Key

AE AEROSPACE
ENGINEERING
GATE 2011
MODEL EXAM
(KEY)
1/27/2011 22
(1) – (b)
(2) – (b)
3(c)
(4) –(c)
(5) – (d)
(6) –(b)
(B is any Point)
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Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level
(6) – (b)
(7) – (b)
(8) – (c)
Find the Wrong staement on Load
Factor
a) It is traditionally referred to as ‘g’,
because of the relation between
load factor and apparent
acceleration of gravity felt on board
the aircraft.
b) Although, it is traditionally referred
to as ‘g’, it does not take the unit of
acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) ,
and it is non-dimensional.
c) An observer on board an aircraft
performing a turn with a load factor
of 2 (i.e. a 2 g turn) will see objects
falling to the floor at twice the
normal (not speed) acceleration.
d) In a turn with a 60° angle of bank,
the load factor is +2, because it is
the reciprocal of cosine of the angle
of bank.
1/27/2011 1111
(9) – (c)
(10) -b
Find the wrong staatement on tail wing
a) The conventional configuration with
a low horizontal tail is a natural
choice since roots of both horizontal
and vertical surfaces are
conveniently attached directly to the
fuselage.
b) In conventional configuration, the
effectiveness of the vertical tail is
large because interference with the
fuselage and horizontal tail increase
its effective aspect ratio.
c) A T-tail is often chosen to move the
horizontal tail away from engine
exhaust and to reduce aerodynamic
interference.
d) V-tails combine functions of
horizontal and vertical tails. And
chosen because of their increased
ground clearance, reduced number
of surface intersections, but require
mixing of rudder and elevator
controls and often exhibit reduced
control authority in combined yaw
and pitch maneuvers.
1/27/2011 1313
http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/stability/taildesign.html
11 – (d)
(13)=C
k=1.4
T1 = 323 deg K,
p1= 206785 N/m2
C1= 150 m/s
M2=1
T2=?
C2=?
Is=?
a1 = 360.25 m/s
M1 = C1/a1 = 0.416
To1/T1 = 1.034
T01 = 334 K
T02 = T01 ( no heat is added)= 334 K
To2/T2 = 1.2
T2 = 278 K
a2 = 334.33 K
a2=C2 = 334.33 K
Is = C2/g = 34 s
(14) – (b)
(15) – (d)
C
D
A
B
0.6 cm
0
.
3

c
m
3600 cm/s
3800 cm/s
2
0
0
0

c
m
/
s
2
1
0
0

c
m
/
s
Solution
B C D A
ABCD
A B C D
B C D A
ABCD
A B C D
Vcos ds Vcos ds Vcos ds Vcos ds Vcos ds
Vcos ds (3600)(1) ds (2100)(1) ds (3800)( 1) ds (2000)( 1) ds
K (3600)(1)(0.6) (2100)(1)(0.3) (3800)( 1)(0.6) (2000)( 1)(0.3)
K
θ · θ + θ + θ + θ
θ · + + − + −
· Γ · + + − + −
· Γ
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
Ñ
Ñ
2
90cm / s (Taking CW as positive) · −
16 - (d)
Kelvins theorem in fluid dynamics
states that the circulation (defined as
the line integral of the component of
velocity tangential to the closed
contour) in an inviscid and
incompressible fluid subject to only
conservative forces is constant.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin's_circulation_theorem
http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~dommelen/courses/flm/flm00/topics/vort/node2.html
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Kelvin's+circulation+theorem
(16)
In fluid mechanics, Helmholtz's
theorems, named after
Hermann von Helmholtz, describe the
three-dimensional motion of fluid in
the vicinity of vortex filaments. These
theorems apply to inviscid flows and
flows where the influence of
viscous forces is small and can be
ignored.
Helmholtz’s three theorems are as
follows:[1]
Helmholtz’s first theorem:
The strength of a vortex filament is
constant along its length. Helmholtz’s
second theorem:
A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid;
it must extend to the boundaries of the
fluid or form a closed path.
Helmholtz’s third theorem:
In the absence of rotational external
forces, a fluid that is initially
irrotational remains irrotational.
Helmholtz’s theorems apply to inviscid
flows. In observations of vortices in
real fluids the strength of the vortices
always decays gradually due to the
dissipative effect of viscous forces.
Alternative expressions of the three
theorems are as follows:
1. The strength of a vortex tube does
not vary with time.[2]
2. Fluid elements lying on a vortex line
at some instant continue to lie on that
vortex line. More simply, vortex lines
move with the fluid. Also vortex lines
and tubes must appear as a closed
loop, extend to infinity or start/end at
solid boundaries.
3. Fluid elements initially free of
vorticity remain free of vorticity.
Helmholtz’s theorems have
application in understanding:
Generation of lift on an airfoil
Starting vortex Horseshoe vortex
Wingtip vortices
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmholtz's_theorems
(17) - b
(17) (b)
a small aerofoil shaped device
attached just in front of the wing
leading edge to properly direct the
airflow at the front of the wing to
make it to flow more smoothly over
the upper surface while at a high
angle of attack.
1/27/2011 2525
(18) (b)
(19) - C
In a supersonic flow, a sphere
encounters a
Bow shock wave
1/27/2011 2727
2828
20 – (d)
Limitations of Airy’s Stress functions
The Airy’s Stress function is applicable only to plane strain or plane stress problem [3].
The Airy’s Stress function can only be used if the body force has a special form [3].
Specifically, the requirement is

where is a scalar function of position, F1 & F2 are body forces.
The Airy’s Stress function approach works best for problems where a solid is subjected to prescribed
tractions on its boundary, rather than prescribed displacements [3].

1
1
x
F

Ω ∂
·
2
2
x
F

Ω ∂
·
21 – (d)
% 195
density in change %
95 . 2
1
1 2
1
2
·
ρ
ρ − ρ
·
·
ρ
ρ
22 - C
M 1 = 2.0
T2 = 450K
T1 = ?
K 67 . 266 T
687 . 1
T
T
1
1
2
·
·
23 - b
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_drag
http://www.answers.com/topic/wave-
drag
24) (a) and 25 (d)
(
2
6
)



b

,

2
7

(
c
)
28 (a)
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
mm d
d
d
d d d
FS
FS
pt
pt
yt
yt
n
4 . 12
100
15365
100 6365
2
12730
2
12730 1
100
6365
2
12730
2
12730
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
1 1
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
·
·
·

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
·

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+
· +
,
`

.
|
+
· +
,
`

.
|

+
+

,
`

.
|
· +
,
`

.
|

+
+

,
`

.
|
·
σ τ
σ σ
σ τ
σ σ σ σ
σ
τ
σ σ σ σ
σ
σ
29 –(C)
mm 42 . 13 d
2
100
d
9000
2
) (
2
2
) FS / (
2
FS
) 2 / (
2
FS
) 2 / (
2
pt 2
2
2 1
yt
2
2
2 1
yt
2
2
2 1
yt
max
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
σ
· τ +

,
`

.
|
σ − σ

,
`

.
|
σ
· τ +

,
`

.
|
σ − σ

,
`

.
|
σ
· τ +

,
`

.
|
σ − σ

,
`

.
|
σ
· τ
30 - b
2 2
2 n
2
2
2 1 2 1
2 n
2 2
1 n
2
2
2 1 2 1
1 n
mm
N
d
2635
2 2
mm
N
d
15635
2 2

· σ
τ +

,
`

.
|
σ − σ

,
`

.
|
σ + σ
· σ
· σ
τ +

,
`

.
|
σ − σ
+

,
`

.
|
σ + σ
· σ
mm 7 . 12 d
100
d
16156
-

FS
-

FS m
-
2
pt 2 n 1 n
yt
2 n 1 n
yt
2 n
1 n
·
·
σ · ν σ σ
σ
· ν σ σ
σ
·
σ
σ
(31) – b, 32 - d
T/Theta = kt=
GJ/L
k/m kt/I 
Given data :
p01 = 100 kPa
T01 = 288K
Dh = 0.13m
Dt = 0.3 m
m = 8 kg/s
N = 16200rpm
beta1 = ??? at tip and root
M1t =???
(33) - c
s
m N D
u
s
m N D
u
t
t
h
h
47 . 254
60
27 . 110
60
1
1
· ·
· ·
π
π
s
m N D
u
s
m N D
u
t
t
h
h
47 . 254
60
27 . 110
60
1
1
· ·
· ·
π
π
( )
1 1
1
2
2 2
3
01
01
01
7 . 116
8
0574 . 0
4
2 . 1
C
s
m
C
s
kg
C A m
m A
D D A
m
kg
RT
p
f
f f
f
h t f
· ·
· ·
·
− ·
· · ·
ρ
π
ρ ρ

K T
c
C
T T
p
2 . 281
2
1
2
1
1 01
·
+ ·
kPa 92 p
T
T
p
p
1
1
1 o
1
1 o
1
·

,
`

.
|
·
− γ
γ
34 -d


8 . 25
tan
15 . 48
tan
7 . 282
29 . 165
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
·
·
·
·
· + ·
· + ·
t
t
f
t
h
h
f
h
f t t
f h h
u
C
u
C
s
m
C u w
s
m
C u w
β
β
β
β
s
m
C u w
f t t
63 . 282
2
1
2
1 1
· + ·
35 –©
842 . 0
87 . 335
1
1
1
1 1
· ·
· ·
a
w
M
s
m
RT a γ
36 -
36 - C
3
a
a
a
0.7476kg/ m
p 55kPa
T 255K
ρ ·
·
·
K T
T
T
M
T
T
M M
a
C
M M
s m C
s m RT a
a
a
a
i
a
a
a i
a
i
a i
i
a a
07 . 279
094 . 1
2
1
1
687 . 0
/ 220
/ 09 . 320
0
0
2
0
·
·

+ ·
· ·
· ·
·
· ·
γ
γ
K T T
kPa p p
Isentropic a
kPa p
T
T
p
p
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
07 . 279
41 . 75
Process : 1
41 . 75
0 01
0 01
0
1
0 0
· ·
· ·

·

,
`

.
|
·
− γ
γ
Compression
( )
kPa p
p
p
K T
T
T
p
p
T
T
05 . 377
5
99 . 441
58 . 1
5
02
01
02
02
01
02
1
1
01
02
01
02
·
·
·
·
·

,
`

.
|
·


γ
γ
γ
γ
Heat Addition
K T T
kPa p p
1200
05 . 377
max 03
02 03
· ·
· ·
Turbine
kPa p
T
T
p
p
K T
T T c m T T c m
P P
p a p a
c t
25 . 226
08 . 1037
) ( ) (
04
1
03
04
03
04
04
01 02 04 03
·

,
`

.
|
·
·
− · −
·
− γ
γ
 
37 - b
s m C
T T c C C
K T
p
p
T
T
p
p
T
T
j
p j
a
/ 4 . 832
) ( 2
33 . 692
5 04 5
5
1
04 04
5
1
04
5
04
5
·
− · ·
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·


γ
γ
γ
γ
38 - d
??? * /
? *
???
22 . 1
/ 285
/ 3
2700
level) (Sea 102000
7000000
·
·
·
·
− ·
·
·
·
·
A A
C
C
K kg J R
s kg m
K T
Pa p
Pa p
e
e
c
a
c
γ

s m
p
p
RT C
c
e
e
/ 2132 1
1
2
1
0
·
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|


·

γ
γ
γ
γ
39 - C
s m RT C a
K T
T
T
c
/ 6 . 919
43 . 2432
1
2
* * *
*
*
· · ·
·

,
`

.
|
+
·

,
`

.
|
γ
γ
s m RT C
RT C
/ 65 . 919 * *
1
2
1
1
2 *
0
· ·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+


·
γ
γ γ
γ
40 - b
224 . 3
/ 75 . 661
4 . 1259
1
· ·
· ·
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

e
e
e
e e
e
c
e
c
e
a
C
M
s m RT a
K T
p
p
T
T
γ
γ
γ
579 . 8
1
1
1
2 1
*
2
*
) 1 ( 2
1
·

,
`

.
|
+

+
+
·

+
A
A
M
M A
A
e
e
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
41 -a
A single stage turbine has been designed for
following parameters:
Inlet temperature : 1000K
Axial velocity : 260 m/s (Ca)
Mean Blade speed : 360 m/s (u)
Nozzle efflux angle : 65° ( 2) 
Stage swirl angle : 10° ( 3) 
( )
( )


44 . 57
tan tan
1
2 . 37
tan tan
1
7222 . 0
u
C
3
3 3
2
2 2
a
· β
α − β ·
φ
· β
β − α ·
φ
· φ
· φ
42 -b
( )
( )
67 . 1
tan tan
291 . 0 R
tan tan
2
R
2 3
2 3
· ψ
β + β φ · ψ
·
β − β
φ
·
3547 . 3 2
u
w
2
2 / u
w
677 . 1
u
w
2 2
,
2
· ψ · · · ψ
· · ψ
43 c
( )
kg
J
217256 w
tan tan uC w
7222 . 0
u
C
3 2 a
a
·
β + β ·
· φ
· φ
44 - b
1/30/11 7474
U=150 m/s
w2
w1
C1
C2
85
35
10
75
1/30/11 7575
w2
w1
Ca
2
Ca
1
C1
C2
1
1

2

2
U

=

1
5
0
m
/
s
ct
2
ct
1
wt
2
wt
1
Ca2=
75
Ca1 =
85
35
10
1/30/11 7676
T01 = 340 K
Po1 = 185 kPa
1/30/11 7777
(a) Specific work
wt1 = U – Ct1 = 150 - 35 =115 m/s
Ct2 = U – wt2 = 150 – 10 = 140 m/s
work, w = U (Ct2 - Ct1)
= 150 (140-35)
= ???
1/30/11 7878
(a) Specific work
wt1 = U – Ct1 = 150 - 35 =115 m/s
Ct2 = U – wt2 = 150 – 10 = 140 m/s
work, w = U (Ct2 - Ct1)
= 150 (140-35)
= 15,750 J/kg
1/30/11 7979
(b) Static temperature at
exit
( )
???
100% Assume,
1
1
1
01
01
02
01
01 02
·
·

,
`

.
|
− ·

,
`

.
|
− ·
− ·

o
o p
p
p
R
R T c w
T
T
T c w
T T c w
η
γ
γ
1/30/11 8080
1708 . 1 R
100% Assume,
1 R T c w
o
1
o 01 p
·
· η

,
`

.
|
− ·
γ
− γ
1/30/11 8181
??? p
1708 . 1
p
p
1708 . 1
p
p
R
100% Assume,
1 R T c w
02
01
02
01
02
o
1
o 01 p
·
·
· ·
· η

,
`

.
|
− ·
γ
− γ
45 - d
1/30/11 8282
kPa 6 . 216 p
1708 . 1
p
p
1708 . 1
p
p
R
100% Assume,
1 R T c w
02
01
02
01
02
o
1
o 01 p
·
·
· ·
· η

,
`

.
|
− ·
γ
− γ
1/30/11 8383
w = cp (T02 – T01) if efficiency is
100%
T02 = ???
1/30/11 8484
w = cp (T02 – T01) if efficiency is
100%
T02 = 355.67 K
1/30/11 8585
??? T
c 2
C
T T
??? C
C C C
2
p
2
2
2 02
2
2
2 a
2
2 t
2
2
·
+ ·
·
+ ·
1/30/11 8686
K 13 . 343 T
c 2
C
T T
s / m 82 . 158 C
C C C
2
p
2
2
2 02
2
2
2 a
2
2 t
2
2
·
+ ·
·
+ ·
1/30/11 8787
(c) Static pressure at the
exit
??? p
T
T
p
p
2
1
02
2
02
2
·

,
`

.
|
·
− γ
γ
1/30/11 8888
(c) Static pressure at the
exit
kPa 00 . 191 p
T
T
p
p
2
1
02
2
02
2
·

,
`

.
|
·
− γ
γ
1/30/11 8989
46 - d
??? T
c 2
C
T T
??? C
C C C
1
p
2
1
1 01
1
2
1 a
2
1 t
2
1
·
+ ·
·
+ ·
1/30/11 9090
79 . 335 T
c 2
C
T T
s / m 92 . 91 C
C C C
1
p
2
1
1 01
1
2
1 a
2
1 t
2
1
·
+ ·
·
+ ·
1/30/11 9191
??? p
T
T
p
p
1
1
01
1
01
1
·

,
`

.
|
·
− γ
γ
1/30/11 9292
kPa 177 p
T
T
p
p
1
1
01
1
01
1
·

,
`

.
|
·
− γ
γ
1/30/11 9393
???
RT
p
1
1
1
1
· ρ
· ρ
1/30/11 9494
3
1
1
1
1
m / kg 84 . 1
RT
p
· ρ
· ρ
1/30/11 9595
??? C
w
2
1
p p
C
??? w
C w w
p
2
1 1
1 2
p
1
2
1 a
2
1 t
2
1
·
ρ

·
·
+ ·
1/30/11 9696
75 . 0 C
w
2
1
p p
C
s / m 143 w
C w w
p
2
1 1
1 2
p
1
2
1 a
2
1 t
2
1
·
ρ

·
·
+ ·
47 – a and 48 -d
49 – a and 50 -d

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