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Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.

__f__ 1. Avant garde fashions are popular with most people.

__t__ 2. When fashion followers adopt a fashion, the fashion leaders move onto something new.
__t__ 3. Fashion manufacturers and retailers must forecast the direction in which fashion is moving.
__f__ 4. People like radical, sudden changes in fashion.


__physical needs __ 5. Which of the basic reasons for wearing clothing includes protection from weather,
enemies, and occupational hazards?
psychological need____ 6. Adornment, culture and identification are part of which basic reason for
wearing clothing?
_status___ 7. A social need which causes people to purchase expensive clothing, jewelry and accessories.

_art___ 8. Fashion is considered an ______ because it thrives on innovative, forward-thinking ideas and creativity.

__science__ 9. Fashion is considered a ________ because technology continues to develop new fibers,
fabrics and production techniques.

_fashion___ 10. The currently popular style.

Mass fashion____ 11. Items produced in large quantities and accepted by most people.

accesories____ 12. Articles add to complete or enhance outfits.

_design 13. A particular or unique version of a style.

__taste__14. The prevailing opinion of what is attractive and appropriate for a given person or occasion.

__fad__15. A temporary, passing fashion

classics____ 16. A style or design that continues to be popular over an extended period of time (such as
cardigan sweaters, pearls, and opera pumps)

_Rose Bertin___ 17. The first “designer” began as a milliner.

_Charles Frederick Worth ___ 18. This person opened the first couture house in 1858.

__Isaac Singer __ 19. This person added a foot pedal to the sewing machine making it possible to use both
hands to guide fabric.

Spinning jenny____20. This invention allowed one spinner to produce 8 (then 16) threads at a time.

__power loom__ 21. This invention wove cloth so rapidly that the hand loom was reserved only for limited
productions of specialty fabrics.

Limited-line stores 22. The first types of stores developed to sell ready-to-wear clothing were?

_fashion movement___23. The ongoing change in what is considered fashionable?

_trends___ 24. The direction in which fashion is moving. Many may exist at the same time.

_fashion leaders___ 25. Highly visible people who tend to be celebrities or upper social classes. They like to be the
first to adopt or start trends.

Fashion follwes 26. Most people are ____________ who wear fashions only after they become widely accepted.

__trickle up__ 27. This theory of fashion movement says that fashion acceptance starts with the young or lower
income groups and moves upward through society.

__trickle down__ 28. This theory of fashion movement says fashion moves from the upper levels of society down
to the lower levels.

_trickle across ___ 29. This theory of fashion movement says fashion moves horizontally across all levels of
society at the same time.

__introduction__ 30. The stage of the fashion cycle where new styles, colors or textures come onto the market.

_growth___31. The stage of the fashion cycle where consumer interests grows and the fashion becomes accepted by
more people.

___decline_ 32. The stage of the fashion cycle where the market has become saturated and the style is
considered dull and boring.

maturity____ 33. The stage of the fashion cycle where the fashion is at the height of its popularity.
__teenagers__ 34. This group’s fashions change the fastest and have the most minor trends.

consumers____ 35. This group ultimately determines what will be in fashion

_out___36. In fashion, one day you’re in and the next day, you’re _________.

_goods___ 37. Tangible items that are useful, scarce and transferable.

__services__ 38. Activities that are intangible, scarce and transferable.

__resources__ 39. Items used to produce goods and services

__natural__ 40. Cotton, silk and wool are examples of _________ resources.

__human__ 41. Designers, buyers and trend forecasters are examples of ______ resources.

__direct__ 42. American Eagle and Hollister are examples of ______ competition.

__price__43. When Penney’s offers 25% discount coupons on almost all merchandise for 2 weeks, they are using
_________ competition.
_non-price___ 44. When Nordstrom offers personal service, free gift-wrap and a well-trained staff, they are
using ____________ competition.

_lower prices, better quality, new and improved products, choices of where to shop, wider selections and more variety,
more and better services.___ 45. The benefits consumers get from competition include?

_demand___ 46. The quantity of a good/service consumers are willing and able to buy at a given price at a
given time is ______________.

__supply__ 47. The quantity of a good/service a seller is willing and able to sell at a given price at a given time is

__price__48. Supply and demand interact to determine ________________.

__profit__ 49. The amount of monetary reward a business owner(s) receives for taking the risk of owning a business
is known as ____________.

__profit__ 50. Income minus expenses equals ______.

_marketing___ 51. The combination of product, price, promotion and distribution is known as the ______ mix.

distribution____ 52. The element of the marketing mix that ensures products will be available in the right place at
the right time.
_price___53. The element of the marketing mix that involves deciding what price to charge.

__merchandising __54. The process through which products are obtained and promoted to the point of sale.

_target market___ 55. The term businesses use to describe their potential customers.

_channel of distribution___ 56. The route a product takes from the original source through production and sales to
the ultimate user is called _________________.

__textile segment__57. This segment of the soft goods chain produces the fabrics that will be made into apparel and
home decorating products.

__apparel design, apparel manufacturing, apparel sales__ 58. The apparel segment of the soft goods chain
includes what activities?

_retail group___ 59. In the four groups approach, this group includes stores, catalogs, TV and internet retailers.

_auxiliary group___60. Market researchers, trend forecasters, buying services and trade associations would be
included in this group.

_factors___ 61. Financial institutions that buy accounts receivable at a discounted rate, collect the face amount, and
assume all loses from unpaid debts.

_wholesale___ 62. Which group is missing from the channel of distribution for fashion?
_vertical___ 63. If a company that makes wool fabric also makes wool clothing and owns its own outlet
stores, it is using ___________ integration.

__seasonal__ 64. Winter coats, bathing suits, and shorts are examples of _________ goods.

fashion___ 65. These fashion products are always changing and last year’s styles are not in demand this year.

_Women’s Wear Daily___ 66. The most important trade publication for the women’s fashion industry is?

_market share___ 67. A jeans manufacturer sells 15% of all jeans sold in the U.S. This refers to the manufacturer’s

_family___ 68. Two or more related people are considered a ____________.

__households__ 69. One or more persons, related or not, occupying the same housing unit.

_psychographics___ 70. Lifestyle and personality are examples of ________ segmentation.

__behavioral__ 71. Rate of use, occasion response, and loyalty response are examples of ____ segmentation.

_occasion___ 72. Someone shopping for a prom dress would be an example of _______ response.
Focus group____ 73. A group of target customers brought together to discuss market strategies and their customer
needs and wants are known as a _____________

_survey___ 74. Asking questions of a sample of the population is the ____________ method.
__product service planning__ 75. Developing marketing plans, coordinating product mixes and keeping
successful products going as long as possible is part of ____________________________.

_positioning___ 76. The way consumers see a brand in relation to its competitors is known as ________.

_product mix___ 77. All the products and product line a company offers for sale.

_idea generation___78. The first step in product development process is?

_competition, company goals, consumer wants___ 79. Factors affecting product/service planning include?

_fibers___ 80. Very long, thin, hair-like strands that can be long or short.

_fabric___ 81. Weaving or knitting produces long pieces of cloth known as ____________.

_grege___ 82. Yard goods (fabrics) that are in an unfinished state are known as ______ goods.

__natural or manufacture__ 83. Fibers can be divided into 2 main groups of __________ and_______________.

_staple___ 84. Short lengths of natural fibers (8 inches or less) or filament fibers that have been cut.
_natural___ 85. Wool, cotton, flax and silk are __________ fibers.

_spinning___ 86. The process of drawing, twisting, and winding individual fibers into long, cohesive strands of

__silk__87. The only natural filament fiber is?

_structural design___ 88. Built-in texture or interest added to fabrics when they are manufactured is?

Chemical finishs____ 89. Finishes that become part of fabrics through reactions with fibers.

hand____90. The way fabrics feel to the touch.

Fiber content and yarn type, fabric construction, and finishing____ 91. The appearance and performance of fabrics
depends on?

warp____92. These yarns form the lengthwise grain of woven fabrics.

weft____93. These yarns form the crosswise grain of woven fabrics.

Looping yarns together____ 94. Knitting is a fabric construction method of??
_bleaching___ 95. A chemical finishing process that removes any natural color from fibers or fabrics.

_permanent___ 96. This type of finish will last the life of the garment.
_plain___97. This is an example of which type of weave?

_twill___98. This is an example of which type of weave?

_satin___99. This is an example of which weave?

knitting____ 100. This is an example of which fabric construction method?