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1

Miran Rošer, 2Gorazd Štumberger, 2Matej Toman, 2Drago Dolinar

1

Elektro Celje d.d.

Vrunčeva 2a, 3000 Celje, Slovenia

2

University of Maribor, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

phone:+386 2 220 7075, fax:+386 2 220 7272, e-mail: Gorazd.Stumberger.@uni-mb.si

Abstract. This work analyses transmission line losses in a 35 additional losses can be evaluated by the norm or RMS

kV distribution network where currents and voltages contain value of the current vector component orthogonal to the

higher harmonic components. They are caused by a nonlinear voltage vector.

load – a rectifier with rated power of 4.7 MVA. In order to

evaluate increase of transmission line losses due to the current

higher harmonic components, the three-phase current vector is

decomposed into two orthogonal components. The first 2. Network with nonlinear load

orthogonal component of the three-phase current vector is

collinear with the three-phase line voltage vector, while the Figure 1 shows a part of discussed distribution network

second one is orthogonal to it. The first one contributes to the with a nonlinear load. Our observation focuses on the

active power while the second one does not. It causes additional losses in the 35 kV line, connecting 35 kV bus and

transmission line losses which could be avoided if the second nonlinear load.

orthogonal component of the three-phase current vector is

minimized. The RMS values of both orthogonal components of

the three-phase current vector are used to evaluate the SUBSTATION

TR

additional transmission line losses. 110/35 kV

BUS

35kV M2

L1 L2 L3

D

Key words: transmission line losses, higher harmonic ~ M3

components, orthogonal decomposition, three-phase Y

SUPPLY

yn NONLINEAR

35 kV LINE LOAD

110kV

currents

M1 DV1

1. Introduction

Figure 1: Part of the distribution network with a nonlinear load

One of the very effective tools used for analysis of three-

phase currents and voltages [1]-[8] are orthogonal The line voltages and currents measured in 35 kV

decompositions of three-phase currents in time domain network in points M2 and M3, respectively, are shown in

[1]-[5], [8]. In this work, this tool is applied to analyze Figure 2, while their amplitude spectra are shown in

increase of transmission line losses in a 35 kV Figures 3 and 4.

distribution network where currents and voltages contain

higher harmonics. These higher harmonics are caused by

uL1 [kV],iL1 [A]

50 uL1

a nonlinear load – a rectifier with rated power of 4.7 0

iL1

MVA.

-50

The aforementioned three-phase line currents and 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

uL2 [kV],iL2 [A]

voltage vector [8]. The current vector is decomposed into 0

iL2

with the voltage vector while the second one is

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

orthogonal to it. Only the current vector component

uL3 [kV],i L3 [A]

iL3

reciprocal energy exchange between source and load 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

whose average value equals zero. Thus, the current vector t [s]

component orthogonal to the voltage causes additional

transmission line losses which can be avoided. These Figure 2: Line currents and voltages measured in a 35 kV

network

calculated by (4), while (5) introduces the equivalent

30

UL1

conductivity of the three-phase system Ge(t):

25 UL2

UL3

t

1

u T (τ ) i (τ ) dτ

T t ∫-T

20

P(t ) = (4)

[kV]

15

35kV

u

10

P(t )

Ge (t ) = (5)

U 2 (t )

5

0

0 5 10 15 harmonik 20 25

Figure 3: Amplitude spectra of line voltages on 35 kV level

Two orthogonal components of the current vector i(t),

60 marked with iu(t) and iuo(t), are introduced in (6) and (7).

I L1

P(t )

i u ( t ) = Ge (t )u ( t ) = 2 u ( t )

I L2

50

I L3 (6)

40 U (t )

i uo ( t ) = i ( t ) − i u ( t )

i35kV[A]

30 (7)

20

0

0 5 10 15 harmonik 20 25

indispensable for energy transmission and active power

Figure 4: Amplitude spectra of line currents on 35 kV level generation. The second one is orthogonal to the current

vector. It is responsible for reciprocal energy exchange

The RMS values of individual line currents and voltages between source and load. The average value of this

are shown in Table I together with active power reciprocal energy exchange equals zero.

measured in individual lines.

If the voltage vector u(t) is given, the current vector i(t)

TABLE I: The RMS values of measured line currents and and its orthogonal components iu(t) and iuo(t) produce,

voltages and active power together with the voltage vector, instantaneous powers

p(t), ps(t) and pq(t) (8).

Line L1 Line L2 Line L3

Current [A] 36.64 36.48 37.23

Voltage [kV] 20.69 20.80 20.75 ps ( t ) = u T ( t ) i ( t )

Active Power [kW] 742 749 751 p ( t ) = uT ( t ) iu ( t ) (8)

pq ( t ) = u T

( t ) i uo ( t )

3. Orthogonal decomposition

The instantaneous power losses in the discussed 35 kV

Orthogonal decomposition in the time domain [8] is line caused by the current vectors i(t), iu(t) and iuo(t) are

performed in order to decompose currents measured at 35 denoted as psi(t), pi(t) and pqi(t), respectively. They are

kV level into two orthogonal components. To allow for introduced in (9) to (11):

orthogonal decomposition, current and voltage vectors,

i(t) and u(t), are introduced by (1): psi ( t ) = R i T ( t ) i ( t ) (9)

pi ( t ) = R i (t ) iu (t )

T

(10)

⎡iL1 ( t ) ⎤ ⎡uL1 ( t ) ⎤

u

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ pqi ( t ) = R i ( t ) i uo ( t )

T

(11)

i ( t ) = ⎢iL 2 ( t ) ⎥ , u ( t ) = ⎢uL 2 ( t ) ⎥ ,

uo

(1)

⎢i t ⎥ ⎢u t ⎥

⎣ L3 ( ) ⎦ ⎣ L3 ( ) ⎦ where R is the resistance of the 35 kV line. Integrals of

instantaneous powers (9) to (11) represent corresponding

where iL1(t), iL2(t), iL3(t) and uL1(t), uL2(t), uL3(t) denote energy losses in time interval [t-T, t]. These losses are

measured line currents and voltages. The norms or RMS calculated by (12) to (14).

values of both vectors, I(t) and U(t), are given by (2) and

(3): t t

Wsi = ∫ psi (τ ) dτ = ∫ R i T (τ ) i (τ ) dτ (12)

t −T t −T

t

1 L3

I (t ) =

T t −∫T

i T (τ ) i (τ ) dτ = ∑I 2

k (2) t t

∫ pi (τ ) dτ = ∫ R i (τ ) i (τ ) dτ

k = L1

Wi = T

u u (13)

t −T t −T

t

1 L3

U (t ) =

T t −∫T

u T (τ ) u (τ ) dτ = ∑U 2

(3) t t

pqi (τ ) dτ = ∫ R i (τ ) i (τ ) dτ

k

Wqi = ∫

T

k = L1

uo uo (14)

t −T t −T

while Uk and Ik denote RMS values of individual line The average power losses in the given time interval, are

currents and voltages. The average active power P(t) is calculated by (15) to (17).

t

1

iT (τ ) i (τ ) dτ

T t −∫T

Psi = R (15) The transmission line instantaneous power losses, given

by expressions (9) to (11), are shown in Figure 7 together

with their integrals (12), (13) and (14).

t

1

iTu (τ ) i u (τ ) dτ

T t −∫T

Pi = R (16)

2000

psi

t

1 1500 pi

Pqi = R ∫ iTuo (τ ) i uo (τ ) dτ (17) pqi

T t −T 1000

500

vector i(t), the power losses Pi are caused by the current 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

vector iu(t), while the power losses Pqi are caused by the

10

current vector iuo(t). Only the power losses Pi are wsi

8

unavoidable. They are caused by the current vector iu(t)

wi

qi

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

t [s]

Figure 6: Power and energy losses in 35 kV transmission line

4. Results

The energy losses (12) to (14) were used to calculate

The results presented in this section are given for currents average power losses Psi, Pi and Pqi, which can be

and voltages presented in Figure 2, section 2. calculated also by (15) to (17). The obtained results are

Components of vectors u(t), i(t), iu(t) and iuo(t) are shown shown in Table II.

in Figure 5. They were determined by (1) to (7).

Components of the voltage vector u(t) are line voltages TABLE II: Power losses

uL1, uL2, uL3, while the line currents iL1, iL2, iL3 are

components of the current vector i(t). Components of the Psi [W] Pi [W] Pqi [W]

current vectors iu(t) and iuo(t) in individual lines are iL1u, 1371.4 1250.7 120.7

iL2u, iL3u and iL1uo, iL2uo, iL3uo.

A similar ratio between individual losses, as it is show in

Table II for one period of fundamental, was confirmed by

x 10

4 measurement performed for one day. In order to evaluate

monthly loss of energy due to the current vectors i(t), iu(t)

uL1, uL2, uL3 [V]

2

and iuo(t), an average daily energy transmission was

0

analyzed for a period of one month. Considering ratio

-2

between individual power losses given in Table II and

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

measured average daily transmission of energy in the

discussed 35 kV line, transmission line losses were

iL1, iL2, iL3 [A]

50

0

evaluated.

-50

Figure 7 shows the average daily transmission line losses,

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

due to the current vectors i(t), iu(t) and iuo(t). The daily

iL1u, iL2u, iL3u [A]

0 caused by iu(t) are denoted as Wid while Wqid represents

-50

losses due to the current vector iuo(t).

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

iL1uo, iL2uo, iL3uo [A]

50 1.6

1.4

0

Wloss [MWh]

1.2

-50

1

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

0.8

t [s] W sid

id

W qid

0.4

0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Day in month

of the current vector iu(t) in individual lines (iL1u, iL2u,

iL3u) are collinear with the corresponding voltage vector

Figure 7: Daily energy losses in 35 kV transmission line

components uL1, uL2, and uL3 .

References

For the given case, the total monthly transmission line

losses caused by the current vectors i(t), iu(t) and iuo(t) are [1] L. S. Czarnecki, “On some misinterpretations of the

given in Table III. instantaneous reactive power p-q theory,” IEEE Trans. on

Power Electronics., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 828-836, 2004.

[2] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, “Instantaneous reactive

TABLE III: Total monthly transmission line losses due to

power compensators comprising switching devices without

i(t), iu(t) and iuo(t) energy storage components,” IEEE Trans. on Industry

Applications, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 625–631, 1984.

Total monthly transmission line losses [MWh] [3] A. Nabae, T. Tanaka, “A new definition of instantaneous

Due to i(t) Due to iu(t) Due to iuo(t) active- reactive current and power based on instantaneous

35.59 32.45 3.14 space vectors on polar coordinates in three-phase circuits,”

IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1238–

1243, 1996.

The transmission losses due to the current iu(t) cannot be [4] J. L. Willems, “A new interpretation of the Akagi-Nabae

avoided, because iu(t) is the minimal current vector power components for nonsinusoidal three-phase

situations,” IEEE Trans. on Instr. and Meas., vol. 41, no.

needed for energy transmission. On the contrary, the

4, pp. 523–527, 1992.

current vector iuo(t) represents only a reciprocal energy [5] Gorazd Štumberger, Treatment of three-phase systems

exchange between the source and load, which must be using vector spaces. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Electrical

avoided in order to minimize transmission line losses. Engineering and Computer Science, Maribor, 1996.

[6] D. L. Milanez, A. E. Emmanuel, “The instantaneous-space

phasor a powerful diagnosis tool,” IEEE Trans. on Instr.

5. Conclusion and Meas., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 143–148, 2003.

[7] A. E. Emmanuel, “Summary of IEEE Standard 1459:

definitions for measurement of electric power quantities

This paper discusses transmission line losses in the case under sinusoidal, nonsinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced

of 35 kV network, where currents and voltages contain conditions,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol.

higher harmonic components caused by a nonlinear load. 40, no. 3, pp. 869–876, 2004.

Measured three phase currents are decomposed into two [8] G. Štumberger, B. Polajžer, M. Toman, D. Dolinar,

orthogonal components. Only one of them contributes to Orthogonal decomposition of currents, power definitions

the energy transmission, while the other one increases and energy transmission in three-phase systems treated in

the time domain, Proceedings of the International

transmission losses. In the given case transmission losses

conference on renewable energies and power quality

could be decreased for 10 percents by rejection of current (ICREPQ'06), Palma de Mallorca, Spain, April 206.

component that does not contribute to the energy

transmission.

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