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P A R R Y M O O N 1 AND DOMINA E B E R L E S P E N C ] ~ R 2
So successful have been Maxwell's equations that the electrodynamic formulations of Ampere, Weber, and Riemann have been almost forgotten. The purpose of this paper is to present a rejuvenation of the older theories, based entirely on the force between charged particles. The new formulation leads to the correct formulas for force, induced emf, and radiation. In fact, it may be regarded as an alternative to Maxwell's equations, with the advantages of Galilean relativity and a closer contact with reality (charges rather than fictitious flux lines). I. INTRODUCTION
In the early part of the 19th century, Ampere (1), 3 Gauss (2), Weber (3), and Riemann (4) developed a theory of electrodynamics, free from the magnetic-field fiction and based on an extension of the familiar equation of Coulomb. At that time, the electron was unknown and ideas of metallic conduction were of the haziest kind; yet a true particletheory was produced, both magnetic flux and the aether being ignored. The attitude of these early investigators was surprisingly modern: their hard-headed phenomenological approach is much closer to the spirit of modern physics than is the mechanistic pictorialism of Faraday and Maxwell. It cannot be denied that the visualization of magnetic flux lines has been a genuine aid in electrical engineering. But there are advantages, both theoretical and practical, in the direct calculation of inter-particle forces in the pre-Maxwellian manner. It is interesting to see what can be done by a modernization of these older methods.
FIG. I. x Department of Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. s Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. s The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the references appended to this paper. 369
(2) where 0 is the angle between v and the unit vector a. the distance r. This force may be called the Weberforce. Q1 a function of time. Consider two charged particles (Fig. 1) separated by distance r. In the rationalized mks system. If there is no relative motion between the particles. (1) This force is called the Coulombforce. the Ampere force resulting from this motion is =. uniform relative velocity. constant Q~. and the angle ~b between dv/dt and at. We have shown (5) that Eq. we must introduce additional terms dealing with the acceleration of charge and with the time-variation of charge. no relative motion. however. remainder of the paper will be concerned with (c) and (d). The AmpSre force is a substitute for the magnetic field. 1). The Weber force is directly proportional to acceleration because induced voltage is directly proportional to dI/dt or to Q dv/dt. cos. The Condition (a) gives the Coulomb force.370 PARRY MOON AND DOMINA EBERLE SPENCER [J. F. Equations 1 and 2 cover the questions that are ordinarily treated under electrostatics and magnetostatics. since Wilhelm Weber (3) was the first to include an acceleration term in the equations of electrodynamics. 2. Q1Q~ F. the acceleration dv/dt. accelerated motion. _ 0 (2. Evidently the possibilities may be classified as (a) (b) (c) (d) constant Q1. Dimensional analysis then proves that the Weber force is inversely proportional to the first power of r and inversely proportional . 1 shows that the force can depend on only five variables: the charges Q1 and Q2. Coulomb's equation applies. I. = a. If Q1 is moving at constant velocity v with respect to Q.. Equation 2 handles all problems dealing with forces on conductors carrying direct current. To complete the theory. (b) the Ampere force. constant Q1. The requirement of linearity means that the force must be directly proportional to Q1Q2. 4~rer2. Reference to Fig.. THE WEBER FORCE The next step consists in introducing a force caused by an accelerated charge. Consider all possible forces that can be exerted by charge Q1 on charge Q~ (Fig.. 2 is the only equation t h a t is consistent with the Ampere experiments and with modern ideas of electronics.
1 ~sl.May./ where F. dv F ~b ( )' (3) where F(~b) is an u n k n o w n vector function of the angle ~b.2. we can e m p l o y t h e constant of Eq. and I .~ . the force per unit charge on Q. dVl 4~r~c2 r .N1AII0. IVl. (4) N1 = n u m b e r of free electrons per unit volume of conductor (m-8). F (~) dSl dI1 . 2. A.] A NEW ELECTRODYNAMICS 37I to c2. 3. I954. F2 = 4~. [ dv. v./Q. = drift velocity of electrons (m sec -1) with respect to the conductor. [ ds. 4~-~c'r "~ "F (1/). (5) .. 1 and write for the Weber force. I -. The current is taken in the direction of the vector ds~.c2---? ~" Q1Q. T h e electrons in dsl constitute a charge 01 = . is N1AI [Q. = -and from Eq. dI1/dt = N1A1 [Q. = cross-sectional area of conductor (m2). From Eq.m a g n i t u d e of electronic charge (coulomb). = P W Gr FIG. 4. F2/Q. [Q. 2)./dt. I1 = N I A I [ Q . Consider an element of conductor ds~ carrying a varying current (Fig. W i t h o u t loss of generality.
a. FIG. A __ _ 0A Ot 41rr ' _ dsl dI~ a. 4r. 4rcr dt ' . 5 with the corresponding expression based on Maxwell's equations.. 3. 5 and 6 shows that F(~) = - a./ e (!)/r y® r. F. According to Maxwell's theory. element of Fig. where aa is a unit vector in the direction of the electron acceleration.c2~ d r ' (7) where v is the relative velocity of charge 1 with respect to charge 2. SO For the I~ ds. Thus the final equation for the Weber force for two charged particles is. ~/O = - [ v~ + u-oi °'l ' where A is the vector potential and J is the current density. / Q . Perhaps the simplest way of determining the unknown function F(~b) is to compare Eq. ~ dI. I.a . at" (6) Comparison of Eqs. c ' Ot . Since the element dsl is uncharged. 3. the scalar potential is zero and 1 OA dsx F'/Q* = .. / .372 PARRY MOON AND DOMINA EBERLE SPENCER [J. 2. from Eq. O~ dv F . . J d v = 11 dsl. = .
T h u s the Weber force. the induced emf in ds2 is d 2 V= --- d81" ds2 d I . caused by a varying current in the inner circle.ds2 4~-ec~r or 1 ffdsl. INDUCED E M F The difference in potential between the ends of an element ds2 (Fig. 4). T h e emf induced in an element ds. 3). 8. is d V2 = F~/Q2"ds2. According to Eq. 9: This is the most general expression for finding the mutual inductance. dsl dI1 dF~/O. N e u m a n n (6). 4 7rec2r dt " (8) Introducing the m u t u a l inductance M. induced by the varying current in dsl. we obtain d2 M ~ - ds1 . 6. Equation 9 applies equally well to self inductance L when dsl and ds2 refer to elements in the same circuit. T h e m u t u a l inductance between closed circuits of a n y form is expressed by Eq.ds2 M = 4~. is given by Eq. and the induced emf is V~= -. 9.47r.c2r. T h e result was obtained without reference to magnetic flux. . where the emf is taken positive for a potential rise in the direction of ds~. and it is sometimes more convenient than the conventional m e t h o d of flux linkages. From Eq. d---t' (6a) .M _ dI1 dt " (10) As an illustration. 6.May. . is given by Eq. consider the m u t u a l inductance between two coaxial circles (Fig. .] A NEW ELECTRODYNAMICS 373 3. I954. the Neumann formula has the advantage. = -. caused by the acceleration of a charged particle. T a k e a charge Q2 at a fixed point P on the outer circle. . It leads quite simply to a formal expression for the mutual inductance even though for most cases it is not possible to perform the integrations [analytically] . Grover (7) says of Eq. and determine the force on this charge. 7. . and the formula for the mutual inductance of two straight filaments placed in any desired position has also been obtained by its use.~c~ 3 3 r " (9) This is the equation of F. For inclined filaments .
r 's = a s + b s + z ~ . w h e r e dsl = a d f .2ab c o s ~"]~ " 2¢. . T h e t a n g e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t o f f o r c e a t P .cos2¢ = (1 2 sin 2 ¢ ) . 4.)d r~c 2 dt [ ( a + b) 2 + z s .2ab c o s f. Z where (11) r. F.!o ['(a s + b 2 + z 2) . I.2 d 9 .4 a b s i n 2~ 7r~cS[-(a a d A f o " / 2 (1 . p + b) 2 + zS] ½ d-t['1 .k s sin 2 ~o]~ ' k 2 = 4ab/[-(a + b) 2 T z Q .2 sin s ~ ) d .374 PARRY M O O N A N D DOiKINA EBERLE SPENCER [J. o d A f s ~ c o s ~'d~" r a d_f/1( " c o s ~" d~" 2~-ec s dt . is a F~/Q2 = Leti" = r Then _ 47r~c 2 dt ./Q2 = a dllfo'12 (1 . d ~ = . cos~ = . F. x - F" FIG. c a u s e d b y c u r r e n t in t h e c o m p l e t e l o o p o f r a d i u s ~.2 s i n 2¢.
of course. THE LOOP ANTENNA The induced emf in a circular loop is considered in Section 3.[(a + b) ~ -5 z2]~['(2 -. d I ( t ) 4~r~c~r dt (6a) and the retarded Weber force is therefore dF/Q~ = dsi d I ( t . The unretarded Weber force per unit charge is d F /Q2 = ds. The equations apply to relatively low frequencies so that the time lag caused by the finite velocity of propagation may be neglected.May. where I* and F* are rms values (generally complex numbers).b) ~ + z.e--7. dt . (13) so the mutual inductance of two concentric circles is M= 1~ 2~c--.2 E l .2E-I.k~)F . 9. (14) This is exactly the equation obtained by Maxwell. Then d I ( t -.r/c) 47rec~ r dt (6b) Let I ( t ) = 4-2I*e ~' and F ( t ) = 4 2 F * e ~'. I954.c~k2[(a + b) 2 + z~-]t d--[ [(2 .k g F -.-]~ dt [(2 . produced by a varying current in the loop of radius a.k O F - 2E-I. (12) where F and E are complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds.r/c) ~" = io~4~I*e~.] A N~w ELECTRODYNAMICS 375 Integration leads to Ft/Q: = a dA ~r~c~k2[(a 4. The emf induced in a complete loop of radius b is V = dY(Ft/Q2) ds2 = 2 r b ( F J Q ~ ) = - 2ab dI . We now take the case where retardation must be included but where the current is still essentially in phase around the loop. 4. directly from Eq. though the above derivation gives a better physical picture of what is taking place. It could have been found. Equation 12 gives the force per unit charge on a particle at P.
#. r rt with r '2 = a s + r ~2arsinOcos~'. I. 1 1 ( 1 + a sin 0 cos ~.oaI*cos~'df 4~C ~ [ ior' e c r t e -] *~0r" c (15) .i o ~ a I * e ~ c__osr d[ i sin 27rec2r ---asinOc°sf)r " dFt*/Q~ = [ ( ~) o~a sin 0 cos ~" c ) If o:a/c << 1. r ' ~--r (1 -- - a r sin 0 cos ~. The tangential force. 15 gives -.--1 ( r 1 -Substitution in Eq. r '''~--r ( 1 + r-asin0cos~-). 4) is dF**/Q2 = i ~ d s 1 I * cos 47recUr.) ' rp ~ r r --rttl . If r >> a. -~.ote c and the tangential force per unit charge (Fig. 6b becomes dF/Q2 = 47r~c2 r ei.2 = a 2 + r ~ + 2 a r s i n O c o s f . f e ~' ~ (6c) Consider two current elements situated diametrically opposite each other on a circle of radius a (Fig.376 PARRY MOON AND D O M I N A E B E R L E S P E N C E R [J. Distances from these elements to point P are r' and r ' . sin (~ sin 0 cos °° ~ ~£ sin 0 cos ~'. F. produced at P by current in the pair of elements. is dFt*/Q2 = _ i.) . __ co~(~0co~ 0 . Thus Eq. 4).
(b). This equation agrees with the usual formula derived from Maxwell's equations. this relation no longer holds: the charge on the element depends on both time and position. 1 varies sinusoidally with time: Q~(t) = 4-2Q*e.] A NEW ELECTRODYNAMICS 377 Thus. It shows that the force at P is directly proportional to the area of the loop and directly proportional to the sine of the angle from the loop axis. or = .~(.r/c) = 42Q*e.[ i~c + 1 ] s i n r ior 0 c o s ' : d~'. There remains the rather unusual case (d) of a charge that is not constant.-. = a~ where a~ is a unit vector in the tangential direction.m..-+ Tr ' (18) . this varying charge produces a force on Q2: F*/Q. Because (d) is closely related to Maxwell's displacement current. the conduction current entering an elementary length of conductor is equal to the current leaving it..May..*/Q. (16) [-I*] = I*e The tangential force per unit charge at P. Suppose that Q1 of Fig. which varies inversely as the first power of the distance.*/Q2 ~-where ioa'[I*l[27rec. dF. with a linear conductor in the stationary or quasi-stationary state. THE MAXWELL FORCE The preceding sections have evaluated cases (a). = a. The second term varies inversely as the second power of r and thus becomes negligible at very large distances. 17. The corresponding retarded quantity is Ql(t . For example. But at sufficiently high frequency. in accordance with Kirchhoff's second law.iwa'~I*-] sin O[ ~ + l ] fo't' cos2 ~ d ~°(Ira~)[I*]sinO[c_~] 47recUr (17) F*/Q. I954. and (c) of Section 1. 5. the corresponding force will be called the Maxwell force. is F. caused by current in the complete loop of radius a. According to Maxwell's theory. The first term of Eq. represents the ordinary radio wave.
19 gives F/Q2 = - 47tel r2 cr j or F*/Q. Q. 19 reduces to the Coulomb force.. (19) T h e n for the charged particles of Fig. In fact. Y = ~ F * e '°'t. = a. r " ~ r(1 + ( 1 / 2 r ) c o s 0). Eq. t a k e an electric dipole (Fig. 19. 1.378 where PARRY MOON AND DOMINA EBERLE SPENCER [3. none of the previous theories seems to include such a force. Riemann. 4~Q*[ 1 i~ ] e'o~'-~"o'. This same result is obtained from the new t h e o r y if we assume for the Maxwell force. ~ -~ + ~ . F / G = at. F.. according to Eq. 1 ~ 1 (1 + ( l / 2 r ) cos 0). Eq. F / Q 2 = ar 47rer2. [Q*~ = ~[2Q*e . (1) T h u s the Maxwell force includes the Coulomb force as a special case. I. and W a r b u r t o n (9). 5) with the charges v a r y i n g sinusoidally with t i m e : Q = ~]2Q*e.( l / 2 r ) cos 0).' ~ ' ' . which m a y a c c o u n t for the r a t h e r unsatisfactory n a t u r e of the theories of Weber. so the Maxwell force replaces the displacement current.e O-r r Qx(t 4rr 1o[1 r/c) ] .. r' -----r(1 -. 19 was not formulated b y Maxwell. r 1 ~ 1 (1 " ( l / 2 r ) cos 0). t h o u g h of course Eq. As an example. But if l << r.. . F/Q2 = a ~ . For the upper charge. -Tg-i-~ L -~ + . (18) For the special case of Ql(t) = Q1 = const. Ritz (8). and no separate t e r m for the Coulomb force is needed. J u s t as the A m p e r e force replaces the magnetic field.
. z954. Similarly. 379 Then /car /colcos 0 F*/Q2 = I*e .+ao~ . for the lower charge. F*/Q2 = /*e ' e 2c U ~ [1[ I 1-- cosO +-- 1 -X cosO --a...] - A NEw ELECTRODYNAMICS . "Q i I Fro.Z l sin 0 ] ] 4-2I*ei% Q= 421*el-t ioo " . 5..May.e w io~47r~ I f (1 + / c o s O ) + i ° ~ ( 1 -2 r r cr \ + l 2r )} cos 0 a0 X[ar+ where I is the current between the two spheres : I= . .0( lo.
THEDIPOLE ANTENNA oor 8it]" (21) Consider the dipole antenna (Fig. ¢.380 PARRY MOON AND DOMINA EBERLE SPENCER [J.~ 2isin ~cC°SO + -. 5). assuming that the current in the vertical wire between + Q and .-.c r2 i 2 c + io~] ~ wr ~r + a. ioar I*e c 1 1 [ (c01 ) 2l (o0l )] Fr /Q2 = -.)~ = - a. 20 and 21.cos 0 cos 2c cos 0 io.oEI*-]z 0 4 7r~c2r (22) Equations 20 and 21 express the Maxwell force (F*/Q2)u = a~ [/*]l cos 0[ 2 4~. caused by the varying current in the wire.a. For I(t -. To this must be added the Weber force. or . ~c i2Co~r + i_~]cr " ~ (20) Fr*/Q2 = [ I * ] l c o s O [ r 2 Similarly. F. 4rr~c2r or elf(t--r/c) (F*/Q. 6. Eq. Eq.r/c) = ~f2I*e i~t-rl°).~=1. the retarded Weber force is ~f2ioolI* _ _ F/Q2 = -. Thus the total force at fundamental frequency is the sum of the Weber and the Maxwell forces. I.Q is not a function of z.. The sum of the two forces has a radial component. But sin(O~/cosO )_wl =2cC°SO' SO cos (o~l o s O ) . [I*]lsinO[1 47r~c r' ic ] (23) wr* " The Ampere force is a double-frequency force because of the second power of the velocity. The dipole itself produces the force given by Eqs.oEI*]Z cos 0 4 7r~c2r sin + aei.47r~ r + i~r[2isin (~c/cos O) + !cosOcos ( ~ c/ cos 0 ) ] } . 2. the component of force perpendicular to the radius is F°*/Q2 = [f*]l sin O[ r~ 6.
The only limitation of Eq. Eq. but it is especially useful where the frequency is high enough so that O is a function of both time and position.] cos 2 0] . 1). Equation 25 may be used as the basis for all of electrodynamics. . The second term represents the Weber force. Equations 24 and 24a agree with the classical results obtained from Maxwell's equations. It is probable t h a t the functions of Eq. SUMMARY The paper has developed an electrodynamics that is in agreement with Galilean relativity and free from the aether and the magneticfield concept. or they may be in relative motion. The only velocity is the relative velocity v of charge 1 with respect to charge 2 .aa ~ Q1 4~r~c2 1 a d dt v ( t .. the force per unit charge at point 2 is F/Q2 = a. and problems dealing with currents are treated by considering large numbers of electrons in motion. 25 seems to be that it applies only to ordinary velocities. 25 is inherently relativistic. The fundamental equation expresses the force on a charged particle. which gives induced emf's. 24 reduces to F*/Q2 = ae io~[I*]l sin 0 47r~c~ . r (24a) showing t h a t the force per unit charge at the receiver varies directly as the length of the anteflna. In any case. The third term represents the Maxwell force. I954. Thus questions dealing with aggregates of charge are handled by summation (or integration) of F/Q2. The particles may be stationary with respect to each other. and inversely as the distance. the only acceleration is the rate of change of relative velocity. caused by another charged particle (Fig. Note that Eq. directly as the frequency.] A NEW ELECTRODYNAMICS 381 [I*]l cos O[1 P * / Q 2 = a. without the need of Lorentz contraction or Einstein pseudo-relativity. The charges may be constant or they may vary with time.~c r' ic ] . 2. which is particularly important with direct currents.or8 [I*]l sin O[1 + ao 4~-~c r2 ic + i~o] o~r 3 cr " (24) At very great distances.r/c) The first term represents the Ampere force.May. 7. ~(~)~ [1 . 25 will require slight modification if they are applied to electrons at extreme velocities. It includes the Coulombforce as a special case where Q const.
p. p. 1893. F.. Leipzig. Wissen. ." JOUR." Phys. 1892. AMP~'RE. GAUSS. Van Nostrand Co. Note that the sign of the Amp&re force has been changed to positive in the present paper because the relative velocity of Q1 is n o w used. Ostwald's Klassiker d. REFERENCES (1) A-M. 1. RITZ. RIEMANN. It differs from all previous theories. W. (8) W. "Collection de M6moires relatifs a la physique. "Recherches critique sur l'dlectrodynamique gdn~rale. (5) P. Wissen. Vol. 3. particularly in the term for the Maxwell force. p. 69. GROVER.. F. "Zur mathematischen Theorie der elektrodynamischen Wirkung. 40 (1946). one may find the classical field concepts to be clumsy tools. Vol. The new formulation generally leads to exactly the same results as Maxwell's equations. This formulation may be regarded as an alternative to Maxwell's equations." Werke. SPENCER." Berlin Akad. p. Particularly in considering the magnetic field produced by electrons in motion." New York. p. 3. "Elektrodynamische Maassbestimmungen fiber ein allgemeines Grundgesetz der elektrischen Wirkung. 305 (1954)."Reciprocal Electric Force.. Rtimpler. Gauthier-Villars. W. The Maxwell equations give the correct answers to a great number of questions. 175 (1823) . WARBURTON." Paris. Vol."Mdmoire sur la thdori~ math~matique des phdnomenes dlectrodynamiques. Abh. "Ober ein allgemeines Princip der mathematischen Theorie inducirter elektrischer Str6me.. 1911. D. d." Hannover.. 1887. (6) FRANZ NEUMANN." M~m. Paris. 1845 .382 PARRY MOON AND DOMINA EBERLE SPENCER [J. (9) F. Elektrizit~it.. de rAead. Berlin. I867. 8. 36. Rev.. however. Gauthier-Villars. und Magnetismus. 25. 13. 327. but in some cases it may give a more direct approach and one that is free from ambiguity. Maxwell based his work on the closed circuit. on the aether. C. Moon AND D. (2) C. Abh. p. G6ttingen." Berlin Akad. exakten Wissenschaften. p. "Inductance Calculations." Wilhelm Weber's Werke. I. 6. FRANKLIN INST. E. "Die mathematischen Gesetze der inducirten elektrischen Str6me. p. Vol. No. (4) B. "Schwere." Ann. 602. 1876. d. but the application of these equations to open circuits is sometimes ambiguous and uncertain.Gesammelte Werke. de Chimie et de Phys. Sci. Vol. (3) WILHELMWEBER. Vol. "The Coulomb Force and the Ampere Force. p. uniquement ddduite de l'expdrience. 317. Julius Springer. 1848. V. and on the Faraday visualization of flux lines. Vol. Englemann. The new formulation of electrodynamics is built on the foundations laid by Weber and by Ritz. 145 (1908). 257. W. 1946. p. (7) F.