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Oral language is a powerful learning tool. It shapes, modifies, extends, and organizes thought. Oral language is a foundation of all language development and, therefore, the foundation of all learning. It is the base for the other language strands. Through speaking and listening, students learn concepts, develop vocabulary, and perceive the structure of the English language which is essential components of learning. Students who have a strong oral language base have an academic advantage. School achievement depends on students' ability to display knowledge in a clear and acceptable form in speaking as well as writing. Additionally, mastering speaking skills in learning English is a priority for many second-language or foreign-language learners. Consequently, learners often evaluate their success in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on the basis of how much they feel they have improved in their spoken language proficiency (Richards, 1990: 21). Considering how important speaking skill in learning English, Renandya, (1999:230) in this case reminds English teachers by saying: Speaking is one of the central elements of communication. In EFL (English Foreigner language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs special attention and instruction. In order to provide effective attention, it is necessary for a teacher of EFL to carefully examine the factors, condition and components that underlie speaking effectiveness. Effective instruction derived from the careful analysis of this area, together with sufficient language input and
. they take so much time thinking what they are going to say. The problems are the students in the school are speechless and when they speak English. These problems are presented based on the researcher’s first observation and interview in the school before going to this proposal and problems are also have been approved by one of the teachers who teaches English in the school whose name is Mr. In addition. incapable to participate actively in conversation.speech-promotion activities will gradually help learners improve their English speaking ability. Wardi. They are as lack of curriculum emphasis on speaking skills. class conditions do not favor oral activities. spoken English doesn’t sound natural. and examination system does not emphasize oral skills. would like to do a collaborative action research in the school to help both the teachers and students in the school find a proper way in teaching speaking which can improve the students speaking ability. Richard (1990: 122) explains the typical learners’ problems in speaking like speaking slowly. teachers’ limited English proficiency. limited opportunities outside of class to practice. Besides there are many reasons causing English learners poor in speaking skills. So based on the explanation above the researchers has found some problems which nearly similar to those five typical problems explained by Richard above in MAN Jangka. So based on those problems. the researcher. taking too long to compose utterances. poor grammar and poor pronunciation. as a one of English Department students of Almuslim University who nearly completes his study in the University.
the researcher is interested in choosing story completion as a technique that will be applied in this research because it can be presented easily. In this research. they learn the components of language through interaction with other people. there are many kinds of language methods in teaching language in a second or foreign language but only three methods.2 Problem of the Research Having explained the problems of this research in the previous section generally. students will have much time to practice their speaking ability and it makes students more active in teaching and learning process and at the same time makes their learning more meaningful and fun for them. grammar translation method. The three of them have their respective advantageous and disadvantageous but out of the three. 1. so learners should interact during lessons. 3 . audiolingual method and communicative method have dominated language teaching in the United States in the past 60 years. As a result.Anyway. there is a research (Ellis: 1990) which says that people do not learn the pieces of the language and then put them together to make conversations. Moreover. communicative method is considered the most effective one to be used in language teaching especially to teach speaking since it provides more opportunity for English learners to speak than to the teachers during teaching – learning process (Kathleen:18). Instead. communicative language teaching arose and rapidly developed.
the result of this research is applied by others English teachers in facing the same problem as drawn in this research.in this section. Theoretical significances. this research can develop the students’ speaking ability.4 Significance of the Research In this section. this research can develop the quality of English education in the school. the researcher draws you some significances of the research from the view of theoretical and practical significances as the following: 1. 1. To research the advantages of applying story completion in teaching speaking 1. Perhaps.3 Purpose of the Research The researcher draws the purpose of the research as follows: 1. Perhaps. With any luck. Practical significances Hopefully. this technique can be an appropriate way in teaching speaking to the students in the school. the researcher formulates the problems of the research into two simple questions as the following: 1. To know if story completion can develop the students’ speaking ability 2. 2. What are the advantages of applying story completion in teaching speaking? 1. Can story completion develop the students’ speaking ability? 2.5 Scope of the Research .
Speaking is any process in which people share information. but after a few sentences he or she stops narrating and each student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences based on the story topic that has been prepared by the teacher.The research focuses on the effect of using story completion in teaching speaking to the second grade students of MAN Jangka in order to find a proper technique in teaching speaking that can develop the students speaking ability.6 Definition of the Key Terms In this thesis. ideas and feeling. 2. it involves all of body language characteristic and style-anything that adds meaning to a message. the researcher gives some explanation of some key terms that predominantly appear in this proposal. Story Completion is a technique that is used by the teacher to motivate students in narrating a story continually between teacher-student and also student-student. In the story completion. Classroom Action Research is a form of reflective research that is conducted by teacher which its result can be used as a tool to improve the teaching and learning. 1. story completion is an activity that will be created by teacher to promote students’ speaking ability. 1. In this research. 5 . 3. These key terms explanation’s function is to make the readers understand exactly about the words or phrases. firstly the teacher starts to tell a story.
teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance. for many years. 1. in a variety of contexts. Chaney (1998: 13) says that speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols. Speaking is a crucial part of second and foreign language learning and teaching. .1. ideas and feeling. However. the researcher will explain you more in detail about some of the variables that lie in this research.edu/homepage/hayriyek).1 Definition of speaking Speaking is a vehicle to link individuals to society. it involves all of body language mannerism and style-anything that adds meaning to a message”. When students talk about their ideas. Exchanges students have with their peers and teachers can help them come to know the world in more personal and socially responsible ways. they clarify their thinking. Moreover. Hybel (2001:45) states: “speaking is any process in which people share information. Despite its importance. because.7. today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills. They can figure out what they believe and where they stand on issues (Hayriye: http://unr.7 Review of the Related Literature. In this section of the proposal. only in that way.
1999:230). it is necessary for a teacher of EFL to carefully examine the factors. Those who are risk-takers unafraid of making mistakes will generally be more talkative. which are necessary for effective oral communication. but with many errors that could become hard-to-break habits. Break the silence and get students communicating with whatever English they can use.2 Teaching Speaking Speaking English is the main goal of many adult learners. if the aim of speaking is communication and that does not require perfect English. it is an aspect that needs special attention and instruction. In order to provide effective attention. their English often contains fewer errors and they will be proud of their English ability.7.Furthermore speaking is one of the central elements of communication. then it makes sense to encourage quantity in your classroom. In EFL (English as Foreigner language) teaching. It's a matter of quantity vs. correct or not. Or a grammar or 7 . shy students may take a long time to speak confidently. Conservative. together with sufficient language input and speech-promotion activities will gradually help learners improve their English speaking ability (Richards. Effective instruction derived from the careful analysis of this area. Their personalities play a large role in determining how quickly and how correctly they will accomplish this goal. However. and selectively address errors that block communication. Speaking lessons often tie in pronunciation and grammar (discussed elsewhere in this guide). quality. 1. and neither approach is wrong. condition and components that underlie speaking effectiveness. but when they do.
Then the students will practice with the actual speaking activity. The first must give instructions to the second to reproduce the drawing. • Correcting Errors You need to provide appropriate feedback and correction. This includes introducing the topic and providing a model of the speech they are to produce.reading lesson may incorporate a speaking activity. Take notes while pairs or groups are talking and address problems to the class after the activity without embarrassing the student who . A model may not apply to discussion-type activities. These activities may include imitating (repeating). as are surveys. Information gaps are also commonly used for speaking practice. answering verbal cues. such as when one student is given a simple drawing and sits behind another student. or an oral presentation. but don't interrupt the flow of communication. Here are some ideas to keep in mind as you plan your speaking activities. in which case students will need clear and specific instructions about the task to be accomplished. and role-plays. Avoid too much new vocabulary or grammar. your students will need some preparation before the speaking task. discussions. Most speaking activities inherently practice listening skills as well. The second student asks questions to clarify unclear instructions. the content should be practical and usable in real-life situations. Either way. • Content As much as possible. and neither can look at each other's page during the activity. interactive conversation. facing away. and focus on speaking with the language the students have.
Methodology of the Research 9 . clarify your instructions. ask more discussion questions. Quality Address both interactive fluency and accuracy.' 'by the way'). Get to know each learner's personality and encourage the quieter ones to take more risks. You can write the error on the board and ask who can correct it. gestures. and initiating ('hey. or stop an activity that is too difficult or boring.' 'so. • Quantity vs. 1. you may need to jump into a role-play.8.made the error. striving foremost for communication. paraphrasing. • Conversation Strategies Encourage strategies like asking for clarification. • Teacher Intervention If a speaking activity loses steam.
Each cycle consists of four steps.8. (2008:45) that Collaborative Classroom Action Research is kind of a Classroom Action Research that involves some people like the principal. action. or etc simultaneously. Action research is done through many repeated cycles and there are at least two cycles in action research. teacher. contribute teaching theoretical development or educational and teacher career progression. The relationship between of researcher and the teacher are considered as coworkers. It aims to improve teaching practical quality.The methodology of this research will be done through the following explanation below. As it explained by Asrori. 2005:54). Therefore.1 Design of the Research. 2008:90). Through the cooperative working in doing the research. they can obtain the satisfied goal of the research. researcher from educational university and principal of school. planning. The activities are described in the following: . This kind of research is usually designed by a team which consists of teacher. The design of the study is Collaborative Classroom Action Research. observation and reflection (Asrori. The activities that will be done in each step of the cycles will be based on Stephen Kemmis dan Robin Mc Taggert guidance in (Arikunto. in this research the researcher together with the assistance of another related teacher and the principal of the school will do the research in team work. The researcher adds that they will be very pleasant and supportive helping the researcher in doing this research. lectures. 1.
the team will choose a proper teacher to do the action which has been prepared by the team the planning step. the researcher will observe students’ motivation and behavior. Observation In this step. the classroom atmosphere. Action In this step. and etc.8. the researcher together with the team will reflect on the effects of the above steps as a basis for further planning. Therefore the researcher decides to take only one class as the subject of this research to make the researcher easier in collecting the data. subsequent action and so on. 2. The class consists of 45 students. 4. verifying the schedule. through a succession of cycles. the advantageous of applying interview in teaching speaking and etc during the action process. 3. Reflection In this step.1. 1. The researcher does not take all the classes to be the subject of the research. Since there are three second grades in the school. The population of this study is the whole of the second great students of MAN Jangka. The reason why the researcher takes one class is because the subject in 11 . Planning In this step the team will prepare everything for the completion of the action in the class like designing a lesson plan.2 Setting and Subject This research will be done at MAN Jangka.
To find out the advantages of using story completion in teaching English speaking. For the completion of Research methodology will be explained further in detail in chapter III of the research. 3. To check the students’ attitude while participating in the action learning process.3 Technique of the Data Collecting In collecting the data. Its functions are the following: 1. 2.8. 4. Furthermore.Classroom Action Research is only one class (Asrori. To assess the students’ motivation during the learning process. . Pre-test is done at the beginning of each cycle right before action step is implemented and post-test is done at the end of the cycle before reflection step. the researcher will ask the subject of this research to answer the pre-test and post-test. To check the students’ speaking improvement during the class. the researcher also use observation sheets as an instrument in collecting the data. 1. 2008:5).
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