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Thermodynamics

Mollier plots of two imaginary gas mixes created by means of our computer programs.
One visualizes gas behavior at extremely high pressures, the other illustrates properties
of another gas mix at very low temperatures.
3M-BTU/LB OEG. FAHA
~l 16 i 28 i 32 1 36 i 60 1611 168 I 72 1 '" 2 00 204 , 08 2 '" ~..-'l.ijlJ i.L1a i.S2 i.S6 1.60 1.6L1 l.66 i.72 i.76 SMi~~JU/LB1.~~G. F~~8~ 1.92 1.96 2.~
g
~'"
--
~ ~
N ~
CRIGGEN I C MIXTURE MOLE FRACT i ON OF Cl'HPl'NENTS
g Ml'LE FRACT JON OF COMPONENTS
METHANE 0.9000 ISl'PENTRNE 0.0005
METHANE 0.7600 N-PENTANE 0.0050 ~
~ I- ETHANE 0.0529 N-PENTANE ETHYLENE 0.0020 N-HEXRNE 0.0020
PRClPANE 0.0200 N-HEXANE
O. ODDS
O. 0001
'" ETHANE 0.1200 N-HEPTANE 0.0010 ~
PRljPRNE 0.0600 NlTRljGEN 0.0200
ISDBUTANE 0.0030 NITROGEN
N-BUTANE 0.0030 C DIOXIDE
0.0100
0.0100 "
N-BUTANE 0.0200 C DIljXIDE 0.0100
~ t- N TEMPEAATURE-OEG. FAHR
TEMPERATURE-DEG. FAHA PRESSUAE-PS I R
PRESSUAE-P5IA
~
g ~
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g ~ ;ZV
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~~~'ih////20 ~
3S ii j¡1l~12M~~Pí~:27
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1/ /77/ 1////1 ,;~/17/?A/7/ /.-o
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i/1:7jØ~~~Wtrr~ ~
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'¡.it: J.Z4 1.% 1.60 l,t4 J.£û
5M.-BTU/LB DEe. FRHP.
_.all ('.1" "'.35 1.1111 i.IIB i.611 1.76 L.BO l.a4 l.aa
5M-BTU/LB DEG. FRHR
2.00 2.12 2.24 2.'~
65 66
Calculation methods

The calculation procedures on the Symbols and subscripts


following pages apply to "straight"
compression-the compression of a
certain gas from a given suction pres- cp Specific heat at con- TR Reduced temperature
sure to a desired discharge pressure. stant pressure (T/Te)
The methods outlined are: cv Specific heat at con- Temperature (OF)
1. The "N" method (so named stant volume v Specific volume (cu. ft.
because of the extensive use of the H Head (ft. lb. per lb.) per lb.)
polytropic exponent "n"). It is used h Enthalpy (BTU per lb.) w Weight flow (lb. per
a. when the fluid to be compressed k Adiabatic exponent (cp/cv) min.)
closely approximates a "perfect" Mcp Molal specific heat at X Temperature rise factor
gas (air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen). constant pressure Z Compressibility factor
b. when a chart of the properties of MW Molecular weight GHP Gas Horsepower
the gas or gas mixture is not available. n Polytropic exponent BHP Brake or Shaft Horse-
2. The "Mollier" method which in- PR Reduced pressure power
volves use of a Mollier diagram and (PIPe) r¡ Efficiency
is used whenever a plot of the prop- p Pressure (psia)
erties of the fluid being compressed
is available. Pe Critical pressure (psia)
0 Capacity (cfm) Subscripts
R Gas constant
(1544/MW) ad Adiabatic process (Had)
r Pressure ratio (P2/p1) p Polytropic process (Hp)
s Entropy (BTU per lb. S Standard conditions-
per °Rankine) usually 14.7 psia,
T Absolute temperature 60°F, dry (Os)
(ORankine=oF+459.6) 1 Inlet conditions (P1) (01) (t1)
Te Critical temperature 2 Discharge conditions
(ORankine) (T 2) (P2) (Ì2)

69
,-~-. 7'-' ~- - =

Compressor calculation
,by the "N" method

STEP 1:
If a pure gas, begin with Step 2, If a mixed gas, calculate mixture properties as follows (see Table 1, Page 71):
~
(1) (2) (3) f¡4i (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
,. ..
Gas Mol % Mols/HR Mol Wi.

-- -
Tc

-
Mixture each gas
Pc MCn .. ~
each gas (Table 1) (1) x (3) Weight % (Table 1) (Table 1) (1) x (6) (1) x (7) (Table 1) (1) X(10J
,
.. . ... . a a/dX100 .. ,. ... . ... . ... .
... . ... . b b/dX100 ... . ". .. .. .
.. . .. c c/dX100 '" . .. ..
d ... .
- MeR Mix I
LCalculate k (Mixture) = Apparent Tc Mix Pc Mix MCn Mix
M'£n_riIX-1.99, Mol Wi. of
Mixture

STEP 2: Calculate Inlet Flow (01) STEP 6: Find number of Stages required
Mols/hrXMol Wt First, from Chart 4, Page 74, find maximum permis-
01 = V1 Xw w 60 (Ib/min) sible head per stage.
-
Vl ZlRT1
= 144 Pi R 1544
= MW _ Hp (Step 5)
Stages - Max. Head per Stage
Zl-assume to be 1, or use Chart 1, Page 72 i- If Max. Head per Stage from Chart 4 J
Pi T R1T1 L is over 12,000 ft, use 12,000 ft
If using Chart 1- PR1 =-p = l- c c STEP 7: Find Speed required
STEP 3: Select Compressor Frame
Volume (01) use Table 2, Page 71 (approx,
Given Inlet
Dimensions and Weights are listed on Pages 33 and
. ~ Hp
Speed = Nominal Speed 12,000XNo. of Stages
34). Nominal Speed from Table 2 (at 10,000 or 12,000 ft
head depending on impeller selected).
STEP 4: Calculate Average Compressibility
STEP 8: Find Shaft Horsepower required
(Zavg. )
Zl+Z2
Total HP = Gas HP+Bearing and Oil Seal Losses
wXHp
IZavg = -r
-, Gas HP = r¡pX33000 '"
Zl from Step 2 Z2 as follows:
Determine losses from Chart 5, Page 74, based on
X
*T2'(approx.) = r¡- (Til+T1 type of seal selected (see Page 18 for discussion
ad of seals).
From Chart 2, Page 72, find X (temperature rise factor)
and r¡ad (using pressure ratio (r) as given, k from Step STEP 9: Find actual Discharge Temperature
1 or Table 1, r¡p from Table 2).
(h)
Then calculate Z2 (as in Step 2, using Chart 1) using
Hp
P2 (given) and T2 as calculated. t2 = +t1
Zavg. R ( k~ 1) r¡p
STEP 5: Calculate Polytropic Head (Hp)**
Using Chart 3, in the foldout, determine Hp/Zavg
Multiply by ZavQ to obtain Head.
STEP 10: Calculate Discharge Flow (02)
Or, for greater accuracy: Pl T 2 Z2
02 = 01 X P2 X T1 X Zl 'I
Zava R T1
Hp =
n-1 - n -1 *This approximate T 2 may differ slightly from actual discharge
n LP1p 2.' J temperature since the effect of compressibility upon tempera-
n-1 k-1 ture rise has not yet been considered.
n = k(T)) T) from Table 2 **Adiabatic head may be calculated by using 100% efficiency line
on Chart 3.

4t- ~ 7l~ ~P;j - i)

70
.~

Compressor calculation
by the Mollier method
Refer to the simplified Mollier diagram (below). _ Hp (Step 4)
Stages - Max. Head per Stage
STEP 1: Find Inlet Flow (Od If Max. Head per Stage from Chart 4
01 = V1 X w i? over 12,000 ft., use 12,000 ft.
Locate Inlet State Point (1) at intersection of P1 and
STEP.6:Find Speed Required
t, Read V1 by interpolating between specific volume
(v),lines. . I Hp
Speed = Nominal Speed~12,000 X No. of Stages
STEP 2: Select ComPressor Frame Nominal Speed from Table 2 (at 12,000 ft. head)
Given Inlet Flow (01) use Table 2, Page 71, (Dimen-
sions & Weights are listed on ,Pages 33 and 34.) STEP 7: Find Shaft Horsepower Required
Total HP = Gas HP + Bearing & Oil Seal Losses
STEP 3: Find Adiabatic Head (Had) w X Hp
Read Inlet Enthalpy (hd directly below (1). From (1), Gas HP = % X 33000
follow line of constant Entropy (s) to discharge pres-
sure (P2), locating Adiabatic Discharge State Point Determine losses from Chart 5, Page 74, based on
type of seal selected. (See Page 18 for discussion of
(2ad). Read Adiabatic Enthalpy. (h2ad) directly below seals).
(2ad).
ßhad = h2ad ~ h1 (Btu per lb.)
Conversion factor: 778 ft. Ib./BTU STEP 8: Find Actual Discharge Enthalpy (h2)
Had = ßhad X 778 ßhad
h2 = -TJ + h1
ad
STEP 4: Find Polytropic Head (Hp) Had from Step 3; TJad from Step 4
H = Had X TJp
p TJad STEP 9: Find Discharge Temperature (t2)
Find k from Table 1 ,Page 71 and Specific Volume (V2)
Calculate Pressure Ratio, r = P2/P1 On Mollier, plot vertically from h2 (Step 8) to P2. Read
Ì2 and V2.
Find TJp from Table 2 and use Chart 6, Page 75, to
find TJad
STEP 10: Find Discharge Flow (02)
STEP 5: Find Number of Stages required 02 = w X V2
First, from Chart 4, Page 74, find maximum permis-
sible head per stage.

CRITICAL POINT

0
0Z
c V
'" Ul
D. -l
i-
w z-l
II
:: v -c
Ul
Ul 0r
w
II c
a. :;
rr
v
rZ
rr
Ul

ENTHALPY (BTU per LB) hi

i: Ahad ~r
75
Chart 1
~
1.05
Table 1 Gas Properties
(Most values taken from Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association Engineering Data Book-(1972. Ninth Edition) 5.00
1.00 3.00
-- --i-i--- -
Critical Conditions *Mcp
F: :: :: -- i- - -: r- - - :: - r- i- r- -I-
" t: -
Hydrocarbon Chemical Molecular Specific Heat Ratio \ 2.00
-~ J- - ~ ;..... :. .... ..--... -. :- t: ::- - :: :: r-r- ¡-¡- -r-
Gas or Vapor Reference Symbols Formula Weight k =cp/cv
at 60F
Pressure Temperature
at 50F at 300F \ -
t' .... :: -.... .. f:¡... I- ¡- -¡-
Pc (psia) Tc (OR) 1.60
~t .. .. .. r- t: -- --
Acetylene C2= C2H2 26.04 1.24 905 557 10.22 12.21 ""0.
Air N2+02 28.97 1.40 547 239 6.95 7.04 \.r, 6'S
.¡ ~
.. I..
.. r-
.. .... i- .. .. .. ¡- ..
0.90 . ;. 1.40
Ammonia NH3 17.03 1.31 1657 731 8.36 9.45
Argon A 39.94 1.66 705 272 4.97 4.97 .. .¡ ~( Ì's ..
.. .. ¡. r- .. I-I- ....
Benzene
Iso-Butane iC4
C6H6
C4H,o
78.11
58.12
1.12
1.10
714
529
1013
735
18.43
22.10
28.17
31.11
.. II..
I~,
1'..
.. .. r- i'
¡-
.. ¡. ..
.. ..
1.30 ~
.. .. Ì" ..
f-
" r- ~ i'
"-
n-Butane
Iso-Butylene
nC4
iC4=
C4H,o
C4H6
58.12
56.10
1.09
1.10
551
580
766
753
22.83
20.44
31.09
27.61
N I .~c "-
" "-,,
"-
"" l" Ì' .. ~ a:
1.20 ::
w
Butylene nC4 C4HB 56.10 1.11 583 756 20.45 27.64 )0
f- 0.80
i "-
I' '"
" "" f-
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Carbureted Water Gas (1)
CO2
CO
-

44.01
28.01
19.48
1.30
1.40
1.35
1073
510
454
548
242
235
8.71
696
7.60
10.05
7.03
8.33

ai
(f
I
i

,
.~ i' ,
"" Ì' " Ì' .. -i
1.15 0:
::
W
a.
(f 'l~ w
8.44 8.52 w i 0 '"
Chlorine CI2 70.91 1.36 1119 751 1.10 f-
Coke Oven Gas (1) - 10.71 1.35 407 197 7.69 8.44
a:
a. " '\ a
a::
I
"-
n-Decane
Ethane
nCio CioH 22 142.28 1.03 320
708
1115
550
53.67
12.13
74.27
16.33 u 0.70 I '\ Ì\ '\ uw
30.07 1.19
\ \ a::
C2 C2H6
Ethyl Alcohol C2H5OH 46.07 1.13 927 930 17 21 .À w
Ethyl Chloride C2H4CI 64.52 1.19 764 829 . 14.5 18 ~ -P" a:
1.05
Ethylene C2- C2H4 28.05 1.24 742 510 10.02 13.41 I C? \
Flue Gas (1) 30.00 1.38 563 264 7.23 7.50 I \
Helium He 4.00 1.66 33 9 4.97 4.97 I
n-Heptane nC, C,H'6 100.20 1.05 397 973 39.52 53.31 I \
n-Hexane nC6 C6H'4 86.17 1.06 440 915 33.87 45.88 0.60
Hydrogen H2 2.02 1.41 188 60 6.86 6.98 I
i
Hydrogen Sulphide H2S 34.08 1.32 1306 673 8.09 8.54 \
Methane C CH4 16.04 1.31 673 344 8.38 10.25 \
Methyl Alcohol CH30H 32.04 1.20 1157 924 10.5 14.7 I
Methyl Chloride CH3CI 50.49 1.20 968 750 11.0 12.4 , 1.00
I
Natural Gas (1) - 18.82 1.27 675 379 8.40 10.02
Nitrogen N2 28.02 1.40 492 228 6.96 7.03 0.50
o 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90
n-Nonane nCg CgH 20 128.25 1.04 345 1073 48.44 67.04 REDUCED PRESSURE (PR)
Iso-Pentane iC5 C5HI2 72.15 1.08 483 830 27.59 38.70
n-Pentane nC5 C5H'2 72.15 1.07 489 847 28.27 38.4 7
Pentylene C5- C5H1O 70.13 1.08 586 854. 25.08 34.46
n-Octane nCB CBH'B 114.22 1.05 362 1025 43.3 59.90
Oxygen O2 32.00 1.40 730 278 6.99 7.24
Propane C3 C3HB 44.09 1.13 617 666 16.82 23.57 Chart 2
Propylene.
Blast Furnace Gas (1)
C3- C3H6
-
-
42.08
296
1.15
1.39 -
668
-
658 14.75
7.18
19.91
7.40 POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY (1\, )
66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88
Cat Cracker Gas (1) 28.83 1.20 674 515 11.3 15.00 1.50
Sulphur Dioxide S02 64.06 1.24 1142 775 9.14 9.79
Water Vapor H2O 18.02 1.33 3208 1166 7.98 8.23 1.40
o
(1) Approximate values based on average composition. 1.30
'Use straight line interpolation or extrapolation to approximate Mcp at actuai inlet T. (For greater accuracy, average T should be used.) f.
1.20
o
Table 2 Ellot Compressor Specifications
1.10
Frame
*Normal Flow
Range
(icfm)

**Nominal Polytropic
Head per Stage
(Hp)

Nominal Polytropic
Effciency
T)p

+Nominal Max.
No. of
Stages

Speed at
Nominal
Polytropic
Head/Stage
1.00
0.90
~
'!

.-l
~.'+- \"
29M 500e 8,000 10,000 .76 10 11,500
38M 6,000- 23,000 10,000/12,000 .77 9 8,100
46M 20,000- 35,000 10,000/12,000 .77 9 6,400
60M 30,000- 58,000 10,000/12,000 .77 8 5,000
70M 50,000- 85,000 10,000/12,000 .78 8 4,100
88M 75,000-130,000 10,000/12,000 .78 8 3,300
103M 110,000-160,000 10,000 .78 7 2,800 o
110M 140,000-190,000 10,000 .78 7 2,600
25MB (H) (HH) 500- 5,000 12,000 .76 12 11,500 .ii;'
32MB (H) (HH) 5,000- 10,000 12,000 .78 10 10,200 r:
38MB (H) 8,000- 23,000 10,000/12,000 .78 9 8,100
46MB 20,000- 35,000 10,000/12,000 .78 9 6,400 ,t,t ,n .91
60MB 30,000- 58,000 10,000/12,000 .78 8 5,000
70MB 50,000- 85,000 10,000/12,000 .78 8 4,100 5 \J
88MB 75,000-130,000 10,000/12,000 .78 8 3,300
*Maxímum flow capacity is reduced in direct proportion to speed reduction.
"Use either 1 0,000 It or 12,000 It for each impeller where this option is mentioned.
+At reduced speed, impeliers can be added.
55 60 65 70 A' !75 80 85 90
ADIABATIC EFFICIENCY ('lad)
71 72
í
Calculate the Elliott compressor required to handle a process gas at the following operating conditions: Chart 4
Inlet temperature (td = 40F. Inlet pressure (pd = 20 psia / Discharge pressure (P2) = 100 psia MAXIMUM HEAD PER STAGE
Gas conditions: 2378 mols/hour of mixture of Propane (95%), Butane (3%) and Ethane (2%) (by volume o o 00
00 1'/0 ~r.00
~OO
,0, ,'/' 000
or mol percentage). -i00 -i'OOO r.~ '0000
I ,
0,'0
,
STEP 1: Calculate Gas Mixture Properties
(2) (5)
(1) Mols/HR (3) (4) Weight % (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) INLET
- -
Gas Mol % (Mol % MoIWL. 1(4)+44.241 Tc Pc Me"
TEMP
Mixture eaeh gas X2378) (Table 1 ) (1) X (3) X100 (Table 1) (Table 1) (1) x (6) (1) x (7) (Table 1) (1)X (10) (OF)
Propane
Butane
Ethane
95%
3%
2%
16.63

2259
k (Mixture) = 16.63 1.99

71
48
2378

4409
58.12
30.07
= 1.137

41.9
1.74
0.60
44.24
Apparent
MoIWL. of
Mixture

94.71%
393%
136%
666
766
550
617
551
708
-- -
632.7
23.0
11.0
666.7
T, Mix

586.5
16.5
14.2
617.2
Pc Mix

16.55
22.5
11.96

15.72
0.675
0.239
- 16.634
Me" Mix

~
f-
Z
w
oZ
0-
X
W

'*
..
200°F
150°F
100°F
50°F
u OaF
STEP 2: Calculate Inlet Flow (Od Or, more accurately, from the equations: f-
.:
2378 x 44.24
weight flow (w) = 60 = 1753 Ib./min. n-1 1.137-1 ai
.: ,. -50°F
-i = 1.137 X.77 = 0.1566 o
.: ,. %
20 40 + 460
PR1 = 617.2 = .0324 T Ri = 666.7 =.75 1544 (40+460)
From Chart 1 Zl .97
Hp=.95X44.24X .1566 X(51566-1)=30350ft. 1.05
1.10 1/ / ,. ,. / 97
!/
:0
-100°F
/ /' /' / /'
1544 (40 + 460) STEP 6: Find Number of Stages required 1.20 ,. -150°F
Vl = .97 X 44.24 X 144 X 20 = 5.88 From Chart 4 (knowing moL. wt. of mix, k1 and td /'
1.30 /' 1/
01 = 5.88 X 1753 = 10310 icfm Max Head per Stage = 10080 ft. /' /'
1.40
/' '0 .'0 p.
30400 ,. -200° F
STEP 3: Select Compressor Frame No. of stages = 10080 = 3.03 or 4 stages
From Table 2, the smallest compressor frame capable
of handling this flow (10310 icfm) is Frame 38M.
25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
STEP 7: Find Speed required MOLECULAR WEIGHT (MW)
Note that this is a horizontally-split machine; avail- 30400
able up to 9 stages; average polytropic efficiency Speed = 8180 10000 X 4 = 7135 rpm
77%;8100 rpm at 12000 ft. head per stage. Chart 5
Approximate Dimensions and Weights are shown (10000 ft. impellers have been selected.)
on Page 33. . STEP 8: Find Shaft Horsepower required 160
LABYRINTH OR DRY CARBON RING SEAL ISO-CARBON OR ISO-SLEEVE SEAL
160
STEP 4: Calculate Average Compressibility 1753 X 30400
Gas HP = .77 X 33000 = 2100 hp 140 140
r (pressure ratio)P2
p; =100
20 = 5 Bearing and Oil Seal Loss (from Chart 5) and as- 120 120
For atmos. pressure, add 5% for
k = 1.137 (Step 1) 1Jp = 0.77 (Table 2) suming Iso-Carbon Seals, for Frame 38M com- each additional 100 psi suction
From Chart 2 X = 0.21 1Jad = 0.748 pressor = 56 hp pressure.
100 100
0.21 (40+460) Shaft HP = 2100 + 56 = 2156 hp
T2 (approx) = 0.748 +(40+460) = 640.5 R
T2 640.5 P2 100 STEP 9: Find Actual Discharge 80 a:
TR2=Tc =666.7=0.961 PR2=Pc =617.2=0.162 Temperature (t2) i
ã: 80
i
en en
From Chart 1, Z2 = 0.93 30400 w
en MOLLIER
W
en
t2 = 1544 I 1.137) +40=183.5 F en
o.- EXAMPLE
en
Zl + Z2 .97 + .93 .95 X 60 603
Zavg = 2 2 = .95
44.24 \1.137-1 X.77
"N" METHOD
STEP 5: Calculate Polytropic Head (Hp) STEP 10: Calculate Discharge Flow (02) EXAMPLE
From Chart 3, in foldout-knowing 20 179+460 .93
02 = 1031 OX100 X 40+460 X m =2545 cfm
k (Step 1) = 1.137 1Jp (Table 2) = .77 40 40
¡- (p2/pd = 5 Mol wt. mix (Step 1) = 44.24
t1 (OF) = 40
H
Y = 32000 Zavg = .95 20
1000 2000 4000 6000 8000 10,000 1000 2000 4000
20
6000 8000 10,000
Hp = 30400 ft. OPERATING SPEED OPERATING SPEED
73 74
~i
ample
Ethylene Chart
r SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 310 ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
Calculate the Elliott compressor required to handle Ethylene at the following operating conditions: 90000 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Ib./hr.; Inlet temperature (t,) = -140F/lnlet pressure (p,) = 15 psia/Discharge pressure (P2) = 215 psia. 800 ~6~~(.!;t:ilo ~
r:
~ ~ ~~
op:r
Refer to Ethylene Mollier diagram on Page 77:
700
O'~£a t200~-
i aO
soop
i 0°
22Q*F
2.iO~F
6 ~
600
°F'
. ~+t~~b l:
o OF
00.
L
tt
STEP 1: Calculate Inlet Flow (Od STEP 5: Find Number of Stages required Jm.~ .~ :t
90000
Weight flow (w) = 60 = 1500 Ib./min.
From Table 1, MW for Ethylene = 28.05. From Chart
4, using MW = 28.05, k = 1.24, t1 = -140; max.
500 fO
~ ti°
.
From Mollier (Page 77): at P1(15 psia) and t1(-140) Head per Stage = 11200 ft. - ~ a-O.~'
400 .'\c. +
.-~
68800 0°
V1 = 8.0 p
No. Stages = 11200 = 6.15 or 7 stages
01 = 8.0 X 1500 = 12000 cfm. tt j T¡
STEP 6: Find Speed required 300 fj W
~ tI
--l20P
STEP 2: Select Compressor Frame
From Table 2, the smallest compressor frame capable
of handling the flow (12000 cfm) is Frame 38M.
Note that this is a horizontally-split machine available

Nominal Speed (Table 2) = 8100 rpm.


68800
8100 12000 X 7 = 7310 rpm
I,
(lL -

+-
~w Tt i-
ü
up to 9 stages; average polytropic efficiency 77%; r "?
8100 rpm at 10000 ft. or 12000 ft. head per stage. STEP 7: Find Shaft Horsepower required i
l ~1if .~l~ I~
Approximate Dimensions and Weights are shown on 1500 X 68800 l ~
Gas HP = .77 X 33000 = 4060 hp
Page 33.
STEP 3: Find Adiabatic Head (Had) Bearing and Oil Seal Losses (from Chart 5) and
150 60°F
m~ÎTîX'
i m;i,WtAzr
rr:J tt fi~H-
i-1
+
l ..
From Mollier, inlet Enthalpy (h,) = 87.5. Follow line
assuming Iso-Carbon Seals, for Frame 38M com-
'tm~ l'1¥i fftF Tl it i titm
¡;fm t -b
of constant Entropy to P2 (215 psia). Read Adiabatic
Discharge State Point (h2ad) = 169.0
.thad = 169 - 87.5 = 81.5

pressor = 59 hp.
Shaft HP = 4060 + 59 = 4119 hp
STEP 8: Find Actual Discharge Enthalpy (h2)

100
90
80

80°!'
. ..H ~" ~
r~
.8
Had = 81.5 X 778 = 63400 ft. 81.5 c:
:.11"-t .le,l, m
.~I'
ii, I
h2 = .708 + 87.5 = 202.5 BTU/lb. if Ul 70 +
STEP 4: Find Polytropic Head (Hp) n. I °F
-
From Table 1, k for Ethylene = 1.24. From Table 2, STEP 9: Find Discharge Temperature UJ 60 tl
(I ,/ f ..
ci
TJp = 0.77. Pressure ratio (r) = 15 =.14.33
215 and Specific Volume
::
Ul
Ul 50m f. ~i~
From Chart 6 (below)-at r = 14.33, k = 1.24, and
On Mollier, plot vertically from h2 to P2 (215 psia).
Read Ì2 = 195F; V2 = 1.14.
UJ
ci
n. E- ::
40:; iao
TJp = 0.77; TJad = 0.708 _ mi ;ç¡: _ 0" ",t. C,.i,,~f ' m -
p .700 .
3
STEP 10: Find Discharge Flow ¡
H = 63400 X .77 = 68800 ft o = 1500 X 1.14 = 1710 cfm. 1 30
Chart 6 POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY (l\p )
66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 f,"
I 0

I,~ '''l .. ~i
i'~J
. .,
20
l -
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-,
I

;
ii I
20 .
.+ + .
.05 4 , --~
60 80 ~7.5 100 120 140 160 16 q 180 2002.oi.522O
ENTHALPY, BTU/ LB
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 310
77
76 PRESSURE RATIO (r) ADIA8ATIC EFFICIENCY (l)ad)
Chart 3 o 00 o00
POLYTROPIC AOHE(H)-'Z
000 Oi
09
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PRESSURE RATIO 1.07 I.OB 1.09 1,/0 1.20 ENT 1.60 1.70
ADIABATIC EXPON
K
BOO
-140 -120 -100 -BO -60 -40 -20 o 20
~
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 360
40 60 80 \ 100
./
120 140
ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
160
~---l-~--40 F ¡--
180
'-"j-I-

200
p¡,"

220
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240 260
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280 300 320
qO.Fl:
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1
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500
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ii
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t; jB
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if
i
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5"
O.F I O.
I Ti O'
15
/ ,H
iO I
~ 10 10
~.
5 200 220 240 260 2BO 300 320 340 360
~1
.+
Methane
Q
~ +c . '+ -+
i r ~ 5"
DATUM: Enthalpy 0
tL Entropy 0 at OOR and ideal gas state
--
Critical conditions Tc 116.5 F Pc 673.1 psi
~. ~lIiott
2 0 F
200 0' Adapted from charts developed by
California Research Corporation, San Francisco, California DiViSION Of CARRIER CORPORATtO
4 (§ 1965 by Carrier Corporation Form 138
-140 -120 -100 -BO -60 -40 -20 o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 JEANNETTE. PENNSYLVANIA
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 360 ENTHALPY. BTU/LB
t
800
700

-160 -140 -120 -100 -80


-10 0 (

-60 -40
-~Jo _ t --2 0

-20
20_

o
4 of
\
20 40
--
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 310
60 80 100
. lo~
" 'T-:,
2 ':, i r.:,
60~tll5jtr~£;
. 1"-l . ff~ .I~~. ISOF
00 "" ~ 60F
120
ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
140 160 180
'09:t: ,

200
2ól '\0 f

220
~ THY:
240
26~0 _ V.\- (:Pr~ foI32ojF
H-/tiBQo

260
340 F
-,+
280
o ot

300 310
800
o
æ To 700
i+ q.\1IrV~ =t
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4 ~ 380~F:
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20°F ,~ ~-T -+ ~ ~ ~mf' lI., 'm¡ i-
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::
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I

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Q

Q
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l ~ tJ 51 'm Jj "
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l/
200d:f' OODF o o'F
II ytjW I '
Ii
10 I
10
~
200 220 240 260 280 300 310
9
7 Ethylene
6 - 0" ~I~ I~ ,iIR .
-l
I~ 40-

DATUM: Enthalpy=O
Entropy=O at OCR and ideal gas state
Critical conditions- Tc=49.8 F Pc=742. i psi
4
-160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 o 20
.-
40 60 80 100
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 310

120 140 160


pOF
ENTHALPY, BTU/ LB

t_ 0"
180

Adapted from charts developed by


California Research Corporation, San Francisco, California
(§ 1965 by Carrier Corporation Form 142
tlliott
DIVISION Of CARRIER CORPORATfO
JEANNETTE, PENNSYLVANIA
- - ~~
-140
600
700

-120 -100
-

-80 -60
- 0°

-40
OF

-20
. off

o 20
"()~F

--
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 340
40 60 80 100
0
0
o'r
120
i
20°f

ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
140 160 180
..
200
=+- ~
ojF
~

220 240
rOb..F

260
~

280
5
~
,

300 320 340


800
-: 0° ! 2 ° õO~f , IO.~ 0 ß
I0F e "f
0
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80°F
2 .F
. 700

- 0, Or
3' 3BO°f!
0'
600 c- 600
9.
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+ ..
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40'
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0-.°
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j tl o. '~f o~ \
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1/
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4
~.
10 ° H
m i 10
9 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 34 o
l
6
, i
7
, ~
Ethane
6 DATUM: Enthalpy 0

Entropy Oat OaR and ideal gas state
fllio tt
--
° Critical conditions Tc 90.1 F Pc 708.3 psi
-
IOOllj: OF , ~ OF Adapted from charls developed by
California Research Corporation, San Francisco, California DIVSION OF CARRIER CORPORATION
4
(I
c Carrier Corporation
-140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 160
1965 b y Form 139 JEANNETTE. PENNSYLVANIA
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 340 ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
I
800
700

-120 -100 -80


0

-60
O'

-40
OF

-20
OF
¡

o
IQO"F
I F
4 °

20
-
i\
160 F

~
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 340
40 60 80 100
i~bt i
-
0
0 20 (I +-
0

120
'1_~2 ~
J-- +-

140
4 "'F
l-i
-

ENTHALPY, BTU/ LB
160
H-,
~
60°F

'80
2 ° 00°

200 220
3 0 F 60 F

240
,:do"
Il Ò °

260
2 °
,

280
O'F

300
4~JF !-A-

320 340
800
700
00
,II
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-
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500 ~
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- \
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"-
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60

0
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j

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50
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I!
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Q
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-
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20
,
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2 ° 300° OF 5000
15
~
10
II - 1 bt 10
- -
200 220 240 260 280 300 320 34 o
9
Ii -,
- -
8
7
.
-

-
Propylene
6 DATUM: Enthalpy 0
t 10 Entropy Oat OOR and ideal gas state
tllio tt
--
Critical conditions Tc 197.4 F Pc 667.0 psi
Adapted from charts developed by
California Research Corporation, San Francisco, California N
OMS/ON OF CARRIER CORPORATIO
4 (§ i 965 by Carner Corporation Form i 44 JEANNETTE. PENNSYLVANIA
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 340 ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
~
~I
~
¡,
, SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 300
ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300
~\ 800 - - - - - 800
f Of 'f I0f U -
ÕO f - 240 f , 2'
700 f 0 o' 40'
(;
lBO'
20 F-
\

2 2 0 0
-"4- 0
j;
r- 700
600 , 600
00 F
2
X
500 500
2
aoq
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400 400
, .
/.1 t 6 ';'
-
I 300 i
300
II -
II
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- 0
-
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t
200
i'
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I
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150
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8. r/ it 1\
150
--
t\
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i
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,
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1 -4
::
if
0 - "'I 1\ i7 i CL
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100
i d -i -
i
I fi i
100
w'
a:
::
90 90
if
if
4.
w
80 a:
80 CL
-a 70 t; 70
if
CL
. 60
\ "
60
w I -
a: Q.
::
if
if 50 50
w -
a:
CL .
~
40 .0 ~ +-
40
- q=
-
" t
30 "' 30
..
0
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"
-
20 .0 .6 20
7
-
i -
I, I7r
15 0 15
- 'F
1 ~ -
\
~
I
10
, -
10
200 220 240 260 280 30 o
-
. 0 -
Propane
DATUM: Enthalpy 0
Entropy o at oaR and ideal gas state ..
Critical conditions Tc 206.3 F Pc 617.4 psi
4
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 o 20
--
W W M 100
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 300

.
120 140 160
ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
180

Adapted from charts developed by


California Research Corporation, San Francisco, California
(Ç 1965 by Carrier Corporation Form 141 ~~
"Ellioft EN CORPORATfON
DIVSION OF CARRI
JEANNETTE. PENNSYlVANIA
- - ~.. ..
!i
-100
600
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i 09FH

--
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 300
40 60 60 100
IBO°F
-
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120
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ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
. 160 160
00 0
OF
,
200
4 0

-
-

220
36 .0

240
8 0 - o 0

260 260 300


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i II
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10 : 200 220 240 260 260 30 o
I

9
- -
ri
Iso- butane
6 -
.l 2 - \
- - +- - .\ DATUM: Enthalpy 0
1i 6 - -
f: 2
_.
Entropy Oat OCR and ideal gas state
~llio tt
I ~ ,
i Critical conditions Tc 275.0 F Pc 529.1 psi
--
0 004F
, - Adapted from charts developed by
California Research Corporation, San Francisco, California TlON
DIVSION Of CARRIER CORPORA
19 1965 by Carrier Corporation Form 147 JEANNETTE. PENNSYIVANIA
4
-100 -60 -60 -40 -20 o 20 40 60 60 100 120 140 160 160
SCALE DOUBLES FROM 80 TO 300
ENTHALPY, BTU/LB
- - -.... ...- ''''' -- .
From "Thermodynamic Properties and Re-
duced Correlations for Gases" by L. N.
Canjar and F. S. Manning. Copyright (Q 1967
Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Tex. All
rights reserved. Used with permission. Ammonia
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ENTHALPY B.1. U/LB
~--'' --- _..-.. - -= ~. ~::~-. -_.. ~ .-..
Section 16

Physical Properties

Introduction The compressibilty factor Z is a dimensionless


This section contains a number of charts, correla- factor independent of the extent or weight of the gas
tions, and discussions concerning the physical prop- and determined by the character of the gas, the tem-
erties of hydrocarbons and related compounds. perature, and pressure. Once Z is known or deter-
mined, the calculation of pressure-tern perature-volume
Fig. 16-1 is a table of physical constants ofa relationships may be made with as much ease at high
number of hydrocarbon compounds, other common pressure as at low pressure.
chemicals, and some common gases. Fig. 16-2 is an The equation used to calculate gas density is:
abridgement of GPA Publication 2145, an official
industry standard that is widely referenced in con- MP
tracts for custody transfer and other commercial Pv =
purposes. 10.73 TZ
These two tables are followed by correlations on Where:
compressibilty of gases. Additional correlations fol-
low on hydrocarbon fluid densities, boilng points, Pv = gas density, lb/cu ft
ASTM distilation, critical properties, acentric factors,
vapor pr~ssures, viscosity, thermal conductivity, sur- M = molecular weight
face tension, and gross heating value of natural gases. Other symbols described above
Since molecular weight, pressure, and tempera-
Compressibility of gases ture are set by process considerations, it is necessary
PRESSURE- VOLUME-TEMPERATURE to determine compressibility factor Z to obtain gas
density.
In dealing with gases at low pressure, the ideal gas
relationship has been, and is, a convenient and gen- According to the theorem of corresponding states
erally satisfactory tool. But when faced with measure- the deviation of any actual gas from the ideal gas
ments and calculations for gases under high pressure law is the same for different gases when at the same
the use of the ideal gas relationship may lead to corresponding state. The same correspondin.g states
errors as great as 500 %, as compared with 2 or 3 % are found at the same fraction of the absolute cr-it-
at atmospheric pressure. ical temperature and pressure, which are known
as the
Many equations of state which have been proposed
for representing the pressure-volume-temperature
Reduced temperature, Tr = T ITe
relationship of gases are complicated and inconven.-
ient in practical use. The compressibilty factor is Reduced pressure, Pr = PIPe
reasonably convenient and sufficiently accurate for
many engineering requirements. It corresponds to a Where:
multiplying correction factor (Z) by which the vol-
ume computed from the ideal gas equation is con- Te = absolute critical temperature
verted to the correct actual volume.
Pc = absolute critical pressure
PV = ZNRT T = absolute temperature at which the gas exists
P = pressure, psia P = absolute pressure at which the gas exists.
V = volume, cu ft Any units of temperature or pressure may be used
Z = compressibility factor provided only that the same absolute units be used for
T as for Te and for P as Pc'
N = No. oflb moles, or pqund mols, or
lb/molecular wt.
R = gas constant, 10.73 for all gases, GASEOUS MIXTURES
(psia' ft3/(OR.lb mol)
Fig. 16-3 represents the compressibilty factor as
T = absolute temperature, (459.67 + OF) a function of pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo

16 - 1 Rev. 1974
FIG. 16 - 1
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF HYDROCARBONS(271
See Note No. ~ 1. 2. 3.
Critical conltants

'"
ë¡;
.i..oi
LL
LL a. 0 LL
0 ..C '" 0
No. Compound
.¡¡

~
~.. to
c: "C;
~.
:J
CI 'õ 'eñ
'"
ë¡; ~.
.:.c
'"
.. 'õ a. CI l-
.!:J .!:J a. (0.
Q) a. a.
Cl (0
a. h
..:J'" '+
oi C)
..
0.0 LL
'Ñ ~
C C) ~ ..
Q)

E
U
Q)
C (0 :s 00 :J a. E
a. Q) ~
:s a := .¡
o~ '" ~ ~~

Q) E
Q) a
:J
LL :¡ ai ;: LL à: i- ;:
1 Methane CH4 16.043 -258.74(28) (5000.) -296.45d 667.8 -116.68 0.09B8
2 Ethane C2H6 30.070 -127.44 (800.) -297.04d 707.8 90.10 0.0788
3 Propane C3HS 44.097 -43.73 188.0 -305.82d 616.3 206.01
4 n-Butane 0.0737
C4H1O 58.124 31.12 51.54 -217.05 550.7 306.62 0.0703
5 Isobutane C4H1O 58.124 10.74 72.39 -255.28 529.1 274.96 0.0724
6 n-Pentane Cs H 1 2 72.151 96.91. 15.575 -201.51 488.6 385.6 0.0674
7 Isopentane CSH12 72.151 82.11 20.444 -255.82 490.4 369.03 0.0679
8 Neopentane Cs H 1 2 72.151 49.10 36.66 2.21 464.0 321.08

-
0.0673
9 n-Hexane C6HI4 86.178 155.73 4.960 -139.58 436.9 453.6 0.0687
16 2-Methylpentane C6HI4 86.178 140.47 6.769 -244.59 436.6 435.74 0.0682
11 3-Methylpentane C6HI4 86.178 145.89 6.103 453.1
12 Neohexane
448.2 0.0682
C6 H 1 4 86.178 121.51 9.859 -147.77 446.9 420.04 0.0668
13 2,3-Dimethylbutane C6HI4 86.178 136.36 7.406 -199.37 453.5

-
440.20 0.0665
14n-Heptane C7HI6 100.205 209.16 1.6201 -131.05 396.8 512.7 0.0690
152-Methylhexane C7H 16 100.205 194.09 2.2719 -180.89 396.5 494.89
163-Methylhexane 0.0673
C7HI6 i 00.205 197.33 2.1310 408.1 503.67 0.0646
173-Ethylpentane C7 H 1 6 1 oe .205 200.26 2.0130 -181.48 419.3 513.36 0.0665
182,2-Dimethylpentane C7HI6 100.205 174.54 3.494 -190.86 402.2 477.12 0.0665
192,4-Dimetlylpentane C7HI6 100.205 176.88 3.293 -182.63 397.0 475.84 0.0668
20 3,3-Dimethylpentane C7HI6 100.205 186.91 2.774 -210.03 427.1 505.74
21 Triptane 0.0662
C7HI6 100.205 177.58 3.375 -12.84 428.4 496.33 0.0636
~23n-Octane
Diisobutyl
CfjH1s 114.232 258.21 0.5370 -70.17 360.6 564.10 0.0690
CsHls 114.232 228.40 1. 017 -132.16 360.6 530.31 0.0676
24 Isooctane CsHls 114.232 210.63 1.7089 -161.28 372.5 519.33
25 n-Nonane 0.0657
C9H20 128.259 303.48 0.1796 -64.28 331.8 610.54 0.0684
26 n-Decane C1oH22 142.286 345.49 0.0609 -21.35 304.4 651.6
27 Cyclopentane 0.0679
CsHlo 70.135 120;65 9.914 -136.96 653.0 461.2 0.0594
28 Methylcyclopentane C6 H 12 84.162 161.26 4.503 -224.43 549.0

-
29 Cyclobexane 499.24 0.0607
C6HI2 84.162 177.31 3.266 43.80 590.9 536.6 0.0589
30 Methylcyclohexane C7HI4 98.189 213.67 1.6093 -195.86 503.6 570.15 0.0601
31 Ethene (Ethylene) C2H4 28.054 -154.79(29) -272.47d 131.
32 Propene (Propylene)
48.56 0.0748
C3H6 42.081 -53.90 227.6 -301.45d 667.2 197.06 0.0689
33 l-Butene (Butylene) C4HS 56.108 20.79 62.10 -301.63d 583.5 295.48
34 cis-2-Butene 0.0686
C4Hs 56.108 38.70 45.95 -218.04 612.1 324.37 0.0668
35 trans-2-Butene C4Hs 56.108 33.58 49.94 -157.99 587.0
36 i sobutene 311 .86 0.0679
C4HS 56.108 19.56 63.64 -220.63 580.0 292.55 0.0682
37 l-Pentene CsHlo 70.135 85.93 19.117 -265.40 511.8 376.93
38 l,2-Butadiene 0.0676
C4H6 54.092 51.53 36.5 -213.14

-
39 1,3-Butadiene
(653.0) (340.) (0.0649)
C4H6 54.092 24.06 59.40(45) -164.04 628.0 305. 0.0655
40 Isoprene CsHs 68.119 93.33 16.68 -230.71 (558.4) (412.) (0.0650)
41 Acetylene C2H2 26.038 -120.78e -113.4d 890.4 95.32 0.0695
42 Benzene C6H6 78.114 176.16 3.225 41.96 710.4 552.22
43 Toluene 0.0525
C7Hs 92.141 231.3 1 .0330 -138.98 595.5 605.57 0.0549
44 Ethylbenzene CsHlo 106.168 277.16 0.3716 -138.96 523.4 651.29
45 a-Xylene 0.0565
CsHlo 106.168 291.97 0.2643 -13.32 541.6 674.92 0.0557
46 m-Xylene CsHlo 106.168 282.42 0.3265 -54.17 512.9 651.02
47 p-Xylene 0.0567
CsHlo 1 06.168 281.05 0.3424 55.87 509.2 649.54 0.0570
48 Styrene CsHs 104.152 293.25 0.238 -23.10 580.0 706.0
49 i sopropy Ibenzene
0.0541
C9 H 12 120.195 306.34 0.188 -140.86 465.4

-
676.3 0.0572
50 Methyl Alcohol CH40 32.042 148.17 4.631 -143.79 1174. 463.08
51 Ethyl Alcobbl 0.0589
C2H6O 46.069 172.92 2.3125 -173.4 925.8 465.39 0.0580
52 Carbon Monoxide CO 28.010 -312.68 -337.0Qd 507.5(33) -220.41 (33)
53 Carbon Dioxide 0.0532(33)
CO2 44.010 -109.32e -69.77d 1071.33) 87.87(33) 0.0342(33)
54 Hydrogen Sulfide H2S 34.076 -76.56 387.1 (44) -121.58d --ae 30 b 212.6

-- -
55 Sulfur Dioxide 0.0460
S02 64.059 13.96 85.46(44) -103.81d 1145. 315.8 0.0304
56 Ammonia NH3 17.031 -27.99(30) 211.9(44). -107.88d 1636. 270.4
57 Air 0.0681
N2 + 0, 28.964 -317.8(36) 546.9(2) -221.4(2)
0.0517(3)
58 Hydrogen H2 2.016 -423.17v -434.81d,v 188.1 -399.9
59 Oxygen 0.5164
O2 31.999 -297.332v -361 ß2(),v 736.9 -181.2(33)
0.0367

- -
60 Nitrogen N, 28.013 -320.44(31 ) -346.0Qd 493.0 -232.7
Chlorine 0.0516
61 CI2 70.906 -29.25 154.9(44) -149.73d 1118. 291. 0.0280
62 Water H2O 18.015 212.00v 0.9495 32.00 3207.9 705.5
63 Helium 0.0509
He 4.003 -452.07(32) 32.990(32) -450.308(32) 0.2300(32)
64 Hydrogen Chloride HCI 36.461 -121.00 906.3(44) -173.52d 1205. 124.8 0.0356
Rev. 1981
16 - 2
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF HYDROCARBONS(27)
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Density of liquid ..o Ideal gas. Specific heat
14.696 psia, 60 of ~
II "l. 14.696 psia, 60 OF capacity
ë) u. 5
.0
Ê:i ..
.c ~oo ..5u .. u.
i6 °
14.696 psia, 60 OF
:i Ol
..'" .. 0 :2 Cp' No.
~ ,,'
.- u.
=- 0
f! 0
u
~
'ai
;:
.. II
~ (0
u ..
II '"
~ i:
u
.¡:
..c: -;e N'".~
;. (0
.': ~
.:;
II
E
:i . o=~
:i
0-
.- - E
-:
Btu/!Ib . OF)

I- ct ::
.= Õ=-.0
01 (0 f!
'! §i
a. æ_ Õ .. .- II ~iñ(O Ol . " ~ ::
U ..
~,ou. ~¡ ~ 8: 'æ l:
E E ~ u.
~ ~o.. .
U
'"
.. E
c. _~~
~
U~
.~~
:¡ /I u '"
q: ~
II '" u
E '"Ol '"=-
Ideal
Liquid
a'¡¡ Ol 0: c: "iõ ~bí
II
E
o ..æ~-i
'üCt
II .. ..- gas
~ 15
en f! -
.. :;
~-.- Ol i-
t!
~ () en
C. ..
en
.. (I c:
~
a +- .-
(0.3)i (2;il)i (2.5)i (6.4JÏ 0.0126 O.9Y81 0.5539 23.65 (59.1)i 0.5266 - 1
0.3563h
0.507sh
2.9701,x
4.231h,x
2.96CJ 10.12h 0.0978 09916 1.0382 12.620 37.48h 0.4080 0.9256 2
0.5842h 4.87CJ
4.221h 10.42h
4.861h 11.94h
0.00152h 0.1541 0.9808 1.5225 8.606 36.41 h 0.3887 0.5920 3
0.00117h 0.2015 0.9637 2.0068 6.529 31.80h 0.3951 0.566(41) 4
0.5630h 4.694h 4.684h 12.38h 0.00119h 0.1840 0.9661 2.0068 6.529 30.65h 0.3867 0.566(41) 5
0.6311 5.261 5.252 13.71 0.00087 0.2524 0.942t 2.4911 5.260 27.67 0.3880 0.548(41) 6
0.6244 5.206 5.196 13.86 0.00090 0.2286 0.948t 2.4911 5.260 27.38 0.3829 0.5353 7
0.5966h 4.974h 4.965h 14.51h 0.00104h a. 1967 0.9534 2.4911 5.260 26.16h 0.3885 0.5540 8
0.6640 5.536 5.527 15.59 0.00075 0.2998 0.910t 2.9753 4.404 24.38 0.3857 0.5332 9
0.6579 5.485 5.476 15.71 0.00078 0.2784 -- 2.9753 4.404 0.3833 0.5272 10
24.16
0.6689 5.577 5.568 15.48 0.00075 0.2741 - 2.9753 4.404 0.3776 0.5187 11
24.56
0.6540 5.453 5.444 15.80 0.00078 0.2333 - 2.9753 4.404 0.3812 0.5136 12
24.02
0.6664 5.556 5.547 15.51 0.00075 0.2475 - 2.9753 4.40424.4 7 0.3748 0.5130 13
0.6883 5.738 5.729 17.46 0.00069 0.3494 0.852t 3.4596 3.787 21.73 0.3842 0.5280 14
0.6830 5.694 5.685 17.60 0.00068 0.3303 - 3.4596 3.787 21.56 0.3816 0.5219 15
0.6917 5.767 5.758 17.38 0.00069 0.3239 - 3.4596 3.787 21.84 0.3790 0.5110 16
0.7028 5.859 5.850 17.10 0.00070 0.3107 - 3.4596 3.787 22.19 0.3858 0.5140 17
0.6782 5.654 5.645 17.75 0.00072 0.2876 - 3.4596 3.787 21.41 0.3858 0.5167 18
0.6773 5.647 5.638 17.74 0.00072 0.3031 - 3.4596 3.787 21.39 0.3951 0.5243 19
0.6977 5.817 5.808 17.25 0.00065 0.2681 - 3.4596 3.787 22.03 0.3836 0.5018 20
0.6946 5.791 5.782 17.33 0.00069 0.2509 - 3.4596 3.787 21.93 0.3776 0.4991 21
0.7070 5.894 5.885 19.38 0.00062 0.3981 0.783t 3.9439 3.322 19.58 0.3831 0.5238 22
0.6980 5.819 5.810 19.63 0.00065 0.3564 - 3.9439 3.322 19.33 0.3764 0.5112 23
0.6962 5.804 5.795 19.68 0.00065 0.3041 - 3.9439 3.322 19.28 0.3825 0.4900 24
0.7219 6.019 6.010 21.31 0.00063 0.4452 - 4.4282 2.959 17.81 0.3822 0.5220 25
0.7342
0.7504
6.121
6.256
6.112
6.247
23.26
11.21
0.00055
0.00070
0.4904 - 4.9125 2.667 16.32 0.3816 0.5207 26
0.1945 0.949t 2.4215 5.411 33.85 0.2712 0.4216 27
0.7536 6.283 6.274 13.40 0.00071 0.2308 - 2.9057 4.509 28.33 0.3010 0.4407 28
0.7834 6.531 6.522 12.89 0.00068 0.2098 - 2.9057 4.509 29.45 0.2900 0.4392 29
0.7740 6.453 6.444 15.22 0.00063 0.2364 - 3.3900 3.865 24.92 0.3170 0.4397 30

0.5217h 4.348h.x 4.338h 9.678h


0.0869 0.9938 0.9686 13.527 0.3622 - 31
0.00189h 0.1443 0.9844 1.4529 9.018 39.25h 0.3541 0.5835 32
0.6013h 5.01s1 5.004h 11.19h 0.00116h 0.1949 0.9704 1.9372 6.764 33.91h 0.3548 0.5343 33
0.6271 h 5.228h 5.219h 10.73h 0.00098h 0.2033 0.9661 1.9372 6.764 35.36h 0.3269 0.5352(42) 34
0.6101h 5.086h 5.077h 11.03h 0.00107h 0.2126 0.9662 1.9372 6.764 34.40h 0.3654 0.5345 35
0.6005h 5.006h 4.997h 11.21 h 0.00120h 0.2026 0.9689 1.9372 6.764 33.86h 0.3701 0.5484 36
0.6457 5.383 5.374 13.03 0.00089 0.2334 0.948t 2.4215 5.411 29.13 0.3635 0.5353(43) 37
0.658h 5.49h 5.48h 9.86h 0.00098h (0.2540) (0.969) 1.8676 7.016 38.4h 0.3458 0.5403 38
0.6272h 5.229h 5.220h 10.34h 0.00113h 0.1971 (0.965) 1.8676 7.016 36.69h 0.3412 0.5073 39
0.6861 5.720 5.711 11.91 0.00086 (0.1567) 0.949t 2.3519 5.571 31.87 0.3570 0.5185 40
0.615k 0.1893 0.9925 0.8990 14.574 0.3966 - 41
0.8845 7.374 7.365 10.59 0.00066 0.2095 0.929t 2.6969 4.858 35.82 0.2422 0.4098 42
0.8719 7.269 7.260 12.68 0.00060 0.2633 0.903t 3.1812 4.119 29.94 0.2598 0.4009 43
0.8717 7.267 7.258 14.61 0.00054 0.3031 - 3.6655 3.574 25.97 0.2795 0.4113 44
0.8847 7.376 7.367 14.39 0.00055 0.3113 - 3.6655 3.574 26.36 0.2914 0.4161 45
0.8688 7.242 7.233 14.66 0.00054 0.3257 - 3.6655 3.574 25.88 0.2782 0.4054 46
0.8658 7.218 7.209 14.71 0.00054 0.3214 - 3.6655 3.574 25.80 0.2769 0.4083 47
0.9110 7.595 7.586 13.71 0.00057 0.1997 - 3.5959 3.644 27.68 0.2706 0.4122 48
0.8664 7.223 7.214 16.64 0.00054 0.3260 - 4.1498 3.157 22.80 0.2917 0.4041 49
0.7963 6.639 6.630 4.826 0.00065 0.5648 - 1. 063 11.843 78.61 0.3229 0.5933 50
0.7916
0.7894m
6.599
6.581m(34)
6.590 6.981 0.00059
4.256m -
0.6608
0.044
- 1.5906 8.237 54.36 0.3318 0.5608 61
0.8176h 6.817h(35) 6.808h 6.456h -
0.9995 0.9671 13.55 0.2484 - 52
0.7871h 6.562h,X(36) 6.553h 5.193h -
0.2667 0.9943 1.5195 8.623 58.78h 0.1990 - 53
0.0920 0.9903 1.1765 11.36 73.07h 0.2379 0.4968(36) 54
1.397h 11.65h,x (36) 11.64h 5.498h - 0.2548 b.9801t 2.2117 5.924 69.01h 0.1448 0.3246(36) 55
0.6175h 5.14Sh,X(30) 5.139h 3.308h - 0.2576 0.9899(30) 0.5880 22.28 114.71 0.4967 1.21(30) 56
0.856m(36) 7.32m 4.06m - 0.9996 1.0000 13.102 0.2400 - 57
0.07107m 0.5931m(37) 3.399m -
-0.219W 1.0006 0.0696 188.2 3.401 - 58
1.1421 m (25) 9.522m(38) 3.360m -
0.0200 0.9993(39) 1.048 11 .859 0.2189 - 59
0.8094m(26) 6.748m(31 ) 4.151m -
0.0372 0.9997 0.9672 13.547 0.2484 - 60
1 .424h 11.87h 11.86h 5.974h -
0.0737 (0.9875)t(36) 2.4481 5.352 63.53 0.1137 - 61
1.000
0.1251om
8.337
1.04SOm(32)
8.328 2.160 0.00008
3Jm - 0.3434 - 0.6220 21.06 175.6 0.4447 1.001 62
o 1.0005(40) 0.1382 94.80 1.240 - 63
0.851h 7.1 CJ,x 7.09h 5.14h 0.00335 0.1232 - 1.2588 10.408 73.88 0.1909 - 64
Rev. 1974, 1979
16 - 3
Rev. 1981
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF HYDROCARBONS(27)
See Note No. -+ 10. 11. 12. 13. Flammability ÄSTM
Heating value 600FP limi.ts, vol % octane
,
U)
Net Gross . c'" :: in number
i: .0 air mixture

No. Compound
Ê::
::
c :=
o ..0
''¡
c:
"x
E
0
c.
'-) . coU)
- (

'l U)
o '"
.~ lt.o 0)
c. "0 co_
0._ ::
.. co:: C '8
co
cñ .~
co
.."ëñ
~
£..
Q. B. +-
0)
:;
~~..
.- 0)_
i. co::
.c
..
0)
~(Oco
f\+- a~ ~ ii~ -'-::.-
'" - *
co "0
"'.-
.. 0) ..
0(0 c ''¡ u. ::"O ..
c- .. .. E in .c '8 cx
~.J a
.0
-. "0 .c
l- ..-
- -
.. C'
~æ~
-
160 ~.- .¡¡

-~-: ~æ~
- -
.. :: O) Ql g¡ .. ai
.c .8
êi "0 .. "0
co _~"' :: 0- 0)
.. .- ::
co .._
. ..
:: .-
0-
co ..
O)~c.
co "' 0
I ~
a:
æ .. 0'"
.!:''¡~
0:
::
0
.. I'" 00i iß ~ ¿
a:

1 Methane 909.1 1009.7 219.20 9.54 5.0 15.0

-
2 Ethane 1617.8 1768.7 22178h 65889h 210.39 1.19949h
3 Propane
16.70 2.9 13.0 +0.051 +1.6fj
2315.9 2517.2 21499h 90962h 183.03 1 .28624h 23.86 2.1 9.5
4 n-Butane 3010.5 3262.0 21133h
97.1 +1.8fj
102918h 165.63 1 .32943h 31.02 1.8 8.4 89.61 93.81
5 Isobutane 3001.0 3252.6 21084h 98968h 157.52 31.02 1.8 8.4 97.6 +0.10fj
6 n-Pentane 3706.8 4008.7 20922 110071 153.58
7 Isopentane
1 .35748 38.18 1.4 8.3 62.61 61.71
3697.9 3999.7 20884 108722 147.12 1.35373 38.18 1.4 (8.3) 90.3 92.3
8 Neopentane 3682.3 3984.2 20819h 103554h 135.57 1.342 38.18 1.4 (8.3) 80.2 85.5
9 n-Hexane 4403.9 4756J 20783 115055 143.94 1.37486 45.34
\
10 2-Methylpentane 4395.2 1.2 7.7 26.0 24.8
4747.3 20753 113830 138.66 1.37145 45.34 1.2 (7.7) 73.5 73.4
11 3-Methylpentane 4398.2 4750.3 20764 115801 140.08 1.37652 45.34 (1.2) (7.7) 74.3 74.5
12 Neohexane 4384.6 4736.8 20718 112975 131.23 1.36876
13 2,3-D imethylbutane 45.34 1.2 (7.7) 93.4 91.8
4393.8 4746.0 20751 115293 136.07 1.37495 45.34 (1.2) (7.7) 94.3 +0.31
14n-Heptane 5100.3 5502.8 20680 118662 136.00 1.38764 52.50
152-Methylhexane 1.0 7.0 0.0 0.0
5092.3 5494.8 20657 117621 131.58 1.38485 52.50 (1.0) (7.0) 46.4 42.4
163-Methylhexane 5096.1 5498.6 20671 119210 132.10 1 .38864 52.50
173-Ethylpentane 5098.4 (1.0) (7.0) 55.8 52.0
5500.9 20679 121158 132.82 1 .39339 52.50 (1.0) (7.0) 69.3 65.0
182,2-Dimethylpentane 5079.7 5482.2 20620 116585 125.12 1.38215 52.50
192,4-Dimethylpentane 5084.4 (1.0) (7.0) 95.6 92.8
5486.8 20636 116531 126.57 1.38145 52.50 (1.0) (7.0) 83.8 83.1

-- - -
20 3,3-Dimethylpentane 5086.5 5489.0 20644 120086 127.20 1.39092
21 Triptane
52.50 (1.0) (7.0) 86.6 80.8
5081.3 5483.8 20628 119457 124.20 1 .38944 52.50 (1.0) +0.11
17.0) +1.81
22 n-Octane

- -
5796.1 6248.9 20601 121422 129.52 1.39743 59.65 0.96
23 Diisobutyl 5780.7 6233.4 20563 119656 122.82 1.39246 59.65 (0.98) 55.7 55.2

-
24 I soocta ne 5778.9 6231.7 20568 119377 116.70 1.39145
25 n-Nonane 59.65 1.0 100. 100.
6493.3 6996.3 20542 123642 124.17 1 .40542 66.81 0.878 2.9
26 n-Decane 7189.7 1743.1 20494 125444 118.68 1.41189 73.97 0.788 2.6

-
27 Cyclopentane 3512.2 3763.7 20186 126284 167.33
28 Methylcyclopentane 4199.1 1 .40645 35.79 (1.4) 84.9Í +0.1' (
4501.0 20131 126483

- -
148.54 1.40970 42.95 8.35 80.0 91.3

--
29 Cyclohexane (1.2)
4179.7 4481.6 20036 130855 153.03 1 .42623 42.95 1.3 7.8 77.2 83.0
30 Methylcyclohexane 4863.7 5215.9 20002 129073 136.30 1.42312 50.11 1.2 71. 74.8

-- -
31 Ethene (Ethylene) 1498.5 1599.2 207.55 14.32 2.7 34.0 75.6 +0.031

-
32

--
Propene (Propylene) 2182.7 2333.6 188.17
33 I-Butene (Butylene) 21.48 2.0 10.0 84.9 +0.21
2879.0 3080.2 20670h 103619h 167.93 28.63 1.6 9.3 80.G; 97.4
34 cis-2-Butene 2871.4 3072.6 20604h 107718h 178.89 28.63 (1.6) 83.5 100.

-
35 t'Bns-2-Butene

-
2865.1 3066.3 20568h 104609h 174.36 28.63 (1.6)
36 Isobutene 2859.7 3060.9 20536h 1 02803h 169.47 28.63 (1.6)

--
37 l-Pentene 3575.2 3826.7 20545 110594 154.45
38 l,2-Butadiene 1.37148 35.79 1.4 8.7 77.1 90.9
2789.1 2940.0 20423h 112041h

- - - -
(193.3) 26.25

-
39 l,3-Butadiene (2.0) (12,)
2730.1 2881.0 20037h 104773h (180.0) 26.25 11.5
40 Isoprene 3410.9 3612.1 19951 114120 (165.6) 1.42194 33.41 (~~) 81.0 99.1
41 Acetylene 1422.4 1472.7 11.93 2.5 80.

-
42 Benzene 3591.0 3741.9 17989 132651 169.10 1.50112 35.79
43 Toluene 1.38 7.9g +2.81
4273.5 4474.8 18250 132659 154.83' 1.49693 42.95 1.2g 7.1g +0.31 +5.81
44 Ethylbenzene 4970.6 5222.1 18492 134381 144.02 1.49588
45 a-Xylene 50.11 0.99g 6.7g 97.9 +0.81
4958.1 5209.7 18443 136036 149.10 1.50545 50.11 1.g 6.4R 100.
46 m-Xylene 4956.2 5207.8 18440 133542 147.24 1.49722 50.11
47 p-Xylene 1.1g 6.4R +2.81 +4.01
4957.0 5208.6 18444 133129 145.71 1.49582 50.11 1.g 6.f3 +1.21 +3.41

-- --
48 Styrene 4829.5 5030.8 18148 137834
49 Isopropylbenzene 5661.0 5962.8
(151.00) 1.54682 47.72 1.1 6.1 +0.21 )o3/
18663 134803 134.24 '

--
1.49145

--
57.27 0.88g 6.5R 99.3 +2.11
50

-- -- -- -
Methyl Alcohol 766.2 866.8 9752 64744 462.58 1 .32840 7.16 6.72(5) 36.50
51 Ethyl Alcohol

--
1448.2 1599.1

--
12771 84276 361.37 1.36143 14.32 3.28(5)

--
52 Carbon Monoxide 319.79 319.79 18.95
92.7 1 .00034 2.39 12.50(5) 74.20
53 Carbon Dioxide 0 0 246.5n

-- -- - - -
1 .00045

-- --
54 Hydrogen Sulfide 586.71 637.02 236.2
55 Sulfur Dioxide 1 .00059 7.16 4.30(5) 45.50
167. 1.00061
56 Ammonia
57 Air
--
358.94

--
432.59

- - -- -- 589.4 1.00035 3.58 15.50(5) 27.00


--
-- --
58 Hydrogen
88.22
273.85 . 324.15 193. 1.00013 2.39 4.00(5) 74.20

--
59 Oxygen 91.62 1 .00027
60 Nitrogen
61 Chlorine
62 Water
63 Helium
64 Hydrogen Chloride
- 0
-
49.4
- 0
- - -- 0
85.60
123.7
970.3
185.5
1 .00028
1 .3832h
1 .33299
1 .00003
1 .00042 -
Rev, 1974, 1979
16 - 4
Rev. 1981