Predictive Maintenance

Predictive Maintenance
Optimization
Optimization
-
-
Developing An Effective Machinery
Developing An Effective Machinery
Management Programme
Management Programme
2
Mechanical Mechanical
Equipment Equipment
Process Process
Equipment Equipment
Instruments Instruments
& Valves & Valves
Electrical Electrical
Equipment Equipment
Emerson’s Asset Optimization
Mission
Emerson
Emerson


s Asset Optimization
s Asset Optimization
Mission
Mission
Deliver World-Class Services and Innovative
Technologies to Increase the Availability and
Performance of Production Assets for Improved
Bottom Line Results (operational excellence).
3
Machinery Health Management Machinery Health Management
Machinery Health Management
Balance technology, expertise, and work processes
for maximum availability at best cost.
Motors Motors Pumps Pumps Turbines Turbines Gearboxes Gearboxes
Increases Availability and Performance of
Mechanical Equipment
Increases Availability and Performance of
Mechanical Equipment
Mechanical Equipment
4
Vibration Vibration
Analysis Analysis
Portable & Portable &
Wireless Wireless
Laser Laser
Alignment Alignment
On On- -Line Line
Condition Condition
Monitoring Monitoring
Infrared Infrared
Thermography Thermography
Motor Motor
Diagnostics Diagnostics
Ultrasonics Ultrasonics
Balancing Balancing
ODBC ODBC
MIMOSA MIMOSA CMMS CMMS
RBM RBM view view
Tribology Tribology
5
Asset Optimization Services
Mechanical Equipment
Asset Optimization Services
Asset Optimization Services
Mechanical Equipment
Mechanical Equipment
Vibration analysis – portable, online, and wireless
– Motor analysis
– Laser alignment and balancing
Oil analysis
– Trivector Laboratory: industrial lubrication problem detection and detailed
analysis
– On-site Analysis Equipment
Sonic and ultrasonic analysis
Infrared thermography
6
Vibration Analysis
– Identification of misalignment, imbalance, bearing
defects, structural foundation issues and electrical
related problems
Tribology/Oil Analysis
– Identification of wear particles, chemical changes and
contaminants; “clean, dry and fit for use”
– May also be used as an acceptance determination for
the incoming oils from the Lubrication Supplier
Tribology Tribology
7
Ultrasonics/Sonics Survey
– Air, steam trap, valve & vacuum leak detection
– Bearing lubrication effectiveness
Infrared Thermography Survey
– Detection of proper electrical connections; switchgear
– Detection of proper insulation from heat sources
AMS Machinery Health Manager
– Integration of multiple CM technologies
Infrared Infrared
Thermography Thermography
Ultrasonics Ultrasonics
Vibration Analysis
Vibration Analysis
Understanding How Machines Fail
Understanding How Machines Fail
ACCEPTANCE
STANDARDS
COMMISSIONING
WEAR-OUT
ZONE
P
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O
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F
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INFANT
MORTALITY
ZONE
RANDOM FAILURE
OPERATING AGE
STARTUP FAILURE RANDOM / OPERATIONAL FAULTS WEAR OUT
PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
PRECISION CORRECTIONS
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
PREDICTIVE
MAINTENANCE
ROOT CAUSE
10
Principle #1 of Vibration Analysis Principle #1 of Vibration Analysis
Principle #1 of Vibration Analysis
Mechanical faults generate
unique vibration
– Geometry of the machine
• diameter of the shaft,
number of bearing
elements, etc.
– Turning speed (e.g. RPM)
Mechanical Defects detected
with vibration analysis
Belt drive faults
Imbalance
Misalignment
Bent shaft
Looseness
Machine resonance
Cavitation
Shaft Rub
Bearing Defects including:
ocage defect
oouter race defect
oinner race defect
orolling element defect
Gear defects
Electrical faults
11
Time
0
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Time
Time
0
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Vibration from Mechanical Faults Vibration from Mechanical Faults
Vibration from Mechanical Faults
12
Understanding the Vibration Spectrum Understanding the Vibration Spectrum
Understanding the Vibration Spectrum
Transducer
Overall
Energy
FFT
Waveform
Spectrum
A
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Time
Frequency
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FFT Signal Processing FFT Signal Processing
FFT Signal Processing
F
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A Typical FFT Spectrum A Typical FFT Spectrum
A Typical FFT Spectrum
Specific peaks typically correlate to
Specific machine faults
Related to machine speed
Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics, not just Overall vibration meter
15
Frequency Bands in addition to
Spectrum
Frequency Bands in addition to
Frequency Bands in addition to
Spectrum
Spectrum
Divide spectrum in frequency bands based on the
types of mechanical faults that might appear on the machine
1X
2X
3X- 6X
BEARING BAND 1
BEARING BAND 2
9-30X RPM
30-50X RPM
Imbalance
Misalignment
Looseness
Bearing Band 1
Bearing Band 2
16
Imbalance
Imbalance typically appears at the
turning speed of the machine
Diagnose Nature of Fault Diagnose Nature of Fault
Diagnose Nature of Fault
17
Misalignment
Diagnose Nature of Fault Diagnose Nature of Fault
Diagnose Nature of Fault
Misalignment typically shows up at
either 1 or 2 x turning speed
18
Looseness
Diagnose Nature of Fault Diagnose Nature of Fault
Diagnose Nature of Fault
Looseness shows up as
multiples of turning speed
19
Diagnose Nature of Fault Diagnose Nature of Fault
Diagnose Nature of Fault
Bearing wear shows up at specific peaks
related to the geometry of the bearing
Bearing Wear
20
Roller Bearing Vibration Faults Roller Bearing Vibration Faults
Roller Bearing Vibration Faults
Four different bearing frequencies
Ball Spin Frequency
(BSF)
Fundamental Train
Frequency
(FTF)
Ball Pass Frequency
Inner Race
(BPFI)
Ball Pass Frequency
Outer Race
(BPFO)
21
Outer Race
Impacting
Inner Race
Impacting
How Bearing Faults Generate
Vibration
How Bearing Faults Generate
How Bearing Faults Generate
Vibration
Vibration
22
Motor Current Analysis Motor Current Analysis
Motor Current Analysis
Easy to add to Vibration
program
Rotor / Stator defects
– Difficult to detect in Vibration
signature
– Use current analysis instead,
but opening MCC is risky
– Use magnetic flux analysis for
safety/convenience
23
Dynamic Structural Display Dynamic Structural Display
Dynamic Structural Display
ODS & Modal Analysis
ODS = Operational Deflection Shape
24
Implementation Implementation
Implementation
Periodic basis using portable data collection
equipment
Continuous basis using a dedicated, permanently
installed monitoring system
– high implementation cost in terms
• capital acquisition
• disruption to production during installation
Current trend toward ‘right-sizing’
– forced to examine techniques to reduce or eliminate
manpower for data collection and analysis
Thermography
Thermography
26
What is infrared thermography? What is infrared thermography?
What is infrared thermography?
A non-intrusive
technology that allows
you to “see” your
equipment’s health.
Therm - a form of the
Greek word for heat
Graph - a writing or
representation
Thermography - a
representation of heat
27
How does infrared thermography
work?
How does infrared thermography
How does infrared thermography
work?
work?
Thermography is a visual
representation of
temperature.
Infrared imagers detect
heat given off a surface &
convert it into electronic
signals.
Different temperatures
correspond to different
energy levels seen by
different colors.
28
Why use thermography? Why use thermography?
Why use thermography?
Safe - Non-intrusive, non-
contact, and non-
destructive
Fast - Quick, easy data
collection
Real time analysis -
transient data can be
captured and analyzed
Cost effective - new, low-
cost imagers provide very
quick ROI
29
Applications Applications
Applications
Process
– Extrusion
– Pipe insulation breakdown
– Refractory breakdown
– Fluid storage tank level
– Food industry
– Rolling kiln
– Injection molding
30
Applications Applications
Applications
Electrical Inspections
– Unbalanced loads,
– Eddy current heating,
– Improperly sized fittings,
– Broken strands...
Electrical equipment
– Bad connections, breakers,
fuses
– Overloaded conditions
– Motor Control Center
components
– Distribution lines
– Cable trays/conduits
31
Applications Applications
Applications
Mechanical inspections
– Bearings
– Steam traps
– Gears
– Belts
– Couplings
– Motor insulation breakdown
32
Applications Applications
Applications
Leakage from a steam trap.
33
Thermography benefits Thermography benefits
Thermography benefits
Infrared inspection verifies machinery
temperature & locates potential electrical
problems.
Regular checkups assist in extending equipment
life & delaying capital expenditures for equipment
replacement.
Management knows what problems exist,
severity & specifics about the problem.
Maintenance priorities set according to the
problem severity level
34
Problem?
IR Thermography
shows the heat & the
problem
See The Heat, See The Problem See The Heat, See The Problem
See The Heat, See The Problem
35
See The Heat, See The Problem See The Heat, See The Problem
See The Heat, See The Problem
IR Thermography
shows the heat & the
problem
Problem?
“A picture is worth a thousand words. You can scan a room
very quickly, and the infrared images are powerful and very
easy to explain. Other technologies can take days to find
the problem, figure it out, and report to management.”
Senior Reliability Engineer
36
Thermography Example Thermography Example
Thermography Example
Explanation: The connection end of the incoming wiring for phase B
to plant breaker 7 is warmer (+25C) than the other wiring for the same
circuit.
This indicates a poor connection or failing breaker. Recommended
actions based on delta T and voltage are to inspect and repair/replace
BEFORE THE NEXT SCHEDULED OUTAGE (Within 3 Months).
Voltage Delta T(C) % Load Emissivity Reference T Background T
480 25 100 0.85 160ºC 80ºF
37
Thermography Example (Repaired) Thermography Example (Repaired)
Thermography Example (Repaired)
Explanation: Following the repairs on 10/15, the hot
connection has been fixed.
Sonics /
Sonics /
Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics
39
What are Ultrasonic signals:
Frequency Greater Than 20,000 Hz
What are Ultrasonic signals:
What are Ultrasonic signals:
Frequency Greater Than 20,000 Hz
Frequency Greater Than 20,000 Hz
‘A’ above middle ‘C’
(440 Hz)
Steam trap
(40,000 Hz)
Bearing defect
(4,000 Hz periodic)
Sub-
sonic
Sonic
Ultrasonic Range
Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic
Under-lubricated bearing
(30,000 Hz random)
20,000 Hz
40
Sound Analysis Converts Inaudible
Signals into Audible Ones
Sound Analysis Converts Inaudible
Sound Analysis Converts Inaudible
Signals into Audible Ones
Signals into Audible Ones
‘A’ above middle ‘C’
(440 Hz)
Steam trap
(40,000 Hz)
Bearing defect
(4,000 Hz periodic)
Sub-
sonic
Sonic
Ultrasonic Range
Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Ultrasonic
Under-lubricated bearing
(30,000 Hz random)
20,000 Hz
41
Where Can You Apply Ultrasonics? Where Can You Apply
Where Can You Apply
Ultrasonics
Ultrasonics
?
?
Transmission
and
Distribution
Valves
and
Piping
Pneumatic
Controls
Bearings
and
Gearboxes
Grease
Lubrication
Control
Compressed
Air
Steam
Traps
Boiler
Tubes
Motor/
Pump
Control
Valves
42
Typical Sound Analysis Tools Typical Sound Analysis Tools
Typical Sound Analysis Tools
1) Airborne Probe
3) Magnet Mount Probe
2) Contact Probe
43
Primary Health Monitoring technique for:
– Valves, steam traps, grease lubrication
– Simple to use and understand
– Very high return on investment
Excellent ‘second opinion’ for:
– Machinery Health Monitoring
– Electrical equipment scanning
Why Use Sound Analysis? Why Use Sound Analysis?
Why Use Sound Analysis?
44
Application: Bearing Defects Application: Bearing Defects
Application: Bearing Defects
Quick, easy test
Establish baseline
“Clicking” sound indicates
bearing damage
Trend sound level to track
developing faults
Bearing fault
(4 KHz)
Note: Trending only possible if using a
calibrated ultrasonic device)
45
Application:
Lubrication Monitoring
Application:
Application:
Lubrication Monitoring
Lubrication Monitoring
75% of bearing failure is lubrication related*
Damage occurs from both:
– Under-lubrication (Premature bearing failure,
contamination, etc.)
and
– Over-lubrication (Ball skidding, grease overflow, seal
damage, etc.)
*Source SKF bearings
46
Application: Detecting Valve Failure Application: Detecting Valve Failure
Application: Detecting Valve Failure
Failure Modes:
– Partially open or leaking
– Sounds like rushing water
Failure can result in:
– Contamination
– Loss of product
– Damage to valves and
downstream equipment
Defective Valve
(40 KHz)
47
Application: Monitoring Control Valves Application: Monitoring Control Valves
Application: Monitoring Control Valves
Contact measurement to
monitor flow rate
Airborne measurement to
monitor stem packing
leaks
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1 2 3 4 5 6
Control Valve #
A
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B
Monitoring boiler spray valves
(average level)
Defective Valve
48
Inlet
Outlet
Application: Steam Traps Application: Steam Traps
Application: Steam Traps
Sound created from turbulent
fluid flow and valve/float impact
Failed trap leads to significant
losses in steam systems
A blowing trap (1/4” orifice, 125
lb. steam) results in steam loss
of $6,300 per year
Under lubricated bearing
(40 KHz)
Confirm fault with Thermography
49
Air Leak
(40 KHz)
Application: Air Leaks Application: Air Leaks
Application: Air Leaks
Primary loss of energy in
plants today.
Generates airborne
turbulence in the 40 kHz
frequency range.
A 1/8” air leak in a 100 psi
system results in a yearly
loss of $2,100
.005” orifice, 5 psi leak
50
Natural gas leak
Safety hazard
83 dB amplitude,
approx. $28,000
per year
Application: Gas Leaks Application: Gas Leaks
Application: Gas Leaks
Natural Gas Leak
(40 KHz)
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Electrical Corona and Discharge Electrical Corona and Discharge
Electrical Corona and Discharge
Corona caused by:
– Insulation breakdown
– Improper connections
Generates high frequency
waves
“Buzzing” or “Crackling” sound
Confirm with IR Thermography
Corona from Faulty Connection
(>40 KHz)
52
Application: Switchyard Monitoring Application: Switchyard Monitoring
Application: Switchyard Monitoring
Sources of corona:
– Arcing in transmission lines
– Partial discharge in
transformers
Electrical Corona
(>40 KHz)
53
Application: Load Tap Changers Application: Load Tap Changers
Application: Load Tap Changers
Responsible for nearly
half of all failures in
Substations and
Switchyards
Scan for Nitrogen Leaks
.
Corona on Load Tap Changer
(>40 KHz)
54
Confirm Fault with IR Thermography Confirm Fault with IR Thermography
Confirm Fault with IR Thermography
Inspection of load tap
changers requires
multiple technologies
– Scan with Ultrasonics
– Confirm with IR and
test for dissolved gas
IR scan of Load Tap Changer
Documented Savings with
Documented Savings with
Sound Monitoring
Sound Monitoring
American Electric Power
John E. Amos Plant
12 month ROI
Vibration Analysis $4,223,850
Ultrasonic Monitoring $1,217,820
Motor Testing $ 381,097
Motor Current Analysis $ 344,429
Infrared Analysis $ 343,650
Lube Oil Analysis $ 74,039
Total $6,584,885
Lubricant Analysis
Lubricant Analysis
What is
What is
Tribology
Tribology
?
?
Tribology is the science and
technology of interacting surfaces in
relative motion.
Includes much more than just
OIL ANALYSIS
58
Vibration and Oil Analysis Used
Together
Vibration and Oil Analysis Used
Vibration and Oil Analysis Used
Together
Together
Complements vibration analysis
– providing independent and advanced indications of
mechanical wear.
Supplements vibration analysis
– monitoring three root causes of failure:
• oil chemistry
• oil contamination
• component wear
59
Root Causes of Surface Degradation Root Causes of Surface Degradation
Root Causes of Surface Degradation
Lube Related Root Causes:
Wrong oil
Mixed oil
Low oil
Degraded oil
Process contamination
Dilution
Water contamination
Dust contamination
Mechanical Root Causes:
Imbalance
Misalignment
Improper assembly
Improper fit
Temperature extremes
Improper speed/load
Incompatible materials
Material defect
Seal defects
Oil Deterioration - primarily due to oxidation
which can produce acids which are detrimental
to both componetry of machines and additives
What Causes A Lubricant To Fail? What Causes A Lubricant To Fail?
What Causes A Lubricant To Fail?
Additive Depletion - additives are lost or
consumed during the performance of their
functions
Contamination - ingressed or generated
contamination is the primary root cause of
failure in many mechanical systems
Wear
Contamination Chemistry
Extreme
Bad
Marginal
Fair
Good
ABRAS WEAR - Abrasive Wear Example
P3 - Mobil DTE hydraulic fluid
Sample Date: 21-FEB-93
Wear - Bad
Contamination - Extreme
Chemistry - Good
Bad seal leaking coolant into hydraulics
Saw abrasive wear particles on grid 100x
Check - Viscosity, Breather, Contamination, Shop Mic, Mechanical
Action - Remove Contaminants (water?)
Estimated total water content 2.5089%
In Solution 1% +Emulsified 72%
+Free 27% = 100%
Oil Analysis & Trivector Diagram Oil Analysis & Trivector Diagram
Oil Analysis & Trivector Diagram
Oil analysis has three
dimensions:
– Wear
• Ferrous
• Nonferrous
– Contamination
• Dust
• Water
• Process
– Chemistry
• Oil
• Additive
62
Oil analysis choices Oil analysis choices
Oil analysis choices
On-site minilab
– No delay
– Test incoming lubricants
– Ownership and control
– Find and fix contamination
– Less expensive for >30
samples per month
Off-site oil lab
– No capital investment
– Expertise
– Extensive instrumentation
– Less labor required
– Less expensive for < 30
samples per month
63
Oil Laboratory Oil Laboratory
Oil Laboratory
Wear Debris Analysis
Particle Count with Sizes
Ferrous Wear
Spectrometric Metals
Viscosity V40, V100, and VI
Neutralization Number
Water by KF
FT-IR
64
2.
Iron and Water
3.
Particle Count with
Size Distribution
Oil Minilab Oil
Oil
Minilab
Minilab
1.
Oil Chemistry and
Viscosity
4.
Wear Debris Analysis
65
Minilab Analysis Parameters Minilab
Minilab
Analysis Parameters
Analysis Parameters
Parameters What is measured? Significance
Wear Parameters
Ferrous Index Iron particles > 5 microns Recent abnormal wear
Large Ferrous Indication Iron particles >> 60 microns Abrasive wear indication
Large Non-Ferrous Indication Other metals >> 60 microns Abrasive wear indication
Analytical Wear Debris
Analysis
Microscopic particle
examination
Wear severity and root cause
Contamination Parameters
Particle Count ISO counts at 8 different sizes Dust, wear, & process
particles
Contaminant Index Non-ferrous contaminants Corrosive fluid contamination
Water Contamination Water or other corrosive fluid Corrosive fluid contamination
Free Water Droplet indication Imiscible fluid droplets in oil Corrosion and poor lubrication
Chemistry Parameters
Chemical Index Deteriorated lubricant Lubricant no longer fit for use
Dielectric Permitivity Physical property of lubricant Wrong oil or degraded oil
Viscosity ISO viscosity grade Wrong oil or dilution with fuel
66
Types of Particles Types of Particles
Types of Particles
Corrosion Sand Rust
Abrasion Fatigue Boundry
Reasonable Return on Investment: 500%+ Reasonable Return on Investment: 500%+
Reasonable Return on Investment: 500%+
First year savings:
$420,000
– Deferred maint = $210,000
– Less oil usage = $15,000
– More credible = $20,000
– Less reactive = $150,000
– More accurate = $25,000
First year cost: $80,000
– Oil analysis = $20,000
– Contam. control = $40,000
– Improved lubrication
practices = $20,000
ROI = (Savings/Cost)x100
– (420/80)x100 = 525%
L
e
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O
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a
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Deferred Maintenance
(Contamination Control}
Clean, Dry and Fit for Use
M
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C
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Less Reactive
(Early Detection and
Confirmation of Problem}
M
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A
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a
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Industrial oil analysis includes:
Particle counts with ISO codes
Particle size distribution
Ferrous density measurement
Wear debris analysis
L
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Mechanical Reliability (CSI) Mechanical Reliability (CSI)
Mechanical Reliability (CSI)
Services and technology for improving the availability of mechanical
equipment through condition analysis
– Vibration analysis – portable, online, and wireless
– Oil analysis
– Sonic and ultrasonic analysis
– Infrared thermography
– Motor analysis
– Laser alignment and balancing
RBMware, condition monitoring, analysis and reporting software
Reliability program benchmarking, program design, implementation
and optimization
69
Business
Objective
Identification
Plant
Assessment
and
Benchmarking
Failure
Defense
Planning
Performance
Quantification
DESIGN
Technology
Deployment
Expertise
Optimization
Work
Processes
Optimization
IMPLEMENT
& EXECUTE
Performance
Measurement
and Analysis
Improvement
Planning
REVIEW
CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENT
Asset Optimization Program Model Asset Optimization Program Model
Asset Optimization Program Model
70
71
Positioning Positioning
Positioning
Machinery Health Manager is the
software platform for Machinery Health
Management
– It Includes:
• Machinery health management Technologies Technologies
• Data analysis tools & Expertise Expertise
• • Work Process Work Process for reporting program results
72
Machinery Health Manager Machinery Health Manager
Machinery Health Manager
Provides tools in assisting the RBM analyst to efficiently and accurately
determine the current health of equipment
• More confidence in diagnostic calls by the analyst and management
(built-in intelligence & diagnostic options).
Effectively communicate to appropriate personnel throughout the
organization
• Communication through existing enterprise and information systems.
• Reporting condition and recommending actions for prioritizing work
• Tracking performance metrics for judging overall program success
Initial implementation made easy.
PdM Novice user-friendly.
ROI realization is much quicker.
Integration of seven technologies
Machinery Health Manager is the Platform for the entire RBM program.
73
Value Points/Highlights Value Points/Highlights
Value Points/Highlights
Integrated technologies for comprehensive
multiple diagnostic detection
Ease of use
Comprehensive setup, analysis, and
documentation tools
Built-in intelligence
Diagnostic Power
Equipment health tracking and reporting
Performance metrics documentation and
reporting
Flexible configuration capability(e.g. Single
User, LAN, WAN)
74
Software for
Machinery Health Management
Software for
Software for
Machinery Health Management
Machinery Health Management
Data from diverse technologies
resides in one database
structure
– All personnel view the
complete history for each
asset
– Technologies supported:
• Vibration – portable and
online
• Alignment & balancing
• Motor Diagnostics
• Infrared Thermography
• Lubrication analysis &
Ultrasonics
Oil
Analysis
Laser
Alignment
& Balancing
Online
Condition
Monitoring
Ultrasonics
Portable
Vibration
Motor
Monitoring
Infrared
Thermography
75
Integration Integration
Integration
Seven integrated technologies
Complete asset health condition
into a single database
All diagnosis and findings under
one asset in RBMview
Why not have all of the
symptoms of the equipment
failure
Know the whole story before
making a recommendation
Wear
Contamination Chemistry
Extreme
Alarm
Alert
High Normal
Normal
Trivector
76
Ease of Use Ease of Use
Ease of Use
Graphical User
Interface
Wizard Database setup
Don’t need to be vibration
expert to get started
Fast, comprehensive setup
means faster ROI
Automatic point, AP and AL
sets, Fault Frequencies,
Diagrams, and Nspectr setup
77
Automated Database Set-up Automated Database Set
Automated Database Set
-
-
up
up
Assign measurement
points, parameters,
and alarm limits
Pre-defined
components
Graphic display of
configuration
Selection of
component
types
78
WAVEFORMDISPLAY
18-OCT-94 08:37:00
RMS = 4.38
PK(+) = 14.53
PK(-) = 11.78
CRESTF= 3.32
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
-15
-12
-9
-6
-3
0
3
6
9
12
15
Time in mSecs
A
c
c
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le
ra
tio
n
in
G
-s CF ALARM
CF ALARM
PK ALARM
PK ALARM
MA#7 - GEARBOX DRIVE-SUCTION ROLL
GBX-DSROLL-G3R G-BOX OUTPUT SHAFT - RADIAL
Label: Severe BPFOdefect - need action
Priority: 4
ROUTE SPECTRUM
18-OCT-94 08:37:00
OVRALL= .6516 V-DG
PK = .6892
LOAD = 100.0
FPM= 3518.
RPM= 381.
0 400 800 1200 1600
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Frequency in Hz
P
K
V
e
lo
c
ity
in
In
/S
e
c
Freq:
Ordr:
Spec:
79.29
12.50
.04412
>FAG61896
G=BPFO
G G G G G G G G G G
BPFOharmonics showsevere race defect
Multi-technology Analysis Tools Multi
Multi
-
-
technology Analysis Tools
technology Analysis Tools
Technology and expertise…tools for
decision making
– Vibration Analysis
• FFT, waveform, & phase analysis
• Automated diagnostics expertise
– Lubrication Analysis
• Trivector wear, chemistry, &
contamination analysis
– Electric Motor Monitoring
• Automated rotor & stator
diagnostics, using current & flux
– Infrared Thermography
• Palette & plot annotation tools
• Temp profile & histogram analysis
– Alignment & Balancing
• Tolerance plots by the job
79
Diagnostic Power Diagnostic Power
Diagnostic Power
Multiple plotting tools
Parameter band and narrow
band alarming
Fault Frequency analysis and
overlays
Variable speed diagnostics
Parameter Status Profile
Waveform Autocorrelation
PeakVue early impacting
analysis
80
Multiple
Analysis
Options
Fault frequencies
to identify specific
nature of fault
Multiple
Plot
Options
Report
Link
Fast
Indexing
Expert
System
Program Documentation
Diagnose Nature of Fault Diagnose Nature of Fault
Diagnose Nature of Fault
81
Built-in Intelligence Built
Built
-
-
in Intelligence
in Intelligence
RBMwizard sets up your
database for specific assets,
not templates
Thousands of built-in
components(motors,
bearings, pumps, gearboxes,
etc) to generate helpful
diagnostic fault frequencies
Nspectr, rule based expert
system finds problems and
recommends corrective/
diagnostic actions
Great for Novice and Expert
82
Automated Screening with
Expert System
Automated Screening with
Automated Screening with
Expert System
Expert System
Multiple
Diagnoses
Calculates
Problem
Severity
Calculates
Certainty
Calculates
Overall
Severity
Diagnosis
Across
Entire
Machine
Train
An alarm/screening report, and a first pass
at analyzing machine condition
83
Reporting for
Machinery Health Management
Reporting for
Reporting for
Machinery Health Management
Machinery Health Management
Performance metrics
document program
successes and opportunities
ROI or cost avoidance
documentation
Identification of the 20% of
assets giving 80% of the
problems
84
Reporting for
Machinery Health Management
Reporting for
Reporting for
Machinery Health Management
Machinery Health Management
Condition tracking and
documentation
Reporting for technician and
management
Actionable information at
facility and machine level
Multi-technology asset
information repository
85
Mechanical Mechanical
Equipment Equipment
Process Process
Equipment Equipment
Instruments Instruments
& Valves & Valves
Electrical Electrical
Equipment Equipment
Emerson’s Asset Optimization
Mission
Emerson
Emerson


s Asset Optimization
s Asset Optimization
Mission
Mission
Deliver World-Class Services and Innovative
Technologies to Increase the Availability and
Performance of Production Assets for Improved
Bottom Line Results (operational excellence).

Emerson’s Asset Optimization Emerson’s Mission
Deliver World-Class Services and Innovative Technologies to Increase the Availability and Performance of Production Assets for Improved Bottom Line Results (operational excellence).

Mechanical Equipment

Electrical Equipment

Process Equipment

Instruments & Valves

2

Machinery Health Management

Increases Availability and Performance of Mechanical Equipment

Motors

Pumps

Gearboxes

Turbines

Balance technology, expertise, and work processes for maximum availability at best cost.

3

Vibration Analysis Portable & Wireless Ultrasonics RBM view Laser Alignment

On-Line Condition Monitoring

ODBC

Motor Diagnostics

CMMS
Infrared Thermography
4

MIMOSA

Balancing

Tribology

Asset Optimization Services Mechanical Equipment Vibration analysis – portable. online. and wireless – Motor analysis – Laser alignment and balancing Oil analysis – Trivector Laboratory: industrial lubrication problem detection and detailed analysis – On-site Analysis Equipment Sonic and ultrasonic analysis Infrared thermography 5 .

Vibration Analysis – Identification of misalignment. imbalance. dry and fit for use” – May also be used as an acceptance determination for the incoming oils from the Lubrication Supplier 6 . bearing defects. “clean. structural foundation issues and electrical related problems Tribology/Oil Analysis Tribology – Identification of wear particles. chemical changes and contaminants.

Ultrasonics/Sonics Survey Ultrasonics – Air. steam trap. valve & vacuum leak detection – Bearing lubrication effectiveness Infrared Infrared Thermography Survey Thermography – Detection of proper electrical connections. switchgear – Detection of proper insulation from heat sources AMS Machinery Health Manager – Integration of multiple CM technologies 7 .

Vibration Analysis .

Understanding How Machines Fail INFANT MORTALITY ZONE PROBABILITY OF FAILURE RANDOM FAILURE WEAR-OUT ZONE STARTUP FAILURE ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS COMMISSIONING RANDOM / OPERATIONAL FAULTS PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE PRECISION CORRECTIONS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OPERATING AGE WEAR OUT PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE ROOT CAUSE .

g. RPM) 10 . number of bearing elements. Mechanical Defects detected with vibration analysis Belt drive faults Imbalance Misalignment Bent shaft Looseness Machine resonance Cavitation Shaft Rub Bearing Defects including: ocage defect oouter race defect oinner race defect orolling element defect Gear defects Electrical faults – Turning speed (e. etc.Principle #1 of Vibration Analysis Mechanical faults generate unique vibration – Geometry of the machine • diameter of the shaft.

Vibration from Mechanical Faults + 0 + 0 - Time Time + 0 11 Time .

Understanding the Vibration Spectrum Transducer Amplitude Amplitude Waveform Overall Energy Time FFT Spectrum Frequency 12 .

FFT Signal Processing Amplitude Tim e Amplitude Amplitude Tim e cy en qu re F 13 .

not just Overall vibration meter 14 .A Typical FFT Spectrum Specific peaks typically correlate to Specific machine faults Related to machine speed Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics.

Frequency Bands in addition to Spectrum Divide spectrum in frequency bands based on the types of mechanical faults that might appear on the machine 1X 2X Imbalance Misalignment 3X.6X Looseness BEARING BAND 1 Bearing Band 1 9-30X RPM BEARINGBand 2 2 Bearing BAND 30-50X RPM 15 .

Diagnose Nature of Fault Imbalance typically appears at the turning speed of the machine Imbalance 16 .

Diagnose Nature of Fault Misalignment typically shows up at either 1 or 2 x turning speed Misalignment 17 .

Diagnose Nature of Fault Looseness shows up as multiples of turning speed Looseness 18 .

Diagnose Nature of Fault Bearing wear shows up at specific peaks related to the geometry of the bearing Bearing Wear 19 .

Roller Bearing Vibration Faults Four different bearing frequencies Ball Spin Frequency (BSF) Fundamental Train Frequency (FTF) Ball Pass Frequency Inner Race (BPFI) Ball Pass Frequency Outer Race (BPFO) 20 .

How Bearing Faults Generate Vibration Outer Race Impacting Inner Race Impacting 21 .

Motor Current Analysis Easy to add to Vibration program Rotor / Stator defects – Difficult to detect in Vibration signature – Use current analysis instead. but opening MCC is risky – Use magnetic flux analysis for safety/convenience 22 .

Dynamic Structural Display ODS & Modal Analysis ODS = Operational 23 Deflection Shape .

permanently installed monitoring system – high implementation cost in terms • capital acquisition • disruption to production during installation Current trend toward ‘right-sizing’ – forced to examine techniques to reduce or eliminate manpower for data collection and analysis 24 .Implementation Periodic basis using portable data collection equipment Continuous basis using a dedicated.

Thermography .

a representation of heat 26 .a writing or representation Thermography . Therm .What is infrared thermography? A non-intrusive technology that allows you to “see” your equipment’s health.a form of the Greek word for heat Graph .

Infrared imagers detect heat given off a surface & convert it into electronic signals.How does infrared thermography work? Thermography is a visual representation of temperature. 27 . Different temperatures correspond to different energy levels seen by different colors.

new. lowcost imagers provide very quick ROI 28 .Non-intrusive. noncontact. and nondestructive Fast .Quick.Why use thermography? Safe . easy data collection Real time analysis transient data can be captured and analyzed Cost effective .

Applications Process – – – – – – – Extrusion Pipe insulation breakdown Refractory breakdown Fluid storage tank level Food industry Rolling kiln Injection molding 29 .

Improperly sized fittings. Electrical equipment – Bad connections. Eddy current heating.Applications Electrical Inspections – – – – Unbalanced loads. Broken strands.. breakers.. fuses – Overloaded conditions – Motor Control Center components – Distribution lines – Cable trays/conduits 30 .

Applications Mechanical inspections – – – – – Bearings Steam traps Gears Belts Couplings – Motor insulation breakdown 31 .

32 .Applications Leakage from a steam trap.

Regular checkups assist in extending equipment life & delaying capital expenditures for equipment replacement.Thermography benefits Infrared inspection verifies machinery temperature & locates potential electrical problems. Management knows what problems exist. Maintenance priorities set according to the problem severity level 33 . severity & specifics about the problem.

See The Problem Problem? IR Thermography shows the heat & the problem 34 .See The Heat.

Other technologies can take days to find the problem. You can scan a room very quickly. and report to management.” Senior Reliability Engineer Problem? IR Thermography shows the heat & the problem 35 . See The Problem “A picture is worth a thousand words. figure it out.See The Heat. and the infrared images are powerful and very easy to explain.

Recommended actions based on delta T and voltage are to inspect and repair/replace BEFORE THE NEXT SCHEDULED OUTAGE (Within 3 Months). This indicates a poor connection or failing breaker.Thermography Example Voltage 480 Delta T(C) 25 % Load 100 Emissivity 0.85 Reference T 160ºC Background T 80ºF Explanation: The connection end of the incoming wiring for phase B to plant breaker 7 is warmer (+25C) than the other wiring for the same circuit. 36 .

Thermography Example (Repaired)

Explanation: Following the repairs on 10/15, the hot connection has been fixed.

37

Sonics / Ultrasonics

What are Ultrasonic signals: Frequency Greater Than 20,000 Hz

Bearing defect (4,000 Hz periodic)

Under-lubricated bearing (30,000 Hz random)

‘A’ above middle ‘C’ (440 Hz)

Steam trap (40,000 Hz)

Subsonic

Sonic
20,000 Hz
39

Ultrasonic Range Ultrasonic Ultrasonic

Sound Analysis Converts Inaudible Signals into Audible Ones

Bearing defect (4,000 Hz periodic)

Under-lubricated bearing (30,000 Hz random)

‘A’ above middle ‘C’ (440 Hz)

Steam trap (40,000 Hz)

Subsonic

Sonic
20,000 Hz
40

Ultrasonic Range Ultrasonic Ultrasonic

Where Can You Apply Ultrasonics? Ultrasonics? Steam Traps Valves and Piping Compressed Air Grease Lubrication Control Control Valves Motor/ Pump Transmission and Distribution Boiler Tubes Pneumatic Controls Bearings and Gearboxes 41 .

Typical Sound Analysis Tools 1) Airborne Probe 3) Magnet Mount Probe 2) Contact Probe 42 .

Why Use Sound Analysis? Primary Health Monitoring technique for: – Valves. grease lubrication – Simple to use and understand – Very high return on investment Excellent ‘second opinion’ for: – Machinery Health Monitoring – Electrical equipment scanning 43 . steam traps.

Application: Bearing Defects Quick. easy test Establish baseline “Clicking” sound indicates bearing damage Trend sound level to track developing faults Bearing fault (4 KHz) Note: Trending only possible if using a calibrated ultrasonic device) 44 .

contamination. etc. seal damage.Application: Lubrication Monitoring 75% of bearing failure is lubrication related* Damage occurs from both: – Under-lubrication (Premature bearing failure. etc. grease overflow.) *Source SKF bearings 45 .) and – Over-lubrication (Ball skidding.

Application: Detecting Valve Failure Failure Modes: – Partially open or leaking – Sounds like rushing water Failure can result in: – Contamination – Loss of product – Damage to valves and downstream equipment Defective Valve (40 KHz) 46 .

Application: Monitoring Control Valves Contact measurement to monitor flow rate Airborne measurement to monitor stem packing leaks 70 60 Average dB 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Control Valve # Defective Valve Monitoring boiler spray valves (average level) 47 .

steam) results in steam loss of $6.Application: Steam Traps Sound created from turbulent fluid flow and valve/float impact Failed trap leads to significant losses in steam systems A blowing trap (1/4” orifice. 125 lb.300 per year Inlet Outlet Under lubricated bearing (40 KHz) Confirm fault with Thermography 48 .

100 . Generates airborne turbulence in the 40 kHz frequency range. A 1/8” air leak in a 100 psi system results in a yearly loss of $2. 5 psi leak Air Leak (40 KHz) 49 .005” orifice.Application: Air Leaks Primary loss of energy in plants today.

000 per year Natural Gas Leak (40 KHz) 50 . approx.Application: Gas Leaks Natural gas leak Safety hazard 83 dB amplitude. $28.

Electrical Corona and Discharge Corona caused by: – Insulation breakdown – Improper connections Generates high frequency waves “Buzzing” or “Crackling” sound Confirm with IR Thermography High Voltage High Voltage Corona from Faulty Connection (>40 KHz) 51 High Voltage .

Application: Switchyard Monitoring Sources of corona: – Arcing in transmission lines – Partial discharge in transformers Electrical Corona (>40 KHz) 52 .

Corona on Load Tap Changer (>40 KHz) 53 .Application: Load Tap Changers Responsible for nearly half of all failures in Substations and Switchyards Scan for Nitrogen Leaks .

Confirm Fault with IR Thermography Inspection of load tap changers requires multiple technologies – Scan with Ultrasonics – Confirm with IR and test for dissolved gas IR scan of Load Tap Changer 54 .

Documented Savings with Sound Monitoring American Electric Power John E.223.650 $ 74.584.097 $ 344.885 .820 $ 381.039 $6.217.429 $ 343.850 $1. Amos Plant 12 month ROI Vibration Analysis Ultrasonic Monitoring Motor Testing Motor Current Analysis Infrared Analysis Lube Oil Analysis Total $4.

Lubricant Analysis .

What is Tribology ? Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. Includes much more than just OIL ANALYSIS .

Vibration and Oil Analysis Used Together Complements vibration analysis – providing independent and advanced indications of mechanical wear. Supplements vibration analysis – monitoring three root causes of failure: • oil chemistry • oil contamination • component wear 58 .

Root Causes of Surface Degradation Mechanical Root Causes: Imbalance Misalignment Improper assembly Improper fit Temperature extremes Improper speed/load Incompatible materials Material defect Seal defects Lube Related Root Causes: Wrong oil Mixed oil Low oil Degraded oil Process contamination Dilution Water contamination Dust contamination 59 .

additives are lost or consumed during the performance of their functions Contamination .What Causes A Lubricant To Fail? Additive Depletion .primarily due to oxidation which can produce acids which are detrimental to both componetry of machines and additives .ingressed or generated contamination is the primary root cause of failure in many mechanical systems Oil Deterioration .

Viscosity.5089% In Solution 1% +Emulsified 72% +Free 27% = 100% – Chemistry • Oil • Additive Contamination Chemistry . Contamination Action . Breather.Mobil DTE hydraulic fluid Sample Date: 21-FEB-93 Wear .Bad Contamination .Abrasive Wear Example P3 .Oil Analysis & Trivector Diagram Oil analysis has three Extreme dimensions: Bad – Wear • Ferrous • Nonferrous Marginal Fair Good Wear ABRAS WEAR .Good Bad seal leaking coolant into hydraulics Saw abrasive wear particles on grid 100x – Contamination • Dust • Water • Process Check .Extreme Chemistry .Remove Contaminants (water?) Estimated total water content 2.

Oil analysis choices On-site minilab – – – – No delay Test incoming lubricants Ownership and control Find and fix contamination Off-site oil lab – – – – No capital investment Expertise Extensive instrumentation Less labor required – Less expensive for >30 samples per month – Less expensive for < 30 samples per month 62 .

Oil Laboratory Wear Debris Analysis Particle Count with Sizes Ferrous Wear Spectrometric Metals Viscosity V40. V100. and VI Neutralization Number Water by KF FT-IR 63 .

Iron and Water 1. Oil Chemistry and Viscosity Particle Count with Size Distribution 4.Oil Minilab 2. Wear Debris Analysis 64 . 3.

wear.Minilab Analysis Parameters Parameters Ferrous Index Large Ferrous Indication Large Non-Ferrous Indication Analytical Wear Debris Analysis Particle Count Contaminant Index Water Contamination Free Water Droplet indication Chemical Index Dielectric Permitivity Viscosity Wear Parameters Iron particles > 5 microns Iron particles >> 60 microns Other metals >> 60 microns Microscopic particle examination Contamination Parameters ISO counts at 8 different sizes Non-ferrous contaminants Water or other corrosive fluid Imiscible fluid droplets in oil Chemistry Parameters Deteriorated lubricant Physical property of lubricant ISO viscosity grade What is measured? Significance Recent abnormal wear Abrasive wear indication Abrasive wear indication Wear severity and root cause Dust. & process particles Corrosive fluid contamination Corrosive fluid contamination Corrosion and poor lubrication Lubricant no longer fit for use Wrong oil or degraded oil Wrong oil or dilution with fuel 65 .

Types of Particles Corrosion Sand Rust Abrasion Fatigue 66 Boundry .

000 More credible = $20.000 More accurate = $25.000 Industrial oil analysis includes: Particle counts with ISO codes Particle size distribution Ferrous density measurement Wear debris analysis – Oil analysis = $20.000 Less reactive = $150.000 – Improved lubrication practices = $20.000 Less oil usage = $15.Reasonable Return on Investment: 500%+ First year savings: $420.000 – Contam. control = $40.000 ! ! First year cost: $80.000 ROI = (Savings/Cost)x100 – (420/80)x100 = 525% .000 – – – – – Deferred maint = $210.

program design.Mechanical Reliability (CSI) Services and technology for improving the availability of mechanical equipment through condition analysis – – – – – – Vibration analysis – portable. analysis and reporting software Reliability program benchmarking. and wireless Oil analysis Sonic and ultrasonic analysis Infrared thermography Motor analysis Laser alignment and balancing RBMware. implementation and optimization 68 . condition monitoring. online.

Asset Optimization Program Model Business Objective Identification Plant Assessment and Benchmarking DESIGN Failure Defense Planning Performance Quantification IMPLEMENT & EXECUTE Technology Deployment Expertise Optimization REVIEW Performance Measurement and Analysis Improvement Planning Work Processes Optimization CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT 69 .

70 .

Positioning Machinery Health Manager is the software platform for Machinery Health Management – It Includes: • Machinery health management Technologies • Data analysis tools & Expertise • Work Process for reporting program results 71 .

Integration of seven technologies Machinery Health Manager is the Platform for the entire RBM program. • Reporting condition and recommending actions for prioritizing work • Tracking performance metrics for judging overall program success Initial implementation made easy. ROI realization is much quicker. PdM Novice user-friendly.Machinery Health Manager Provides tools in assisting the RBM analyst to efficiently and accurately determine the current health of equipment • More confidence in diagnostic calls by the analyst and management (built-in intelligence & diagnostic options). Effectively communicate to appropriate personnel throughout the organization • Communication through existing enterprise and information systems. 72 .

LAN.Value Points/Highlights Integrated technologies for comprehensive multiple diagnostic detection Ease of use Comprehensive setup. Single User. and documentation tools Built-in intelligence Diagnostic Power Equipment health tracking and reporting Performance metrics documentation and reporting Flexible configuration capability(e.g. WAN) 73 . analysis.

Software for Machinery Health Management Data from diverse technologies resides in one database structure – All personnel view the complete history for each asset – Technologies supported: • Vibration – portable and online • Alignment & balancing • Motor Diagnostics • Infrared Thermography • Lubrication analysis & Ultrasonics Motor Infrared Oil Analysis Ultrasonics Thermography Monitoring Laser Alignment & Balancing Portable Vibration Online Condition Monitoring 74 .

Integration Seven integrated technologies Complete asset health condition into a single database All diagnosis and findings under one asset in RBMview Why not have all of the symptoms of the equipment failure Know the whole story before making a recommendation Extreme Alarm Alert High Normal Normal Trivector Wear Contamination Chemistry 75 .

Ease of Use Graphical User Interface Wizard Database setup Don’t need to be vibration expert to get started Fast. comprehensive setup means faster ROI Automatic point. Diagrams. Fault Frequencies. and Nspectr setup 76 . AP and AL sets.

Automated Database Set-up Set-up Assign measurement points. and alarm limits Selection of component types Graphic display of configuration 77 Pre-defined components . parameters.

32 1200 1600 CF ALARM 150 Time in mSecs Label: Severe BPFO defect . RPM = 381.3 0.6892 LOAD = 100. waveform.Multi-technology Analysis Tools Multi-technology Technology and expertise… tools for decision making – Vibration Analysis • FFT. >FAG 61896 G=BPFO 800 Frequency in Hz WAVEFORM DISPLAY CF ALARM 18-OCT-94 08:37:00 RMS = 4.5 0.38 PK(+) = 14.1 0 0 400 G G G G G G G G G Acceleration in G-s 15 12 9 6 3 0 -3 -6 -9 -12 -15 0 50 100 MA#7 . & contamination analysis – Electric Motor Monitoring • Automated rotor & stator diagnostics.0 GBX-DSROLL-G3R G-BOX OUTPUT SHAFT . & phase analysis • Automated diagnostics expertise – Lubrication Analysis • Trivector wear.RADIAL BPFO harmonics show severe race defect FPM = 3518.6516 V-DG PK = .78 CRESTF= 3. chemistry. using current & flux – Infrared Thermography • Palette & plot annotation tools • Temp profile & histogram analysis – Alignment & Balancing • Tolerance plots by the job 78 0.need action Priority: 4 200 250 300 350 Freq: Ordr: Spec: 79.53 PK ALARM PK ALARM PK(-) = 11.6 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0.4 0.29 12.GEARBOX DRIVE-SUCTION ROLL ROUTE SPECTRUM G 18-OCT-94 08:37:00 OVRALL= .2 0.50 .04412 .

Diagnostic Power Multiple plotting tools Parameter band and narrow band alarming Fault Frequency analysis and overlays Variable speed diagnostics Parameter Status Profile Waveform Autocorrelation PeakVue early impacting analysis 79 .

Diagnose Nature of Fault Expert System Multiple Plot Options Program Documentation Multiple Analysis Options Report Link Fast Indexing 80 Fault frequencies to identify specific nature of fault .

Built-in Intelligence Built-in RBMwizard sets up your database for specific assets. rule based expert system finds problems and recommends corrective/ diagnostic actions Great for Novice and Expert 81 . not templates Thousands of built-in components(motors. pumps. bearings. gearboxes. etc) to generate helpful diagnostic fault frequencies Nspectr.

Automated Screening with Expert System An alarm/screening report. and a first pass at analyzing machine condition Diagnosis Across Entire Machine Train Calculates Overall Severity Multiple Diagnoses 82 Calculates Problem Severity Calculates Certainty .

Reporting for Machinery Health Management Performance metrics document program successes and opportunities ROI or cost avoidance documentation Identification of the 20% of assets giving 80% of the problems 83 .

Reporting for Machinery Health Management Condition tracking and documentation Reporting for technician and management Actionable information at facility and machine level Multi-technology asset information repository 84 .

Emerson’s Asset Optimization Emerson’s Mission Deliver World-Class Services and Innovative Technologies to Increase the Availability and Performance of Production Assets for Improved Bottom Line Results (operational excellence). Mechanical Equipment Electrical Equipment Process Equipment Instruments & Valves 85 .

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