..._ .•.••. .. .7..B Complex Power 5 -27 5 . 5..1 Characterislics 5..5 Impedance S. 5.

..15 Two Wattmeter Method ----- " 6 .. and G.5 6-5 m m 6.B 6 -12 .5 Three Phase Supply Conrlections 6.. " " " " m 6 -4 6 -4 " ....1 Introduction 6.....6 Concept of Line Voltages and Line Currents 6.2'1 - 6 15 1 Proof of Tw Wattmeter r/..4 Important Definitions Related to Three Phase System 6.2 6.15 6-17 ..... 69 Relations for Delta Connected load 6....6" .T.60 5 ....14 Examples of Wattmeter Connections and Corresponding Readings 6.8 Relations for Star Connected load . "' 6 -1 " .52 _ 5 .....10 Power Triangle for Three Phase Load .5.4 Quality Factor of Parallel Circuil ...2 Advantages of Three Phase System "' .5.. . Examples with Solutions Examples from G... ... Papers Review Questions University Questions m ..12..... " ....... " u 6..11 Steps to Solve Problems on Three Phase Systems 6 12 Three Phase Power Measurement 6....19 6 ..U. 5 .... "...ethod for Stir Con nected load 6·21 Urhcberrec htl lch gcsc h utztes M ateri" .13 AboutWattmeter ......7 Concept of Phase Voltages and Phase Currents .....87 5 . 6.. -18 6 .1.U....3 Generation of Three Phase Voltage System ..90 m 6...14 6 . 6.1 Star ConneC~Qn 6 5 2 Della Conneclion " ......... . 6.13 Comparison of Resonant Circuits ...... " " " s· a .. . . 5·50 5..6 ..51 5.....6 ..' 6 -5 6" 6 6.1 Balancedo81l L 6.

~ 7.26 6 .......15. oj Cell .4. 7..•...T...... ..4.... oil . 7·5 7A 2 '2 featIJ.30 6 .+.U ....U. 7.......2 Mercury Cell . 7·6 _ 7· 7 7.19 Advantages ofTwo Wattmeter Melhod 6....20 Disadvantages of Two Wattmeter Method Examples with Solutions Examples from G.......... 6·23 6·24 6. 7... 7-3 _..4.1.....·~J'IfIt'4*'........29 6 ......29 6 .hg.... . 6 . ........6....39 6 .2 Feature... 7. Cell 7.4...{~Billteries ~nd'ci~t..27 Review Questions . .•.6.3 App~calian... Action in Lead Acid BaHeI)' .1 Dry Zinc-Cilrbon Cell .....6 Lead Acid 6allel)' _ _ 7-7 ..... 6 ..~....2 Proof of Two Wattmeter Method for Della Connected Load ....•..50 6.. 7·6 . 7.7·3 7·5 .....on Wattmeter Readings •.4.3 Effect of Leadine Power Factor 6..7 7.2:3 App~OB~on.and G....•.....1 FlJlIcljons of Separators 7.•....... Urheberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes M aleria .18 Reactive Volt-Amperes by Two Wattmeter Method 6.....47 :~ii' ...5 Secondary Cells _ _ .4 Primary Cells 7.4....•...17 Effect of P... 7·6 7.F..1.. ........•...1 Inlreductlon 7...3 Cell Tenmlnology mm University Questions !1!~Fji17Ptj:~)1 7•1 7-2 7-2 7.30 6 ....2 Types 01 Cells 7....1 Coil Reaction . Papers 6 ..I.....S...16 Power Factor Calculation by Two Wattmeter Method 6.15.1...2 Chemical.

3 FeabJres of Lead Acid Battery .....14..6 Disadvantages ••..14.......4 Effir:ienc¥ 7.._.1 LJ Rectifier Method m 7 ·18 7 ..6... 7 -11 .. 7 • 23 7 ..... • • . ...6. 7 • 15 7 -15 7............ .••...11 Charging Methods 7......... 7..•...•...... ..14 -...13 Alkaline Cells 7.•..•... ' ...•...1 Constant Current Method 7.... 7....25 7·25 _... 1-25 .........14.. ... .............••• .7....22 7... 7. 7·24 7 .2 Parallel Grouping 7.8..15 .. 7. .........6.1 Chemical Reaction.....2 Watt-h\l\lr Efficiency u m 7 ..21 ...•.. • .12 Grouping of Cells on 7 .•..1 Ampere-h our Efficiem.••.12...•. ....6 Testing Procedure for lead Acid Battery 7.y •.. 7.iency 7. 7 ..•.... 7.11.12.3 Capacity ... • . 7 -11 ..18 7 • 19 7 .7 Battery Capacity or Battery life 7.....14.14.•.5 Advantages 7...4 Conditions a Fully Charg~ of Batte!)' •...•...14 7 ..••..•.........9 Charge and Discharge Curves 7..2 Electrical Characteristics 7...•.......5 Maintenances and Precautions to be taken for lead Acid B atlar}' .....7 Applications ..•.•••••..7"25 Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia .23 Nickel- Iron CeIl ..3 Series-Parallel Grouping 7...10 Baltery Charging h 7 ~ 16 m 7 -17 7 -18 7. • .....•••...... 7-23 7... 7 -12 7 .....•..... 7.....12...21 .....20 7... ...112 Constanl Voltage Method l..6.14..0........13 7.. 7-12 .....8 Battery Effil.•....10.... 7 ·21 7 ......8..1 Indications of Ful~ Charged Batlery 7.......1Series Grouping.•..•...•...

5 Go. 7. 7.19' General Construction of a Cable 7.. .5. .... .40 Urheberrec htl ich gcsc hutztes Materia ..20.7-27 7.40 H7 ..18 Requirements of the Cables . 7 . 7 ·36 7.20 Types of Cables 7 ... " 7 .34 7·34 ..15. Super Tension (S..L Cabl"s 7.29 7· 30 7 .21..26 .. .) Cabies ..17 Comparison of Primary and Secondary Cells 7.4..2 Screened Type Cables .7.. 1 .2. . .7-27 ..1 Chemical Reaction 7..20.21 Insulating Materials for Cables 7.1 H·T)1l9 Cables .37 .36 7..3 .20.7-27 .28 7 ....21. 7-31 7. . 7.. .15. 7..2 Olsa""ontalles .T...3 Cross Llnked Polythelene .2Q.3 ApplicationL . 7..4 Oil Filled cables 7. ".15.2.4.31 . 7.7 Appications 7" 26 7.20.2 Features . " 7 ... 7. 7 .7..2.14..20.28 7 .20.16 Comparison of Various Batteries 7.20..21.. .7-39 Review Questions University Questions .1 Adv8l1toges 7.1 Paly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) .1.20..4 VUlconired India Rubber (VIR) ..2 S. ..7·36 .36 ..1 Ad'snlllgas . 7 ·32 7 ·33 .. ..2 Paper 7.1 Belled Cables •• ..7 -aa 7.. 7 -35 7..20.Cadmium Cell 7.15 Nickel. P ressure Cables .

4 J Advantages.2... a...R.5 Metal Sheathed Wiring a.2 Corulealed Conduil W1nn9 8_5.5. ..5 . _ . ..""" _.... 8-2 _ __ 8...2.1 V. .C...8...8 .5 Types of Wiring Systems 6. _.2 Types of Wires.. . 8. ....5...•. 8-2 8. . H..4..3 Surface Wi'. .... .. 8.5.8-6 a·a .5. a·7 8-7 8·7 8·] .8-9 8. 8 .. 8"4 8·4 .5.. 8... 8..5. . ..3. .. . ". 8· 9 8·9 e·9 __ .. 6..3_' standard Wire Gauge .8·10 .8 8_5._. .3 Specification of Wires 8. Wlm (Vulcanised India Rubber) 8..__ .....3 P. " .__ -'.4 Factors Affecting Wiring System 8. 8·6 .1.3 Indian StandardSpecificalion. 8·4 _ . ...8 . 8-3 .." ...Advantagos ........ 8-8 .. . ".2 Casing Capping. . 8. 8. .. . 1 MYant~es .... -' -'_... _. "'. 8-2 .. . .1 Cleat Wiring.._ __ . . .5.. 8·a 8-8 8._ ..3.2 Disaavamages . . . ".I. .1.. 8.5. . _"' •• ' . . 8..- ."'-..1 Introduction __ _ .4.. • _ 8. _•... .. .m . •••.2. ..2 Am erican Siandard Specification 8. .__ . 'Iflre ( Cab Tyre Sheathed).3. .2.' AdYanlag as. n9. 8. .. 6.V.1 8· .5.5. .4 Conduit Wiring . 8-10 Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia .._ . .._ . '.T.5.4FlexiblaWires. ..S.1 .4 Disadvantage. . . .2.2 C. .1 Adllaf1tage.5....1.. . Wire ( PolYVinyl Chloride) .

. . 8·29 ><....•. . .. . B....... .•. 8··16 6 .............5 GodOWll Wiring .. 8 ..... Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia .... 8-20 .... ...S.... .....B... 8...........R.6 Methods of Wiring n 8..•...8..C.10 .. 8.7....11 A Appli catlons . Ou~el .....•.......8-13 8·15 8... .. ..... 8-22 ...10 Industrial EIectrifi calion 8..B.... .. >< 8 -23 8....11.3 Lamp Holders 8... •• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• · •••• ..8-30 .....11... 8-22 8-22 ...7...7 Wiring Schemes . 10 8 ....9 Domestic Wiring installation..... ' •.. ...•...... ..2 Looping in System ..•.. 8 . 8-10 8 • 11 ...72 Two Way Control 01 Lamps or Staircase Wiring ..30 8... . .. ..•.......26 ...11 .. ...2 cartridge FU'e .•. 8.4 Three Way Control of Lamps .1 H...7... ..7... 6·18 ....••• '" .... 8..6.. S.....8...4 Ceiling Roses 8.6 Control of a Lamp and a Fan along with a Th ree Pin Swret 8. .1 Principia of Opamtion 8. • a .. 8. . ..17 8....•..........2.S..829 8... .18 .. FUJe .. .. 8. .. . ....2 Disadvantages..11 Megger ..B. .S.... ... .3 Conlrol of Two Lamps by Individual Switches 8.•.. 8 ~ 29 ..6 Lugs.•..........7.1 Control of One Lamp from One SlIilch 8.... ...2 Fuse .. ..23 8 . ..8.8.2 COnsliUc1lon ...8 Wiring Accessories 6.... 6... >< ....13 8-13 ...8..s· 21 .... . .. 8... 8.........1 Joint Box or Tea System 8. ......... . .. ..8.... 8 ..2..... ... 8....... . ...5 PluljS and Swrets .•.." a -23 .3 Working....1 Swilcl1as .

9-6 . ..9-3 . .3.. ...6.. ..8...Uon 9..9-6 9· 7 Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia . Sodium Vapour lamp 4 9..•..1 Ligh!..•.32 8 .6 Important Definitions Related to Illumination 9. 8 . 8..2 Insulation Test between Two ConductOIll 8...... 9.•..5 luminous Aux .1 WOiI(ing 9. .5 Polarity Test fur Single Pole SWttches Review Questions .3.....12.6.lnsula~on Test with Re...3 Advanlages ...4.. .9-6 .1 . .5 .3 Continuity Test..8-52 .9-6 9.4. .31 8-31 ...4. . .5 Mercury Vapour Lamp .8.1 Introduction 9..6... '" ..2 Working 9.32 Advantag as 9.4.... .. Fluorescent lamp or Tube light 3 9. . . . ...specllo Earth 8.12. " ..y . . 9..32 8. 9·3 _ ..9·4 9-4 9.. 9.32 :8 .12. .2 Types of Lamps 9..9 ··2 ..12..3 Plane Angle 9....2 Radiant Efficien<.4 Solid Angle . 9.4 Test fur earth Resistance 8.12 Testing of Wiring Installation a. ... '" 9. 9·4 9.....33 .12.1 9" 1 .. ...6.3 Disadvantages..1 Constru<. '" .. " " 9" 3 9·4 9-4 . 9. . .1. 9....4 Oisadvanlaqes 9.6.. .

5 Lamp Fittings.. . 9-8 9.... .. 9.•. ... .... .. . 9·13 .. ..9....9......•.. .. ........ 9. 9. . .13 Mean Half Spherical CandlB Power (M. ..8 Requirements of a Good lighting Scheme 9. . .. 9 ·13 9.. 9...... ...3 Depre<:latian Factor .9·9 9 -9 9.. 9...14 DifferentUnils . ..8.•. .9 .. . . B Lumin once or BrighlI1ess. ...... 9·12 .. .. . . .. .11 nverse Square Lawof Illumination 9.... 9· 15 9... 9-9 Spherical Candle Power (M. .7.. ..•. U!J1lzatinn FaCiO! . .6. .... ... . . ..8.. . . .2 Glare.•••••. . 9-8 9 -9 ...12 ....3 Cosine Cube Law .C.9-7 9 .. .7 Laws of Illumination . 9-14 9-14 9-14 9-15 9. . .... .9 Luminous Efficiency... . . .. .. .. . .•... ....1 Space to Heighl Ratlo .... .13 .. . . ....9-1 .IZMeon ..•..H. 9...••. 9. . . ..• .. . ...11 9 . 9 • 9 .. ... .S. ...9 Factors Affecting Design Procedure of Good Lighting Scheme 9.••.) 9.1 TIluminaffon Level 9.9. . . .. ....•..S.•.. .•.•. .3 Shadows • .P.6lumlnous 9.. .. •. 9-13 .. 15 ..•• .. . ...8. ..S.••••••.... . .6.•. ..6.. .e...• U4 Waste Ugh! Factor ... .. . .7 Reflection Factor Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia . " .. .. . 9 .9...5 Beam Faotor 9.. 9.6...MMaintanance . ... . ..•..SA Colcur Renderi ns ... 9. 9·13 9 . 9..2 Coefficient of Utili2atian I...... . .. ...6. 9 .... .6.. .7.. . .11 Purldng Effect ... .7 Illuminance Intensity orDluminalion. •. .... . .10 Glare .9 ·12 . .... . .9.. .. .6 Absorption Factor ..... ••••.. 9. ..C.•..II 9. 9.... ..• .2 Lambert's Cosine Law......•.) 9.9. .12 .6.6. . ..7.. .•.9....8...P.

21 9..4 Ang Ie Reftectors .17 . . ..9 . ..• 9... 9. 9.... .23 9 ... lar SlJ'eel Lighting..12..121 DiffusingFiltings ... .12. 2.10.12 Industrial Light Fittings . UghUn9 . 9·20 ..1 Diffusion Principle..14 Street Lighting 9.23 9.5 General UghUng . 9.....14.. 9.15 Design of Simple Indoor Lighting Scheme Examples with Solutions Review Q..2 ConcenlraUngRefteclors 9. . . . .. .4 Semi. 9.• P 9.6 ..1. 9 .persiveRefiec1ors . 9 ..213 9 .11 Factory Lighting 9. . .. . . . .3 General Require ment.... . .3Indirecl .. _ ..... .••••••••. .. . Lighting.10 Types of Lighting Schemes 9.9 • 22 9·22 .3 LocaUon and Mounllng 01 Projeclors •. _ " .2 Types or Projeclors 9. . 9.9 .2 Specular R. • .1 The Projeclor ..••..18 .21 .13 Flood lighting .13....15 ...32 Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia .. .. 9 .2 Semi·Direcl 9.. . .9-19 9.. U.. ..9·19 9 • 1..10.32 " 9 .. . ..17 9 -18 9 . 9 ·16 UgMng .3. .9-16 .3 DI. ..•••••••..H 9 .13..lndired 9..14 . ..9.•••. . t Direct Ljghtinq 9.13.. 9-1.eflection~nciple .1.•••.••••••.10.9-17 910. .uestions University Questions .4 Flood Lighting Ca Iculations 9. 9 -20 9" 2Q 9. 9 . .10.4. . .

.6 10 .• 10. .3 Useof Mul~meter for Moasurement of A..C.11. •••• 10..21 10 .u "..... . .•.•.•..1 AtlracIed Arma\ure Type Relay 10. .7.2Pipel:arthing.. 10..C. .•.2 10.....1CompoIison of a Fuse and MCB 10. ... ..4 10 .. 10 .32 Relay with Break Type Contact....• 10.. 10-22 .15 10·17 1010.10-19 _ 10 ..age 10 9 Earthing 10. _" 10 .12 10 . .7 Miniature Circuit Breaker (MGB) 10.....3... . .•.' . 10..10 -12 10 ... 10 124 Usaof Multimeter for Resislance Measuremenl ..8 . .. 10-23 10-23 U rheberrcc htl ich gesc hutztes M ateriB ..10 Necessity of Earthing " " .3 Tripping Sohemes : 10 .8 Earth leak.1 Uses 01 Earlhing 10.4..1 B~sic Trip CircuttOOefation. .6 ThemnaIRelays ..12. 3 10. 10 122.1 Use of Mummeter for D. Circuit Breaker (ELeB) . 10..2lnlroduction to Relay . . . Induction Type Relays 5 10. ....•.. 10 . .10-18 10.12 Mullimeter .9 10 ..6 10.1 Relayswith Malle T¥J>9Contact .. ........ ..2..6 10. ..2 Solenoid8lld PlungerType Relay m m. Voltage ... 10 . ..4.. .10 .22 ... .11....4 Electromagnetic Attraction Relays ... 10 . " 10.3 ...12.. .11 Melhods of Earthing _ ..Use of Multimeter as an Amme\eL ..18 .2:2AuxiliarySwitch.. 10..1 10 -1 10 -1 10 .. ... Voltage Measurement...14 10 .m m m 10 ..10.10 ..1 Introduction 10.. ..•. •••••.1Plate Earthing 10.

.14. '" " 10 .10.25 10 . 10 . ".27 10. '" 10.10 . .14 Electric Shock . .1 Elementary First Aid Against Shock.15 Safety Rules Review Questions Urheberrec htl ich gesc hutztes Materia .24 '" .24 10 .. .13 Safety Precautions 10. ..26 " " .

The proton is defined as positively charged while the electron is defined as nega tivel y charged. The different electrical parameters or elernenls are resistors. The terms dreuit and network are used synonymously in the electrical literature.. almost 1/1840th the mass of the neutron and proton. the proton Infac]. bu t are themsal ves made up of simpler mil ties. The mass 01 neutron and proton is same while the electron is very light. sources of energy. up to certain extent. 1. The combination of such elements elongwith various Sources of energy gives rise 10 complicated electrical circuits. neutral in nature possessing no charge. For instance. It matter. The following table gives information about these three particles. connected in different ways. Circuits 1.c.U matter plays an important Or gaseous. The d. are successful in breaking atoms and studying the resulting products. The chapter also includes the discussion of the characteristics of series-parallel circuits.C. This chapter includes various techniques of analysing d. and the electron.c. The chapter starts with explaining the fundamentals of electricity along with the detail discussion of the eHed of temperature on resistance.D. the electrical circuits may consist of one or more sources of energy' and number of electrical parameters. circuits. such particles are conditions. circuits consist of only resistances and d.2 The Structure In the understanding of Matter of fundamentals of electricity. fundamental particles" which arc invisible to bare eyes. such surfaces. according to the modem electron thenry. called particles are obtained by causing ultraviolet light to faU on cold metal particles are spontaneous! y ejected from the radioactive elements. of all el ec trons. We know this because we. (1 • 1) Urhcberrec htllch gcsc hutztes M ateri" .1\ substances are composed are not at . The molecules elemental. atom is composed of the three These are the neutron. And the circuit analysis means to find a current through or voltage across any branch of the circuit.c. liquid and atoms. capacitors and inductors. So these obtained from many different substances under such widely varying is believed that such paJ'ticl~ are ono of Ihc elemental ~nstituenb.e. The neutron is uncharged i.1 Introduction In practice. generally referred as networks. star-delta and delta-star transformations and Kirchhoffs laws and its applications. of which . the knowledge of the structure of role The matter which occupies the space may be soild.

Nucleus fashion.J.sessed o Proton Elei:tnm p+ t 6751< 10"" t675x10"'" 9_107x 10-" .lI11< /u.j. and so on. "j. Such free electrons are basically responsible for the flow 0 f electric current thro ugh metals. not revnl ve in a 5mgle orbit. In Ihe normal a 10m the number of protons equal to the number of electrons. Circuits 'kg.nd Slid.e.The electrons are ·a'ranged in different orb iIs. Structure of an Atom 1 All of the protons and neutrons arc bound together into" compact nucleus.tztes M il·~ri~ [ . or" also caned energy shells or quanta.Eleme nts of Electri cal Eng i11118. The electrons which are rev olving round the nucleus.n J.deu.2. The nucleus exerts a 10= 01 nttrection Oil the revel vlng electrons and hold them together.e.. the C.plion to this rule irrespecti ve of its n umber. All these different orbits are called shells and possess certain cncr-gy_ Hence the". d""ti/".""" slJ.>:c. Each orbit consists of fixed number of electrons./. In some atoms such valence electrons are so loosely bound 10 the nude us that 01 room temperature the additional energy imparted to the valence electrons cnuses them 10 escope from the shell and exis I as free electrons.- + Table 1.enciJ.I"O!. may be thought of as a central sun. while the orbit which is farthest from rhe nucleus is Kay pCoi)"i1 > 1111< ileclro". Such Ii :'hdl '~"$ t..re of harge Mass in O.1i o"'''~t... C.. mU. or. 2. II: pos. 8 electrons ocrupy maximum different atoms. about which electrons revolve in a particular This structure surrounding the n ucleus is referred as the electron do ud. In general.hly are . an orbit can contain " maximum of 2112 electrons where n is the number of orbit. So first orbit or shell can ocrupy maxirnnm of 2.ri ng Fundamental particles of mailer Symbol Natu.. is tho t the valence shell can of two 8 electrons Let us see the structure U rl eborrec h U lch Jes" 11. Ij".s reoolri""gl" fm&est :-orbi~~f".1 1. An a tom as a whole is electrica lly neu tral. "!"he orbit which is closest 10 the nucleus is always under the tremendous force 01 artraction under very weak force of attraction.. electrons while the second shell can occupy maximum of 2x 22 i. x 12 i.

This is the simplest atom. ".. These revolve around the nucleus in three orolts.rticl. orbit2 electrons) '''''.e. -: :-:-:-~~~. electrons from it As against this. The first orbit has maximum 2 electrons.~ 0:. P.~ "'- . the second has maximum 8 electrons and the third orbit has remaining 4 electrons. This is shown in the Fig. ._ "' rI (4 electrons] 0 b·t3 (a) Hydrogen The 4 electrons located atom Fig.2 U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes M ateri" . The following table shows the different particles and charge possessed by them.Elements of Electrical tnglneerlng 1-3 D. it excess electrons ale ad ded to the atom it becomes negatively charged.tive Table 1. 1. If by .3 Concept of Charge In all the atoms. the negative charge of that atom decreases while positively charged protons remain same. The dol represents an electron while nucleus is represented by a circle with the positive sign inside it..1 .1 (b). Now when such elecrrons are removed from an atom it becomes positively charged. 2) Silicon: This atom consists of 14 electrons. Neutron Prolon Electron Chug e possomred in Coulomb 0 t602~10-1' Natoru Neutral Positive t602 x 10<·'9 I Nega..le if by any means Ute electrons are added.sp"ce under the influence of specific forces.. Such electrons are free to wonder about... there exists number 01 electrons which are very loosely bound to its nucleus. Circuits 1) Hydrogan: This atom consists of one proton and one electron revolving around the nucleus. This is shown in the Fig. ..ny means some of the electrons are removed.. 1. through the .lhls is because of loosing negatively charged panicles i. C. 1.. OrM 1~ (2 electrons) . then the total negative charge increases than positive and such element is called negatively charged. 1. The resultant charge On the atom remains more positive in nature and such clement is called positively charged.1 (b) SIlicon atom shell are loosely in the farthest held by the nucleus ~nd generally available as free electrons..::~:~ I r I " C\ r . . Whi..1 (a). __ .." \':~:~~:::::~~~::~.

24xlO!8 number I then ilia t element 1 c""lomb '"' charge On 6. A cond uctor is one which has abundan t free alec trona The free electrons in such a conductor are always moving in random directions "S shown in the Fig.1I(l2><10-19) electrons charge is defined as the of i.3. Fi!l.st we' electric current. so one coulomb of (1/ 1.. From coulomb the above discussion On One electron by total number of the charge is Coulomb.ee electron the enlarged view of the inside of a piece of a cond uctor.ve 10 +ve) Fig.2 Inside the place of a conductor r-r- tnstce lhe conductor -. Let us see how it happens .' :.3 The flow 01 currant urncberrechthcn gesolrjjtzles Ma "'''' . The unit of the measurement The charge charge possessed electrons.. Circuits 1..®. 6. 24 x 10 1B number 1.2 that the charge possessed by the electron small hence it is not convenient to take it as the unit of charge.e. FtOiN of etecnons 1.1 Unit of Charge As seen from the Table 1.C. has a deficiency of 6. for the flow of fir. Thus. 1. 1:2. is very vel}' is 1.4 Concept of Electromotive earlier Force and Current thai the free electrons To It has been mentioned arc responsible this. Dire!)uan of co nventlonai amam (+ve lo-ve) ~.24 x 1O!S electrons I of one it is clear tha t if an element has a post live charge of electrons. 1. 602 x 10 -1~. understand win see F.Eluments of ElectrIcal Eng Ineen ng" 1-4 D.

drift Pji~ #lfWj}lU! in onqWlil'llloi" (iirecliQi!: ~jf. used to quantify an electric current. externally 1·5 applied to such conductor makes D. This direction depends on how the external electrical effort is applied 10 the conductor. ~t9. Such an electrical effort may be an electrical cell. when they loose or gain electrons. externally connected.E Ierne nts of EIectri calBn gi nee ri n!l The small electrical effort. of the battery through current throughout this book. ti vel y charge" •. ojiraolc!pti~·<CalltA. and Current. This process. This is called direction conventional current. A toms. gel a ttracted by post Hve of the cell connecred.JIiv. "'peals from atom to atom along the conductor.. Circuits all such free electrons to drift along the metal in a definite particular directiun. cell is of of The movement of electrons is ~1wa ys from negative to posi live w hilc movement current is always assumed as from positive to negative. 'The like charges repel while unlike charges attract each other. the free electrons as are neg. Thus curren t can be measured by measuring how many electrons are passing through material per second. Now when Jree electron gets dr. Such physical Key Point.. "Ibis can be expressed in terms of the charge carried by those electrons in the rna terial per second. . And thts is the reason why electrons get aligned in One P"' ti cular direction under the ln fluence of an electromotive force. become charged accordingly and are called ions. i. the external circuit.. connected across the two ends of a conductor. Urhcberrec htl ich ges c h lilltes M a erla .ed.Eleclrqr!.dlo"'ce (&1MIQ· 'The metal consists of particles which are charged. This movement of electrons through the conductor across which the is called an Electric Current. So there is now of electrons from nega live to posi live of the cell.5 Relation between Charge The current is now 01 electrons. We are going to follow direction of the conventional from positive to negative terminal. So the flow of charge per UJ\i t tim e I. Such positive ion drags a free electron from the next atom. phenomenon is rep resen ted in the Fi g 1.3. 1. But as external electric effort is applied.e.<til dcclii~L lijfQrl r<'q~i.gged towards positive from an atom it becomes positively charged ion. C.

they try to repel each other each other. Potentia I = Work done W Cha rg" .ofr/o. Circuits by Q coulombs while current is indicated by l. also exists in electric circuits.orr it in om!' second. ~ Flow of 6. fI ow of wa ter is always from higher level to lower level. pnrticlf" II' d~ fhe n""k is cilll~ 'its oI. positive charge of One coulomb from inflnity to Electrical .E le me n ts of EI ~ctri cal Eng i nee rl n9 Thecharge is indicated 1 _6 D. Mathematically at a poi nt due to a tho rge is one vo It if an" joule of wor k is charge as.zg a. heal and So on. Z4x 1018 electrons t Ampere current across" j" II" CO" duc!~r W/O"" flow means current taken any where per second in the circuit. Such a level difference which causes flow of water. . .e.. pute.rgrll. The unit for lhe we can current is Amperes which is nothing but coulombs/sec.n..i' a~i1il)J 9/ ~ c/r. Key' P~irit.ny giveu point . Hence mathematically write the rele lion between U charge (Q) and the electric curren t (I) as. is said te b. Definition of 1 Ampere: A currenl of 1 Amp.. flaw of heat is always from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature. section So 1 ampere flow ul 6.e 9 Aver" gc current Q flowing To ta I charge transferred Time required for transfer 01 charge . .. . Now 1 coulomb is 6. C. se:ond of electrons. is well known thn t.fial_ rli< uni! of deC/ric potelltiaf . This means.nlt. every charged particle has a Wlten two similarly charged while dtsstmllar charges attract 'lendency to do we r k.'1 vall.. a unit positive it is expressed i.6 Concept of Electric Potential and Potential Difference particles are brought near. flowing a du:rrgc of one coulomb is pllS'Si. Urroo uochtlich eschutat "~I~'ari" .. 24x 10 ts number pc. The e lcctri c poten tial done in bringing that point..24 x 108 electrons 1.'" Q ]t Let us define now the potential difference.

Circuits Consider two points having potential difference of V volts between them. This maintains the !low of current The chemical reaction converts chemical energy into electric energy which maintains flow of electrons..Elements of Electrical Enllineerinll 1 ·7 D.WfiJj~dl tlu.dWii. One may think that once the positive charge on terminal A gel" neutralised due to the electrons."urre"t 0111 flmv:[( zem. current.I. C. whim arc at dllferent potentials ore joined together with U1e help of wire. pas. If now a piece of conductor is connected between the terminals A and B lhen flow of electrons st . c. Th us. flow of v.4 difference between the two points. the electrons start flowing from lower potential 10 higher potential. 1.5 (b). The p oint A is nt higher po tential than B. Consider a simple cell shown in Fig. to main tain the flow 0 f electrons i.e. . as shown in th~ Fig. The electrons will flow from terminal B 10 A and hence direction of curren t is from A to B i..5 (a). Due to the chemical reaction in the solution the terminal 'A· has acquired positive charge while terminai 'B' has acquired nega live charge.Key Poj. tive to nega live as shown. Hence. flow 01 current in the given circuit.. the elec trtc CUrren I flows from hi sher potential to lower potential i. rts through H.4. This is shown in the Fig. there must ">d51 a potential tlu: pll"'lliar.nf~Jilo· . is . Bu t this does not happen practically.I.m. The e. Lei us understand its meanlng more clearly. 1. 1." some time. This is no thing but the flow a f curren t thro ugh the cond uctor. Fig.. This is beca usc chemical 'co cnon in the solution malntains terminal A posinvely charged and terminal B as negatively charged."nu.ltv" point. As per the definition of vel t. the V joules of work is to be performed to move unit charge from point B 10 point A. electric .m.C terrnlnals may get neutralised aile.1 Electromotive Force and Potential Difference Earlier we have seen the concept 01 e.e. 1. Both U. 1. lhen lIow of electrons will stop. is that force which causes the flow of electrons Le. when such two points.

And in such case electrical energy gets converted to other form 01 en orgy.~~~~~Q~--=-----~ Current Chcmcal so'lution. In the first tra nsforma ti on e let:tri coI energy i. The force involved in such transfo rmation is nothing but the potential difference or voltage. f. 1 -8 D."". L5 (b).m. The force involved in such transformation is electromotive force. This potential difference is called voltage denoted as V and measured in volts. due 10 which metal gets heated up t. electrical energy is getting converted to heat energy.d. or p. Circuits current rtowsand.1 dITI. due to existence 01 potential difference between two polnts. (a) Cell Fig. and potential difference arc in generally referred as voltage.m. Both e. The second is w hen current flows. current sels affected and Urheberrechilich gesolrutzles Ma "'''' . e!eclrk.f.a'i energy is "".e.c. In other words We can explain the difference between e.d. In the "oil two ""orgy transformations are taking place simultaneously. voltage is existing.5 (b) Current due to a cell Consider Iwo points P and Q a s shown in the Fig.m..f. ted fro mother form of energy. This means there exists a potential difference between the points P and Q. 1. 1.Elements of Electrical Engineering . The one is chemical energy because of solution in cell is getting converted 10 electrical energy which is basic cause for flow of electrons and hence current. For example circuit not only depends on c.3 gener.8 ResIstance The current in the electrical circuit parameter s. then the current is flowing from poinl P to paint Q. C. as below.e. lhe pie.:e 01 metal gets hen led up l. but also on the if lamp is connected in a circui]. due to flow of current.weMed to heal e_~ergy Due 10 polen.. When current flows. P~--~. and p .

generally non metals like glass. So there is collision between ions and free flowing electrons. The concept motion <it yDf ~".m. rubber. C.Elements of Electrical Eng Ineerlng D. Such elements examples are of Examples of good conductors are silver. ·n. paper etc.. While in some matertals the number of free electrons are very less and hence offering a large resis tance classified as the 'Insulators' of electricity. The opposition to the flow of current and conversion of electrical energy into heat energy CO.:!J1"ri.cr. We can define unit ohm as below. es of heal. Eil. the ions get formed which are charged particles as discussed earlier.le: pOS~5S: lal"gc n.1. II two lamps are connected one after the other. aut if ron rae t a t one end is loose.y.. ani! tf. I. C"UIICCn decreases but sparking occurs at loose contact making it hot.!<i!Qu.n be explained with the help of atomic structure as below. to the flow of current. copper. of resistance is analogous dicuJ7 ladling: IQ ~4 :Vuta:<i1-11t tlwgy ' to 'lie """wrtM ~ ~:.'!!!i'-.. flow of electrons depends On the circuit parameters and not only the e.ta~u. Circuits t lamp fi lamen t becomes hot rad i a ting Iight. is <-aJIM in the mechanical to !he friction involved Every meta] has a tendency to oppose the flow of current. is measured in ohm symbolically Now' hence Thus unit 1 ohm can be defined one ampere as that resistance flows through of the circuit if it develops 0_24 co lor. when current the circuit for One second.ctri".cJ'of free electrons and hence offer less opposition to the flow oj curren t_ Such clements are classified as the 'Cond ucrors' of electricity. So such ions always become obstruction for the flowing electrons. wood. Urhcberrec htl ich ges c h lilltes !vi a erla . The conductor due to the high number of free el ectrons offer less resistance to the lIow of current. aluminium while insulators a". :!\ey -PO I nt . The resis tance is dena ted by the symbol 'R' and represented as Q . When the flow of el"c!rOns is estsbl ished in the metal.'.it i1J I"at.. Let us see the factors affecting the resis lance.e. brightness obtained is less than that obtained by a single lamp.ng 11m".eltcfril:: fll. This not only red uces the' "peed of electrons but also prod aces the heat.u:mb. .. Now free electrons are moving in specific direction when connected to external source of e."ii. alone. These examples show thai current. Higher the availability of the fmc electrons. The effect of this is nothing but the reduction of flow of current.rlicr we ~ve seen tho t 5O:m~ ron tcn.Q.m.iB'ii. Thus the material opposes !he flow of current. lesser will be !he opposition to the lIow of current.

.rial mOw. More cross-sectional area allowed the passage of more number of free electrons.. The resistance of longer wire is more.ry high resistance. 2."il lenglh and unil Cl'1J5S-1. and The resisti vity or specific denoted by p(rho). Circuits 1..8." .1y or specific resistance of the material.1ue of the resistance. The crOSS sectional area is denoted by 'a'. 3. Length is denoted by 'J' . C. Length of the material: The resistance of a material..1 Factors Affecting the Resistance to the 1.. Temperature: Generally small. So finally.ng . 4.t of nature of material is considered through the constant of proportionalily denoted by p (rho) caned I'1!sisti. From the expression II is measured in n om.5 Defl. Generally is not consi dered as it is negligibly the resistance of the material as its temperature effect of small changes in tempera lure on the resistance and effe.. Urheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes M ateri" . The type and nature of the material: As discussed earlier whether it consists more number 01 frec electrons or not. The resistance of II """. So material which is conductor has less resistance while an insulator has "e.. era ss-secti onal a rea: The resistance of a material is inversely propprtional to the cross-sectional area of the material.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 -10 D. increases. material at a certain tempera lure we can write a mathematical The temperature of the material increases affects the value of the resistance. /wv. is directly proportional length.. R Where a Length in metres area in square metres Cross-sectional Resistivity Resistance P R 1_9 Resistivity in ohms-metres in ohms and Conductivity resistance of a material depends on nature of material of resistance it can be ""pressed as..slance Dr resistivity. offering less resistance. affects the v •. So for • certain expression as. its specific res .'iDnai area .lIt/on.

1 IlL Thus the conductivity Im+ Exam pie 1. C.6~.72c~10"a 2.1 . II is measured So 1. Cin:uits The Table 1. It is the indication of case with which current can flow through the material.. It is measured denoted as q (sigma). Iron· Wrought Carbon Gmphite GOld SiJvsr Annaa5ed Lead 3.. the raci pmcal (lip) is called conductivity.6xro.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 -11 D. Name of matarlal InternaUonal Standard Copper Alum. of resistivity.a 1.glculQle the resislimfy Solution: 25m."m. of copper wire 25 m oj copper.7xl0'"a 4.3 gives the value of resisti vity of few common materials.2 Conductivity The quantity i.nium Cast p In!l-m 1.1 Conductance (G) The conductance of any material is reciprocal of its resistance and is denoted as G. If iIs Urheberrec htllch gesc h(jutes Iv! ate.ler is lmm.6xl0·· 2.i" .3 1.a Bronze.lo-'! 10. /orrg is found to be 50 n. in siem"". 11U' resislmlct d.9. d~ 1 mm. .9.58xl0-" nxlo-'! Table 1.:J(ixlo.

2.le it5 >lew. C....7B53 Now T- Ra _ SOx 0 7lI53xl0-6 25 .Eloments of Electrical Engineering ~ (d'i ~ 1·12 D... ions i. Effect of Temperature on Resistance Let us sec The resistance of the rna terial increases as tempera lure of a metal increases." nr p(41l (i) .ul. " I'" 16 R = 32000 . Now = 40 Ilfl a in m ..em 2 and p in n . ax Volume a' I ..i..c.. the physical phenomenon involved in this process. n 1. IJl ~ 1. Ij the unre is drawn out 10four time its oTigi"allenglh" Ctl/.02 mnl and "apillg resistipity oj 40 j. Circuits mm2 i (12) . that under normal temperature when the metal is subjected to potential difference.:::. Oilcu/are tile resistance of Q 100 m lenglll of wire having II rmifonn CI"OSHeclional area oj 0.. rn 40x 10-6 x 10-2 x 100 = 2000 O. 1 mme 10 -3 m •m 1$7 x 10-6 1.. I" 100 m.tar. The electrons which arc moving randomly.l express Solution. Atomic structure theory say. unmovable charged particles gel formed inside the metal. a" X t R' new resistance .57 ~ Example 1.. = 16 (PI).10. of the wire must remain of length and area. " . a '" 0.!l) . gel aligned in a particular direction as shown in the Fig.02xlO-6 The wire is drawn But the volume wluch is the product out such that n r = 41 same before and after drawing the wire.em..0.. a ..Q2 mm2 and p R = p.. 1. e..6 Urheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes Iv! ateri a .

true for all materials.1 Effect of Temperature The < es istance of all the pure with temperature. 1.10. Circuits es. But temperature U. Such vibrating ions CauSC obstruction to the flowing electrons. 1. In some oro almost stationary. chances of collision of electrons are more. upto 100 "C. Resistance in 11 Fig. C. the range of on Metals metals like copper.6 Vibrating ions in a conductor of ions.5 "C it is almost zero. 1. the ions gain energy and start oscilla ling about their mean position. Higher the temperature. tUngsten etc increases linearly its resistance is 100 n at 0" then it increases linearily 234. the ion.perature increases. Similarly due 10 high amplitude of oscillating ions. the resistance of oscillations this is not increases. For a copper. resistance decreases as Let US "'-'I! the effcct of temperature on resistance of various category of materials. amplitude increases. But M t:cm. A I a tempera ture of all the pure metals in." C to 100 "C This is shown in the Fig.. Such variation is a pplicable 10 0.Eloments of Electrlca' Engineering 1-13 At low temperalur D. Due to collision and obstruction due to higher of material increases as I""'perature cases. grea ter is the amplitude. iron •. i ~ TFig.7.7 Effect of temperature on metals Urheberrcc htllch gesc h(jutes M aleri" . 1.

Circuits 1 . man... Resistance of carbon and insulators decreases as the temperature can be explained with the help 01 atomic theory as below..Eloments of Electrical Enginoering 1 ·14 D..~~- .LOO.rnpcrature increases but rate of increase is increases "at significant.. C. Due to this property alloys arc used !o manufacture the resistance boxes.. So as number 01 free electrons increase though vibrations of ions increases overall difficulty to the flow of electrons reduces. 01 free electrons and hence they are bad conductor of electricity.~~~~~~~~~~-l. 1.. Eureka (aUoy of copper and nickel) etc. Now what happens in conductor is due to increase in temperature vibrations of ions increase but it docs not increase number 0.10. show almost no change in resistance for considerable change in the temperature. This Insulators do not have enough numb".8 (a) Effect Dr temperature on resistance Urheberrcc htllch gcsc h(jutes M ateri" .1 free electrons.3 Effect of Temperature The resistance of alloys on Alloys as the u.. This causes decrease in resistance. Resisla.. no doubt vibrations of ions increases but due to high temperature few electrons from atoms gain extra energy and made available as free electrons. that of pUf" tncreases..~mpera!ur~ Fig.10. 1. _. While in carbon and insulators duc to increase in temperature..O."garun (alloy of copper.nca (It • Pure motals Carbon and fnsulatore.2 Effect of Temperature on Carbon and Insulators 10 The effect of temperature on carbon and insulators is exactly opposite metals. In fact the alloys like M.ganese and nickel].

The Fig. is very useful in finding out the temperature rise of cables.8(b) . resistance of semiconductors decreases as temperature tncreases. with !emperature of the material the consider a conductor. From the discussion "pHil now we can conclude to the initial resistance. whether it is a conductor.C.11 Resistance Temperature Coefficient (R. different windings in machines etc. U rheberrec htl lch gcsc h utztes M ate. resistance a I 0 "C 0 of which In.8 (a) shows the effect of temperature The study of this. Due to increased numbcr of free electrons.4 Effect of Temperature The materials semiconductors.) thai the change in resistance is.tial resistance Resistance Resistance at tl C Rz As shown at t2 "C in the fig. their But "S resistance in the r. increases alloy or insulator. 1. mere valence electrons acquire the energy and become free electrons.T. Fig. and insulators arc called conductivity arc silicon. to the change I) Directly proportional 2) Directly proportional 3) Depends Let us linearily Lei Rl on the nature in temperature. 1.8 (b) Effect of temperatLlre on somlconductors 1. 1. At" bsol IIte zero tempera ture. R:z > Rl > Rv. of semiconductors is temperature increases. insulating D. the semiconductors behave as perfect insulators.islar:u:e:decreases as temperature lnae:ases_ decreases wl th fast ra te as shown fig J. At higher temperature.i" . Res.Elements of Electrical Englneoring 1 -15 on metals. C. Circuits materials and alloys. Such study is possible by introducing the factor called resistance temperature coefficient of the material.10. having The' examples on Semiconductors between that of metals etc.9. gennanium R'esi5tance At normal temperature. 1. the resistance high.

C.RI '" 12 .. R. Ilo Can be written (R[ -Ro /11-0) Ro Bul R -R _:__l_____:_OO 1['" t slope of the graph 'C can be ""pressed as.9 Graph of resistance against temperature change in resistance The resistance tempera lure c>leffici ent per degr"" celci us to the resis tance at t <c. t .e._-------_.C at t) 'C a5.C. m resistance R2 . • C Resistance at t l ItoC as.R R2-R[ C" -.T.t] t. 1.C. !X 1 _ Change in res.T.. Circuits -_.s lance pe. we can wrile !Xl i. '" Slope of the gmph R.-- IIRpcr"C " "I From the Fig._----'----~ DOG Temperature OC Fig. I --R-. -RI /12 -II) Hj Similarly RT..Slance in 0 1 -16 D. Urheberrechilich gesolrutzles Ma "'''' .9. (R.Elements of Electrical Engineering Resi._---_. at 0 o C i.e. 1. . Hence RTC "I any temperature a.al Ie" " .C. R..u t2 -I[ Hence accwding to the dofinition of RT. change in resistance" change change in temperature per • .

the resistance at any t'C can be obtained.. Let . (1.tl)1 Cha.. -Rv R! Rv as.nge ln temperature as.. this result can be expressed Resistance Resistance Rl as below.=> /'C !l / ·C I Thus unit ofR:T."1) Thus resistance a. a" '"' Cbang~ in resistance per"C Resi'tance ..1 Unit of R...e. / "C I at t "C 1..".l (..t1) R..C.) (R.. Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ate...11.. We know.T..t any tem peratuIe can be expressed ~=R"(1 So knowing Alternatively Let.11 above result can be expressed R" . from dcfini tion R. we can write. '"' .2 Use of R.. -R] !I-I]) ..11) I So if initial temperature is I) and final is '2. in Calculating R.~.T.t I 0C => --0:-. I Rv and R] Ilo at 0 "c. t! Rv '"'Rv(1+1lo ... alii' C at tOe _.C.iru.C. at 0 "C Resistance Resistance "to at I] Resistance Rv R] Then 0 C C 0 . Rv'" .! II + (l. 1 '"' l\niot. R] (R1 -Ro 111 -0) _ R1-Ro Ro .-R"O tl) .. . OJ R) (t . is per degree <~I~ius ~. 1] -----r.T. Circuits 1. - R] .. Where In general R..Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 -17 D..i" . C. t -I] Rl [1 + "'I (t .11..

.T. ' (3) Dividing equation (2) by Rt• R2 'R t ... also changes with the temperature.j (t2 . (2) R1 '" Dividing equation (1) by R:z {I R:z. tempera ture t { C is known then a at Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ateri" ..2 we can write.-:-~. a. From the above discussion.-. Rj . it is dear that the value of R.1 +(1..Elements of Electrical Engingerlng 1 ·18 D. at Il "C then. and at are resistance and R. .ny metal Its value is maximum at 0 "C ' From the result of section 1. at tj "C and R:z is resistance at 12 C 0 If the same resistance is cooled from 12 10 11 "C and II ~ is R.t . Ct.3 Effect of Temperature on R. (1) where R. 1 + al <1:>-(1) (12 . R2 Rl [1 + ~ (t2 ..-. Circuits 1.----.C..11. -1 ~ '1-1-a2(11 -t2) 1 +a2 (11 -12) 1 + u2 (tl -t2) -1:12 (I. A< the temperature increases. For . -12) _ a1(12 -11) 1 +a2 (I t -12) ..tl) . C.tIl J R..C.. its value decreases.12) J .C.11..T. + ~ (11 .11) III or a2 Using any of the above expression if a at anyone any other temperature 12 can be obtained.:1 (tl-12) .C.T.T.. (4) Equating (3) and (4) we can write.

Similar temperature... C.. temperature So similar resistivity we can define as fractional change in resistivity per degree centigrade change in temperature from the given reference i. to the resistance.3. certain wind. If resisiance lemplmlture coefficient of Mf1P'" ".T. if P2 then temperature resistivity coefficient of resistivity at tl 'C can be defined as. ao = 0. Circuits is tl = 0 'C and U at t .e.6657 n '".11. I.C.003866 I at SO OC 109. to resistance the specific also is ~ function coefficient of of For pure metals it mcreases as temperature lemperature tempera lure.Elements of Electrical Engineering If starling temperature U 'f 1 -19 D. ""I (I:> - = 100 ll . C i. Assume room temperatllre as 25'C."g resistance .OM28 1 + O..25) Use R) 11 . w. Resistance Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a . at ""'Y' temperature on Resistivity resistance or resistivity I 'C from et".4 Effect of Temperature to obtain R. U o uD = 1+(10 t 1 +(10 (1-0) This is vcry useful expression 1. 0 "C is 000428/ "C. resistivity at II "C at ~ 'C coefficient increases.0Cl428x 25 = R003S66 tl)) rc (SO ."d.e. A. caleu/Me Ii".00428 I"C 1+""0 I "0 1+0: 0 _ II - O. _ - «t is required then We Can write..if temperatvre is jncreased to 50°C.1Ig mfJde lip Of Mf1P'" luis Q resi~tm'ce of 100 U at room temperature. an Similarly (P2 -p 1)j(t2 . 0.II) =:: ' PI- we can write the expression PI P 12 Po (1 +""0 I) lor resistivity at time t "C as" P till +'''"11 (12 -(1)1 I-+- Example 1. 0:0 Solution: Now = 50 "C.

C( I' i...t 20 'C Tt>pectivt'ly. P6() Po (J + C<oJ t) 1 294. 1 254. Rz ~ 50 fl.. Circuits I. I-~ o .1 + ttl (50) .e. Now.".. \:!-70"C Now.5 6{) .20 "C. a.. . C.ohm .5 I'C «0 1/234.25 5 x 1O-3/"C _a_o_ <. 50 al al i. i.. increases from 40 .... I. R2 50 11 .5: A sreo. at II a 20 "C U "t 5 X i..5 1 +0:'-0 x60 .5 1<·20 C<oJ (:I(.e...e. Temperatu re roefficient at 0 "C.5 yJ "n at 0 "C . •• . -em at 0 <Cand 1/254. 234. Filld both of Ih"". 1). 1-.. of copper Iws " resistivity (p) and n temperarur« coejfici.5 J"C . al 60 "C U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jules M ateri" ... ~ ."t al) "n 1+IlDx2(1 254.. Example 1.5 .0 . 10-> Ox20 1+ 20 a~ = 200a~ 180 au au .t 70 'C Find the temperature crrefficient of mist. RI [1 + al a II .e .. _..0 I 1). .1 60 'C. 0 'C Solution: RI ~ 40 n...ohm al 20 'C to 50 . «0 1+20an 254..s/a"ce of aw. Example 1."t af 1... 40 [1 + al (70 -20) 0.4 : The res..Elements of Electrical Engineering 1-20 D.l] - /«: at 20 'C Now I-l-I). p..5 Solution: !.6 x 10' oh"..

at 20 "C P. i) the resistivity of the mal.1 and ii) CI"'''''/ if will fake witen th.6: /I r.7 (13 .m/ute rises to 60 'C.: Temperature is 18 "C given 65 .66 ~{l.3/<C. .003 Fe.7: II coil h4S a resistance oj 18 o/.::!_ RZ ".. Solution: Now.)) 0.4 .II)] 18 11 + 0.: 47 ·C rise " Urheberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes Iv! ate.m at 20 'C and 22 ohm . V I '" 4 A. V.66 0 10.. [1+"'1 (t.00. Tho owm temperature is 18 'e. of 10 mlrs liIkt:. V '" 220. al t.55.'lIf '10' ".>< 10 6 .rn _.00740.1 50 <C.. ~ 20.000055 n-m = 55 110 . Example 1. 0.18 .ooo. a current of 4 II from Q 220.to".e..00740. istanc« . Circuits I. i) p.vi. = 60 <C. Solving. Assume "'20 '" 0..20.[l + "'I (12 -til] 0.1 '". I...(..0003 (60 .S crOSS 50c/iollill dreJ..) 0.)] rc: 24 Q and R3 = Rl [I + al (t3 .1/ Solution: and Now.10-(' fill.2 a I"'gtl. a '" 10...Elemonts of Electrical Englnoerlng 1 -21 D. .m 2o.220 ~ 39525 A 55_66' .ll ill Rl hi S5. Example R:! .. I ~ 10.55 n 55 _ Pl"l0 10><10-0 P. at 60 °C 1.20.i a .7 45 (t3 . 22 '" 18 [1 + "'I ($0-20. tl ~ 20 'C 220 . ..3333 t.. Find tht rise jn I'" t""'p"ratu. 24 ohm.e.66xlO-" x 10 '" 55. So room temperature ." when resistance beco"..007407 i.0$5 [1 + 0..0......JI 0. -I... m. R. C. temp..0. '" T . mm2 '" 10.. Find oul. .. V SlIfJPly at 'umbienl temperatllre of 20 .. Now 24 ~ R.i. o.

• Maleri<l12 t special requirements. 1.:!.T.ttl] ~ [1 + "-l. (7) at tl "C ~. Fig. att. 01 Composite conductor: Resistance The analysis includes the calculation of 1Xjl from Let R2 of material of material 1 at \'1 "C 2 at I) "C by composite conductor Resistance I.~ RI.11.11)] RT.. Rll material at t2 "C RI [1 + "'I (t2 .. RI21 Where uI:! RI2 [1 + uI2 (I:! ..10...10 Composite resistance R. but it composite "Onduelor has different than ur and Analysis "1 and "-l_. (t~ .tl)] . The combined RI + R2 while its RTC is neither al nor ul. C. 1Xj and its conductor i...... it is necessary using two to achieve In manufacture different types conductors of materials... (8) . (9) U rheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes M ateri a . Rll R2• Rl2 New temperature Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance attained of material 1 al 12"C of rna lerial 2 a I t2 "C of composite composite material at II "C R12. v conductors ) The material 1 has contribution in composite The material 2 has contribution R.C. (5) ..Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 ·22 D. of Composite MatElrial1 Conductor In many practical cases.T. Such a composite conductor is shown in the Fig. ani "C And .!"C .. . Circuits 1..5 Ull. of composite conductor . 1. (6) .C. It is known thai..C. .C. "-l_ and its in composite conductor is Il.5 R.T.

where 61 is tempera lure rise Prove th~t .till" = RI Rzl [I + a 12 (~ - t. RI (~ ..til from both sides. Calculate tire t. .12 +R1O:2 = .t any other temperalure can be obtained as."j"g above two .tl) + ~ + R2 (:112 (~ . R2+ and ~ a1 tl) (12 .1 of "~"'p<!Site ". C.12 Rz = 90 n.005) (60+90) Urheberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ateri" . u2 = 0. (11) RIO:"I +R2a2 R) +R.11) Cancelling Rj (:11 (~-Il) from both sides.2 (~- il) + ~ (i12 (t2 -II) Cancelling (12 . Divide the equa lion (11) by R l' I" . Solution: RI = 60 n. Circuits (7).in.".)] '4 (t2 RI tl) .sult derived. "C Once this is known.. obt.lure coeffici".. (1....0037 I"C. of composite conductor can be obtained a 11 a. Rial = +R2n2 R. of 0.l .00448 I·e Using the ". R.8: At a particular kmperature .0037)+(90xO...11) + R. Using equation Using equation (8) and equation (5) and equation [RII + R21J = [R! + Rzl [1 + RI [I + a I (12 :. Ria) (1.duclor a/1m same lemperalure.. (:112 (~ ."12(RI +R1) .005 f'C 'lSpedivdy. Proved Example 1...0037 fC alld 0.tl) . .Elements of Electrical Engineering 1-23 (9) in equation al2 O.d by CIlmb.. (II = 0.I+R2·=· (60)<O.(10) (6) in equation (10).per.005 I"C = 0.C. [RI + till + Rz [1 R2 + 0:2 (t2 . Thus all which is RT. (11- + R2 ~ = RI a 1.he Iw<> rcsi</QnCl's Q't 60 nand 90 n IIJIving temperature coefficient..resisIQna$ in uries. (12) at I.

. Now' 20 0(" 20°C.." [1 .0038 fC while o 'C.Elements of Electric~1 Engineering I._aAO (RB}O [1 + ~.t1)] And 30 [1 + 0004 x (50 . (J + U.9: Two coils A and B /1IIl!e resistanus 60 Q and 30 il "."d Solution: For coil A.t of the series cOnJbil1l1tio" at At 0 'C.27t 250+ 250 0A 80 I Urheberrec htl lch h(jutes M ateri" Qe5C .004 / C.nd 150 Q respectively at O"C are connected in series. (R"l.001 0._ 0. RA1 11" t1" fC .. 60 Q. ° 00 " 0.38t + 150 . 1 ·24 D. RBI [1+ UBI (I. II o".0018 fRAB)~ 250 n ..0038 150 (I. Solution: Now 8~ 0. U"1 UBI" .'] (12 - tlll Q 60 [1 + 0._{too t] II + {tAO I] + (RB}G [1 + ~ (R".0018 fC· Find the resislallCf temperature cotfficil!l.0038 tJ+ 150 I.. OM I] and (RA). Coil A has resistance temperature coeffidmt of 0.a is resistance Now temperature (RA).10: Two coils A and 8 Iuruc resistances 100 n .' of their series combination " ""'" at 50 "C " Ri\2 + RB2 .8 .0. C.bination at so • C The given values are. the series combination is " RA + Ra .)o (RAil}.)o (Rilla tl = (RA~O [1 + 0ABO II 100 11.. + (R"l.. 100 [I ... coefficient ofseries combination. (RAm tl + (RB)o [1 .20)] " 33.1 20 'C..0018 II 100 + O.100.4 n Example 1. OM ~ 0.001 (SO . Find the rc.8 This is resistance of coil A alSO • C . Example 0 1._O._33. 61.r Ihe two coils al 20°C arc 0. Substi tu ting in above.004 rc r c.20)] " 61. Circuits .'."""Iively Th.. 1 + 0.6 95. 30 Q._ 150 " 250 n where RAB is III resistance of series combination. For coil S.001 0.6 (I This is resistance Resistance of coil B at 50 "C. resistance t""'pemlure corfficients fo.. .. (R".}o 11 .listnnce of IMiT 6"'es co. "(R".

. Circuits This is the resistance tempera ture coefficien t 0/ the series comblna tion at o 'C.10 g ." is value of RA due to change RU' where in temperature. (O~) (I) '" xR (O_OOM) (I) R (O. in temperature (RAB) (uAS) (t) '" (1 + x] R (0. /11 wi". '" R I (0. 6 x 10. RAB RAB RA .OOQ4X) x ~ O_OM .OM .004 .. R I (1 + x) (0.004 and 0_0004 respectively. 1.$olution: Let R be resistance of materia] A then (x R) be resistance of material B. (2) R !(o.001 per 'C ? Example . The resistance .~ x '" 0..001 + 0. O. C. R's is value of RB due to chang!' in temperature.erios ./ of 0..003 Urhcberrec lithe h ges c h lilltes !vi a erla ..OM) (t) of.001) 0.. . 0.001) (I) R5 . t"'o material A and B IUl~' r<sis/a)".11: AI a"y give" temperan .~.... Q r:ombinaliuI! havi'lg resistance kmpera lure coeffici..001 I and equa lion 2. o..OO261'C..Elements of Electrical Engineering 065 t 1 ·25 250 O:AIlO t O.OOM x) Eq uating equation :.(0.001) (t) . I.0004 x i. RB R + xR '" (1 + x) R resistance n of the series combina lion.". I proportion resistallces made up of A • nd B jo.e.of the series comb ina linn is. O.) (I) '" R . (1) The resistance -R~EJ is also R~ + R.d in . RA 1U\d RAB RA ' (U. x R (0_0004) (I) ." temperolu'e coefficimls of 0. Let Let there be t 'C change RAB '" lempera ture coefficient so..

O'. Roo = Resistance of B at O'C CIAO = R.. of series combination at 0 "C = 0. RAOO RDO = 80 n Roo (1 . of A at 0 "C = 0_003 RAllO C'tAE. C.. RABO (1 . 0.ABU t) = RAO (1 + :./ area ar" available.m MI for 32 A resistance =40m n the length required is.e having • tempenuure r:otfficie.ce of series combination R_T_e.alorinl.168 t 80 + 0. Solution: RAO ~ Resistance of A at 0 'C.= Roo (1 + ClUO I) and RA.003 3Hl R AO . For material A I"" resistance is 80 n per 100 III . "eo = R.. R..0015 RBO t 80 RI\O + Roo ond 80 + 0.. amnecied ill .003 RAO 1 + 0.erlf$ 10 get req"irM r(S'iSIQr.0015 RAO + 0. Circuits R A and RB must be joined in the proportion 1 : 5.003 R.480 is 80 11 pcr 100 .e. (1 + 0.0015 RHO t 80 + 0.12: A resistor of 80 n r~taH.o t + 0. resistance 1 -26 D. "aO t) t) scrlee combine tion 0 "C . II.0 t) i.t 0 'c.0021 I"C RAO(1 + CIAO t) = RAOO (1 + "Aun I) .. RAHI But Similarly RAH.. of B at 0 -'C = 0.168 Now t (RI\O + R8O)+ 0.168 t 0.RAO)] t 0_168 RAO RIlO Now material 32 8OxI00 0_003 RAO + 0.003 K al 0 cc.m so for 48 n the length required is . ReI R.> t !0.a/s of sUilable cross·sealio"...0021 t) 80 + 0. For materie! B the corrl5)JO"dillg figures are 60 !l per lOG nI and 00015 fC .0015 RAO 80-32.0015 (80 .C. Cn/cul...material B has resistance ~xl00 60 " 80m of 60 n pcr 100 . Example 1."d temperature coifficimt is 0. Urhcberrec htllch gcsc hutztes M ateri" . A and B to 0.t 0 "C is 10 be cm~<frllc/ed_ W.T.003 I) + Roo (1 + 0..168 t 0'.!l of 0_ 0021 Fe ...1< ~"i"'ble lenglllS of 110 wires of ". RAO ." 0 t)+ t RAO (1 + 0.:res of two mart'r..0015 /"C of A and B at 0 'C = 80!l Resistan.TC.RA.0. The .0015 (80 .Elements 01 Electrical Engineering x=5 i.m rc . RA .. + RB. 80 (I + 0.e.003 R"o + Roo + 0.. series combination at I 'C oR t We know.12 .

inductor and capacitor are the Ihree bask passive elements. AB. without Ira velling Ihrough any FIg. terminating at the same node. point. 1. C.12. Circuits 1. CD. 1.11.2 Network Element Any Indi vid ual circuit element with two terminals circuit element. D.12 Network Terminology In this section.1 Network Any arrangement of the various electrical energy sources along with the dilferent circuit clements is called an electrical network. travelling through various other nodes. Active to other elements or passive power or energy 10 the network.11 An electrical network Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes IvI ateri" .Elements of Electrical Engineering 1·27 D.6 Mesh (or Loop) Mesh (or Loop) is a set of branches forming a dosed path in a network in such • WI> Y tho I if one branch is removed then remaining branches do not fonn a dosed path. DA. Inductors and capacitors can sto re en~gy and resistors dissipate energy in the form 01 heat. 1. A branch may consist more than one clement.12. is called a network element.12. Voltage Source and of active elements. CF and EF are the various branches.12. In the network shown in the Pig.3 Branch A part of the network which connects the various points of the network with. A.4 Junction Point meet IS called a junction shown in the Fig.rgy or dissipate energy in the form of heat. 1. One another is caned a branch. C.11. we shall define some of the basic terms which are commonly with a network. 1. 1. The jW"lction points arc also the nodes of !he network.5 Node A point at which two or more elements are joined together is called node.11. associated 1.12. In the Fig. 1. Resistor. E and F arc the nodes of the network 1. DE. B. 1. Network clements can be either active elements are the elements which supply current source a re the examples which can be connected clements. BC.11.12. A loop also can be defined as a closed path which originates from a particular node. Such a network is shown in the Fig. Point D and C A point where three Or more branches a re the junction points in the network 1. Passive elements are !he elements which either store ene.

In the Fig. sources 1.e. Circuits node twice. Circuit allows flow of current only 'in one direction is good example of A circuit which contains at least one source source. A-6-C-F-E-D-A.e resistors and d. network.5 a circuit consisting of a diode where the voltage applied to it. circuits consisting of pu. Based on such characteristics i) linear Network. A-B-C-D-A.c. respect to their cxcil~tion. is known as linea. behaviour is same irrespective of the direction of current through various elements of it. Tht: basi diode current doe" not vary linearly with time. Such network does response of the various elements is 'not linear example i. the analyse. il) Non linear Network: A circuit whose of the various network clements is linear with parameters change their values with change in linear network. voltage etc. are the loops of d. is known as non be applied to such network.c. The response respect to the excitation applied to them.Elements of Electrical EngIneering 1-28 D. The mathematical equations of such network can be obtained by using the law of superposition. C. is included. behaviour ls dependent on the direction of the current consisting diodes. An energy Source m. 1. The Ohm's law may not not follow the law of superposition.11 paths of the network. v) Active Network: through various clements is called unilateral network. temperature etc. The with.13 Classification of Electrical Networks depends electrical on the behaviour and characteristics of network can be dassified as below : The behaviour of the C!Otire network its element •. which unil a teral circu it. Iv) Unilateral Network' A circuit whose operation.l' be a voltage or current Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M a\e<i" . dements like resistances. Network conslsting only resistances is good example of bilateral network. The Ohm's Jaw can be applied to such network. A circuit Or network whose parameters i. O-C-F-E-O etc. of energy is called active. In this chapter. voltage. is called bilateral network. tempera lure. inductances and capacitances are always constant irrespective of the change in time. iii) Bilateral Network: A circuit whose characteristics.

This is indicated by V-I cha_n'lcteristics shown in. inductance and capacitance of a transmission line are distributed all along its length and cannot be shown as a separate clements. 1. At any time the value of voltage al load terminals remains same. 1. raj Active na!work [bl Passive nelwon. vol tage source arc c!assiftcd !) Ideal so= and ti) Practical source. The symbol for ideal voltage source is shown in the Fig. is called network.11. 1. as the energy source which gives constant voltage across its tenninaIs irrespective of the current drawn through its terminals. '!he classification of networks can be shown as. The best example of such a network is a transmission line where resistance. viii) Distributed inductance Network: A network in which the circuit arc physically arc Iumped in like elements reaistancc. 1. 1. C. L. as Let US ser the difference between ideal and practical sources. Most of the electric networks nature.1 Voltage Source Ideal voltage Source is defined. voltage SOUKe etc.14 Energy Sources These There are basically two types a f energy sources .14.14 [a). 1. cannot be physically separable for analysis purposes. the Fig. distributed etc.12 vii) Lumped Network: A network in which all the network dements separable is known as lumped network. This is connected to the load as shown in Fig. which consists clements like R.13 Classification of networks and current source. Fig.Elements vi) Passive of Electrical Network: Engineering A circuit which 1-29 contains no energy SOurce D.14 (oj. 1. Active Passive Linear Nonli near Ullila1eral Bilaleral lumped Dlstnbured Fig. any where in the circuit. This is shown in the Fig.Clrcuits is called passive circuit. C. U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri" .14 (b). 1. Eleclrical drcuits I or networks.

Circu its (al Symbol Ib)Cirouit Fig.16 (a). ~~~~~~~~~~ Voltage sources are further classified as follows.C. sou rce sll gh UY with -.. 1.) IL + \~<.-cuit Fl g. c. source U rheberrec hi) lch ge5c h "Illes M aleri" . Internal resistance source resistance shown in series with SOurce has small internal voltage source and is represented by R". I VL '" - (R". Roe v (Q)Ci. time invariant voltage sources or D. Such a source is represented in the Fig. These are denoted by cap ital letters.30 D. ge is no t varying with time me known a. 1.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 .ri a nl Sou rces : :£ v=- -1'-----0 The SOUI'Cl$ in w hid! volt. = Vs -IL R. 1.. increase in ell rren t terrnina Is decreases . sources.16 (a) D.14 Ideal voltage Practical voltage source c-vcry voltage But practicnliy. i) TI m e Inva.. Fig.C.15. OS shown in the Fig.15 Practl cal voltage Beca usc 0 f the R:ie' vel til gc across MId it is given by rcx_:p:_r_cs_si_on_. 1. 1.

C.~c Fig..----(a)CtrCUlt . is shown in the Fig. L V Ib) C~aracterl. sources. Thts 1..b. the value of the current flowing through irrespective of voltage appearing across its terminals... current through its terminals dec"eases slightly with increase in . 1. 1. is is explained by V-I Fig. This is connected The symbol for j deal current to the road as shown in the load I L is same l. US..ry curren t SOIlfCC has high internal resistance.17 (e).'Elemenb of Electrical II) Time Variant Engineering : 1 . inremat resistance Load Oc. Fig. 1. voltage at its terminals.. sourea These are denoted by small letters.17 (b).2 Current Source Ideal current source is the source whJch gives constant current at its terminals irrcspccn ve of the voltage appearing across its terminals..tOriitic3 Fig. 1. (0) Symbol (b) Circuit (c:) Charac...16 (b). Circuits Soureos The sources in which voltage is varying with time OI<! known as lime variant voltage sources or A.C.14. At lII\ Y time.3f D.e. 1... This characteristics shown in the Fig. 1..17' (a).. source is shown in the Fig. eve.C.10Practical current aource Because 01 R.17 Idea I current so uree Bu t prac ticall y. shown in parallel with current source and it is represented by R~" This is shown in the Fig. 1.16 (b) A.

ified as..2(1(d). It is shown in the Fig. 1. current i) Time Inyariant Sources: 1 ·32 sources are classified as follows .C.C.Fig. Th is is called CDCS.20 ('-1.20 and further cl. sources. Thls is ca!Jed VDV5.3 Dependent Sources a circle with a polarity of voltage current indicated inside.19 (b) A.14.20 (e) (d) Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ateri" . !I is shown. source 1. is represented in the The sources in which CU.20 (c).TTen! is varying with time are known sources or A. Such a Source is represented in the Fig. or direction of Depend ent sources arc those whose value of source depends on voltage or current in the circuit. 1.. This is called CDV5. s I) Voltage Dependent Voltage Source :11 produces a volt'age as a function of voltages elsewhere in the given circuit. VO~v'L IOK"e YOK['L 'OKy'e (a) (bl Fig. These are represented by Fig. 1. Iv) Volta. in the .Elements of Electri e al Enginaering Similar to voltage sources. Such SOUKCS are indicated by diamond as shown in the Fig.19 (a) D. It is shown in the Fig. C. This is called VDCS. 1. These are denoted by capital letters. 1.. 1..20 (b I. Circuits The sources in which current is not varying with time arc known as lime invarient current sources or D. II) Current Dependant Current Source: elsewhere It produces a current as a function of currents in the given circui t. source ii) Time Variant Sources: Such a current Fig.which are discussed above are independent Sources because these Sources does not depend on other voltages or currents in the network for their value. II is shown. 1.19 (aj.These are denoted by small letters. 1. elsewhere 111)Current Dapendant Voltaga Source: 'It produces a voltage as a function of current in the given circuit. D. as time variant current The sources .19 (b).ge Dopondent Current Source: It produces a current as a function of voltage elsewhere in the given circuit.Co sourees. 1. 1.C. source Fig. in the Fig.

voltage and current sources 1.:nd imJerstly propllrtio""/ to Ihe re.lstance of tire circuil.21 Ohm's applied 7 taw L. It is shown in the Fig 1. the V Is the voltage resistance of the conductor. provided Jke temperature remains CM<I. Ohm is Law :The Cilrre/i t flrH4ing lh roug" the eleciric CiTCU it is dir""lIy proportiona! 10 111& pO'Cllli"i diff.20 (d)._j Where 1 is the current flowing in amperes."I. .rem:c ~cro.'s law. the current (I) and the resistance (R) of a d. K . lt slates. law is. a shown in the Fig." 1/. Circuits a current as a function of voltage IV) Voltage Depondent Current Source: elsewhere in the given circuit.e. present elsewhere in the given circuit. Ohm in 1827 discovered a law called Oh". Mathem. ore analysed.~ R ::!!!!_I v Fig. 1. This is called VDCS..15 Ohm's Law this law gives relationship be tween the po tential difference (V). C. 1. Of.Elements 01 Electrical Engineering 1·33 It produces D. circuits consisting of independent d. d. The dependent SOurces arc also known as controlled sources." circuit .:. provided thai the temperature 01 the conductor' remains cons tan t.5 constant and VI and II are the voltage and current respectively.c.!.21.ti<:allY.. and R is the Now The I" i urn I 0 f potential difference is defined in such a way tha I th.econstanl of proportionali Ohm's ty is urn ty. In this chapter. circuit. volts V T The Ohm's law can be defined R ohms The ratio of potential difference (V) between any two points of a conductor to the current (1) flowing between them is constant.c. V v 11: lR constant" as.

Fig. the chain of small lights. shown in The resistance RI• Rl and R3 are said to be in series. I v . Circuits 1. V2 and V3 be the voltages respecti vel y Then.1 Limitations The limitations of Ohm's Law law are . VI =IR2. carbide.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1-34 0. There is only one po th for the flow 01 current.Applying Ohm's law to overall circuit.ge distribution. mare constants. Consider theresislan<:es the Fig.. 1. V V1+V2+V3 lR1.. R2 and . used for the decoration purposes is good example of series combination.22.16 Series Circuit A series circui I is one in which several resistances are connected one after the other.e. Equivalent 1 resistance of the circuit. The combination is connected across a SOUICe01 voltage V vol IS.'I where R ec ". 1. V3=1 R3 all (If them is same i.22 A series cIrcuit Now lei us stody the vol . Na lura Uy the current flowing through all of them is same indica led as I amperes.g. C. zener diodes. R"'l = Rl+R2+R3 i. 1. voltage The law 10 of the Ohm's 1) It is not applicable regulators etc.. By comparison of two equations. of the series circuit is arithmetic sum 01 the Urheberrec htllch gesc h(jutes Iv! ateri" . Now according Current through to Ohm's law.e. the nonlinear 2) It does not hold good lor non-metallic lor such conductors is given by.15. Such connection is also called end to end connection or cascade connection. e. total or equivalent resistance resistances connected in series. V = k I'" conductors such as silicon where k.~ lei V1. V '" I R.• devices such as diodes. across the terminals of resistances R1..

Elements of Electrical Engineering 1·35 D... v lJR. I" =r' l I +1. V V V [i1+i.. 1. I ' as' shown. In the parallel connection shown. 'IR" V..] .12 and J)" While the voltage across the two ends of each resistances R I .. sum of the individual voltage drops across the v 3) The equivalent = VI +V2 +. +Rl.R2 and R 3 is the same and equals the supply voltage V. 1..There are 3 paths lor this current.+[3 = R+r+R I . resistance 4) The cqui valent resistance i. Circuits 1. Consider shown in the Fig. C.n.17 Parallel Circuit The pa rail el circul! is one in which several resistances are connected across one ana ther in such 11 way that one terminal of each is connected 10 form a junction 10 R. point while the remaining ends arc also joined a parallel circuit form another junction point. + \If' is equal 10 the sum of the individual is the larges I of all the individual resistances.e resis lances. Depe. one through v Fig. the each resistance. .. V~I. (1) Urheberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes Iv! ateri a . 1.16.R2 and R) the appropriate fraction of total current passes through them.R" V Apply Ohm's Vm V [J=r :l \I 3 law to each resistance.second through R2 and third through R). It)· . Let total current drawn is say .1 Characteristics J) The same current 2) The supply resistances" voltage of Series Circuil:$ flows through V it. In parallel circuit current passing through each resistance is different. currents arc shown as I) . Now let us study current distribution.23 A parallel circuit R i.nding upon the values of RI . the three resistances & 1 '&2 and R3 arc connected in parallel and combination is connected across a source of voltage 'V'.. These individual.

. Urheberrec htlich ge5c hutztes M ateri" . For parallel circuit Impo rtant resu It : Now if n .. of the equivalent 4) The equivalcnr resistance is the smallest of all the resistances. Circuit!! law L~applied. 1.....+····+~ that 1 R . 2) The total current gels divided into the number of paths equal to the number of resistances in parallel. :. . 1 ~+~+~'I 1 Ro~ where R is the equivalent In general Rl R2 R) of the parane] combination..2•. for two resistances in parallel. 1 R Conductance It is known (G) : 1 1 1 1 R7+Rc +R... The total current is al way" Sum of all the individual currents.Elements of Electrical Engineering For. C.. +1" 3) The reciprocal resistance of a parallel circuit is equal to the sum."'1 Total or equivalent resistance of the circuit . . 'I +12 +lJ+ ._ IR"'I V R.1 Characteristics 1) The same potential of Parallel Circuits difference gels across all the resistances in para llel.. (2) the two equations. This formula is directly used hereafter. .. overall circuit if Ohm's 1·36 D. resistance if 'n' resistances are connected In parallel...17. v and where Comparing 1 _. of the reciprocal of the individual resistances. G (condu(taru:ej hence. two resistances are in parallel then.

5.•-. resistance is The a.rrrent througn eacn re. ] 11:]1 . V• Vt + V2 + V3 + .... + R:> +_ . = R... I 1 1 1 The equivalent resistanco is the largest than each of the res[ltances... _.siance.. resistance..' R." The equivalent resisLance Is the :smaller than the .siSl.i. The equivalent Req 5.111-----' V - The same vo~. i!la'CIS!. Series Circuit Parallel Circuit R. all 1M 4_ The sum . In The equivalent resistance Is. Roq > R1.. The ecnneecuen J3 u shown.) L_----~+:II~_------~ V The same turreflt flaws Ihroug'h each ..re.tam'"s In parallel.es and Parallel Circuits Sr.._ The eoenecncn :is as shown. ac:ro9s a~ lhe . C..ge exists actO ••• 11the resistances in parallel.go "..."+ .mallast 01 all tho resl. The vonage across each different.. Req > R2 -_ . (VOII... = R. . in sene!!.lances is lIle suPply vollage.ough '. No. The surn 01 the currents through resi. . + 1\.. + Vn resistance Is. Circuits 5) The equivalent conductances.$isLam:ei!li djfferent.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1-37 D. 3.+R.". 12 + ...ct' the voltage..1 I' " V .'isla"c..8Comparison of Serl.-l-R.s is the :supply current. conductance is the arithmetic addition of the individual 1.. Req > An Urheberrcc htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri" .1nc:es) (Cu rrenl rem~in$ sarre th....main .. 1!II11.1.

15 llx7 Il + 7 = 18 • the circuit as shown in the Fig.24. 1.c~n'" <=N" Urheberrcc htl lch gcsc hutztes M aicrla .2 = 3. The resistances So equrvalent 5 Q and 6 Q are in series." "qui""/t1I! .rry same current.2 -' 277" = -s • " n and Now again 1. 3 Q . and 4 Q are in parallel.24 the figure as shown resistance 77 (b) in the Fig. 124 (aJ. While the resistances but current divides. Equi valent resistance is. R R III A (a) Replacing 11 these combinations redraw Fig. 1U A 7U B FIg. eqwv ent resistance combinations redraw n while f ) R] R2 U-· smg rormu a R1 + R2 Replacing' the respective . Now 3. is 2 + 1.277 = l.1 Q to ca. al .i~lanct between II.. 4 Q.277 arc in parallel. L24 (b).. two points A and B s!J""". C.24 Solution: Identify combinations of series and parallel resistances. 1.277 32+4. in 3(1 the Fig.2 Q and 2 Q are in series so equivalent 7 n are in parallel.2 and 4.. ... 1. Circuits ]m+ EJrample 1. 1 as voltage across them same . as going resistance is 5 + 6 = 1. R op Ia _ =s th em b y 3_2x4.13: Find t/.Elemonts of Eillctrical Englnollring 1·38 D.

.horl lAB" 0V <V!. having voltage 300SS the two. V AU " '. points then the two points are said to be open circuited. 1. which is short circuited is shown in the Fig.--.OQ. .! r' rNt:l~o~ ( .' '..{j. The resistance of conductingwire I B~--------~--".26 VAS '" VI\U Roo.' <iu rren! flo 1. Fig. Circuits 1. The resistance of the branch A B is Ro< "' .. _ B!?'_--------.26. Fig.. the p oin ts AB called open circuit voltage.1 Engi'neering 1·39 0.25 Ohm's law. x Jiln '" 0 x '!.Electriea.-- to each other with a thick circuited. 'Kay Pol iIt: Thus. 1.Elements ol. There exists a vo ItaS" across law. VAS . '" ° According A to Ohm's . R:. _~ The curent lAB is flowing the short circuited pa th. vo{tag..0 ! The part of the network.. 1..id to be open circuited. II . -- I. TIm p Dints A and B are short the branch cirrui ted. AD is The resistance of R. eirel! it 15'i. The points A and Bare sa.25.---i. ."·shprt an:1Illed p" lit. V An but Roc ~ ."mi... tilro"gh tl.2 Open Circuil Wh<>n there ls no connection be tween the two points 01 a network. through According \0 R.19.. simplification.1 Short Circuit When any two points in a network are joined directly met.. IA:::a-'_---i: ~ ... The part of the network which is open circui ted is shown in the' Fig.1]jc conducting wir~. the reslstance of Ih. op en circui I i. the two points are said to be short such short circuit is zero.J. short circuit or open circuit existing in the nework plays impcrtan t role.l.... so me As there is no direct connect."". A~ Thio!< . 1.19 Short and Open Circuits In the network Mi. on in an open circuit.19... 1. C..·/wa!!s zero IIwug1.

Urheberrechlllcn gesolrutzles Ma "'''' .27 Redundant branches In Fig_ 1. through short circuit across R3 and ~ and no current can flow through eomblna lion 01 RJ and ~. becomes redundant as it d Des no. 1. consider the combination shown in the Fig. there exists a direct short circuit across a resistance Or the combination 01 resistances then that resistance or the entire combination 01 resistances becomes inactive from the circuit point of view. Such comblnauons can-be eltimlnated while analyslng the circuit. The two important situations 01 redundancy can be removed and these branches do not which may exist in practical circuits are. Such a combination To understand this. (0) Fig.27 (a) and (b). and a short circuit as of resistances Short .19.1.27 (b). The en lire curren t flow. The rcdund a nt means The redundant branches and comblnaticns affect the performance of the circul t. Thus that comb in. and R. there is short 'circuit aero ss R3. is redundant from circuit point 01 view. 1. t cany a ny curran t_ 11 in a network. t.~ No current thmugh RJ Short B (b) No current through R.3 Redundant Branches excessive and Combinations and unwanted. th ere is shari cireul I "0-05s combine tion 01 R3 and R4. ticn becomes meaningless from tho circuit point 01 view. Situation 1 : Any b ranch or combination across which there exists a shari circuit. The current always prefers low resistance path hence entire current I passes through short circuit and hence resistance Rg becomes red undan I from the circuit point of view. In Fig.27 (0).

C: Circuits it can not carry any 2 : If there is open and becomes redundant. i. ~ Redundant A B ~ 1=0 R2 I 1=0 C ) branches R. circuit in a branch In Fig. V = 1 R1 . clrcul t.tib of lhal re.nches due to open circuit 1.Elements Si1uation current of Electrical Engineering 1 ·41 or combination.tJW.si. O.. is equal to the sum of voltage drops VR1 and vR1 across RI and Similarly. L Then applying KVL. Urh:bcrrn:hlll h eschutz: s M~'cria . in branch Be. applied V . we get.20 Voltage Division in Series Circuit of Resistors Consider a series circuit of two resistors and R 2 connected to source of V volts. ecrose any r..''''/allce val"l: /0 tile lorrll resiS/ilIlGe.al. So lh. 1= RI +R.e. 1..e. !<ey Point: So in 8"1ii:. R1 As two resistors are connected in series.Imp. ""'I. F E 0 Fig. 1. 1 Rl Fig. 1.28 Redundant bra. the current flowing through both the resistors is same.5<lUtCf!w1tat<:. lIHllliplied !x.is cireui t is a voltage iiivide.29 Total voltage Rl respectively. the branch Be and CD cannot from circuit point of view.·tor..ago . or CfJ!ltbillylion r!I .isJQrs.'.28 as there exists open circuit carry any current and arc become redundant R. iii " series cirellit is aqunl 10 tire m.

VxR3 R) +R2 +RJ 1.21 Current Division in Parallel Circuit of Resistors Consider a parallel circuit of two resistors and R2 connected scross a SOUrce of V volts...ft -__ I R2 '" ___ series circuit 1A ~lxl0~10V Vx'RI R.la.." [... Curren! total current R) through Rl is II and R2 is 12.] ft ..+R2+R3 Vx:R.."'""'" 1/" II""" r". Circuits .. But IT '" I. C.. +12 11 V Fig.e. V. 1.RI '" 12 R" II = I~ (~: } R2 Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ate..Elements of Eloctrical Enginoering 1 ·42 D.31 i." R. IOU show" i" I/u: Fig. E)[ample 1. -' R) +R2 +RJ ft tx 20 ft 20 V -1><30 =30V and IR .30 Solution: v 60 1O+Z0+30'" [R.i a .14: n"d lire voilag' . R2 R3 30U (I 20U 60V Fig. 1_30. 1. while drawn from source is IT- ..

5 A "'I _.Elements of Electrical Substituting .""0'. 1. 11 =' Tr( Rj:lR. ro n. C. Circuits value of II in IT' IT= [2 (!t.15: Find til.R. Engineering 1 -43 D. 1.-)+ 12 = Ie [~: +1] = 12 [R':IR2 ] J! ~ [R. Fill./1/ Ihrough R I "lid R2 if. IT " 'if""" '" 661 " 7.RJ I. n. IH+ ElWImple 1... t d istrib u tion in par.32 Sol u t10 n : The e<:Ju ivalent resistance RCw. ". Rl".11"0.llles !vi a erla .1 el circu] t.l V 50 of two is. 5A }'" 75'{ IO~020 ) Urhcberrec htl ich ges c h l.. R2~ 20 and (I" 50 V.1._ As per the cum". magnitude» of lola! .

5>« 10) D.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 ·44 7. R say." +RIJ must be same.23 (b). shown in the to Fig.. 1... replaced current mus! be V (R. .22 Source Transfonnation Consider a practical voltage RL. C. 1.. resistances take current proportional to From the current division in. and R ~ R .-S1. (2) Ix . 10+20 th~t IT '" II +1'2 1.5 A . Circuits and [I can be verified IT( _[~ _)_ ~ Rj +R2 2." +Rl) current 50U= Rij~ and R l. (R.:" -"L equa ting (1) and eq ua !ion (2). voltage source Source R". . an equivalent is 'l'.)j . 1. 1.50. R.33 (a) Voltage source we can replace resistance connected by equivalera current source. Now this I L. The current delivered in above case by voltage source is. parallel t 1. .33 (a) having internal the load having resistance New Fig. in series source then load .. 1>.33 (b) Current source The total current Both the their values.. Urheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes Iv! ate.i" . will shown in the Fig. '" circuit we can write. (1) by a current C enstder Fig. v II it is to.

23 (3). (e) V = I"Roh Fig. Note the directions 01 transformed sources.45 [xlt D. or 1 .Eleme n ts 01Electiical Eng in een n 9 Thon.. polarities of vel ta ge is al ways as +ve terminal a I top 0 f a rrow and -ve terminal at bo ttom of arrow.0 the source. (b) I D .. shown in the Fig.':'_ R. 1.b V R~. The direction 01 cUIT"n! of equivalent" current SOurce is always Irom -ve to + ve. (b). tc) and (d). internal to the $0"'<<'. This ensures that current flows from positive to negative terminal in the external circuit. internal 1.34 . 1. Circuits v IxR. While converting curren I source to voltage source. as direction of current is from -ve to +ve.. C.

]\ " 10 n source. 1.35 sc (bJ Then current Same as Rsl.h ..16: SOU Tran"fon" a oollage rce. 1. 1.. '~----~------~A '0 (l ~------~-------4B fig.i a .)emal r.h = 10 'Voltage n in source series. I " 50 A and R.. of 5 Q Solutlon: Refer to the Fig.36 Solution: The given values are.ve at boltom. R. II. 1.sf"tmiCi: of the "'I"i~ale. '1..36 {a].nlmud.' voltage source. For the equi v alent voltage '""~ 500V~ V" I x R. COIIVert tire gh-e>1 currenl soUrce oj 50 A with . C.islan. Examplo Ie Ii CUTTen' 1..35 (a). Equivalent Example 10 n 10 01 current source is.50 x 10 500 V R"" The equivalent Fig. 1 " ttV' "~. 4 A with internal parallel resistance current 1.17: source is as shown in the Fig. is shown in the fig. \...T I so (a) Fig. SOUT"" of 20 ".'::. Circuits I.. Note ihe polarities and ...Elemonts of Eloctrical Enginoerlng 1 -46 D../Iswill. a" .36 [a] that + ve at top of arrow of 'Voltage source..34 (bJ. '"C .... which are such Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ate.

l.31 Junctlon point This analysis of currents entering and leaving Kirchhoff's Current Law. 1.m..lltes !vi a erla .. around any dosed Or dosed loop is a I ways zero."""f Another TIle algebraic sum of all tlu: The word algebraic C"""./le nettoork. means consideFing !he signs of various currents.2 Kirchhoff's "''l.37.•• ti"s at a i. I e. Kirchhoff.11 tile pMIIpath '"'Y c!o se d path (or loop or mesh) is ~'1u"l fa tile alge~r"'c In other words."! towards Q'way from tha t j Ull cti Oil paiu r.' but the to tl'e application total of Fig. 1. Law (KCL) Consider a junction in the Fig...~1auy Voltage Law (KVL) t.mctio/r poin.~ .. view. Reier 10 Fig. 1. IIat 0 o 11+12 -13 -1'1 The law is very helpful in network simplification.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 -41 D.1 " 1 A then to determine l. W~ write.Jlg TI. point in a eompl ex ne twork as shown . nlgebraic SlUt! of the 'ZJ(}llt1g~ ropoS acroSS tJ:'... a electricity. way to stale the la w i5 1 a i.23." total ""!TImt flOW." of tile e.t "..:. formulated two fundamental simplification raws 01 importance from network pow! of These laws arc of tremendous 1.23 Kirchhoffs In 1847. C. total current entering is :2 .e circuit: elements of d $U. A And hence." I Around a do.f' . "the aIgebrak sum of all the branch voltages.ed path I v" 0 Urhcberrec hthch ges c h [. currents Applying I '] and Il are positive while '3 and '( are negative.. 4 " 6 A while 101'1 current leaving is 1.. I..23.vays =ero.g. is al. equal ". ~ J. 12" 4 A and 1. At tlus junction point iJ 'I " 2 A.1" 5 A. Circuits 1.1 Kirchhoffs Current."ctio" .37. 1. Laws German Physicist.. 'The law can be :5 ta led us. junction KCt. f1 QW i. is nothing po. 1.

if branch L. if the branch is tracedfrom should be taken as negative.38 (a) only.lysis of the network. in anyone particular direction. Once "'1 such polarities are marked in the given circuil. This law is very useful in loop an. current I is flowing from left to right. While tracing a dosed paih.38 (b). resistance.[R while wri ling the "'Iua lion. In the Fig. 1. 1.3 Sign Conventions to be Followed while Applying KVL Wilen current flows through a. Circuits The law states that if one starts at a certain point of a dosed path and goes on tracing and noting all the potential changes (either drops Or rises). as shown. The polarity of this voltage dTOpalways depends on directio n of the current. If the branch is traced Irom B 10 A. Par example. hence point B is at higher potential than point A. ve marked terminal. IR while wei ting the "'Iua non. hence point A is at higher than point B. wc can apply KVL 10 any closed path in the circuit. Urheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes M ateri" . The current always flows from higher potential to lower potentia]. For example.23.38 (0). the voltage drop occurs across the resistance. 1.ve marked terminal. current I is flowing from right to left. 1. till the starting point is reached again. if the branch AB is traced from A to B then the drop across it must be considered as rise and must be taken as + IR while writing thc equations. B to A then it Simj!arly in the Fig. R A~B --I A~B 1'----100·R (a) Fig..• that voltage must be taken as positive..38 (b). Sum 01 all the potential rises must be equal to sum of all the potential drops while tracing any dosed path of the circuit The total change in potential along a dosed path is always zero. if we go from . 1.IR while writing the equations. traced from A to B then there is a voltage drop and term must be wri tten negalive as . potential In the Fig. if we go from +ve marked terminal to . (t becomes a rise in voltage and term must be written positive as .38 (bl In the Fig.. C.lIed potentlal drop. as shown. Now while tracing a dosed path. This is called potential rise. he m us! be at the same potential with which he started tracing a closed path. 1.• that voltage must be taken as negativeThis i5 c•.vc marked terminal to . as .Eloments of Electrical Engineering 1 ·48 D.

1. v 01 thge.23.inE:i.drop .e.e.L1:S. As the loop is assumed to be a p a rt assumed to be different from each other."C'liot'l i$l to he.39 (b).:rked positicv(! (+) to negative (-). drop 11 R1 and as getting while applying KVL. path in clockwise direction l. A-B-C-D-A. taken place across various resistances Orop Drop ('1 Pig. traced from +ve to -ve. from negative traced to positive Urhcberrec htl ich ges c h llilles !vi a erla . 0t with various branch currents assumed currents oS comp lex network.39 (a).4 Application of KVL to a Closed Path Consider a dosed path of a complex network shown in the Fig. 1. it is a rise heme must be Lei us trace this dosed Across R t there is voltage and must be taken as negative Battery 101 is getting considered as posi ti ve.1.39 Closed loop of a complex The polnrity of Ib) network .[]]ong the currcru d ii"l. it is drop i. 1. drops the branch are Due to these CUIT"nts the various voltage are marked as shown in the Fig.

Mark all the polarities of voltage drops and rises as P'" directions of the assumed branch currents flowing through various branch resistances of the network.l +14R4 this dosed p' th as. Required KVl. considered in any previous Each eqllil tion equation.. it is drop and must be taken as negative.t source alter travelling through various branches of the network. Across R4 ther<! is drop I ~ R~ and as gettirtg traced be taken as nega ti ve. 11 Rl+12R1 If we trace the dosed loop in opposite direction t. Step 2. Step 3 . . Across R 3 there is a drop 13 R 3 and as getting traced from -ve to -vc. Kept the number 01 unknown current" minimum as far as possible to limit the mathematical calculations required to solve them later on..Elements of Electrical Englnoering 1·50 traced D. contain some clement which is not Urheberrec htllch ge5c h(jutes M ateri" . it is drop must traced from -vc to -ve. it is Across Rl there is a voltage drop lz R. Battery El is getting from e-ve to -ve. in such case answer of such current will be mathematically negative which indicates tho correct direction of the current.5 Steps to Apply The steps are stated Step 1: is followed in this book to solve the problems. The same sign convention 1. This is necess a ry for application of KVL to various closed loops.e.23. and insert all the values Equations Kirchhoff's based on the branch Draw the circult diagram 01 sources with a ppropria te polarities from the given information and all the resistances.e. equanon R1+EI-12 i. the resulting equation will be same as what we have obtained above.. .. A particular current leaving a particular source has some rna gni tude. along A-D-C-B-A and follow the same sign convention. and "5 geUing drop and must be taken negative. C. Mark all the branch curretns with "orne assumed directions using KC L at various nodes and junction points. it is rise and must be taken a S positive. R2-13R3-'14 1":) + 1":2 . We can write an equation -ll by using KVl around R~+E2"O +1 3R. . Laws to Got Notwork current method. Assumed directions may be wrong. Circuits from +vu \0 -vc. Step 4: Apply KVL to different closed must paths in the network and obtain the corresponding equations. then same magnitud e of rurren t should enter !h..

40.••••• . Its effect is already considered at the time of curtcn t distribution.e. as follows : assume tha t set of simultaneous all. C. the number of cqua lions i.simultaneous voltages and power consumption can be source exists ? For example. column of tJ. The loop abefa should not be used for KVL application... 1.Elements of Eledrical Step 5 : currents calculated.24 Cramer's If the network case . 1.A e Fig. Circuits From these resistances the . by the column Then obtain constants existing the subdeterminants DjbY replacing 0/ on right hand side 01 equations i. Cn. .Jl "22 "'n "2" ••• 0 all2 aM jt!.e. [ 01 il II a Or D as. ". 5.. Cr... 1. rule say" that form a system determinant tJ. as it includes current source.fI _.l. Le t US Rule is complex. The current distribution is 10 V completed interms of current source value. unknowns increases.t. + a2n xn C1 C::! where C1 ~C2 Then Cramer's j ••• " . . o. In such of simultaneous equations can be obtained by Cramer's Rule for equa lions obtained is..40 (5-1.) which does not include current source .• the solution determinants. CI'C:J.are constants.1 a2i i'l + 8Il2x2+ + an::\2 + + 31nX.. What to do if current Solve unknown Engineering 1 ·51 equa lions for the unknown in different currents. consider the circui t shoWn in the Fig. Then KVL must be applied to the loop bcdeb.

~jg1lificanceof Solulion: Application of Kirchhoff's law.elating llie variOII$ brancll Sol"" Ihese equQlim'~ 10Jilld Ih. Is Ihe sign of Qny of Ih.41 Stop 1 and 2: network...I' J / i J . Apply Kirchhoff's ""." 1 3 D..". D" and D are values of the respective determinants.l "1 tl:n a I'll C" . I' XI = ~. negall"" sign. Wrile dl1Wn Ille equatimlS cllrrenls. I ..1 law. ann.. C.1'1 a~nl a. oalue« of these ""mmls.. . EXample 1. Ihe tunious Immell currellls. C2 I O~ = C.4'1 (a).. slarting IlegdU".41 la) Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ate'.. F D J. 2112 1-52 a. ca/". 1. Xn = % I I'" where 0 I' O2. explain Ihe . 1. 50 V SOurce. / .combined below in Fig. X."". Draw the circuit with all the branch currents II. 1..trn currents If yes.2:! an:::: a '~1 '" Cn ann.Elements of Electrical Engineering C./.. Mark all the values which arc same as the given from -sve of any of the sour". say He voltages 01 . Ii Fig. 50V l00V I. ? Fig. a .. This is .".41. C. Stop 3 : Mark all the polarities for diJlerenl with step 2 shown in the network across the resistances. Cn The unknowns of the equations are given... C1 31. 1. = !&' .18 : Ihe Fjg. by Cramer's rule as.0. nl an2 .: ~ C. :!~... Qnd ""llag' law to Ihe circuit $/wwn in lS{I 30<1 Ind. Cireuits all D. and D" (" 11 : .

15 (1 .Elements of Elecbical Engineering Slep 4: 1 .2.12 '" Negative sign Indicates assumed direction Is wrong.. by equivalent delta connected resistances. 20 "1 " 0 taking constants on one side.100 50 '" 500 1 01 201 dO< 1351) '" 0.. In such a case application of Star-Delta or Delta-star transformation. direction to that of the assumed direction.e.53 D. · I 15 -30 for II and i:l. C..37 ... For 11 answer is 0.22 A 0.(3) o 1-30 50 15 50 20..37 A 50 I· '" 000 100 3.85 A II .. (2) . as answer is positive.30 (II . These transformations allow us 10 replace three star connected resistances of the network. Rewriting 0 . (1) Apply Cramer's rule. For 12 answer is 2. .22 = .'. 11 - h '" 1.12) .1. . 50 all the equations.20 "2 .. IGrchhoffs laws give us complex set of simultaneous equations. i:l '" 100 ..37 A. conside..rably reduces the complexity of the network and brings the network into a very simp le form .85 A Howing in opposite 1. .25 Star and Delta Connection of Resistances In the complicated networks involving large number of resistances.. II is time consuming to solve such set of simultaneous equations involving large number of unknowns.' ·1" 1350 . and . Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ate. (1) . i.. 500 Calcula ling D:!. assumed direction is correct. Circuits Apply KVL to different loops. 50 Loop 2 : B-C-D-E·p. . m Lcnp 1 : A-B·E·F-A.100 .i" . without affecting currents in other branches and vice-versa. This reduces the number of unknowns and hence network can be analysed very quickly for the required result.30 11 .

43 (a) anl (b) show delta connection of three resistances. 1. R.42 (a) and (1)) show star connected resistances.42 (a) or vice-versa.i n Star. ~!.mam1.[If S (b) R.![~~ ~=======.in su.42 Star connection Let us sea what Is della connection? of three resistances If the three resistances are connected .42 (b) can be redrawn as Fig.)' ". J . The Fig. R. 1.~ . the resistances are said 10 be The Fig. Circuits If the three resistances connected connected together . (oj (b) (c) Fig. 1. are connected in such a manner that one end of each is to {orm a junction point caDed St.~~'f:~_~_r:~'i:.:F/·:~hl~u:D!fiEZ.42 (a) and (b) are exactly identical. 1. in the circuit from simplification point of view. 1.43 (a) and (b) axe exactly identical. S (c) (a) Fig.. The Fig. .Elements of Electric:al Enginaaring Let us IIee what ill Star connac:tion ? 1·54 D.atpoinl.1 The Fig. Both the connections Fig.43 Delta. C. connection of three resistances Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a . 1. R.ch a manner that one end of the first is connected to first end of second. the second end of second to first end of third and so on to complete a loop then the resistances are said to be connected in Della. R. The star point is indicated as S. 1.t j:.ffz=w.

This is shown in the Fig... 1044.. ~~ri(!s. 2 for parallel combination] connection shown in the Nnw conS. RI~' puraflel '3' we are not considering.fj)h~qffJ~. and 3_ Such.44 Equivalent Star 1'r~~9:'t-X..)lI.l:s {} n .46. L\~ 11"1. Circuits 1. We can redraw the network as viewed from the terminals (l) and (2). The tcrmina Is between which these are connected as 1. RjJ o1. C. 1.. R J between the same terminals 1..t. shown in the Fig.t"':f!.1 Delta-Star Transformation Consider the three resistances R 12 ' R"". 1.... Belween (1) and (2) the resistance is. (a) Giv"n Delta Fig.JlfggYPi~li_~ Let us analyse Delta connection r411t .~/i. terminals 01 equi valen t Star Urheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes Iv! ateri a . Star is shown inside the Dell .Elements of Electrical Engineering 1·55 D.nd R~-. u!#1Eiff..45 (b) Equ ivalent R.) R1 R2 (using -R--~R... 1. 1. .~~~st<ftP. Given Delta Fig.Jtf". 1.tIt 0. in the Fig. with so between terminals (1) and (Z) we get the (Rjl < t- R:Z:l) a. ..25.~J.45 (b). "]]_-~ R" R1~ - s Serif.rnL . Let us find equivalent resistance between (1) and (2).45 (a). • R J 1 connected in De Ita as shown in the Fig.ir# first.'Q. l in Delta arc named Now it Ls always possible to rep 11lCC these Del ta connected resistances by three equivalent Sta r connected resistances RJ• R. (a) R'2 (1<31" 1(23) RI2 +(R31 +R'. between 1 and 2 Now consider the terminals (1) and (2). 1.. 2 and 3. 2. without considering terminal (3). Now terminal combination as..40 which is called equivalent Star of Delta connected resistances. der the same lwO Fig.

a".--~-(RJ~:R-. ..Elements of Eloctrical Englnll9ring 1 .)J + Rl~) RI2 +(RD +RC1t) = R24-RJ through terminals . we g~ I.<.-l-:"R~) -"'"_.. we get. I~ and R 11· ziSubtracting (d) from equation R12( . ~:I_I (RI~.._ RJI . (b) Equivalent 1 and 2 Now as view e from terminals (1) and (2) W~ can see that terminal (3) is not getting >d connected anywhere and hence is not playing any Tole in deciding the resistance as viewed from terminals (1) and (2). 1.. Circuits R..46. 1~ S 3 (a) Star connection Fig. .R23) - R23 (RJI • R11) Urheberrec htllch gesc h(jutes Iv! ateri" .~. Rr2 .46 Z ' ~~ _ ~ _ .(d) Similarly if we find the cquiva lent resis lance as viewed in both the case:. C. RJ1) in calculating' = R3+RI what (c).. found to be open... (R" . between R..R2-') (3) and (I) .'.56 D. 1. illJ (R." (b) 1 and 2 while C3 . (1) and (2) the reslsta nee is = R 1 + Rl two of them found to be in se ries across the terminal. And hence shown W~ can redraw the network as viewed through the terminals (1) and (2) as in the Fig. (cl (2) and (3) resistance in both the cases and "qua ting. and equa nng.. Rl2 (I'll can + R23) 1<12 +( R13 + RJl ) Similarly' if we find the equivalent " Rl +Rl as viewed through terminals . R J lnterms of Now we are interested equation known values :R 12. (c) of R I' R2.. the values . Between This is because. Now to this Star as equivalent of given Delta it ls necessary that the resistances calculated between terminals (1) and (2) in both the cases should be equal and hence equa ri ng cqu a tions (a) and (b)..

I(:1lent star of given oene and Fig.-(I) Adding equation Rl> RJl -R". RJI (Rp" -I'R31 R 11 + R31 Rn (e). another cornbi na lions 0 f with equations (c).e.e. Circuits -.1 Rll +R31 R12 -I'R21 -I'RJI 2R. (d) and Eq'LI1r. R2 then it is the prod uct 0 f two resis tances in delta which are connected to same terminal i. Rl)' R~land R)l" so R2 Urhcberrec hthch ges c h lilltes !vi a erla . C.J) R\1_ +RZ) . R.. 1. R-12 1<31 -1<1.e.57 D.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 . (I) and equation RJl . terminal (Z) which rue R12 and R2J divided by sum of all della connected 'rcsist_anccs l. Similar! y by using subtraction and addition (e) we can get.47 Delta and equivalent Star if We want equivalent resistance between rerminal (2) and star point t.

lng 1 .'R!2 RJI + RJ12RI_2 R23 (Rl:! +R2l +R3d' R12Rli RlJ(R12 +RZ3 +Rn +R_lI)2 + R31) (Rll Urheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes Iv! ateri" . (h) .land R31' between the same terminals.48 Equivalent in finding Delta R11. C.... This is called equivalenl Delta of the given $tar. R". (k) .58 D... interms From of R I ' R 2 0 Now we are interested and R . s ~i:s 1 Consider the three resistances in Sbr as R r. (g) and (h).R21 derived in previous For this we can use set of equations Della-Star transformation we know that... equations (il and (g) to get . (g) . it is always possible to replace these by three resistances 3 R. 1. (1) Rl_/RJ1Rn._ij) . (i) Now multiply equattons following three equations. Star-Delta Transformation R.R.R2.25. Now by Star-Delta conversion. equations (h) and (i).2. 3 ou IvaI ues of R 12 . and R 3 connected shown in Fig..." 2 Star connected resistances cqui valen t Delta connected Given Star FIg. 1...Elements of Electrical Englneer. and RJI article.48. Clrcu its 1. Rl2 RJj the result f ..

Elemc!'llS of E leetrica I .Rj But 4-R~R1 R12R31 Su bsf tu ting in above in R. C.e. ~:!.e.. 1. RI and RJ divided by the third star resistance which is R1.H5" remaining values.. I Simil. R .!"R3+~ in R.En9 inaerin 9 1 -59 R12R3J R'3 R]2 4-RD +R31 Fromequation (g) D.k• s Um 0 f the two resistances connected between same two term inals (3) and (1) and star pcml respectively i. ~l J RR which is same as derived above. we get. 4-R.e. Then to this SUII'I of R 1 and R 3' add the term w hid. . rtS. RJ .. We can write. R 3' " R1 . is the product of the same two resistances l.l ~ R2 R3 R:. R1R2 4-R2RJ +RJR1 ~ Rl Rn .rly substituting two resistances.. Circuits R1R.. terminal (3) to star point R 3 and terminal (1) to star point i..49 Sta rand and equ Iv aIent Delta So if we want equivalent delta resistance between terminals (3) and (It then !a. we can write relations for remaining Equi:val:etlt delta OfgNeo star 3 Fig.

Example 1.50 illlo .. then ils Le. 1·60 D.e. 1. then its equivalent i.g.qll... connected Delta-star three resistances in Star. magnitude thrice the Star·Delta Table 1.. equivalent Star contains three equal resistances. have same magnitude in a Delta connection sar R. Rn " RJ"j" R:1. magnitude of the resletanees connected in Delta. 1. Circuits in star and dolta .19: qmve.i Ih.II«'".50 Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ate.J " RxR R+R+R" " 3R each of sa:y R. each of magnitude one third the If aU three resis tances in a Star connection are of same magnitude equivalent Della contains all resistances of same magnitude of. given Do/ra i'MUte ~F. C.. equivalent delta contains magnitude of resistance.. J l:i I 15<1 2 Fig.4 Star-Delta and Delta-star transformations II.Elements of Electrical Engineering Result for equal resistances II all resistances Star will con lain.i" .1 51".

67 Rj] . where R. 1.:55><2.S1 (a) 60 4[)' Fig.Elements of Electrical Engineering Solution: lis equivalent Fig. 1.51 lis equivalent delta is as shown in the Fig.5 + 7.67><5 RJ:! '" 1.50 (a J Example 1. 1.67 rl R2 R) 1»* - 5(1 "2.67'" 1.67+-s-. 2.2.51 into aM"'Iuiva/ml dolta.5 Q Fig.'.5 . l. gi''''' star ill Ih' Fig.S+1..20: COlllm·t Ih.50(a).S ~1 Fig.67 . 1.i" . 151 (a)..33 .S '" 15 n Rn 2.611"> 2. Circuits is as shown R.5><1. 1..67 +5+-2.] 10><5 5+10+15 15><10 5+10+15 5><15 '" 5+10+15 star 1·61 in the D.5 1.67 + 5 + 3.~~. 1.10 f) R2J " 5+2.5 r J 50 Solution: 3 i:s 1 Fig.5+ 2 '" 5 + 2. C. 1. O.52 Urhcberrec htllch gesc h(jutes M ale.S33 . 1.. 1..

Fig.Eleme nts of EIectri cal Eng in ee ri n II Solution: Redrawing the circuit....52 (a) Fig.•22 Find eq".. Circuits Series comt:iiI~:aLIM A __ -----...53 (a) U rl eborrec htllch Jes" h[.52 (b) )I. 1.. 1.....tztes M il'~ri~ . HI 10ft D H' I Bo--. is n 10n D c t------+ 4U 8o----~--~ Fig..53 Solutio" Redraw the circuit.. ....rl-/-'" c.::J Fig.:_.--. Example 1...::J.unl"nt resistnnce b. 1. 1. C..tlllee>! points A-B.. 1 -62 D... A_-----..

current which simultaneously links with all the branches. 1.53 (b) 1.a' 6+2. FE and EA. hence a branch current Can be expressed 2.4 ~ 8. <>-------. muHiple loop currents get with them.26Concept of Loop Current A loop current defining a particular is that loop. The Fig.54 shows a network. Circuits A 0-------. For the asso<. C.iatl'<i common branches 01 the various loops. v. The branches consisting currents flowing through Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes Iv! ate.. For example to the branch SF. is always unique loop currents. directly decide the values of the loop 3. In this. The branch current interms of associated IBF ~ I[ ~12 from B to F [CG ~ 12~13 from C to G current them. both II and 12 are associated.4!l Fig. 15 U RA.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 ·63 A D. BF.54 Concept of loop current loop current CDFGC. sources.i" . 1. l[ is the loop <'1J1Tent for the loop ABFEA and simultaneously links with the branches AB. Similarly 12 is the second 1". 1. for the Observe: 1..1' current for the BCGFB and 1 J is lite loop third loop Fig.

.. resistance is given by. . the branch current method is used to solve the problems.23 Prone Ihol tile '''''gllt T o"d diameter 'd' of a cyli"der of r<>ppn are 1= (·"xJ1 a"d.. Examples with Solutions jj. D.mperes direction.'" oppDsile circular faces.1J = -1". E~ample 1. 4.xr=. mark the branch currents interms of given loop currents and then usc KVL. Assuming such loop currents and assigning the polarities for the various branches due to the assumed loop currents.. TIn. e! Now x volume = a ~ I Multiplying numerator and denominator by I. multiplying and dividing by • Urheberrec htllch gcsc h(jutes /vi ateri" .. the various loop obtained.. . d =.. proved Now p-IXI prl PX il2 . If loop currents are given in the problem... Circuits and only the loop current I J is with the branch DH in opposite Hence . drops across the voltage law can currents can be current can be Note: From the syllabus point of view.. p'. any branch calcula too. in thls book.esisli1'ily arid r-rcsislan"" beIWf.Elements of Electrical Engineering The branch associated DH consists current 1" 64 source of I" . C. Solving these equations. the Kirchhoff's be applied 1(1 the loops. (16XP "p' ~lr Solution: J~ where x·". Once the loop currents arc obtained./ume.. to solve the problem.

5 1!JIIt 1..5 A.1739 A ..25: W'hm a resistance of 2 n is placed across !I.al operation.0048 1 +0..hiolll 1. temperature = 27 "C..0048 fC al O"c.2492 1 + 4.mpo".. 1.375 12 .." is 27 'c.AI 11'0 insumi of >wildt£ng a 40 W'lamp on a 230 V 'I<pply. V = 230 V.5 14..ng temperature . Example The two cases are shown in the Fig.. I At the time of switching.2492 (12.0048 J"C is ambient i..· of ballery. resislanet is j1l.. 1/".. .Elements 0' Electrical Engineering 1 ·65 O.0048><27 ~ 10-' = 4.ki"g I. II".1 is observed 10 be 2. currenl i. The R T..5 Under working condition.iflg rwrm.. R'2 P = ----w.. I .5 A..65.. 230 .'AO-"'_ ~=5r1 (bl Fig. 9Hl 1 2. TIle n".." Ih..J (12 . 2 A Wh. ell"".e.1."t du.3 f"C 92 [1 +4.55 Urhcberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes M ateri a ." of tI".. working current I(working) 230 1322. Filla tilt .27)1 ~ 10.6513 ·C ~ 10. .27 1 +aul = 0.1 is 0.... Solution: ·2A I.reased 10 5 Q tI" cnrrellt falls lolA Filld e. 0." IcnninaJ._ .2492 ~ 3147. Alia """"/ /nk".mfof batlery "tid its inl"''''/ resislance.= V'- (230)1 1322.5 n Now R27 [ 1 + "-27 (t.24. 1.27)1 ~ 1322. = 0. fila"..27) wor ki.". Solution: P = 40 W..O"-' '. OJ{. proved II'" Example 1.C.. C. 2. power consumption of lamp is 40 W.6513 3174. Circuits . of fi1am... [~ "" ~ .'".

the resisl.'+r I 2 E and = E R. ~ 3 3'>:3 Each resistance + 3+3 ee'] n x Fig. In oh m) Fig..56.56 Solullon: Converting inner delta 10 sta r.n Fig.fenni"..(1) R.. r=ln . E~2[2 + O. "t. 1. +r i.e..Elements of Electrical Now Engineering 1-66 i. 1.56 (a) y Urheberrec htl lch gesc h(jutes Iv! ate.<1 Y for II. (2) Subtracting C'IU"tiOR (2) from equation o and 1_ E -l~r 6V l.. example 1.. 1. terminals X .26 : D.. C.n"". circuit y IAII .c... Circuits rJ ~4+2r .nce between th.e. shown . .i a .E"'1[5+rj=5+r (I).

.. '(I' F Fig..57 (a). 2+2+. i.4545112.) -4i:J+4+12 o o i.7272 = 1.2 Ea-ch resistance 2x2 ~6n All threeparallel 5116 5><6 5+6 combinations .. by applying KCL at various nodes interms of it...4 = 0 i.57. .v 5.e. 1. 1. Circuits inner star to delta.8181 Q Example 1..Elements of Electrical Converting Engineering 1 ·67 D. C.56 (b) RXY 1_ I"_ur·"·' 5.6 it . 1..1 =4 A (11 (2) Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .4545n ~ fr ------ y Rx.. ddiwrcd /Jy II..18 il . Loop CDEC.27: Fi"d 1/". i~ Loop AllCA.. 1.12 i~ + 12 . . OOur<:e5 of 1/'" "~Iwork in Fig. i2_iJ and pew.12 (il + i2 . "".57 Solution: The various branch currents are shown in tho Fig.c.• 2:7272Q x y j x Fig.Is it ... i~:shown.

1.xample 1. the "e/Wo. (7) 0... (. i.. (6) .i2 + i.12 ~ ~ 4 A in (1) and (4) o o 8 5 i. " 1 .~) .Elements of Electrical Engineering 1 ·68 D. Circuits '---j.28: lire Fig. ""UK" <if 'R' so iha! 1 A uxntld j1mv in ii. 1. i3l " 20 W lI" and E.58 Urheberrec htllch ge5c h(jutes Iv! ateri" . Power by 12 V source 2A and !4" 7 A ~ >< 12" 84 W 4 x (12 . 4 - FIg.k in R---1A . fo.... 1. Substituting -4+4i·3 . Loop BCDB. . .. .3" 1 A .i1 ...58.iu. (3) (4) -3'1+2.. C. 4 .. (5) .e. Power by 4 V Find the ".12 (i1 + '2 .L5 'I + i.5 i.n lon = l2V Fig.e.57 (a) Loop DEFD..

8163 ." 2 o/Im resistonce for laws._1. find UIe current flowing 20V + 1 16 (I 16 (I 32n -20V + :In Fig. 1.58 (a) Loop ABGH.1 show" in Fig. 10 2(1 Fig.-12-1 6 1.898 A Drop across 6 n 6" current through 6 n = 6" 0.59 Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" ..388 V Same is drop across R Rxl-5.9183 + 2..29: Using Kirchlwffs flu cirell.18 ..10 11 '" 0 Le. D. . (3) 11 :Current 0. _ (2) .0. .__" ~B~_[~.. C. n ...98'! equa lion (3) from (2) we gel. '" . (I) = . 9Q -'I + 9 12 '" .898 5.8 Multiplying equation (1) by 9 we S"l. 10 I + I.2.I 0.12 BCEFGB.59.Elements Solution: of Electrical Engineoring branch currents 1 .-".e.6 (II . 1.388 5..I.388 R .12 ..Cin.12 . " + 90 '1 9 '2 + .. .9183 A through and 6 n I = .12) + 12 + ':!_ '" 0 i.-_-~Il~__ ~C~14ARNV__ ~D --.1 '" . 1.69 are shown in the Fig.. loop .8163 A II -I. .108 Subtracting .. 1.IVV.58 (a)." example 1. E + [.2 (II .1) .:uits The various Ar.

-3212 + 34..60 SolL. 8 E 511 io v c Fig. 1.3213 =0 i.trlo. -161) +641~ .59 (a) Loop r -1612 -21.. 1..2 20V -:: (1. Circuits The various branch currents are as shown.-1.1 ~ 20 3 Il ~ 1..e..60 (a) Urheberrec htl lch ge5c h(jutes Iv! ateri a .-1.e.) +20=0 32(12 -I~)+1612 =0 i.flV + 'OV Fig.) + - Fig.. .5789 A . 1.60.!!ion : Assume the two currents as shown in the Fig.:al Engineering 1·70 D.311: -32(12 -IJ)~O J. (2) . + + 3. + 16 - • 1~ + - ~ (j) I. (3) Loop II Loop ill: Solving -16(11-12)+ -20+2IJ for I» 1.... 1.60 (a) . (1) . C. Use Cramer's rule Ira+ Example Find I"" Va and VAG jar the circuit shown in Fig.Elements Solution: of Eleo.e.. 1. +1612 . 21) =20 l.) 2 -20V @ (1.

.m£5 tl"'l of orig.c.2 Solution: n.Elements of Electrical Engineering 1·71 D. al x 11 a2 X 12 Volume . length 3 l. Circuits Applying KVL to the two loops. A 'wire I!ns a r.U. and G. Fig. '2 - 3 11' R_ Key Point: e!. a When wi'r.""..sisla...U..T. /1 ~.r"" d"'nges •• area x: length ~_31. "2-"ja1 Urheberrec htllch gesc h(jutes Iv! ateri" . C. 'I 1 A and 12 " 2 A iJ Trace the path C-E.31. ~apers 1_ Exampla 1. -3 I. 1. is slrotdwt Ihe lolal !J()lum~remains same. strelched 10 1/"."lanceo/wire? IGU : Aug.60 (b) -5V 5 V with C negative ii) Trace the path kG..-20011 R1 . 1. of 2 Q..60 (e) VAG 30 V with A positive Examp)es from G. WIIIIt will be Ih' ntw ..I.. Fig.". its' '''''8th ci"..nges and cross-sectional ~. It h4s ow. 1 t.

originJli length. 1. of ManganiM hav/ng a resistivity of 50 x 10-8 nom. Rano 01 specific resistances Urheberrec htl lch gC5C hutztes Iv! ateri" . If Ihe wiTe 10 drawn three times il. a' ' =!3 a R' £!. that of rtUlltriai B. t in Ihe ratio 5:6.. •.Elements of Electrical Engineering O.32: C4lcillale Ille mi<IQIIC!' of 100 m IMgth of wire htwing Q uniform cross-sectional ar". July-Z0041 ""R: JA 1 RB 5 . = I a a x] =a'><f where a' = new c/s 3 i e.a lenal A I.. = 0..Ohm's law Fig. Thty .1 mml. Nov. SOlution: -a-In B [CU.cific resistances.nd Ihe ratio of th. '" p><31 '" 9(E!J" 3~ 1 Il'" "' 9R = 4500 n Example '1.. Circuits Now. of 0. Volume a' 8 r- 31 but its volume remains same.7 1.".as 1. EXClmple 1. Now..ir .e...33 : TW<l wires' of dUferel1t amdlldi>lg malerials are connected in parollel. fi. .1><10". New resistance I.1 mm2 if the wire is mad. ~><~><Z" 5 1.61 IB RA "6 i. if the wi" of ". C.7 times length and do"ble cmos·section ar". I = 100 m.-20(5) a. r. Solution: R ~ E! = 50><W xlOO = 500 n 0..411 .hare cllm". IGU. find oul new resistance. p = 50 x lcrB nom..

Circuits II..ft.00401 f "C Rl [1+'"-'1... machl"e is 120 n 01 15 'C OUTing ils full load nm. Take resistance temperature roifficimt to be 0.z = 30 "C.9 V' i. W.20041 R1 Solution: = 60 U ... .Elements of Electrical Engineering 1·73 D.. Jun e. 0Ju "' 0..20041 Solutlon: RI = 120 n .35: The resist...S mm.. EJlample 1.003571 1 +0..z-L. d . radin/or are of wire 0. II = 15 'C. Length required 10+ Example 1.-(1)] 120 [1+0./1. R n e_I .kW when connected 10 a 230 V supply..00401 (·C at 15 'C [GU : 0"".al 30"C I. Example 1. If the coils of II. FI"d its temperature roeffident .1 of a dc. Temperatu..".36 : The resistance of a giVCI conduclor is 60 n .004x 30 ..172 'C i. 52.e. O.e.004 f"C . p 230 V.22(1 0. C.00401 (t. dUlmeler /uro1"8 .15)] 46.: 1 kW..nd the resisl. R.)] = 60 [1+0.ncr vf tne field wi. 11 "' 20 "C.34: A" declric radialor is required 10 dissipale 1 .004 ~ 0... = 135 n..2001.9 60xlO""x 10-' x I ~X(05}2)( 10"'" I "' 17.""" al 30 'C if ns temperature coefficient .re of field roil '..t 20 'C. ". 12. n= 60 ~n-cm R 52. ~ 135 (Xl = 0.5 mm j. ~= I ?./culal' II".reslstlvlty of 60 ~n-cm. (GU : . t... "ecessary /"'glh of III.003703 (30 . V".35 11 Find the aver:oge temperatllTe of th' field coil.311 m .. 1 x 10' = (2-30)' R but R "' a .172 ..003703 /"C R1 Rl [1+"I(t. the resi~ta"ce increases to 1. Resistance at 30 'C .ZOll 62.C Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a .al20 "C +:° 0 t j - 1 + OO~~~)(20 = 0.t 0 'C is OOM / 'C_ [GU : Jun .june200S] Solution: p.15 "' 31.

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