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SORIN, NISTOR, assistant PhD. stud. eng, University of Oradea, Faculty of Architecture and Constructions, email: firstname.lastname@example.org NORBERT-SZABOLCS, SUBA, assistant PhD. stud. eng, University of Oradea, Faculty of Architecture and Constructions, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: In recent years, focus on the restoration of historical monuments and their preservation grown exponentially around the world. These monuments render a nation's identity, while also providing the possibility of tourism development. Restoration is done as carefully as the identity of the monument must be preserved, the finest features of the monument to be restored in a state close to one in which the monument was built. The request for information concerning the monument can be connected with the demands, for instance from an architect who needs to restore or re-assign a monument, from an art historian or from an archaeologist. The requests for information are as varied as they are specific and they define the purpose of the scan. The 3D scanning technique represents the ultimate development in obtaining with great speed the specific details. In this paper we will present how to obtain the volume of the restoration material, profiles and other details that can help restore and improve the work. With the development of scanning technology and improvement of the measuring devices we will present how we can obtain a 3D model of the object that is scanned from different stations, without using the registration module. Keywords: restoration, historical monuments, volumes, scanning, 3D model. Abstract: În ultimii ani, întreaga lume și-a îndreptat atenția tot mai mult asupra problemei de restaturare și prezervare a monumentelor istorice. Aceste monumente exprimă identitatea unei națiuni, oferind în același timp și posibilitatea dezvoltării pe plan turistic. Restaurarea trebuie făcută cu o atenție sporită, deoarece trebuie păstrate cele mai fine trăsături ale monumentului, trăsături care erau reprezentative în momentul construirii lor. Cererea de informații cu privire la monument poate fi conectată cu cerințele, de exemplu, de la un arhitect care are nevoie pentru a restaura sau reatribui o restaurare, de la un istoric de artă sau de la un arheolog. Cererile de informații sunt foarte variate, dar în același timp fiind specifice cu privire la anumite trăsături, acestea definind și scopul de scanare. Tehnica de scanare 3D reprezintă dezvoltarea finală în obţinerea cu mare viteză a detaliilor specifice. În acest articol vom prezenta modul de a obţine volumul de material de restaurare, profile și alte detalii care pot ajuta la refacerea și îmbunătăţirea activităţii de restaurare. Odată cu dezvoltarea tehnologiei de scanare şi de îmbunătăţire a dispozitivului de măsurare, vom prezenta modul în care putem obţine un model 3D al obiectului care este scanat din diferite stații fără a se utiliza modulul de registratie. Cuvinte cheie: restaurare, monumente istorice, volume, scanare, model 3D
The market of laser scanners for terrestrial applications has developed quite fast over the last years and the laser scanners are seen nowadays as surveying instruments which meet the requirements of industrial applications. Documentation of huge and complex cultural heritage sites is a challenge not only because of sophisticated technology, but also the planning, processing and data deliveries of cost-effective solutions. Furthermore, the non-stop deterioration processes on monuments makes the documentation activity an important fundamental step in order to record the state of the site at a particular time, facilitating the decision making that should be followed by experts to for a comprehensive conservation plan. What would seem to be a simple documentation activity on a single architectural monument is just a tiny part of the exhaustive requirements that a World Heritage Site might require.
like horizontal and vertical range and angular steps increment. 3. either to improve the resolution of the 3D model. average 5 points / 1 sec yes. when there is a lack of information in occluded areas. irregular. The software used for data acquisition (installed on the field controllers of the total stations) was the Trimble Survey Controller. Trimble VX polygonal. e.2 megapixel camera. Combining a pulsed laser with high speed scanning optics we can get detailed and accurate 3D models of industrial object. n sides. The scanning area defined throughout the work was a polygonal rectangle. we have the opportunity to define the area to be scanned by pointing the edges of the polygon on the touch-screen.3 mgon) ± (3 mm + 2 ppm) ± (10 mm + 2 ppm) up to 15 points / 1 sec. Beside the collected points. respectively for creating and viewing the three dimensional models were Trimble RealWorks.g. the accuracy of the objects. 3. works of art. Table 1 Trimble VX selection of scanned surface angle accuracy Standard distance accuracy Tracking scanning Standard speed Tracking built-in camera min. and moved around the site. between pts. with the horizontal and vertical scanning intervals set to 1 centimeter. thousands of points are scanned every second. both techniques can be used to complement each other. storing all these data in a *. defined on the touch-screen 1 ” (0. To capture complete sites or structures.jxl extension file. buildings or inaccessible structures. the definition of geometries or the color enhancement.2 megapixels 10 mm The software used for processing the point clouds. 2. where we can see the image of the object shown by the 3. Once tuning parameters have been set. One effective solution is its integration with photogrammetry. . the Trimble VX will take photos of the defined scan area. Topographic and positioning calculations were resolved using Trimble Total Control. This tool can be used standalone or in combination with other surveying techniques for multiple purposes. dist. When using this spatial station. The 3D laser scanner is also called an active remote sensing system because no additional personnel are needed to hold a range pole or to place targets for measuring surfaces.Terrestrial laser scanning is increasing its range of applications in architecture and archaeology. the creation of the initial point clouds of 3D data is done automatically. Three-dimensional survey with Trimble VX The innovative system used in this survey was the 3-Dimensional Spatial Station Trimble VX. Additionally. tilted. Presentation of used hardware and software For data acquisition we used Trimble VX Spatial Station. the instrument can be rotated.
b. followed by a translation vector . DX. Let the rigid transform be composed of a rotation matrix.1]. Obviously. it is often important to capture precise edges of structures. Consequently. with a small spot size laser beam. These situations require a high-resolution scanner that acquires features and targets. accurate models and drawings. the minimum area circumscribing the optimal tie-point location can be interpreted as the minimum overlap between two adjacent scans.2.Trimble VX Spatial Station c. g) in the X-Y-Z fixed angle orientation convention. .Correct (a) and critical (b) distribution of the homologous points for the registration of two adjacent scans In fact.y. this equation can be written in a quadratic form as where x now denotes [x. R.Fig. our goal is to find the rigid transform which brings Q in best alignment with P. At any point in the form: let the corresponding local quadratic approximant be specified (1) . In addition. Once again. w. to achieve high accuracy results registering multiple scans together. With slight abuse of notation. the right one) into the inner reference system of the first scan (e. Scanning without registration The registration of two adjacent scans is a well known procedure which transforms the point coordinates of one of the two scans concerned (e.z. in order to create complete. etc. that is parameterized by three angles (a. DY. . it is necessary to determine accurate positions of at least three scan “targets” within each scan scene. j. DZ. Fig.where A through I are the coefficients of the quadratic approximant. piping flanges. It is easy to understand that the precision of the registration is directly correlated to the “distance” between the alignment of the tie-points and their true location. k).g.g. the left one).1. the position of the tie-points must be far enough from the alignment of them in order to avoid unstable solutions. which translate and rotate the reference system of the right scan into the reference system of the left scan. . This simple step can be done by knowing the coordinates of at least three pairs of tie-points (the same point recorded by each scan) and the determination of the six parameters (e.g.
that minimize the Now the registration problem reduces to finding values of residual error: (3) This least square problem can be solved by setting the respective partial derivatives to zero.Under small motion. the rotation matrix can be linearized as: (2) Hence . that represents the local quadratic . The resulting linear system is given by: (4) Where (5) And trough correspond to the entries of the matrix approximant around the point .
where the price of a scanner can be double (if not more) than that of a spatial station. Synagogue Oradea was included in the list of historical monuments in Bihor county in 2004. So the station coordinates can be introduced directly in the Trimble CU and when we download the data from the control unit. This gives us the possibility to correct the data directly in the field. It is true that a dedicated scanner can scan from 5000 to 500. This is a Hebrew place of worship in Oradea. Now follows the idea behind the combination of a scanner and a total station. but time is not always the essence. Case study The scanned object was the facade of the Zion synagogue in Oradea. we utilize a fractional transform given by and where. after which we will define the number of stations used for scanning. Because this is an integrated station. I denotes the identity matrix.g.Zion synagogue. we can see at all time the vertical angle of scanning. and/or use any adjustment method that we consider that is more robust for the determination of the station coordinates). Oradea . transformation method. 4. Because we work with a total station. located on Independence street no. whenever the computed transform (R.t) is large. In our case the situation changes. the coordinates of the points included in the point cloud are known. We can even set the station in a robotic state and use a GNSS receiver to determine the coordinate of the station. By using this spatial station. with the classification code BH-II-mB-01054. the distance from the scanned object and other information. It also gives us the possibility to compute the station coordinates with different programs. After we introduced the coordinates and we set our backsight point. we make typical measurements of distances and angles.As in the 2D case. the polygonal method.000 pct/sec. After we finished the scanning we can measure again the orientation station and see if we experience different errors. and the Trimble VX can scan only up to 15 pct/sec. our method of work will be the following: first we establish the area of interest. because we used a combination between a scanner and a total station. So far this method isn’t different from the work method using a field scanner. Fig. 22.. But this is the typical registration method used for scanner devices. . the software installed on the CU will show the differences between coordinates giving us control of the station. A very important aspect is the economical factor. It was built between 1877-1878 in neomaur style.3. and the way we determine the coordinates of the station it is up to us to decide (e.
which rests through four pendants on four large arches. The facade is impressive in semicircular windows. – Detail of sculpture degradation on the synagogue facade After the scanning procedure. . It has a large central dome. Also. The point cloud is considered being an unstructured grid of points. not only the facade was degraded.The Zion Synagogue in Oradea has a square building plan. Fresco paintings from the synagogue wear the fingerprint of Mor Horovitz from Kosice. bounded by half pilasters.5. the facade was altered and if we don’t take an immediately stance on protecting the monument. Joining in the synagogue is done on the west side. – Detail on degradation of the facade As shown in the picture above. we obtained the so called “point cloud”.) Fig. The facade overlooking the Main Street Independence was inspired by Moorish art. with Italian Renaissance aspect. but also the sculpture on the top of the facade (Fig5. and women through two doors located on the side of the rectangular face. where men are entering through the three doors in a semicircular arc. The dome has tall windows. Fig. but using different options included in the 3D software. we won’t have anything to protect in a few years.4.
But is this case the software “dresses” the 3D mesh with the photo taken after we finished the scanning operation in each station. we used the TIN (Triangular Irregular Network) method. A polygonal mesh is a collection of nodes (vertices). The mesh creation option of this program is relatively interesting because of the multiple choices we have in creating the mesh. Because we used a spatial station. with the faces being compiled mainly from triangles. It is important to keep in mind that the obtained point cloud is “wrapped” in this mesh and that the three dimensional model is a metrical model. but only if the point cloud will have the characteristic of the colors from the picture. After we apply the picture on the mesh. edges and faces which form the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics. we don’t have to compute the scanned image only to verify the overlapping areas.we can obtain a mesh.6. There are other programs that allowed us to extract the colors from a taken picture. – Mesh cover on the point cloud Another interesting feature of this software is that it allows us to overlay a photo on the created 3D mesh. Fig. Fig. an „intelligent photo”. we will be able to view a real 3D objective. . A very important asset of this three dimensional model is that we can also obtain negative of the scanned objective. – Point cloud of the scanned area When creating the mesh.7. We used the different options: create mesh using scanned location and parallel to a plan.
who doesn’t necessarily continue working in a full 3D capable software. The importance of creating 2D surfaces of that the scanned product comes from the fact that it has to be used by different specialists like an art historian or an archaeologist. Fig. On this “smart photo” we can carry out directly different operation. – True 3D photo of the object One of the most important assets of this “intelligent photo” is that this 3D object is a surface and not just points where a photo is applied – thus.9. The exchange file format is a *. The creation of 2D mapping is very important because it is giving us “a currency“ between the 3D models and 2D. So if we have a surface (as in this case). if we want to obtain 2D mapping we will obtain only points that have to be joined by a line or polylines. – Means of creating 2D profiles After we slice the entire 3D model at a specified thickness and at an established distance between the slices. The way that we can create 2D models is presented in Fig.8.Fig. .9. if we have only points where we applied the photo or the color from the picture. we will get directly a 2D mapping on which the points are joined. creating 2D mapping. like distance measurements. volumes and surface computation.dxf file. we can make a *.dxf file.
After we obtained a 3D realistic model we can go to the next step: 3D printing. but the lack of speed can give us problems concerning the restoration time limit. we can observe very fast discrepancies between the recreated model and reality. 5. we have the freedom to choose between the different methods of computation. Not only the development of the scanner’s. and many more information that can help an art historian or an architect to take fast and also better decisions concerning the restoration procedure.10.11. To be able to sale your scanned product. – Output of computed surfaces Also. With the help of the “intelligent photo”. References . we can see that by applying a realistic photo we can preserve the real aspect of the objective. Conclusions The scanning method is increasing its utility by the year and the demands of the beneficiaries are also increasing.8. as we mentioned before. – Volumes for scanned objects As shown in Fig. In order to choose a scanning device. With the help of this scanning technique we can give the exact amount of construction material used in the restoration process. you have to be able to recreate a monument. but also the development of the 3D software that uses model regeneration gives us powerful tools that are suitable both in industrial applications and cultural heritage. like decorative pieces..Fig. taking into account its realistic appearance. we can obtain volumes for different objects that carry a special interest. Fig. but a greater impact is made by a realistic 3D view. The demands aren’t only regarding to precision and accuracy. By using a spatial station. we have to take into account different factors like speed and funds allocated to the restoration project.
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