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Nepal Engineering College

Department of Computer Science and


ISO 9001:2000

Computer Network Lab Sheet (CMP- 474.3)

Equipments to be used: The Lab basically employ the extensive use of the network simulator, namely
Packet-tracer designed by Cisco Inc, and GNS for Lab platform we basically try to implement Linux
System (Ubuntu and Fedora) and very minimal Windows. We also use the Cisco Router and switch
whenever possible for lab.

Packet Tracer is a simulation, visualization, collaboration, and assessment tool for learning
networking. Packet Tracer allows students to construct their own model or virtual networks, obtain
access to important graphical representations of those networks, animate those networks by adding
their own data packets, ask questions about those networks, and finally annotate and save their
creations. The term "packet tracing" describes an animated movie mode where the learner can step
through simulated networking events, one at a time, to investigate the micro-genesis of complex
networking phenomena normally occurring at rates in the thousands and millions of events per second.

GNS3 is a Graphical Network Simulator that allows emulation of complex networks. You may be
familiar with VMWare or Virtual PC that are used to emulate various operating systems in a virtual
environment. These programs allow you to run operating systems such as Windows XP Professional or
Ubuntu Linux in a virtual environment on your computer. GNS3 allows the same type of emulation
using Cisco Internetwork Operating Systems. It allows you to run a Cisco IOS in a virtual environment
on your computer

LAB Rules:
• The labs are mandatory and are graded.
The labs account for 20% of the final grade.
• How to make Reports?
Write the solution whenever possible, in case of description, write a concise and meaningful
definition. Submit the report with LAB number.
• By the end of semester a viva and report is taken as reference for marking.

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:1

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
Lab Activity 1: Basic Introduction to Networking and Services.

Learning Objective: On the completion of this Lab set, students are able to understand a set of
collaboration tools, comprehensive introduction of Networking devices such as router and switch.
Detail understanding of IP address and subnet mask, assigning IP address in different platform such as
Linux and windows. Significance of ping command and its uses to check the connectivity.

Scenario: To comprehend the collaboration tools, you require the Internet connection. For other
activities tasks focus on Packet-tracer.

Students are advised to complete each task in the sequence as it appear.

1. Familiar with Collaboration tools: IRC, IM, twitter, social networking sites, wiki, weblogs etc.
2. Introduction to Packet-tracer and gns.
3. Familiar with Networking equipments (Router, switch , Hub etc), classification of devices
according to the OSI layer.
4. Understanding IP address (Private and public), Subnet mask, subnetting (CIDR and VLSM)
gateway and DNS.
5. Assigning IP address in PC (Windows and Linux platform), and network devices eg. Router
6. Checking connectivity with ping command. (Check whether the computer are logically
connected or not with the use of ping command).
7. Common ping errors: request time out and destination host unreachable.

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:2

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
Lab Activity 2: Simple Network design and troubleshooting

Learning Objective: With the successful completion of this lab, students are able to design a small
network, able to clamp Ethernet cable with RJ-45 for networking, acquainted with various console
command such as tracert, arp, etc to view networks.

1. Familiar with these networking terms:

Straight-through Cable: Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper cable for connecting dissimilar
networking devices
Crossover Cable: UTP copper cable for connecting similar networking devices
Serial Cable: Copper cable typical of wide area connections
Console Cable: used to access the router in the beginning though the computer's serial port.
Ethernet: Dominant local area network technology
MAC Address: Ethernet Layer 2, physical address
IP Address: Layer 3 logical address
Subnet Mask: Required to interpret the IP address
Default Gateway: The IP address on a router interface to which a network sends traffic leaving the
local network
NIC: Network Interface Card, the port or interface that allows an end device to participate in a
2. Using traceroute, mtr , nslookup, dig ,mtr, nmap etc to view networks.
3. Understanding ARP and different means of communication (Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast).
4. Topology orientation and building small network (Switched network and peer to peer network).

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:3

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
5. Cabling (Straight-through and cross-over cable).

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:4

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
Lab Activity 3: Cabling a Network and basic Router configuration:

Learning Objective: Learning Objectives

• Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to:
• Cable devices and establish console connections.
• Erase and reload the routers.
• Perform basic IOS command line interface operations.
• Perform basic router configuration.
• Verify and test configurations using show commands, ping and traceroute.
• Create a startup configuration file.
• Reload a startup configuration file.
• Install a terminal emulation program.

Scenario: In this lab activity, you will learn skills including cabling devices, establishing a console
connection, and basic IOS command line interface operation and configuration commands. You will
also learn to save configuration files and capture your configurations to a text file .

Topology Diagram:


1. Cable the Ethernet Links of the Network.

2. Cable the serial link between R1 and R2.
3. Connect the console cable to the router and PC.
4. Erase and reload the routers.
5. Understand the router command line basics.
6. Perform basic configuration of R2 and R3, this includes ip address, hostname etc.
7. Configure IP address on the host PCS.
8. Examine router show commands.
9. Using ping to check connectivity
10. Saving configuration and backup

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:5

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
Lab Activity 4: Analyzing Networking protocols.

Learning Objective:

• Be able to explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark).

• Be able to perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark.
• Be able to perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic.
• Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering.

Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer, or "packet sniffer" application, used for network
troubleshooting, analysis, software and protocol development, and education. Before June 2006,
Wireshark was known as Ethereal.
A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can
intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. As data streams travel back and forth over the
network, the sniffer "captures" each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content
according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications.

Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. This enables it to
display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning.

To capture PDUs the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the
network and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured.

1. Ping PDU Capture
2. FTP PDU Capture
3. HTTP PDU Capture

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:6

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
Lab Activity 5: Implementing different Routing protocols.

Learning Objective:
Understand, implement and troubleshoot different routing protocols: Static and Dynamic (Distance
vector and Link State)

In this lab activity, you will create a network that is similar to the one shown in the Topology Diagram.
Begin by cabling the network as shown in the Topology Diagram. You will then perform the initial
router configurations required for connectivity,and then proceed to each tasks.

Topology Diagram:

1. Configure a static route using an intermediate address or an exit interfaces.
2. Configure Link state routing protocol (OSFP)
3. Configure Distance vector routing protocol (RIP)
4. Configure a default static route.

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:7

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
LAB Activity 6 : Socket Programming

Learning Objective: To familiarize students with socket programming basic either in Java, C or Perl.

1. Write a simple program to pass a text message from a client to sever listening on port 5340.
2. Implement text based chatting system. (Peer to peer).

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:8

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
LAB Activity 7: Network Services

Learning objective: To get familiar with the following different network services.
1. DNS
2. Apache
3. FTP
6. NAT
7. POP and IMAP

The instructor will only show the demo and working principle and necessity of the above network

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:9

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain
Lab Activity 8: Network Security
Learning Objectives: Introduction to Different means of securing the network.

1. ACL
2. Iptables and Port security
3. Cryptograhpy
4. VPN
5. SELinux

Prepared by: J.Prof. Daya Ram Budhathoki Page:10

J.Prof Anil Chaulagain