CHAPTER 12 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS ☻ Prepositions

Prepositions are connectives which introduce prepositional phrases. They can be regarded as a tool
which links noun phrases with other structures. Many prepositions in English correspond to case inflection in other languages. Most common prepositions are short, invariable forms, such as about, after, around, as, at, by, down, for, from, in, into, like, of, off, on, round, since, than, to, towards, with, without etc. Free prepositions have an independent meaning: the choice of preposition is not dependent upon any specific words in the context. In contrast, bound prepositions often have little independent meaning, and the choice of the preposition depends upon some other word (often the preceding verb). The same prepositional form can function as a free or bound preposition: Free preposition, But the only other thing perhaps, he’ll go with one of the kids, that’s a possibility. Bound preposition, They’ve got to be willing to part with that bit of money. Many of the same orthographic words can function as prepositions, subordinators, adverbs, and occasionally even verbs and adjectives, It’s long before that. (Preposition) He’s sort of skidded before he got there. (Subordinator) Whatever he did before at home I’m not sure. (Adverb) (Biber et al., 1999: 74-9) There are many prepositions and adverbs that are inseparable from verbs, and are, indeed, a component part of verb phrases. Some examples are: to laugh at, to look into, to look at, to go through with, to tune in, to give in, to make up for, to stand up for, to put up with, to track down, to stand for, to break into. The word following the verb in such phrases as these may be either a preposition or an adverb - verbal preposition or verbal adverb. The context must decide in all such expressions just which quality of functioning predominates, and the part of speech thus decided upon. In He will get over, over is an adverb modifying will get. In He will get over the bridge, over the bridge is a prepositional phrase modifying will get. In He will get over the disappointment, he will get over is preferably regarded as predicate and disappointment as object; the sentence actually says He will survive or outlive the disappointment. In this last example the word over is so closely embedded in the meaning of the verb that we can't say that over the disappointment is an adverbial phrase of manner modifying will get. This use of preposition (or adverb) as part of a verb very often makes a verb transitive, as in the last example above, and as again in The robbers broke into the bank.

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over. and for this reason it is called a detached preposition.Sroka’s classification (1972) differs from former classifications of the selected type of particle: in place of two traditional classes. via. at. behind. beyond. behind. up. from. in front of. through. before. adverbs and prepositions. states that the preposition is completely detached from the noun word it originally governed. next to. adverbs. within. thanks to. before. i) sequence in space: after. of. Prepositions can have the following meanings: a) space. in. by reason of. to. for. beneath. including place. through. out of. alongside. m) n) crossing in space: across. prepositions and adverb-preposition words. on. towards. beside. respecting. athwart. until. under. on. but also in grammatical construction. owing to. by. with. over (horizontally). down. Stanciulescu (1975) divides prepositions according to their semantic field as follows: a) space: ahead of. anent. rest and motion. for. Wait a minute and I’ll come with. e) space (stative): at. j) setting out from: from. pending. h) settle underneath: below. (She brushed the lint off) Heaton (1974) says that much of the confusion associated with phrasal verbs has been caused by failure to distinguish between verb and particle forms (phrasal verbs) and verb and prepositional forms. betwixt. by dint of. on. over. c) movement towards a special place: at. between. The 29 . on account of. o) middle: amid(st). through. upon. prior to. off. underneath. b) time: ahead of. into. upon. out of. i. (1900) in his example. against. duration: during. I wonder where he came from. because of. inside. c) other abstract relations such as quantity. on. He was thought of is liable to be dissociated from their noun-words not only in position. past. past. Grandmother brushed off her green skirt. cause deprivation. A very few instances can be found where pure prepositions occur in combinations without an object. till. g) lapping: above (vertically). near. q) reference: about. d) movement in time towards a moment: against. in. in. by. among(st). on. l) approach in space: about. as for. into. manner. f) time of action/state: at. down. as to. If there is no sugar you’ll simply have to do without. There are dialectal ‘come/go with’ and the standard ‘do/go without’. Sweet. from. k) sequence in time: after. to. for. by. in consequence of. he has distinguished three. b) time. by. towards. concerning. touching. since. There is an apparent reversal of the underlying object if the particle is taken as a preposition. pending.e. p) cause: at.

or) connect units of equal status and function: . there is often a tendency to confuse such prepositional verbs with separable phrasal verbs. grassy and meandering. part of. Hill (1968) classifies each preposition in three groups: elementary. One of the legs has come off. Because the direct object of the verb is placed between the verb and the preposition in this latter sentence pattern.two main clauses or two subordinate clauses. Off in this group has 51 meanings. VERB Bring VERB Bring + + OBJ the child OBJ the child + PREP up + PART up + OBJ OF PREP the stairs. Off indicating separation from being attached.. In the elementary part prepositions have their basic meaning and are the least numerous. intermediate and advanced. Subordinating conjunctions (because. See somebody off meaning ‘say good bye to somebody’.] (1968: 106-113) ☻ Conjunctions They are parts of speech used to connect words or constructions.g. if. concrete meanings and are more numerous than the elementary. I went to the airport to see my brother off when he left for India last week. 30 . The two classes of conjunctions are coordinating conjunctions or coordinators and subordinating conjunctions or subordinators. The path was narrow. Come off meaning ‘be successful’. in contact.. e. We find 7 meanings for off. There is something wrong with that chair. e. The advanced level includes phrases. Coordinators (mainly and.g. I think. or on. In the intermediate stage the prepositions enter phrasal verbs and lose their basic. . but. Whenever a preposition gives a verb a new meaning or causes the verb to assume a secondary or subsidiary meaning it belongs to the verb. Off here has 22 meanings.two or more adjectives..g. VERB Abide VERB Abandon + + PREP by OBJ a position + + OBJ OF PREP the law PREP + OBJ OF PREP to the enemy. although) connect a subordinate clause to its super ordinate. idioms and phrasal verbs and are the most numerous.mere fact that a verb and a preposition may form a collocation possessing an entirely new meaning is no indication of the formation of a phrasal verb. We went there because we were asked to. My trick came off [all right. I went there at once but I didn’t find anything. showing motion. e.

1.. night both he and his horse were tired and marvellously pressed (2) … hunger. and (1) …at. such that. More recently. The process of linking units by means of subordinators is usually termed subordination or embedding. Some can be used more than once: on. EXERCISES 66. which was as welcome a sight to him as if he had seen a guiding star. 2. Correlative subordinators include as…as.. the units have been called conjoins or in generative grammar conjuncts. The process of linking units by means of coordinators is known as conjunction. 68. Both coordinators and subordinators may be reinforced by being combined with correlatives. 8. and traditionally and most usually coordination.for . Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition. near. the…the. 31 . They accused Mark …cheating during the exam. about. by. The main correlative coordinators are both…and.all tastes.delay. 4. Our television programmes cater . They always comment …the way their fellow workers dress and talk behind their backs. 6.without . You ought to get your car brakes seen… 7. If you tell me the whole truth.Two or more subordinate clauses can be connected with a coordinator. Please.. for. Then spurring his horse he rode (9) … it as fast as he might. The linked units that result are said to be coordinated or coordinate. then I will trust you. 5. and looking (3) … him (4) … every side to see whether he could discover any Castle (5) … which he might retire (6) … the night. conjoining. Besides one-word subordinators there are many complex subordinators of two or more words such as in order that. as if. toward. a coordinate clause for instance. 9. either…or. neither…nor. Mures. My neighbour has been barred …the bars in the area. Both my friend and his wife have moved to Tg. He journeyed all that day long. and arrived there much (10) … nightfall. he saw an Inn (7) … unto the highway (8) … which he travelled. and if…then.. Complete each sentence with one suitable preposition. to. 1. Please send the results . wait here until your order is dealt … 10. 67. Complete each sentence with one suitable preposition. a term used both for the reinforcing item and for that item and the conjunction it accompanies. at. whether…or. Take it if you need it and if it is available. All readers are kindly asked to refrain …smoking inside the library.. The plane crash resulted …the death of more than one hundred people. 3. as far as. At this rush hour all buses are crammed …people. They insured their house …theft and arson.

10.speaking to him.without. It took quite a while until somebody came and waited …us. 7. Relations between Iraq and the USA were broken …more than ten years ago. Tom was charged …the murder of his best friend. 32 . 9. Mothers are well-known for putting the needs of the family …their own interests.at. 4. If you fall …with the rent. 1. The thieves have taken …the mountains to find a safe hide. I will go … … my plan whatever you say. The Board's decision about the new building rests …the chairman's vote. Our town is famous …its historical tradition. 9. The highway is …repair so we'll take a by-road. 3. He threw an angry look . How many people are … … for the executive director's job now? 5. 2. 2. Either Mary . He was …the impression that I was younger. 5. 6. He couldn't put … … all that noise and moved house. I don't think he is …earnest about asking her to marry him.. The personnel and the management are in dispute …wearing uniforms at work. Your writing in English suffers …lack of attention to the correct spelling and grammar. He fell on the ice …broke his leg. 3. The allegations against you about the embezzlement are …a joke. 4. 6. 71. …didn't catch a thing. 3. 7. 8. you will be asked to leave. 10. 3.. The same as above..2. 7. Complete the blanks with the right words.her sister got married last week. 10. Thompson is not here so you will have to do . It's time to lay our differences …and work together for the welfare of the business. 9. We fished all day. I will not put any student … … the exam until he is ready.. 2. Let us have a first drink to round the evening party … 70. While we were sitting in the garden. 69. She slipped a note …my hand when the teacher was writing on the blackboard. 1. somebody just walked …and stole a beautiful vase. Many young people now become addicted …drugs and alcohol. Our country is passing …troublesome times that never seem to end. 6. Having different religion and living in the same neighbourhood does not make …easy friendship. 4...me as if I had done something wrong. Fill in the gaps with the correct conjunctions. I shall have to cut …my savings to pay for the holiday. 1. 5. 8.or. 8. Adrian has great admiration …his painting teacher.

Put in one. With indefinite reference. “That doesn’t settle …question.. pain-pains. no. he would have represented …lion as standing over …hunter. You can't park …you like nowadays. Many is used in front of … and much in front of … nouns. The …day the Mayor appointed a new city officer. ‘I’m …of the city officers. We consider going to Florida.’ the officer replied. She's behaving …her elder sister used to when she was a child.of those who goes everywhere by bike. 33 . ‘You’re …of these messengers. …sentence was immediately lifted to reflect …help he had given to …resistance in …closing months of …occupation. Generic reference is used to denote : 4. …Bousquet claimed he had persuaded …Germans that …French police would only deport …stateless Jews. the other or some. Insert the necessary articles in the following sentences: …man and …lion once had …dispute as to which belonged to …nobler race. 10. Fill in with a(n). Give examples of summation plurals (at least three): 10. G. …of these means of transport is fine. When he arrived at the Town Hall the other day. 7.4. SUMMARISING EXERCISES Answer the following questions. “for if …lion had been …sculptor. he was stopped by two security guards. …of them was sure he had seen him before. aren’t you?’ ‘Well. 8.” 5. 7. ‘I know you. contentcontents. Claudia changed to the better …she went to college. other. while …French Jews were spared. 3.Make up sentences with the following words to illustrate the difference in meaning: ash-ashes. don’t I?’ asked …of the guards. 1. the indefinite article is used in: 6. either. Alexander: Longman English Grammar Practice) 8.’ ‘I knew you were …or …!’the guard replied. W hat is the difference between a few and few? 2. minute-minutes. …man pointed to …ancient monument on which was sculptured …triumphant hunter standing over …vanquished lion. He was sentenced to five years of …”national indignity”.Give examples of pluralia tantum in –s (at least five): 11. actually. Give example (at least five) of invariable nouns ending in –s: 9. 9.” said …lion. the or ‘-‘: At his trial in 1949. I've arrived early at the theatre …I may get a glimpse of the actors before the performance. 6. air-airs. others. but the new officer is . …prefer to go by public transport. …officers go everywhere by car. 5. It sounds …he is a man-eater. I bought the car at once …he changed his mind. He said …Germans had told him no more than that …Jews were being sent to …”special” zone in …Poland. (Adapted from L. …the plane tickets are very expensive.

c. where possible: a. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: somebody. monk. the lock of the door. the bell of the town cathedral. 16. …knows violets bloom in spring. a. the houses of the hens. and seraphim. g. h.Collective nouns can be subdivided into (give examples): 19. lice. and cock-pheasant. stallion. What is an adjective phrase? 34 . h. assistant director. passer-by. Negro. indices. calf. 20. stand-by. Parliament. Can …tell me which is the capital of Zimbabwe? 21. clergy. 25. f. c. everybody. motto. and youth? 13.Give the feminine of the following nouns: bachelor. colt. 14. data. b. and boy friend. gander. Say what these sentences mean a) without commas and b) with commas: The test which everybody failed was very difficult. b. I’m not in. g. the cry of a woman.Which of the following nouns are followed only by verbs in the plural: cattle. criteria.Give the plural of the following nouns: photo. manservant. 15. fungi. Name the uses of the numeral ‘one’. 17. anybody. He was aware that … knew what he had done. … knows anything about the runaway criminal. god. the proposal of the committee. nobody. d. bridegroom. Give the plural of the following nouns: attorney general. class. …is ringing the bell. the novels of Dickens. Which are the contexts that require the ‘any’ series? 24. In our university … is a member of a scientific organization. It will be the postman. e. grant-in-aid. volcano. committee. piano. drake. the key of the garage. police.Give examples of dual gender forms of nouns (at least three): 18. the mistake of no one. gentleman farmer. If …phones.Give the singular of the following nouns: analyses.12. Which are the universal pronouns and determiners? 23. gentry. cargo. tempi. My brother who is in Canada is a forester. 22.Use an –‘s. …rang me up yesterday to ask about you. the bottom of the cave. d. i. e. he-goat. hero. f. I know that …wished to know the results as soon as possible. archipelago. usher. i.

Place the adverbs in the following sentences so as to suggest at least two distinctly different meanings: a) a. substantially. Give two examples in sentences of adjectives as head of noun phrase. b) Everybody got bored to death because he talked and talked without end. Fill in with the right preposition: “I was laughed (1)… (2)…the main booking room”.The chairperson appreciated that my proposal was a good one. “They kicked me (3) …”. d) Everybody agreed that the old and the new methods should go together at the same time. in most respects. interminably. 31. correct. 36. polished – beautiful – looking for – antique – he was – coffee table – teak – English. father and children talked about making a festive dinner in secret. Put the following words in the correct order: silk – blouse – I – summer –red and white – bought – for my holiday – have. Georget remembers. i) Peter asked in a complaining manner why the teacher always grades him so poor. but he still wasn’t willing to support me. Replace each group of words in italics by one of the following adverbs: conceivably. outspokenly. a) a. clandestinely. be changed in the near future.26. She was exiled (4)…”a cell (5)…the back”. concurrently. Adverbs can modify: 33. Which are the three classes of adverbs? 32. (personally) 35. g) This manner of action will. Choose the right adverb in each sentence: a) Workers in this factory work … and get little money. he decided that it was better to leave. radically. When are adjectives used only attributively? 29. e) The chief of the expedition admitted that the itinerary was. she helped (6) …change 35 . j) The architect of the city said that the new aspect of the city would. Then.Despite his unwillingness. it may be imagined. What are the syntactic functions of the adjectives? 27. h) He is not accepted in our group because he always objects to our plans without any reticence or reserve. lead to success. reluctantly. (quite) b) I should ask her what she meant by her statement. querulously. (hard/hardly) c) We’ve received a lot of bad news … (late/lately) d) He comes home so … that it’s better to start our dinner without him. rather. f) Wanting to make mother a surprise for her birthday. (late/lately) e) She is trying to do her best so that everybody should think … of her. 28. (high/highly) f) If you want to be the first. c) The audience saw with lack of interest the end of the show. the world changed – or. indifferently. they can … pay their bills. Adjectives can be sub-classified into: 30. in very fundamental way. you should aim… (high/highly) 34. (hard/hardly) b) With the money they earn.

I hope she … A.. run down B.how old she is. How does a badger differ … a weasel? d. She even has a few full figures (15) … contract (16) … $1m. she says she has learnt two lessons (17) … all her years (18) … much bigger women: “Number one: don’t ever be afraid to ask (19) …more money. At … with For …of In … with In … to In … for On … with Under … of With … to 39. It’s a shame …little Tom: everybody was praised except him. Now we’re the coolest thing going. The world will be better (22) … my two daughters. b) I think James is weird. hold back D. it. c. turning down D. Number two: I look (20) … myself differently. compensation.” Georget currently represents some 60 models. h. several people were blamed for crimes …common sense. I don’t know why mother is worrying …. They had a mind to send me a post card but they forgot all . which makes her one (11) … the biggest big-girl bookers (12) … the world. d) it’s none of his business.Choose the phrasal verb to complete the following sentences: a) Whole villages down the valley were … …by the floods the previous year. put up C.000 (14) … $10. g. pulls through B. 38. Why is he always … … things that do not concern him? A. Tall players are by no means …an advantage at a basketball match. a. meddling with C. b. make out D. After the drought. the benefit. the influence. e. “There was an understanding (9)… the fashion world that women want (10) … be fuller. keep up c) I dare not tell my aunt the bad news. f. pulling through. She never tells her age.. turn in B. falling behind B.000 a day. Now I accept beauty (21) … all shapes and sizes. good terms.the world – and she was invited (7) … (8)…the main booking room. 37. throws up C. peace. people can only guess…. wiped out. of. reference. about. from. 36 . A. He knows …experience that it’s better to keep your mouth shut when the boss is angry. against. called off D. look out. As she’s so frail. Her models make (13) … $2. Nobody can …him … A. Complete the prepositional phrases with a word or words from the following list: agreement.: everything is all right. answer. look down on C. Choose the right preposition from: at.

g) women. A. waded through B. k) bases. i) The son assumed control of the company when his father died. j) doe. fell out D. e) wolves. d) roofs. 6 bottle. I’ve already … … half of the book. got round. 10 jar. getting across C. 42. a) daughter. mixing up. g) I can’t find our John Smith in the directory. mother wanted to climb the mountains and in the end they … …the countryside. d) barmaid. 40. m) empress. 37 . l) lice. it’s about time you went to bed. c) Go now children. b) ladies. h) He resembles his father in many ways. 9 piece. A. f) bitch. j) trout. A. i) aunt. hit on B. wrapping up. b) He waited more than an hour but his friend didn’t come. 3 tube. b) niece. 4 drop. c) toys. h) heroine. i) geese. 1 slice. GET d) How is your sister progressing in her new teaching job? e) I don’t think I shall complete the work till tomorrow. 43. 5 sheet.Replace the words in italics with the verb indicated at the head of the exercise together with an adverbial particle: TURN a) The bank manager refused his request for a loan. freshen up D. plumped for C. k) bachelor. f) She fell so badly the other day that I don’t think she will soon recover from the shock. n) criteria. h) craft.e) Why are you shouting at me? I’m sure you’re … me …with somebody else. ANSWER KEY Chapter exercises 41. 2 kilo. bringing round D. n) goose. A. g) mare. putting out B. m) dwarf. l) heiress. h) Father wanted to go to the seaside. TAKE g) My parents advised me to start learning a foreign language. 7 ball. c) duchess. 8 bar. f) I’ve been running all the way here. I’d like to … … before we have dinner. taking on C. f) teeth. a) buses. step up. e) duck. double up C. coming across D. go ahead B.

14 they. 58. 5 is. 1 white. 10 None of my friends have travelled to the States. 10 each.. It's from your boss. 2 I haven't got any nice skirts. 3 both. 2. 7 It. 5. 7 a. 4 any/your. 15 thirty. 24 the. 7. 2 findings. 7-h. 2 was.the . 38 . 1 all in all. 3-e. 1 An Englishman's…. 4 twenty. 2 sequel. 9 are. 23 the. 7. 9 all-clear. 21 the. 5 There. A good beginning makes a good ending. 5 them. 5 none. 10 both. 57. 3 everyone. 7 is. Every cloud has silver a lining. Don't halloo till you are out of the wood. 4. 8 some. 7 all day. 10 the half of it. The early bird catches the worm. 2 a. 9-f. 13 we. 6 the. 4. 50. 4. 1 hundred. A word to the wise is enough. 3 treasure trove. 6. 2 or articles/for a long time/out of touch. 2 other. 1 all. 8 no half measure. 4 blue. 9. 8 exploration. 6 both. 6 some. 8 silver. 7 other. 5 black. 1 There is a message for you. 10 It. the less speed. 5 both camps. 10 The. 45. 4 and all that…. 5 showbusiness. 9 Each employee in turn will tell the manager when he wishes to take his holiday. 3 at both ends. 8 which. 7 yellow. He will never see the Thames on fire. 9. The game is not worth the candle. 13 the. Every man has a fool in his sleeve. 12 The. 6. 2. 49. 7 flair. A…Good beginning is half . 7 his. 10-d. 10 a public speech/a woman.44. 9 nose. 3 It. 6 eye-opener. 7 at first sight/the other side/a crowded room/a glass of. 3 me. 22 the. 5 at all. 10 ours. 9 their. 8-a. We are going on holiday three weeks from now. 1 realisation. 53. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. 10 golden. 7 As she had no money whatsoever I couldn't ask any from her. 8 other. 7 actor. 10. He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree. 9 gold. 10 press. 12 it. Make hay while the sun shines. 2 their. 1 both ways. Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl. 6 She looked behind her because she heard a strange noise. 16 my. 6 The robbers/a blue car/The next day/the getaway car/a short distance/the scene. 8. 5 his. 56. 5-g. 47. 6 one. 9 whom. 2-i. 6 both sides. 3. 6 There. 3. 8 all go. 6 story. 20 -. 8 It. 59. 11 it. 1 other. 19 The. Rome was not built in a day 52. All cats are grey in the night. 5 He hates travelling by himself so he always has someone to accompany him. 9 something. 8 death. 18 The. 7 neither. 54. 8 Each employee in turn will tell the manager when he wishes to take his holiday. 3 movie. 1 a. 3 red. 6 green. 5 a narrow escape/a lorry. 46. 6 all she could do. 9 the. 8 the. 7 both hands. 5 a. 5 discovery. 2 it/herself. 1 are. 6 one/Either. 55. 4 The. 9 half a mind. 1. 8.battle. Strike while the iron is hot. 17 the. 10 all the idiots. 3 and all. 6-j. 4 It. 3 He put on his jacket and his hat and left. 3 to the party/out of sorts/to bed/a hot. The devil is not so black as he is painted. 1. 8 A young/the enemy/a war/to hospital/an operation. 4 are. 9 keep an open mind/on the issue/the public transport. 2 both worlds. 4 themselves. 3 one. 4-b. 15 the. 1 There. 2 It. 8 were. 11 the. 2 all of fifty. 3 The. A friend in need is a friend indeed. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. I need to buy one.. 16 The. 1-c. 9 Princess. 10 Every. 25 the. 48. The more haste. 5. 10. 4 breakthrough. 2 pink. 4 both your feet. 51. 10 invention. 9 There. 4 of the family/from school/in prison. 14 The. 1 talks. 4 idea.

67. 10 on the other hand. 9 up with. 1 without. 70. 5 from. 6 over. 6 for. 1 for. 9 slavishly. 9 toward. pianos. 6 That small house contained the sum total of the family's possessions. 3 different. pants. durere – eforturi. 5-a. 5 with. 2 into. 8 The president elect will live with his entire family in an official house. 4 to. 4 after. 6-h. 64. 1 without. 1-f. 9 in other words. 2 firstly. 68. looks. 4 sick. Suggested answers: 1 By and large. 4 querulously. Cattle. What is normal or typical for members of a class. -/the/the/-/-/the/the/a/-/-/The/the/the/the/the. 10 in case. 9 with. 3. 5 wherever. 7 in. 7 plain. tongs. 8 tirelessly. Other/Some/others/Either/one/One/one/one/one/one/the other 8. clergy. 9 with. 69. 7 from. 61. Summarising exercises 1. 2. 8 on the contrary. 4 against. youth. measles. 4 on. 3 off. billiards. 39 . 2 conceivably. 2 She always boasts that they have had a Governor General in their family. 5 behind. almost nothing. 6 miserable. A/a/a/the/The/an/a/a/the/the/a/the/the/the. 8 on. 1. 10 off. 63. Negroes. 3 however. remains. 7 by. motto(e)s. 3-b. 5 for. archipelago(e)s. 10 under. 7-d. 6. 6 (in) the same way. 3 about. 10-c. 2-e. 11. 9 above. 3 moreover. Photos. 3. 1 This year the Attorney General had a paramount influence on the development of the events. a few = a small number of. goods. 2. 6 through with. 5. 6 on the whole. 9 The question proper has not been answered by anyone present. aer – ifose. 4 in for. Complex transitive complementation with active verb. 2 but. 10 in. 6 tremulously. 8 in for. 2 into. 4 Hope eternal is not what is required from a strong young man. News. 1 at. 8-j. some. 5 Whenever I come into the room he tries to hide from me that he's reading a penny dreadful. 6 into. 7. much + uncountable nouns. 62. 3 on. 9 sober. 7 judiciously. Physics. 1 or. 9-i. 10 inopportunely. 5 fit. 65. 5 radically. 1 indifferently. 7 as if.60. 4-g. 7 From time immemorial there has been the belief that world is governed by gods. Pliers. Scrum – cenuşă. 8 large. 4. 10 thick. 12. Many + countable nouns. 1 at. Athens. 5 to. cargo(e)s. 5 certainly. 3 and. gentry. 13. 9. 3 from. 7 on. 3 stealthily. Complex transitive complementation with passive verb. Annals. 8 on. volcano(e)s. 10 Clara is a responsible woman so you can count on her. 7 near. 8 even if/though. 2 deaf. police. 9 so that/in order that. 3 to. 3 Every person in this group will be treated differently as they belong to various body politics. heroes. 7 funnily enough. 1 thin. 4 under. funds. 10 through. Intensive complementation. minut – proces-verbal. 66. 2 for. 10 about. 10. conţinut – cuprins (opis). 2 of. 6 to. 8 for. few = not many. 8 beyond. 2 by.

17. 11. 16. 26. a) I have other brothers somewhere else. 22. j) radically. i) anybody. 2. filly. 4. but he still wasn’t ³ willing to support me: 1. 34. spouse. c) inherent/non-inherent. criterion. To. g) -. He wasn’t completely willing. f) clandestinely. b) There was a single test which everybody failed. 20. 2. 1. 36. d) concurrently. Prepositional phrases. a) at. 2. The rich do not understand the needs of the poor. For. b) anybody. prevent. 3. 15. 3. index.14. When they do not characterize the referent of the noun directly (‘an old friend’). usherette. pre/post-determiners. d) no one’s mistake. boyfriends. 13. 3. c) the committee’s proposal. goose. 20. 17. 14. 25. In. heifer. d) at. never. To. fungus. 4. b) I have only one brother. Into. b) replacive one. i) -. h) outspokenly. b) hardly. Of. Child. He was looking for a beautiful antique polished teak coffee table. e) substantially. which everybody didn’t fail. b) interminably. The negatives not. 2. 8. In. The incomplete negatives hardly. b) ¹I should ask her ² what she meant by her statement: 1. bride. 1. Determiners. a) anybody. f) somebody. b) gradable/non-gradable. e) Dickens’ novels. d) everybody. Spinster. 16. In. 7. a) numerical one. duck. c) from. she-goat. g) conceivably. neighbor. Out. assistant directors. At. 31. In. 19. c) indifferently. b) -. 21. etc. menservants. passers-by. standbys. e) highly. From. 3. He completely agreed . nun. hen-pheasant. a) hard. h) somebody. Each. Under. For. An adjective phrase is a phrase with an adjective as head. 18. 9. a) reluctantly. A) stative/dynamic. Analysis. seraph. 32. In. all. 23. a) a woman’ cry. 1. 29. 18. 37. a) specific: army. 6. 24. datum. The wounded were left behind. With. grants-in-aid. f) -. 2. h) -. gentlemen farmers. g) somebody. etc. The implied negatives fail. c) indefinite one. Attorneys general. b) about. For. every. 3. 21. 30. Disjuncts. i) querulously. mare. little. To. At. 22. 40 . 35. etc. I have bought a red and white silk summer blouse for my holiday. h) about. Noun phrases. Back. e) everybody. 15. If I were you I …2. a)There were other tests. 27. b) generic: the aristocracy. g) from. Conjuncts. f) against. You need to see her in person. parent. 10. student. 28. Adjectives. e) about. goddess. 12. c) unique: the Arab League. and their compounds. louse. To. Adverbs. 19. Attributive and predicative. tempo. Adjuncts. a) He¹ appreciated that my proposal was² a good one. 1. c) lately. 33. From. c) nobody. 5. My proposal was good to a certain extent. f) high. 5. d) late.

i. 39. g) take up. a) turn down. h) reference. a) peace. e) compensation. b) turn up. d) answer. c) A. f) good terms.g. e) D.e. b) C. b) the benefit. I) took over the company. c) agreement. d) B. MP P American English British English adverb of manner adverb of place adverb of time Complement English for example (Latin exempli gratia) that is (Latin id est) Member of Parliament predicate O. e) get through. h) B. h) takes after. 40. f) get over. Obj object 41 . f) C. g) the influence. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AmE BrE Am Ap At C E e. a) D. d) getting on.38. g) A. c) turned in.

J. ***The Wordsworth Concise English Dictionary (1994) (G. Essex England: Longman Group UK Limited. B. S. Tatiana (2002) A Short Grammar of English for Upper Intermediate and Advanced Students. Iatcu. 42 . J. P. Ed. (1995) Living English Structure. M. (1972) A Syntax of English Phrasal Verbs. Publishers Stănciulescu. V. (1995) Advance English Practice. S. L. BPC Hazel Books Ltd. Guy (2001) Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency. (1994) Longman English Grammar. Tg. R. N. Rosemary (1994) Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Great Britain: Penguin Books. (1990) Test Your Phrasal Verbs.) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. S. W. A. & Elsworth. Seaton and J. L. Hornby. Heaton. A. E. Side. W. Alexander. Bucureşti: Editura ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică Walker. Essex England: Addison Wesley Longman Limited Watcyn-Jones. K. Davidson. Essex England: Longman Group UK Limited. & Allsop. G. J. Allsop. Mures: Universitatea Petru Maior. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Great Britain: Longman Group Ltd. Great Britain: Longman Graver. Paris: Mouton & Co. Richard & Wellman. A.) Cumberland House: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. B. Simpson Eds. Great Britain: Longman Stannard Allen. G. BPC Hazel Books Ltd. Essex England: Longman Group UK Limited. (1993) A University Grammar of English. D. (1974) Prepositions and Adverbial Particles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Part Prep S V V2 V3 particle preposition subject verb past participle past participle BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander. (1975) Prepoziţia. Quirk. J. & Greenbaum. Courtney. London: Longman Group UK Limited Sroka. (1998) Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students. (1992) Longman English Grammar Practice. M. (1997) (Crowther. (1990) Test Your Preposition. The Hague. Great Britain: Penguin Books.

***The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1993) (Revised by Ivor H. Evans) Cumberland House: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. ***English Dictionary for Advanced Learners (2001) Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers ***Oxford Learner's Dictionary of English Idioms (1994) Oxford: Oxford University Press 43 .

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