----

.....

~

:

GN 0

a

b(':1

00. .1.1 Ci 01 •

o/t

0

d

tr

3'M 'D
I

00

i)

•erie,

0 f line,

drawn on a chart
1.

11'

c)
1.
,.

d 'Ingl'tmd lin _ , ,-' n n:. ch n r mll selection of small circle ~, s you get nearer 10 either pole a , f Latitud '

A. great,

" assurmng :

Ini tial direct ion is E·- from ·t!bc·,orth ' rn V If rt _x? b] Initi -1 direction 'is ~ _e t from the . orth _rn Vertex?
5. Given that the value 0,. th -' arth is 1/29'"1' no that the semi-maier axis of Uri.' E3]'1~h measured at the axis ' fthe Equator 'W'6 'J .. km, ~ h ,[ is 4 semi- aj ax' rf the _ - n me . ured a'
I

axm· 'f th ' Poles?
a
b)

61356.9 km
,

71 '.4 '1·61., km
I

]

2
.
..J

B

.,

71 I

'I

0:0'
,

4a.
Ib ,
'

I OW

] 60(t(T) "OO"(T) B

I

140E
I

S

, Oxrord A\llIStic n Semes s LJm ~ed

a
b
I

""200 lSI: 4-9 3':
Q

to

J[9° ,51':
,II",

I" I I',

d

I

74- '°2" 01 [0 34' e ~ '-1°20! ": to 8,6°45" :'"to er the north pole.
111' S

~' hat is the differen e 'in nautical mile and Ul kil " (7 0.3 0',··' B, . are o n the ame 111 _ id ian".
~[

from position

IJL1.Q'5'~·· . _

l1l n

a
b
:~ )
I

075040'\,
"

~201 m 5 Oc
,]

tc ~2' ,'Q 3J-- to 00 0 ~O'IW

~.' . 7

0]O'E
Pi'

d)

] 62°,~6[~W 1 0°42 to

Gi, . th,c_Di ecti nand Change of X a 50031~N
b~
7e)2,IN 00_ 0 . 6~W

thude
0

long~tude from X t
y

I

'_

in e ch ase.-

Ito
[,

- _°00': 008°35'F. 43°S'6hN oou 0) ~Vl "~°lJt . ' P'6'
.3 5°57 :,::,1 ,[96C!31·E
1

51 °061'

:,:

[

,

IC4~~w

a
b)

.-

4°4] ~" I -3 J[
Q

°06 002°]~:"E
0

rv, '

ad
and
,8Jl
-

JO
~Q O)P ,I 'N ~: I.) fg'\!,. -0 o·~ 62°00 0

c
d),
...
]'0""'

O~l' ,6"'OO~lE :_ 0

and

OO-OOO~N 17.31;)00
4 .l - , I 'JlCl '-:7~IS

1

\

anc

I

r

An aircraf
.11
1 .,

is to t

IT, m p isition 72 c.oO' 00 - 0 - O~I,

[0

pesition 72.0 01:,

I 77° .

on the

.e l p

ssible foUL.,

3) b e)

W'U ' he track direction re . am the ,,'_ 111' or th '~ hole fli - ht? G'~' e a. rea on for the an . r g~'V,e:FI in b ab ove,

True trite direction

1.

y O~ ar at '0 s rnti Old A a~ 540, O'N 10 C], OIW. Given a c]] .lat of USO N and a. 0_ _0

ch.long , . "o'C, c30

r to B " h ..t

j,

the eo ition of .B,?I

, , U ~J C D~

positiou C' 8.1 J6P.4, 7~ 179 2 1'E '0 iven ~,ch. nat 0 f 46°47" S
Q
n'

and a

~hcO ~ of 20oJO~E 'hJID, ~fha.t is the' position ofDI?1 Inn
'~J \.

hal is '(he po sition of'the Rhumb Line 'between 2, points relative to the IGreal. ,'. irele between the'

same points i' ~h.e peinn are ~

a)

~.Dthe

'>o.n:hem. Hemisphere?'

b) In [the' Southern Hem isphere?

a) b) ..)

Rhumb tine
Semi Grea ~C ircle Rhumb L ine and a semi Grea t C ire ~Je

a)

b) c)

The shortest distance between A line' which could never be a Ali ne of eonstan t direc ion
I

tWOI

points,

great circle track

2
-

l_

,;\'1'9":' II ~ ..

GREAT C'I_··CL S! RHIUIMB LI_ E,S NilD DIS:TA··

c

SI DN THE, I!ARTH

1.

a
b
ICI

12Ci 40' ~09,0 5:"1 s
: '. 39° 5d '
I

d)

21c 55 : or 4'3,6 km
I'm:
'.3, __ 1~1~

2.,

2~' 5 om is, ",224'

Ulla~ ,.r
ClOD'

,II'"

Answers in. km "iU vary depe ',din on which
3.
a)

230 kin u ng :h " a· i:~; (_~Ol1. om ersion factor 'i used,

U',

r.

,~9P 550.,0
~ .0

'I'

5

s:

56°

4~111'

( . 'L30]0

I,·,rr
I

'"'

_'

want the smaller arc).

4.

a)

0

o

2•
' ,I ,

0,

(II

.5

_

b)
,)

03'0

0 ].0 ~3-

d) e

0 D 2661'1:) 24· 00° O~~;"

0040 ,4~E 01 III 6· E

5.
b
c) d)

9 run
, .·,2nm

3360
6'

OlD

nm

e
I!..

10, 'Onm
360 (T " No Rout. ov _r ~ e
Q
r

U..

,a)

b)
c)

>,

'nth Pot.' initial irac .

7. 10C 00 N

u" 2 .J',0 O'Il~r ~.

9.
let

: ear er tI1'_E, ruactor '" '.m~lh.'.f th '" r- reat Circle)

:e

r_ f

til. Equator"

rth

0

Ith, ' Great Circ t

c

© 0 fIOrd AviaUon Services L1mltec

NIAV~GAT~ON

:·".il::1 [... IE:: A·RITH MIAG·-· 'IN IC::'TI-·S-· '
~ "" l '" ....-.

.. ,.1 1

a)
'b)

c) d.)

Inversely proportional to the horizontal componem of the earth' --,magnetic field, Proporti 0]];]'1 ~othe horizontal camp enen I 0 f the earth r; _ magneti c field, Inversely ·P[Opc}rtlona~to the v rtical [a:al.mpon~nt of·~he earth 's n~.agnC'~.j(; field .. Inversely preportienal to [he verricaland horizontal components of be earth's magnetic

fie'h:t

a.) b) cl

d,) J.

The ang·~.e between 'The angle between The angle between The ang liebetween

the djlec~ilon indicated by I, com pus and Magneti,c North. True > orth and Com eass ···orth.
Magnetic North and True. '., orth, M agnetic .. [cadi Ilg :.tnd - ~gJ1.etic .. . I.rd,

..t the magn et ~ equator: c
0) b) c)

Dip is zero
Variatinn 'i s zero Deviation is zero

d)

The is -gon~·~ an agon~c ]~'ne is

a,l

b)
c)

d)

It acts as tbou,gn there' i' I. large blue' magnetic pole in' > orthern Canada The angle of dip is the ,t]ngl e between the vertical and [he' total magnetic frl[ce" 'I t may be tern PQ:~,M'Y transient or perman en t It hI S :110 effec l. on ai rcra ft de vi ati on.
'I

a) b) c) d)

About micffil:vay between the earth" magnetic poles In the rog~on of the magnetic South pole In the region of 1i1C' m agnet ic North pole OrD the geographi c eq uator

-N'- A~ VII G'-::AT-I O' "J. ._:__.,,,
. [_,.'

._'_.--

[EARTH ,-AGI'I lET SIM

. I~

is zero at the ~~n, , equator b S B 'ma'· hmnn value. . f 1801) , 'as a maximum value of 45[] E or 4,5 W
0

d)

cannot e le"e' d 90P

7.

The aaon ie lin ,. a)
b) d, themagne ',0 : orth and :. uth pole D 110, the g ograpbi, .. , uator is the 'shorter di5~lncebetween the respective Tru _ and agnetie I orth and South pole' I',110:-' epa; te pal ~, D. t 0, . the '. r' - I' lar regie '. ne Icorren ~lyrunuwng through .' estern UfOP' and the other 'mugb the US ':,
'11.
'f~

is midw y b

"

'~ ) c) _) 9
1 •

,)

deviati n

an: tion

alignm en error
dip

',"e' .-uue of magnetic varia ion. on a .'bm changes '.,:"th time. This is _rue to~ a b
c)

I

d)
1(1.

Movement of ttl: magm tic poles eau ing Wl .. nereas tncree ,'. in the magnetic field . usina an <;]1CI:1, ase e Redulc ti OJ], in 'lb,. ma Det~lc field, causing a decrease ....ovement of he 'ma,-n tic (lIes hi 'h can ~ u _ eithe r an' crease olr · decrease ..

a)
c}AI

d

A ' the ' . o.ttb Ma,gneti.· 'Pole . ~th ~ North and .south ~ ag en an d the ,OM and South - , D, :Ileti, Pole. At the .. 'agnetie equator.
1,.

I.

= ogra

..hical prl 'le'S '

3 -22

EARTH IMIAGNE:T~S,M

a)
b)

166~
IDBO° 90~

c')
d}

45@

a) b) c) d)

OilJ

90(D ~,80Q 6
-Ill!

a] b)

c)
d)

An isoc ]~ne' An ~sogonjJ An isogriv All Wsovar

a,) b)

c)
d)

Tme f ortb is l est of MI,lnetic N'{ardi Complss ""omth, is; W'es,'[ of Magnetic North True North ls cast of'Ma.gnetic: orth Magnetic l orth is West of Compass North

NAVUlA .,0
I ~.,

1"

lanl spaces if] th" table below,

I

CTRVE
2,60

I
r-

V'ARNr

II

°MA,G,

I

DE\fN.

I

10\

OlrvJP

I
\

,2:9'1 '1OW

3E

1E 001 20

070

7W
11W
306 10E

0.2:0

1W
0311

10310
5E 359 3W
231lE
I

033
02'3 2E ,2W
I

0251

221 3,19

3t2

322 3W
291
I

002 260

rw
-3

5'3W
I

+1
00.1

070
1 0,351

+2 3W

022

10W

© O:uo:rd Avia'lJj'on S Nices Limited

.. ',.11 ,~lllll'-~II.-. EAR-=-I"Ii"'-H- - -A-,~·IIIE,TII<S';-: -M-j
I

.. .I

"

, CO ,. ,"O'Lm·, AT-'IO'·; .,.-, (. '. .. ". -.
"

-

"

,

,'

,

,'

':,

1.

b

2

c
,3

3
4

a,
,3,

,5
I.

_j

'0
I

7

d

b 9
10
I

d

b

1'~ l~

c
'b
b
I

t3
14-

c

3 -·,2,5

15.

Fill in the b~ nk snaces W

me'
,

I

°TR,UE :60
I 6'1

I

FARN . 3'

I

CtlvlAG.

I[ DEVN.
,

I

°CIOIMP

2~91
071

3E
-

,2'

OW W
17W'
I

'1E
I

0710
359

-'.
1

I
I

:354
I

10011
D'~JDI ,296 03,1
02,5

2E.
(]I

003
306
03~6 030 ,35,9
,

02'0

'10E
-

1W
,"

2,97 0,33 02,3
I

'E:

1

5E

2E

3W
~3E,

I' D2
-

2E

'10
221

24,2

' 19
_,'_.. .

2W
3'
,

31:2

I~

10

,

'

-

322
IDm~_'
I

319

002,

31W
,311_
.5,
,

I

1W ...3; +1
2 3W

GOS
29,'

260
011
','S8

2 911
1

071
001

070
,5191 033

I

3W'
.1

022

OW

03,2

r

3 - "'6'
.'.
...:..... '

THE : AVI'GAT1IDN CDMPUT-'R, '" :SLIDE RULlI: FAC

OIVl -'E:
l.
:________

I.

ivins your a ,.wer to lhree .." ni 1 ant flgun ,g
~.

S.

~

., 10 +
II:.

15 · ·
..

.,':1

ilti'.

II ••

1•••••••

II'"

III

!I

ll!!

6.

27

7

I""

,_ ]? ~

III!,!_

.111.

!III

.~.'.'!oI..

g:f!~+!11

imll

-

i!-FS:

iii:i •••

1I1.11I.'.~.

II ••

1Il!!iil!!!+

7'~
.,
I

2705
..
_.

+-

4.5
,
!

3
4
i

'12 ·
.)l "

I!-Iq:!'.III

.[WI ..

1I:I.~.lIIlI.

lI-.J.OIiil

II~

9

3'5 T 5 =-

,Ii!i ii

iUIlII..

iI ••

1II.1Il ••••

.:.a;;;t,

1Il.!1

.,

S.

_. -

755 + O. -

il ioililiii'.

iii

.'11 ••••

!IIl.l~"! • .alli

II!

10.

20.2

.2 .

~

0=• II •• III •

[!l

.1 •

11••

II '"

II ...

!II! -E :roil

r,.

rIl

iii

I.

9
]

8

=:

II I" Itoo! '!Ii !! i

'II!

i

ill!

II ••

~ ••••

III II! !13

6. 1. 8~ 9.

275

X

4'

=
~

] 2 L~~. 1 ,i

J.

l L· 1 =

· '12 =

237 x 7 . 0 ..5 = 1_ xIS . 13 =

31,~ x 0,. -

1'~-.iiiJ.'.ii

.!II.'.III.III

••

Il10.

1!;1il.

Ii

10,.

L

6

X

150

.0

3.

~030x 100 .
12,14

].
···kr

11the Raritan ian .urrl~Ly there ar 73 skroats to a ~lat. . .ill it) the following tab e:
I

·l3.t·

-

Bbl~

~.

2

-

7
I ..

13
minu e·

11

2~

Your ra.·
metres?

I

f dent

is 270 metre per minute.

0- . many

Ii ee d thr .ugh 2.'.00

4 -14

@

Odom Aviation SeMC8s Limited

L .2~ 210 -:7

=

:"'75 +- 4' =

··,.,0
4,~OO'

20~ +4 .. = 5
7,.;.9 (Jj-:-12~

4"

·25
,
"

+:)
.'

==

9.
ru .•

75" -+ (II

"=

.5.

20._+2

=-

-

.,

1

m

'9 x
l 1I
-

~ -

71~O
I

2

x 4S ~
),

27.-5
~

]0 .....
~

~ II

1.

121.5 x

1I
1'

~

.I.
.-]- 1;
,.. 'II""

1

-

.. M
l'

_

x 12 _ _.

I, 1;

0 5~
1-

2.
0.3

23,7

_. -

9-

iIo I

to,

.2.

-

-

X

~

!.'

2,'~,

-

r,

un

1030· I006 ]23:·

...... -

i: ,,,5

4.

7' B; ts
I
0,1

I

,

1·6

"5
-

9·,,1

~

7

3
OUJ

I

rate metres?
. 0, :

de

.7 a me tre

I

ier minute, How many minutes to d. seend d:t

-h 2 ~I[)'.

I

. . fa do y.:

1

de

-I

n

4 -15

,Oxford Awanon Srvices li'I Ed

, 0'

iph te [11,_ tabulationa-

I
I

Grnundsp

d kJ)

J'
1'15
-

I

Distane rnm 3~
2 '4 .5iO

I

Time (min:

I
I

.....

~ 4~260

l~

I

71
5]

2001 16 ..
,

,

.

~'

.,

I

I

~31 l56

97
3
I

320

3.5'

I
1 2'~20 _glbr

I

Tin"rue. ~ h 20: min

L
400 Imt GaU

I

, l~lO(J lb/hr

10

260 Imt

1[,20 Im ,

,5 - 14

. Oxford ,- "inti

11

erviee LimLled

Nautical
1. :2... 8
'J

]1.e
I

·"Iltlitute Mile

Kilometre

27 8'7
~.

3..
.

,
7~
8,

1
.

5~

14"

6~
I

3mo
·~o 000
4.33

:Melres
m .'

eet

'1000

:2 3, .
I

1'9 120 156,

4-

Litf"1es
1000

-11 Imp Git.

I

us; GIn

[0
"

'

Ikg

III

I

.7~

420 :001

.8 ] .84
.80
I

ThODa

.7.2

2000

l

23,

""]3
_)'

I

Tin"
.5

l15
-

I

234 ' 10

18,1.

11 .,15

14

77
200
16, '
11, " ,%1

170

5'~ 16.5

c'31
15'" 18 ':'ii_

17
-3 3.5

szo

I
1
m

]

h 20 min

117

]
L11m

107'"

all

Ih4~min,

Statute L 2. J. 23,~ ,4,'1 162

l'
,

,

I.

-

S.
6,.

'.'---: 7.,'
l. _.7
,
.t

.~.47

.2317
.-, 1 0

1.2
1.2,10

7'

_0,0

S,

4·.3.3

49'

."'0 5
1

Metres
1.

F6
9

't-

.'00 ...
m_

2.

3.
.\

0

J

.3

hop

'~'.G

k
7"',0 15"_:6,

1b
171 .

10. 0
-

~

0

2··.·4
'

J

,.7:· .. 1

~OJl

'

.

-.,

'4.

, .,
"

2

·010

84

154
100

I

~'6 ~:I. 0
21'

..'0

1

2-

~7.2

20

I

'

V~GATIDNI

'IHI! NAVIIGA'TIDN' COMPUTER ~l,A!

ANID AL T~tTUIDE' CONVERS~DNS

, omplete the follo wing tables ~

C',A'S kt, ~40
:~75

Pr ssw-e Altimde '[1.
-

Temp DC
=

TAS kt,
r

~,OOOO

10

801001 ~5000
30000 ill.2500

+5
~ 22 ~ 40
=".

'20 ""
.

300 liBO
t6$

,j 2""'
-

9000

+

-

[63
29'5 'l,60 216,0

m~ooo
3HJOO ~2000
],5000
,~

HJ ~ 53
10

=45

I

-

'ach No
.82
.1'

I

SA,T~ C

I
I ,

TLAS

I

-.50

.6,
,_l

375
42,,7,

3'

j

.77

-0 :5 '0 -47
,

.192

415

I

Ind A~'~ If).t:' 000

I

S,AT ({tel
-10

[

True AJt

I
J

I

·1,8~OOO

-30

6J~OO
1J7000
!!II' .'
,1iiiIII

+10 -50
,·,]5

., 1 500
l~

8~OOO

+1.0

I

I

Pressure .A~ t.

SA.T

f~CJ
Solution

.Densi.t . A~Jdlurde
,0

J

..... avigation Compute,

rormula

So.[ L1.~io]J

10~OOO
6.~IOnO

~

1,5

+20 -40 -22
I

21' 000
23;000

25;1000 29·,000

-4,5

-.38

I

6 - 16

VIIGATIID'NI

,

RAS k~~
1.40

Pressure Altitude ft.

Temp

0:

C

TA.S 1.

10..000
,

-·10

~6J I

t1.S
:120 30.0

8,00
] 5. 000

+5

100
:1":"

- 22
=·40

Jo.~OOCI

'7,1

ISO 1.65
163

12~500 9~OOO
]'iIOOO

- 25'
+7 10 '""3 - J' - 10

zn
19·

199
Ii
l,2

29:5
160 2601
I

31,000

~·:~LOOO 35,.000 •

45

4~O

I

'.. 'e 'Ma hN·'·0
1'1

I

SAT °c
=.50

I

T,AS

82
l ','

'71
37.5
25 43ft,

I

.66

~'O'
=38 -,60
1

..1 '
I

.71
~'912.

-11

5'80 4t5

I

~71

=41

I

Iud All
] O.~OOO

'I

S." T (~C) ~20
·=30

I

True AU

I

9'1,4·50

Ig.~OOO
6~OO~)I

~'~4~U)
6",150

+10
.

.:'1<1000
.2] ~SOO ... "~OOD

-50
,=35

1,5,"~U"
20;16 0
1

I

+]0

8,350

Pre SSIImJie An
1

SAT l(gC)

I I

'D - m _it.

Na, 19auoD Computer
Solution 1,2,~501
I

.

.

'"

,-

'It~tm,d, Formula S,olu ti,o'n

10'1000

+]5 +20

12,411

1

6.000
I

_",,20
.Ji- ~.:II, 2J,,'~O

18,,04,0
261 8D
I

27~IOOO
I

40
-22

23 fJOO
'!I •

2,4,.18:0
.

25~OOO

- .J'
,""'

I

[

II ') illO
. '1I!i .'

]], SIll -.,.,
,-

29000
':I

=3'8

2,1,,910

29;600

ION,

~.

Set wind d ireetien under true headi ng index. M,ark in 'wind dot on centre line of ccmpetor BEL,OIW centre dot at a. distance equal to

wind speed seal to scale ~
:,' tru .heading at true heading et Set T AS und,~r e en tre dot

mdex,

THE COlv[PUTER, '~'S':" OW SET 'UP ICIORRECTLY 'WJT~~_J. E,AD1I: " ' A,'T THE T"RUE ,H "ADING,', DEX~ DO, OIT nISTl1RJJ THE S 'TTINGS.
5. 6. 7. Read off drift under wind dct, Read off traek on circular scale beneath drift on drift seale, Read, off ground,~,pe'ed beneath wind dot.

;

IIDG°(T)
7.3

I

W!V 2.30/40 ~50130
350
- 'I: '.
-

I

TRAICKO(l')

t

TAuS
150 90 8S,
210

I

IGS

II

181 054,
084
141

25'5l)5 1,80/315 03,0/40
1

[90

274
.213

~SO
~50
~70

£160135
090/40

02.9
305 ~g7

350/16 2' 0/60

lOa
110

3UJ

045/4,5

32.0

1- 11

N,' 'V1IGATIIOINI

I

HDGOtJlI

I

\1lN I~S/'O
1','(
I'

I

TRA,CK~crl

I

T~S,

I

GS
,

I
I

1 ,8

0

..

I""

,

4 :5
'5
"

13~.

2] 0/-,

to
2 _00

':11.5/55 1
I

4:0

~tS/5:'
1,-515
.1 01'.11

no
," 10 L35
I
,

t
L

'

1

II

]

"0/70

1111
'

to
13
27
j''I] " I

0451 5'
[

1,0
1

' Q/35

-

140

2 0/6 03' If. 0
I I

2 ~,'5

3jO

I

030
:,~5 1

)5{Jl~;
~' ·,0/35 ' ,'j !O

a
3~5 12
4 '0

.20 191)

2.5'5/55
m

',0/30

'0
5
I

-

r:

OJ

151

.. 1140

60

I

1 '12

ATIIDNl

THE: N.AVmGATII'ON IC'D PUTER AND TH-' TRIANGLE, IOf' VIELOCIT11E!:S

~. 2.,

]"

4~

Se( wind dire -~io:B nnd _IF tflll.U~hecading ·nd~··. Mark in wind dot 100 centre of computer B. LOW centre dot wind speed seale no sC'BIe. "'e~ true heading at true heading ind x, Set' T AS under c entre dot

~me

rU

a distance equal to

THE. IO~U

HEADING
5. 6.

'1 ...• -.

,ER is ,0'\.- ....rrur aIR~' TLY'VfTIiBEAlNG' X, D'O 'NIOT DmsTURB THE SE. . " as.

TTHlE TRUE

7

i

Read. off drift under wind dot .. Read off track on circular scale be eath d1rifl Read off groundsp eed beneath wind dot.

0]]

drif] scale,

BDG°(T) 2,13 181.
I

'\1,ll\l 230/40 ~50/]0 350/28

TR_ACKorn
Z-6
1· .'4·
I

'TAS
] 5(1

IGS

1:24
1'6

90

054084

-

,',].

I
2'10
190

.'1
264

255155 18, ifjj,
I

I

.81

4 .~
'274·

ras
.1..'.2,
L

.21,'
"17'1

03,10/40
06'0/35 090/40 350/16 21'0/60

150
I

.213 0.2'9

.2'1':
I

150
,

19
ISS

I

1116

'11'0

.305

2"
157
0'

[

100
110

9,'

187
3110

~r
Z·-

045/45

,0
••

3210

T
1325 ]25/50
1,,0

,

390

-~,<IO .

4]~

13
1

,r
315/5." 315/5 ~
1251
-

"
"

_5

80
'I

. S2§
'~

211'

Z

,

.'

~O

]

200
ill

21
I' 1m"
I

-

,
I 1

····,4

0 1 0/70
I

] - :1

102 )'15

140 093 103 237 343

'~7,
,. 1

o ·5/",,5

1.

-.

to 20

IS:
1·, 1'8

,,'5 030/40 33,8

-

~

1

S

3,50 3910

32 _79

o~o
315
m

·1'5
11
·r:r

J

;,-

4 .0
490
(1
4:,'!'"

2 10

,25,.5/55

294· 1',-~' l-,I
I,

.....

.,

:191,
-

-

,·;9

',1,15 "'0

l

-

44-

O)Clfon:l Avia1ion Servioes l mit

1.
2..

Set 'true heading at the' h cad ing Wdex. n et T AS under me centre dot.
I,"

3.
4.,

'Read ,0' _ drift on dlJf£ cale oppa ite track [ '[lIC:':r' ular scale, Mark in wind do' at inter 0Cf110'll of g 'oundspecd and drift line,
Rotate face [Hull wind dot ~ on centre' ~ ies ~neBELOW centre dot. Read off w~ndldirection aU trot: heading' index and "dod speed to seal.

5.,
Iii

n
,I,

,I OCT)

I

W'

I

TRA

, K°T}
,

II

-

,

I

."
"

-

I, .....

209
,270

219

1

m50
~BO 20'" 1.38 1.25 202

134 202

2,66 2.24,

223

246
124 120
190 80

o
29'
-

0' 9
293 162

]61

2]3
014 33 0
1

2Jl
005
348

85
200 90
196
310

2rus,0

]

-'9

16

'26

09'8 091
I

moo
080
, ,

13:, 4.35
415

4&If 0
3,9S

050

0'55 34-0
~92 281
I

lJl ?8'" _' 21[6
280 291 097

393
43315
4"0
3]CI 343
,

4,0'5
,,,,. 6'
'

3ID6 435

2'15

292
0'95

3 60
1

322

8-7

OT) 056 10: ,
~
,

I
I

II
1

5~
1

~, 7
0

"2

,

I

109
m

J()

]

',2
335
41
,
' '

4]8 "'0
~132
}_
' :1
I

I

_7 :2
r

I

5
,4-,'
-

24200
l' 2
?'
-

"'5'.

30
4'5

.

,

12

"l' ,

'-2
'I

'

I

75
'7~ 326
1

.5 290 3 285
1

-

"[j,S'

4

.~'70 "'0

32J
(J4~

,6 ]

3'

'

",

]96
3,1 !
01 r
I

205
,

2~O
"2
I ',

,

'5

3.
-

',5"
I

r
2 ,8 L.~O
,1601 ~
I

~ I

J5
III
I

0"
]

271(]
\

15 "45

1

-

I

.... 28 l'73

50·
lI

,

I

16,

_1
,

I,
.' II~

1..

et b1J~

he JdiIl,'[J m thehea ing inde ...
~L

3.
I

"

,

'.
1

Sunc r lhe ,_,'ntre 'IL 'R "ad, dri t on, drift seale opp ite 'nick. on cir ,Jar', _ale, "a III wi nd d ", &t intersec ·on 0.' " -un: Ispeed ' nd lri ft Ii ie ,'0, ate fae until -, "nd dot lies 0 entn line B' ~_ centre dot ,Read off . ind direction a true headi g in I,X and wind spee ro seal "
':,t T'
I I'

1
21

J
216
]

II

~70
2
,

0

202
246

20 14/26
079 2,9.3 21,7/21 144/2d
,
1

0619
2' 9

' 318
~j

120 190

~'-7 _13

~16

.2.3~
05
,100

SO
2ID' 9·

oi
"'N'

0

9

]l',

1 ~16

In
1,91
00
I

~ 10
I I

43

5

4J
4

" '2
,

....' 0

3",

292
(1 ,,_'

',,0

]1,

322

8-8

I
'156
]
,

.

L

53
2
I

~1
2

141

] 1~
2·,5 ],

a

>.8

J
j,O

I

~32

27
2,,0

1
;"1$

.2 5
27~

-,'j ,

2. 3J 04$
],

290
2210

2

61

'

,5
,

'

'I

-. :5
.,

.

31t

0111 ]5

.95
35 '

42
19:
L

435 211

o ill, ]
262/6l
I

1

l15 "·5

[20

ll' 505

22:

L~.J

8 = 10

__ AVIGA,TIONI
:,'1
.. !i1

'II '

II..

L
2.,

': ark in wind dot
tru lli'·· a true headii [,,t T "~ under centn dot. '.
'I

ind

.

L' '" I" - ."0-" J11, , ER NEE S RE-", ETr,I·" G.
"','
'

IDRE:', .J[\. _'

II.

'!!

~

5.

drif indic rred ove 'the ~la,-,.,ading on the ,re th " ~ cal,' 11
, I'

ICjfcu~ "

scale

'~O[coincide

\~,r~th drift read offat 4 above the
I,

IR_"1 . ,: 4.' nd 5 the dri ft ,",' . 1

a

eve until drift indican d undt

E"

ind dot agree', with drift indicated

'0

THE

I,'

OMUT

'I. ~s,:,0
I _'
,I

' T1LY:"ET

,. TRUE :HEADIN,

_ T TH"E
I"

TR . '"',, B' EN BALANCED.
7. 8.
1r

ND T

,I"

[,

DT.

DRIFT

R ad ,II tru h _'din t th 'true e [(UIlI index, R, ad eff rotmdspeed under th, wind dot

T

.e.

"

1 _26 19: 190)
-

1

I

],',6

284

260

32 31 O/IO-~' 30()/60 270/7'~
240/' ,0

:-44

2162
1', '

6,'

n

~] 3
,~O1

510
455 ~ ·5

NA'VIGATIION

THE: NAVIGA'T~ON C'OIMIPUITER - WIND IFI.NIDIING & CALCIlJLATION OIF HEADIING

IIDG·~(Tl'

WiV 335/75,

TRACK~(Tl
22.0

TAS

GS

II

5'.5]
] ID {]I

104 Ol10
J

005

~25/3S
]10/23 145120 l1Qj,'O
3-0Q13 0 n.:'O/40

045']

19 6
1

]3

2. ].01

021

80
2.20
137

2'87
200 130 116

1190 11991
60S 620
I

280124
.-62/90
2 ]OJ80 ~90/80

1~4 _.J .
071 339038
. ) ..

523 585

],051.30

295l60.
340/85

3'"S

-"

5]5
588 485

091

~3S/66 10.55/3$ 255/]
,So

032 ]97
0],8
]",7

]76
] 80
1

090/] $

74
'99

1110125

l~O

:11 ., ~I:!'NlccS. t'·,;j a.~i'nlcl;J O - .:.lh~ lUi A' . VI;ilhotl ,~. •

NAVJIGAIIONI

: ,~:~,'io1

I

5,.

R· ad _ff'dri indi ate b neath _h ~n. do ~ e tho' u~" . - ading on the C1[i ~- r : cal 'rO. .n the dr iftIt . cale, ) ·ea ' d 5 _ v M"r ~ rift·· dicated under '" 'I]d .ot
co'
a•

r . - read 0 _~al '_ b: - e
f1I!"II''/.il~,..~

th dJmft, .- .~e.
l

, HE .,:.
TR

- 1ST

,F

. DIRIFT

+

tead off' ru h_'_-Iding I,tth . tnt b· adim . . e', R_, a . ff ~ ound eed under th _ vind dol.

40
2'19

I

..,

I~:

2 0/21

226
I II
I

13 260

.1-2 251,1 ,-00

,72
1','
I

'190/52

2" I2
21 ,_

~, 0/10~' 1
,],

5 ,2
,6'0

4",6

300/60

5151
" '7
,

·1011'5 1, ....

W1',:
30~,

570

O{80
2mO/$,5

45' '

3

07

13

5"
'I

R_DCC( ,)
227
0) 'I
l. ,

335/75'
104,0/20
I

"'

r

'TRA.,CKolffi_

TAS

GS
582
1'1,2,

220
005 045
"'

553
1[0

OSSi
]'
-

] 25/35

]70 ,-'3
145/20 I,-O/3,(~
3 (U)/],O

],13
I

fUll

19"6

187' Itl,1

1

13]

02~
28
,200
'I J.(]

80

:,9

281
],],: I

2201
13

lJl
:140
I

1391 "~1.,8 2,3,8; 0716
],34 035
I

180/410 280/2421fi.2/9()
2:] 0/80

:19n

16'1

1 ~6
234

]99
60S 62.0 523
)J
'

I

l2,'~

I

Silo ,67S
,59] SI51 14 II ,11

071
339 03~,

~'90!80

305J30 2915/60
J' "

... ...
"

34"
B,13,

355
091
I

5I~

"')"OISj' ,." _"

58

029

235166

1032
~97
I

485' [76
~8[)
,

5 ,511

1,"0

055135
2.5,5l[ :5' 090/1,5'

1 :2
1,1,1

Im4
,,

(~18

,.)7 .

]4
14(~

-4

65
10,',

11"

020/25

199

'Wr; U[a'W bring togetherthose N,avigaJ.lio~ Computer facilities
the 'Vi WId face whi eh are needed ttl complete
T ii]
3

0'0

both. the Slide Rule face 9J.Jld

fl'~ght pIan,

,m,l] of the follo,wing exe rc~ ses, work. across the rows, row by row, DO' Dot do them 1(;01 IU M by column, Doing ~tby rows rn~.kJryou lhmnk 8JDout each 'i ndividual operation and what it is that you are trying: to achieve. Doing it '[by columns just [urns 'i~into 8 no-thought mechanical

8,- 26

.....
1 1

..

I

~

0
~

.,._

0

F"'.
I

.
M
.

I~

~

'

.......

;

I"'!!!!i
I-

.

~
I

-

etC

IQ

0

T

t.

0
-

~

at a

,

i$
""""'"
e

N

("I

e

MI

~

'i
'.-'
Z
I

[J

~ ~

I

~
"

"

>
-t

0

tn

0 ("if")

a: c

(i
J

e

a=
~

~

0,

M

00

M
1

~
.

~

-I LL

..-. ._.
~

10

..._ ,...._ c
r'l ..
..

~

........

r......,

("!II

0

c

...c

-

~ .........

-I

I
1/1')

00

~

C'~I

-

N
~

c

a ........
~
.

~ ~ ~

F
to ~
,

0 01
'1'""""'1

~
I

N

,_
-

t"'-

.0
~

........

V'1

0

0

N
r'i

0

~

I

.

o""Q ~

c

c
r-,....

- -r0
If."'-.o

In

v
~ "'""""
I

to
trtI
I~ '

iF"'l. t-"~

~
..

E-

0

I
I I

N
I

0
I

01
C)
~

N

+

~ ~

.......
i

XI
il

.

0
N
~

0

0

,

0 0

0
0 0

-

0 0

0: 0 0

IJ"1

0

,_,

.

r1

'V
I

II.!i"1

'D

It--

8 -,27

~

I I

~

,

-

'1"""'1
r

t'-

C"-i

Q
~
-

OrO

~

~

I

'~
I
I

I

I

IB!

I I ,...
10

-

a

~

a

00

,f'"j,

ill
'POO-

P-l 0

'N'

1

+

~
@
I

I ~.
1:1

tn

e
r

3t
I ~:
I

'0

;S
"'D
I

Q
-

10

,

......

~ ~

.....".

0
,

I

~ ~

f"'"i..
7

0
""""'i

N
~
'~

;0
if

~

:[',

...._
tn

11lr':!,

("'<I

N
r

...-

-

_,
-

;
~ ~

-

~ i"'\9

~
..
,~

..-.

~I

..
0~
r

~

~

-

0

M

'it
,~

-

~

!JTl

V

Q

I

I

E,

r.-

-

-

- ,_
~

L
-- r-...
N
I
-

O
iiiiiiiiii

...q-I

~

00.

00

~

u
0

N
I

r

N

+

N
I

Vl
M

~ ~

~

Q ~

a
0

Q

0
r -

0

c

C 0
I.IiI

C

0

O. 10

0 0
~

"..

r-.

00

0
-

I

'I

-

i"Il"'l

'"

-

-

r-

N· ·VIG ',TI.·:'NI

,

ll"

'\\'1

_
,

d· ,

,-

_

_.

d,
1

-

.J

H.d,'
I

1

·1

,

.I
I

I

T

I

OJ,

'I'-

-

-

I

m

LJ
324

41 I
33

I
I

1V
,

2E
I

~90
I

000
15
I
1

,8

:J51

\,

2,

'0
,_ ]0
I
I

1"5

2J
107m
I
I

Q30i
55
ru
l

1.~
, I

IDYl IE
I

142

] --If]'

810 33~

+5
'~3_

[)

'01
'i!"

I

,.

DO
LO

I

OJ·

,001 2

9"

'.

[3 I,
I

~~

..

,

- 17
3<
I

11
91,_
14""
-

342

130/
40

~

7·00
0

.... .... 0

II I
2651
I

i'"

,,

I
15

I

'I

~

~

16,
I

4rV
I

70
~,

II
I

1

J

OJ'
162
I
, 12-

,.] 01
'·01
I

7
-

ZE
-

2' 2,

2250 -30
~

4,'
-

r ~O
20

II

-

3

I 14I

0
·-55

:1

~.:
-

2,·01
,
I

HJ\
,

2E

2000

..

+,
"

35]

0I
,

~

-

:,

~2
1

.,

i
I

q

1
I

n I,]
-

~131
,,6
I

9


I

"'O~l

62
I

-5
'123

I

1

1201

4
I

~

,

30
~6,_

I

zso
I[}

~,9

1401

I

9W 11

]

,

9

1

50
,

130
1

-0 _ -01
3'0

..

l

[]I

~O 0
-)

...

8

Nl

IF' ~ ~

C""l

---

lfi

'r.O

-

10
00
!!"""!!I

r-.

0

0.

-

0
~

V
--

--

0

M C'\

r--

M

~

0

~

UJ

I

N

CI

-

;:::
D

~

a

i=

e.

I,£)

N

r~

0

c

N

-- -

,~
.,...".,

E-I
~

--rf"-

0

ee

,_

00

.-.!

~

N

..-..,

"""
jl!!iill!!1

~

10-;-

.......

ee-0

~

f"

\0
'l"""""

-,
Cf',
-_ ,I

I

o
I •

c

;
1

:c

r.0

OO

i"""""

0

\;Q ~

r~

a

r.....:
0

N
"""""'!

f'i"1

0

i:;

'

S ':t
0

V'lI

1:1

~

l.!J

Q

0

::

~

\0

-

0

fii'1

.........
~ ~

t::

0

.......

0

r--

~
~,

~
-="'"

~

Ilt:J
-I

0

Iio!!oil
~I
L

,

C
NI

0 r-r-~
~
,

r.....:;.. Q ~

......
.....I

N

~

.......

'i:i::

I

o

-

..........

It--

-""""" i

~

r-

0

~I II

T

,

N

+

0
0

c
~

0

0

0

0
Q
r:>Q

r-

I/')

B 31

,r

'-I
04,51
]3[

. ~[d~·
_

.

.

Dr

I. dig

De~

!Id;~

p., I

,

"I

G·,
-

. hrt

.. lIllllU.~
'

em.p
1W
1

-

[5

3125 3.15 059

332 119 070 28.2
016

2E

J30 ]-0

190 205
~42

lOOO
+~5 '19000 -HJ l4000 +5

200

191
2H]

21
lOS 80 332 ]0 35 l41

.)24,

333J


lW 8
9·W

~W

230
1 -.2

2] 01J. 300 0101 .55
1901

m'~
1 1

0'71

~31 ] 4, ~

290 607
]4[9

.lE .. 21,;1
.2E
0]4,

[32
~30
I
[

4(]OO
.m

]35
_.,l_ 1..""'2

25
O~9
34.2

H)

JODi

35"00

~12
211

un
92

54

28
] 101
40 l[nOI

- l7 1300

3E
34E

3(6

]·W

.34'·
.240

~.60

o o

119

26
_0
],.5

.261
021

22
012

218 028
030

2W
4W
2IE

tBO
~59 202

9500

208
180

2J1 192
274·

15
1 L2

38
2651 32

116W

032-

7000
·15

033 U:;.2
228

J ~Ol
50
2·[01

0'3 '"'"
.

7W
1

028 ]'76

,.,..2500

2.84 29]

6 ]3"12
84,

[0
181

-30

20
28(]1 20 0601

I.

165
1

14\V
II~JW

119
1

JE

].194148

.2IU~OO ~55 2000 _ 3000

2;

9

234,

244


2\1jj

24·2

t50
m3,(]

137

37
49
23

]15.~

00]

izw
'9E

O~5
6491 042
~6,,2

Od7

30 043 032

l

1 ..23

us

95

+16
16~1

~211
,4·6

OdS
0·61
I

LV\!
IE

050

50CO
~5 2500
0

]1.5

un
[]IO

612 49
1

]201

4

1041

~23

L24

25
1.14·

JoO
162
34"'] -3

140/
1 40 12.01
"'i!O

153

9W
..

iW

h13

96
]l

35100 4000 -:5

IO~
]1.5

6,J

1.30
,8,2
,
I

33,01

I]E

_]19

1

~"{

.J~O

~12'9

]8

B - 3.2:

-'.A ~GI .TIIO'N

1.

T'··~ :~ .10 knots .....

TS

= lli50 knot

I

4.

T .:. = 165 " sots

II

.~ flI

- 5"~

. O~bfd A\i!iatlonSeNices limiled

T··' .., == ~ '

knots

'Drill
J

I

r.
II

19-·6

~.

An, airfield has runways ] 8/36 and 07/25 all ef'eq ual ]eqEth~ The TAF' W IV is I,.., et" ,.JI' '" , ,,yl 'anJ1,'t ¥'If W.lU.C. , "Ii: l best _,,', " f!'or tafi;Jt-'O.U' an,d l fUJh;'lIJmg ~ 31 n/i"lil'c:J.. 'V' .. ~.I0fllj].S ""lOOE ,,.rIFllJ,.~' h'w '·]1 b tne b
,o?;. ,,L ~ 'I[

iI.).

[8
36 07' 25

b)
c)

d)

2.

In the Qtlestio~ '[ situation, what will be d1!ebeld and cr-oss 'wind components on this 'ruJlW,~,y?'

.Heald
a)

C nJSS ~1
~'9

bJ
c) d)

24, 13
1'9

~6
~,2

17

3~

: .n 1.~rClafi requires 1. 0 tn.atE; headwind compOneill't tor take-off The CfOSl~,Wj U'm~ fld C for the aircraft is, 20 knots" The Dn~yrunway a ailable is 25~ The A, IS WN is 290/1 OG40. What Ire the minimum and maximum windspeeds For take-off?
Min
a)

.l7
13

3n
,],1
,~j

'b) c) d)

13
1'7

:l "

16

4.

Ian a particular 'take-off, you can accept 'Up' to 10 mots, tailwind. Th ~ ru:n,\v~y Q,DM is

(~4'7 the variation js l7fJ and the ' T'~Sgives the -._ direction ind m~x ~.lnumw~mdsltr-engtb you can accept?
~I

,IS:

.210. Wblt 'is the

9)

lb) c)
d)

18 knots. 1 knots ,8 knots
I

,4 knots

9 ...11'

NL VIGATION

MUl,n ..DRI. T WIINID,S AJNlDW~ND.IICO PDNENTS

L

d

.I!'"' 'llor

c

9 - 18

. 0 fordAvOs on S.MOe5 L"rnited

NAV11:GA'T~DN

, HIE 1 IIIN ,60 R,IlJIIL.E

~.

You are 'flyrng
0"

find that yomlr position Is 60 nm outbound from A and i mn left ~Th1,e[equired Itrack.. W.ha'l IS your track errol!' angle?
:&001. A, 'to B,.
YOiU,

2.

You are flying frorn C tOI ,D,. You find that your position is 120 run outbound right IOf the required track ~ Whal is your track error ang [e?[

fJOJlTh

C and.

I,

nm

3.

You ar-e' flying frem ,B to F .Y01r1 find that your P05Lti'(Ha i"

'g()

run IOl1tb-ound from E and 6 nm

rjghr of the required track~ What is your track error angle?
4..

You are fl,Y~ngfrolm

of

ou find tltalyourpositioD is 3,0nm o utbound mom 10and ,4 nm left the ~\qurur-ed track, 'Wb8~·~s your 'back error angle?
I"

to H"

s.
6.

You are ny.ing troln J to K" which Is ;9. fJeq.uired track of Q45~f ). You 'find that your position ]5 ~0 nm oufb ound from J and 4- am left of the' required track, 'Wh~l is your track made good?
You are mlywng Hum L to M which is a required track of 220~1(. J. O~ 'find that your p(HsJ~i,OR is 4:5 nm o!IJLbo~JJ '(TO m Land 3 nm right of the requ ired track. '" hat is your track made geed? Dd YIOUare ny,ing fr0ll11N tJQ pi which is ,0 required track af,315C{T)I~ You. 'find. that your position is , 0 mn outbound frolm~N and ISnm ~leftof nlf' required track. What is your trackmade go ed?
A. surveyor places hhmel.f,660 metres, from a mast and messures [8.'W elevation angle top of the mast, 'Wi181't is Ll]l ' height of the mast?
'0[,0
[0

'1..

,so

tile

'9.

You.,iII"1!' :ny~n~an instrument approach to an ~rrfie]d and the required glide slope angle is 3.00°.

What he igJu:t,. ~ould YOI]. be pass ing when you are exactly 2 na tmlw a! mi ~esfrom 'iJbJ![oucb.doWII c pO'Ulf?'.IOTE,; for th is, question, assume 1 om = 6000 feet).
10.,

an aim.eld and mhe 'required g~ide' s lope angle is :2~5(1J . Y10U an!' Iconect]y on 'the glides [lope ,and you. are pas sing iii height 0' 1. 000 ree1 [Q FE. W hat is: y01J:~r range from ~he ~:oucldlo\vn pomUl.t? (.A.ssume 1 nm = 60(]O feet],
Y IOU. are H"ying an instru meat approach
[tOI

mI,.

You are :lly i.D,gfrom QI to R. w.biicilJ is a reqlllir'e d track of ~25 tl(T)., Vou find that yIOUm" pas ition rn s 40 11m,'uon:l R and ,2 om left of the required trICK. What tTHC' must you fly 'LI) arrive lC)ivermead R7' You art flying from 'S to T~which w'S a required track of272°(T). '. eu :find that 'your positl[(Hl is 5'0 nm from 'T and 5 om :rig~t of rhe required track, Wb~t trsek must yOy :f]ly to arrive overhead

tt,

T?

'NA'VIGA,TIDN

:t

I~I

u~

7.
8.
9.

44 metres

io,
1 t,
J 2.

4nm

NA:VIGATiIION

1.1..,,"

CO;" SOIL' 'ATIlO

c,_'

IQ'UE',~TI·O'.,.',

1. ;,

If an aircraft WS 3°' off required track I~ a '~ange O'f 120.nm, haw f~r in. nautical miles (nm) ~ the I ireraft o'ff'required rack? s

2".

If an tl~'LlctaJi is ,2 rmles off required track track (track en-lOll)?

at a

range IOf 40 1llmi; what is the
1

aD,g,~~ ' (1.,

]'.

Am, :airlcraft leaves A't'Oi Oy tOI B~ 9S nms distanee. H:~vi:~i flown l5:nms" the a:ir,crm position ~ found from BJj, 'pinpoint' (OJ, goo,gra:pbh',;,al point over \~hic'b the lirc:~al bas s 8o'M)}; the pinpoint is l' nms rig'h~10C track,

c)

'W.b at is the drift? (Trap question),

,.

AnI aircraft 'j s flying 'from Q,)tford UJI Cambridge planned track I014,OM,- di stance 70nm~ heading 0 65iilf, ,', '~fl',~ ving flown 3 Onm, the pil at p(m;PtJ~n~SI'~ aircraft pcsition the overhead Cranfield 4'ml}left ofp~l11ned. ttack..
'il

,)

What is the track error overhead C ranfield?

e)

. ha t ~lteration of heading should be made over Cranfield to fly
dir-ect I[I) Cambridge?

11 - 11

NIAV~GATION
5.

NA,V,IGAT~DN U!SIING THE 1 IN 60 RULE An a/r,c[,aft is 'flymg from ',or.wicll '1;)0 O",FhID'rli planned track 2S;O'IJ'" distance '96'lllmsheading ,260~', " ground sp eed .t 80 kts, The aircraft. di'~rpans;' orwic ~lat 100 a hrs, At 10 '~:2 the aircraft s overhead Ely 3nm,$ right of p~ Inned track. Use the 1:60 U) estimate ®.hefo ~ ~OW.rutll~
1 "t
<;

ru

e}

'Wh~t alteration of heading should be made '00 track directly to' - .orlU,. 0x f,' ~..1'l!'

11)

Wfu at ~eadiag sho uJ d be f own between 10].2 ,[n.fJ,d,024 hrs 1.

tOI

regam

track nt '1 024 hrs?
i)

Given the situation in ,~:)and 11) above. nit heading change should be' made at ,[,10.24 hrs and what heading should be' fhJwll frem 1024,
hrs onwards?

j)

Estimate th~ ETA at Oxford.

NA'VIGA.lrO:N USII'NG, THE 1 INI 60 RULE

6nn1

2
-

.
a)

3.,

b)
c)

Cannot calcnlate as heading no.t. given, 'To calculate drift, you must know head ing, DrL'ft is defined as,the angle between heading and ~ 'traek".

4.

OJ) 'b) 066PM

f)

079~, .I

b)

,50 right (,aru:rcmft

has travelled ,2 minutes at 180kltts = 36wmlS~ JU'w in 360m =

5° error).

j)

ET'A 103.2 hrs (U]OO ,_,Ul] 2. ,=. 36fJmB HJt2 - 1024

= l6nms.)

Leaves, 24 miles which takes ~ x 12 = 8 mins)

.36

11 - 1,4

Question ]

An aircraft is f[ying due South, At ~000 hrs, po~nt P beam .267e.(T) ITiJ,m the aircraft .. A 'n°.1 0061 hrs, porint P bears 275 CI(T), roam the aircraft, ,~'rODJCaircraft bas a ground speed of ~I ,20kl e· timate th e range of the .~,irc'raftfrom p oint f.

You are ,~pproaching Imlsbmck~ Austria on a glide slope of j,.So,. 'What he.i,gb~ (Q'FE) should you b eat 2 miles range?
You I~U·Ie:approac b.i.nlgRota, .:pain on 'run"~ay2·8wh ich has a gl ide slope ,At what hei:,gh'mshould y()tw be at 4 miles range?
10 f

2 .. ~. 6

Question 4

You are a "pro aching Pari s/Cbarles Ide Gau He on a gJ~ slope of 3 de
beigh~ I IQ tEl shoul d yo~.be It 8, ran ge of 2:nn17

,0 ~

At what

USiH,g ~he detail in questions 2 ~ ~, wb~t rates of'd seent t R,DIDI) ,~f,eirequired "in
maintain the slmde slopes in:

a)
b)

c)

question .2. if ground sp eed ~ ~20 kts s quest ion .3 ~f grou nd speed ~'S ~ 810 itt, question "mf ground "peed, W' ~50 lets. ,

,011 the approach

runway 27 ~gli de slope 3 QJ ~ you red uce speed fTom ~,5'D to 120 kts, What eh ange should you make '~O your [{flD' to, kts
tOI

London fieathro
1

~r

maintain gl ldeslope?
Question 7 are flyin,g an aircraft into Gioia Del Colle, U,a·~ly~(111 a. glide slope of 2.,,5ID • Having bad a hydraulic failure .. you canner select I.ny fl,iaJfU~" You approach at :2 2,0 kts TA S, and. have a bead w ind ccmponent o'f m Okrs,
" OM

an (he approach, you regl'run some ·hydrl.uJ ~ power and can sel ect "mid t tl aps e posirion, This enables )I'OU to reduce your approach speed to n 90 kts I,A.S,.

b ,I

Wha~ Icung_' in the RIOIDI is required to continue to maintain the glideslope?

.,g~' 1ii'J11

a

..,

OTHIER ..AIPIP[l~C·,A'TiIO'NS,IDIf' THIE: ., IN eo IRULE On the approach to Gm,oia Del CQiUe you 'receive' the ar~eld infDrml;t~,om.., You ate landing '0[1 run W~.:y3. ' (thr'6s'homd. elf:v~J.ti,on ~.2 1. 0 n.'., 'The oppo ~.teNfiW,8.y'l I -4 has a thre shol d e ~,eva.ti01[l 0-'(' '~ m.5 0 ft If tine run;~vly length is 2.996 metres wham is the slope of runway 32 (in degrees up (If' down tf

You

an rainv;~,y '~~ i centrel me Q!Drv~01 ' ']] 10M towards VOlVD ..' W'~ ~,A" '. Your RM~reads 'i 41. o"MID'ME 90 nms,
Me :flY1 ng

a)

Are you left or 'right of eentreli De?

b]
C

'Wbat iii your dis,tmce off the ,ainvay centrelice? ," reo you m trouble with AY(:? (Airways ncrmally extend. 5
s,jdc' 0 f'the centre line ),.

n111

eitbe:E'

12 - 9

OTHER ,APPlIIC:A'TIIOINfS OF 'THE 1 IN 60 RUllE,

Question ], Question 2

90nm,

1'00ft (2 )t,350)

60 rll (2 x 300)
Question S b)
c)

7:80 ftlmill

Decrease' ,ROD' by 150 fI' min This is the same basic question a" '~sed ,iII IQS j; &. ti fur'RO'D you need ground .'peed which is ,220 kt~ - ~O'1:5headwind. = :2 m,o kts, For change ill RO'D, you only need the ehange in ' .AS. a) b)

Decrease ,ROD,by t2,j flo min

c)

(1.37 e down a.)
left

c)

Usually yes. {AhlVays are generally only Sums wide from centreline
in most c ountries but ru les maJY vary '.

12 - 101

N.A,VlGATIDN 13",1-'
CO.,:·'OL~1A;-~'.O,'I'Q,
Y'DU

';:, .IO'" ... ,[-~
hi\lle

I..

are flying' a

R route and

become uncertain ofyeur pcsitieu,

Whicb is the

b~51,

course of aJcttIOil'l?

set head ms towards a ~lD"eream re - coastline river or ,mol~onYa,y tum :vound and fly your flight plan tracks in reverse mr~]]yO'1W S~~ ,something you recognised before 6y- I, series 0 f ever-e~p'.I;lldinl'ci rcle s fhJm yeur present p osition till you fi:mld yo:Of next -

til'

check po w-mlt Tum round and fly your flight plan in

reVCBS

back

to base

a)

'b)
e

9 HJ 1.2
~S

d)

,3..

Using '[ij],e Je:ppesen E(LO) 1, position 52'~ ill
symbols?
a)

<.

0093 m W'! , hich of the foUowl~lg denotes all the

'b) e)
d)

mi ital'Y airport, mLS~NDIB oi v ~~a irport, V'O Rm, lLS

m~'~m'tary lirpOM, VOR. lLS

civil airport, ,~, S, NDB

4.

Using the Jeppesen E{LO)l chart 'w'tUi't are the symbols at IG',alway Cammere (531 ·',.~'N 00856 ..5 ,. '1

a)

V'OR, ND -:- D'··.· . , c:omp:~~;so!l~Y reporti.ng point
civil airport, ND1B;~ D,ME~non-compulsory reporting point civ w ~ airport, VOi~ D'1VJE,non-compul sory re,pOl,rt~l1.g' point 'VOR- 'NDIB, D·... - t non-compulsory reporting point

c)
d)

13 _,'115

For the follo - rungqu stion

pl_ ase 'refer to Appen dix A~

" hich of the followirrg is the symbol fl r all e ' c eptionally high

ob truetion?
a) b c) d)

61
10 ].5

6.
')

5

b
c}

7 13
,~4

d'

7.

,1Vbichis the' , ymbol for' , VOR?
a) 4.
d":'
'I

b
C

d

13 14

a) b)
c'

lit oil, tacle lighthou '_

VRP
aero IlBU 'icwl ground light

d]

@

Oxford Avlatlon SeNh:ms Limited

,
2

o o
. .

11

..

I

3

I .-

I

5

II

7

9

10

'c

I
~I

.Ai, Lit

.'

2.

d
d

3.
4.
,_,

b

7.
d

1

11'-

":',:u -,don 4 _ ~
...
-

a

Determine the /alue of' ,nnve'r,~ency between _,:(5,8t2,,-::0 60: E. ) WbBlt i" ' - e rb mb ~me bearin ':, h at is the great
,0

J (' ,8ill 2 ",-00- 00

and

K from J?'

c

ern

~e'b a ing of J from ", ?

Q

es"'i,OQ "

, e in 'l1irmm 11 vigati 'In~ anne ~:_"to the automatic pilote n ~b route 5L track change rOopassing 'WP 2 will be pprcxim tet :
a b) c)
d)

-P' - WP2 -'

'F'. 'The'

a .'0 increase a, ' D decree e

zer-o
a ' o'iecrce'as,e

A i, ; N,5S~
, :'1

,

,OOO~
1'].'_

~,N54g, E 010~~ "f' he true eat ci ine tr. ck at '1Il::'6°(T)

trae] from A

10 """

IOO~

.J b,
c)

eI)

107°(T) I04e(T) 100~'T

-1'5

INAVlGATIO '

1]

\Vb t i" rhum b line bearine of K fro .11 tb, "Dorff) .·n me t· Ii .Iull'· so d' R ..tllHi L.i~1

The diagram I .0: .'. ru ike thi s:

off a' 1 s· than 0 'OO(T)· nd end up on 'm r:_ ~ n 0°, ' 0 .'a. h. if th 2 t g' ~ '1" \l P 2 ther wi ~~ a 'I~ft rum, at the wl,ypo~nt chan eOVe1". .E ch 'indi 'idtru ~ leg, .-olno. s the o-rn -1-,0 rules, i.e, b. the tra -, 'S!: in .la··· . going- ea ,ter~yin he Northern hemi phere .. but I'L tb· . han eover the s

The Rhnmb Line track all the wa y fro, . Wp m.to P', i· 0900 (T) However ,th ,.' -: win , leer the aircra J n em' r . 1 . ircL- usc ' from 'WP 1 _0 Wpi 2~ till "n ch - ng. ver ~t WP ~. to continu US'.' reat Cirele track teet ..,--lr;; ·P2ta· 'P3. h reth 'O'·'JI.," cl. track will ,"art
1

'1'

J- i .B, ~fi tum.

}S

" 17

X'

O~!'I

""""

14 ~ 16

@

Oltford Avia~on SeNioos ILl .1ted

N' - ,VlIGA1·0N a pro a ·'he··_ 2~n' 4°(1). t nil, waypoint change over" the' IN :' reverts to a 'IT " steer of 0860 at the start .:f the .econd leg " hich i creases " im~ ", P 3. There is the e Ife In d re of me " ngl '0 'pas in ·W-PI~.
It'
~.
I

Then for th 'r

Circle

ck ler IV

on 0,"· and

'j

,,0

, in", ifr I -

I

JI!'II!II,IIJGi'lll

-Utili

..

] ,TI . is

the dia rarn.-

c.

,.-

I

Radio wa. e tra el 0 er the su nee 0 the earth na res ~ i' L P ths, It is I[L :_ n ce ry f navigational purposes t convert tllil. ~lf!a~: circle direction 'to ,I rhun ...b lin dir. ction . nd this ~ ',' n _:' ;1._' _ lying ICO, rsion an .L t the b~ a ci ele dir .' _triO]] to ob .ain the rhumb lin _'dL ·OlD., Thi w~nbe covered in m \1_' dt'~1lIlru~in the e apter ·on he '. creator chart
~I_

I

I.

NAVIIGA,TIDN

o ",'Q
1.

The' C'ODL erg ,~y of the men, ". nugh ", ":', W hich a- in the ,0 the " If th.. 'r um,b Ii e i sck 'rom .to N i " ~(T) l ha is" e great cir J _bearins "
I

a)

b 2.
Tbe','

._ foomN?

l£l':'~C

~

:)
b. 1.

The gr

I

eir Ie b eari ng of ,A.. om B, .

Th - '~,n,' 'iuuJe' of posi ion . ?
1 I ,

The rhumb line bearing of'pos itlou', fro(M po, ition D ,30°00,' ]79°00 W) is eire] rb -anng f DI. •.In: '~, 2, ':7°(T). '
W~ t is:

Q0(T·.

'he great

a)
b 4,.

TIl' , gmll~ j r ~,Iee, ring of '. from DI ? b The I,PI -', 0 i':_latimc e and ~. ngitude at I.

0 -po.'

.io -',

?I

Tie great eircl beEllrmn,_ of po ition F'In lo gitude 2~ofJO'E fi m p" ition E t 27°1 OfN' a ',oUO··W measured at lo g' r , ~" 0..· cr T, . ·4 f

The ~reat circle bearing of 'frtom E The If 0 ti e Iati de 0 '
I

1:11..

asured

18;t

The great eir -le trac k from A to B ea ' con . rgency th DlJ ridi. "" thrnu ,11 .
ill ' b t, latitu
VI~,

210fT at A ,'Dd 22' 0 '••a d 1'1' ,-,-llich bm~~ph 1l ..

'. Wh at is th
.they?

.Is the conv : ge ,cy b - - , y ; n latitude 20~ " ? " th ' , anvIl_fLY"

,ieridians on the earth equal ' t '

b

~'s here ,_IWllwde wh

a ,~d b three

[me,

14-1·~:

®Q

~ro Avi alion

Services L mr ' -

NAV GAllONI

ICCNY! I, ,GE_,l CY- ND C:ONVRSIIDNi "NOlE

7.

,-_,an : ar h I'be' ame fu., mi pher ~ T 'e Ef eat circle bearing (if A from .' is 2.6BD(n and the great circle be,umg· fB from.
I.'

" n ,-. Q II', u,_ ,

i)

.~. b)

III : hilc~ h:_n ·sphere arc' -, and B l' ,,_ t i ' th .. rhumb line 'bearing 0.' B from '? h
Ire

and D The :

in the .arne helni 'p here .. --earin.grD fro

,an. the hurnb lin,'

i)

ii)

In which hem ispherc are C and .D? ,.h~u Is f .'approximat ' gre u circle Le

.• ,g of I,: . &om . '?'

a

b'

Th Icon 'Ie,rl,ency b· t. ',e. n th m ridian of X. nd Th _appr ,mmat gre t circle be' ring f X from , ..

m

c
9.
,0

T:'e rhumb line '. k fr
, aleulate the convert

liD

to " ..~
,', 5, '03. ''J'Ji o_:_ Q·"5~· an B,
I

icy bet feen position

I,,"

e

I

'2°37~W . If he bumb ~jn - trae .,'from '.' to ,B i 3 ~3° T) what. i the app
bearing ofA
_l'i '111,

0

dmate great circle

,B·.

The' gre

o

t
e

circle b aring
-e

from 8· ~'1 245°,Tl and lUte rhnmb line . ieari g

"1

from ,A is,

0°: T

If 'the' me an latitude bet ._ A and B eu
~o11g~rude 0·'1....

'1'

5]° : nd dIe longitude

(J'

B i· 02d~.

, ha~

.j.

the

1
f -

. and. ~.'are both in. outhern great c ir le be aring of B

L1

mi I1h~r - ,.d til-_~:, .n ver, n Y -of til if m ridi ill.

,~_ po .ition of .. ,[ _.],°OO~ 2 ..0. 0'\ ,~'whal[s the po _rn ti on of A? the 1 i

A,V~GA

nos
24]Q(T) O'7.5°(T) 2 6i]Q(TJ
1

1.

a) b)

,2~

a)
b)

155'0 W'es'[ 013 lT)
C

.3.,

30cN '~11oW 4.
01'6(j{T) Latitude 33 Q North

a)
t;.)

Latitude 43 D Nonh _''0 b ecanse Y'O'U, can 't ~] ave a latitude whose sine is greater thaI] 1..0 (]I i)

7,

a,)

Southern 'Hemispherc
090'°(T) _ as A and B on same '~a~],rud,e
Seuthern Hemisphere
237Q'(T}

ii.)
b)

i)

i~)
8.
,~ ,I

b) c)
n
'7 ..

2 67D(T) 0900(T)
1

~)
b)

lL

Position A is at 23

Q

,,'

0_ 04fJIQ JOII

'w. (Rhumb Line Is 090

0

T)

14 - 20

AVI~GAT10:

1.

A gh . is to be mad ' long th "and L], ,f ~ ,ti tud rfrom ",at 4 ':°0 ", 0'.-. °21'£. a~.lcBI.lrte the distance,
'I ~

"C

I'

,

,

0 . 0·, t B [
jO

1

~7 3.

,0<

,

5;~Et. : 0

1•

'.-

'run alcng rhumb Un . track ofO· O'Ol'(T l~t i the longiux of,',
,IS

I

'J

I

"

C at 3'·' -o

Ihe follo . im-rug rhumb liue tracks and di uanc
-I

flown; tarring rom ...in latituc e 50

C

' .•

of
G

O°,T
I

300mll

1

to

o-rr

300nll1 3 Omn
D_"

, hat i lb rhumb lin· 'lb'.''I "ng md . ~tan, e

til om - ?
0 ,

4,.

bat ,'~,lb. track ad. o 1~9°45 ? ~n ' hich t_ .i'tud'
, ,2"nm?

istanee m.· su .. along Lh, parall '1 ',ft. uitud: of "0

rr :m, : 76~ J ~~W

5..

1

,

_" aircraft eav J (" 6 .011 13, 0 I -' ' 1 . "',' ~fly· n a rhumb Iin true lof,~ 70 0 at .'Iight L VI. J 1 00. re aeratu re 0 ~ ach . o. "J • wind comnone nt 35kt tail, hat ~, th .aircr ,e -os~tmD a 100 .... 7 '_
!9 I',
i.' -

7.

la.

1)
, )1

the'ir dif erence in Ion <tude in mi utes? half' heir d"fference ill J ngfrude in minut s.
.. ~ :

")

In atitude 5~ 0

-

1)

". hat is the departure be twe e 016' idia f l3 '~] b t is the ' ho -,est i t flee betw e the same poims?
"I
1

II~I

art ': 3. (]

I

© Oxfort! Avia' on SaM res Umi1Wd

DEP:ARTUR

8.

An aircraft [_ ve
speeds:

-ositjoD! L in latitude ,7

10

~

W1d make

oodth

fri IUo'\l\,iog 'r . _ck and uround

L '~,-

271

0 (',

"

,~I

k

M

to ':'

I[Oc T) 2,:Okl
,1 0

o P 091

T' lOki:

Pi, due, omh of M ~, rca hed '0' - ~ I' L fte 1 a' lug L n , , r eached 3."" mini res after leavi g ,
, ale ula tf: 'the di stance and ri me ' .om :'_ to ' .

.,irnn~ft R iround spes d 36 kt' i" s , etw 'en the Slm, me.nd.i.an· in
I
"

me same tw'_

e [a aifcr,aft

..

~O.

Me-raft ' ~"IV," po sitio _',~, "I U)I) , ,if 15-.,- bOI' "', [and flie rhumb '[ - track 0'_" 90 0 ground "peed 70, ~ UIlti~it rea :_be the ,~,'~ m,erid ian ' . ben it urn "t a t ,-ck 0 ' I ' o~( a ground ,. . ed of 4 Okt., p
I

(I,

0

_' ircraft T laves. positic gr "ood peed 1S'lkr

[:[1

300',

100

;a

Th,52, '~OUlS and

rue',
,"

rhumb

~iD"

hie. k

Q"

0:,'

,IO[

I,

t

\\'bu~~haircraft reache

'p

.j

ion ,lOON' , 3

g

,

1, -

J.

",~what tim '.doe ,,-his ,','cur? G'O" " e eo ~t" n o.f 'lb" rherai 'feral at thi time, o

'PL.

a,'i

P'

~~.

rts a ':. ~dun 04 W( 1" 22 " and b·, ds nue north or 2950 Pl1l1; then turns [,0 d _gree 1. ft and ainrain r a humh line track ~,OF], I ulemete rs, 'Nbs. ws·t mal po ,i ion?
,t_
1'[ ~

An a'irc'~ ft

a)

~500'

.)
CI

,SOO~' 'SOO'" 1173,

d'

INAVIIGiA',TIION ~,2.

DEPAR,TURE

An aim-craft at position 2.700N :~ 7't£lOOW travels 31000 kID, on a track of m 8001(T)" then 3000 krn on a track of 090 O( T),~[hen J 10 0 km on ,I track 0 -(JOOC!(l1 then .3000 km on. a track of' 0 2 70GI(T). WhIt is its fina l '~~"Jsid,oll?
a)
b}

2700N
O(){)ON/S 2700N 2700N

~700~JW

c)
d}

~7000Vl7,31BW 14,JOOW

l 3.,

die-parts, a p'oilL!~O~OON 1 OOOWand flies 600 [JI110lWth~ followed I then 600 nm N ordL then 600 :onl W'~sl., 'Viba.tis its final posit" o.~,? a)
'b) c)

vn aireraf

b~ 1600 om East,

0400N
0600S

m,'

OOOW

~1'QOOI~{'
m 619UJ

0400N
04CON

d)
m 4.,

58 ..I IW ~,70~ ~8'W {J~,

An ,Irncr--l~f.l 'is, 'Hyble aF.oll.nd ~~ Earth eastwards alolog the 60 para~l!eJ of." latitude [It R, groundspeed of 2401 knots, A'[ what groundspeed would mother ~rnrem ft ha ve to fly eastwards along th e Equator to tl.y onee found the Eadh in ~hesame jeurney time? .a) b)

600: knots
240 knots
4:·0 knots

e)
d.

120 knots

1.5.

Your 'pos'~li'll~ 5·8..1.:r. ~1'.4,OOW.. You, Uy exactly 6 nm eastwards. Wbat is your me\\' is position ?
a) b)
C )1

.5833 ". 1'741, 1,.5W

5833:' 11.35!fW' 5 S'] 3 .... 1 7.140W'
,5833-. 17348~5'V

d)

-

,"IA'VIIGATIDNI
-~ !j -

DE'ARTURE

.~ ..
"

,

~
"I"'

Dj. ·tanCf:'

=

],.··7 x

Cos' .' a

259 nm.

Distance = i000 am ~

fu 000

Cos 36°

1.;1..·

(;5··

0: .'

.1 •••

I.Ell ••

I!I.l.

F

to

G

]00 nm = 5°

..J)

':;ifN.1 Q U

.

lll.". i!.

" •• liil.

to

R

E to

3,(~O nm

=S

t)

Lat.
0

300 C(Hi 55 G to H 300 nrn = $0 Lat, Lat ofH = j:lij!° At 50° S23~_ ong. = 523 x Cos, 5, = 3316 nm.
1
(I

. to G 300 nm =

at off ~ .5S,~ = 523 Long,

QuetioD 4 . 16 I.,S·W to 179 °45 E = 4 -= 2-4·0· lena, .~ ;O! = 240 x Cos (1~ = 41.. ' nm,
0 1 1 0
_. 0,.:

Track = .2700(T) Dist 41.~l nm

15 10
_,'
'"

.

B'

.

DEPA_TUR

, tS[

.

- lin Lrn g.

rvm 0, . ]emp Of;) TA· = 5':Ot i~: rnins at ,55~ k.l = 1" '1.5 nm .

35 ail

=

55.: klOS

..
. ~ng.

==

],

0

=~

'O~:= 10,·

eSl di tance 9. - 52 x 2
I

h

=

=,:653
==-

nm great ci cte via 1] ~ .5·· nm

011 Qu.e." "'
1

;

L p

l to "=-

3.J nm -

4J 3.· ~ S'.l 7·
",7'D

=,

Q

31t

Di: t -. to

=, ,~bOO']
=

- 37c(J

I.

Tune

to',

240 run 3.1 2 ,',0

=

=2 51 ~2- min r,
1,1]'

=

,0

nm

15 - 11

® O:d~rd AVla~iol1Servrces Limited

N!A'VIIGA iiiIO'N

DEPAR,TURE

Q au 4('5,0

'~IO°Long = 600~ =- 6 0 )r Co ,~U5~ = , 17 nm @ 3'O.l kt R at as 364 kt in '3 mins covers 50].,5 nrn,
1

='

:'31 mins

Dist 11m, Mins Long:

503.5 = Co, Lat ofR
6fU) Lat of'R
='

33°00'~': /S

loeE to 13,gE
3d6°~' "[0300N

,=

~,,80i Long

= ~ 5.6

nm, @ 470 kt

= 18.j mins

= ]60 nm @ 460 let + 47J) mins 65.5 mins

"]j •.J .J ~

·@I£Okit1' ltlUl~, _ jy

"i,::;::,~

'1 nnl = ,_i ,l ;I,t

'~'j

rt
~2.,

d

e

14.

c

1,5 - 12,

INIAVIGATION

al b) c) d) e)

Centimetre represents, Five Kilometres lOrn€: Centimetre represents .5.4 Nautical Mi les Oae loch represe nts 15.. I, Ki 'Iornenes 3.r5 Inc h ~s represents '7.0 Kilome tres Fi ve lnches represents E i~Jn: autica ~M ~ ~es
IO'W1~

a },
b)

H ow m any (11 C entimetres and 1,2 Inches vlowld represent 3U Kilometres
,I

on the

Ground? L~Q'lIlImany I( [ ) Inches and (2) Centimetres would r-epresent 30 Nautical M'ilcs on the
'rrFnU . - • b".....

nd?

tl)

What is the hart length of ~ line' representing
IChHlUf7.

an earth distance of 50Ki,lo:nle~:es

011

this

b)

and Inches Is this scale larger I~Jr mal ler than the one used in question two above? s

'Give your answer in both Centimetres

a}

b)

Give [he Sea ~e of ilijs ch art as a Represen tat ive Fract ioa Using y'OUJ computer sl ide' rule, determine the distance in Inches on d~is chart wh ich would represent fmc distance flewn 'by an aircraft in 5 minutes at a Groundspeed of] 56 Knots,

5,.

On a chart l4.8, Centimetres represents 20. ··_,au~ica~ iles on the' gJiQu~d M
~)
b)

Give the Chart Scale as a Representative Fraction U$~ng your computer determine I~J1e'length 'in lnches O~ this chart which would represent t-h~ di stance '11J')\v'nho,y an aircraft in. 9 minutes at a Groundspeed of ~83 Kno ts"
1

a) b)

Gi ve the Seal e as a Repres cntat~V~ F taction 'What is the length in lnches 01] the chart which would repre ent the distance flewn in ·4· minutes at it Groundspeed of20 ' tj]]ometnes per hour?

, cal._'of Chart'

t.

is given a 0.':"5 Jneh s repn "':nts ] N,a~f.leal,' 'il

a
b)1

c) d
'9.

1700,000 I 2 ' '[5 '1£ u I I 1~26~,00
1
I'I ,-

1

11 ~~~6,OO to 1,,8011 p' rallel of'Iatitu le at
,0 ':'

" n a particular Direct b "re tor wall chart.' h ' 1 ::1,0.,

W,l' 3

c' ' ~,'[lg. '\"h,at
8

'r

the .eale of the ch __t at r
I

1°'

m

1: 3,000.,00'
till

b c)

, (. tm· .', IOrfliia ~.. 00'. -\] -

'

d
mi. '

L __,0 ' , 00 r. 7,,0 ,',0 .00
1

,n a, cha ,l 'meridian, a ' ',3-,':"'are shown e
',,"

I,

-

I' : e rees apart

Thi

j'

hown om the chart by

a listance. f 1 -cm,

i' the seale'

a
b)

J : _~ 0, "800,1 1: 4

o
,0' '

,000

d)

16 ...9

© 0 fo rd Avi at en S enrlces ILml ted

[' A'V IGA _ION

SC,ALE, 0'
'.1_.,

'. dO'l

0 I .•. ~.
1

1:-0

~I

10,

b)

':1,.0 0
1 r

.

..

I :6,00 000 (appr x) 1:116 40

d

t:88-

.a

(2 2.3 In h
11'

b)

(I 4",~: 'Inches ~
J'

.' tun ·~re

a.

em
I

=

.. 7 in. 9

Qu ·:11
ill

. ur

b

a)

1:25.

] :350 00

bl

, h. refore

t ..

hart

has

~.l.

d {~e co' ret answer is lear d

to 1/2' ,M but l/2

..' was th nearest option), ·

10.

- 1£31-10

_E-C-TOR

CHA

S ~ PR,QPEIRTIIIt:S

1.

V,.

onk al

(vi

imuthal
0

The Ie' rre t combination n~(ii d(iii ( ii)~ ) and tv (j

th. abov

statements s:

b)

d)
2.
a)

M'_ 1 f gr feu 1 'i : Fe R tan
'" u re
I
I.

.Ij~.

r

b)

c
d
011·, .

gent.

a'
C)I

Curvesconca

c to 'be qu tor n " to the E'

Compl . x Ieurves

". sigh t lin. ~
4~

On a.direct '. creator Gr at t ir clcs
a)
I.:

Il be

represents d as:

tr ight lines

5,

•,n a direct -_lercator, represent d as:
__ }

nrh th

b)
1 ~ ,

.!

tile ,',f:: rer Pol' urves co ve, to lI, Equat' urves COD a e I •the, q ,'t r
- 10

d

':ltm~,gh~ ine I

18 - 131

'T~D'

me eOTrI-_ spending
a
b
t

great.

·if le is:

Zen
"ar
l

co verg ncy

Con ersion Angl e
hart: '. nv rg.I' nee

d'

7.

~ the umb ~., e t1,31'k fr nn urin (45N 00, d ireetion 0 th great IC" ele tra k me
U4'!d

) to Khartoum

~3' 032 ,.) is l ,',O(T what is the

a)

L33° . )[
] 39[O(T)
'I
1

b c

~.s0T)
gre
t cir le tr

d

~51C T

ID Que, ti n 7.. what i the dir ·h n . f"
3·1',,0 )

ck

tro

. Khart

'urn. ' Turin?

b'
c) d

··25°(T}

331°lT) . 31° T) ..
I.. _

9.

On a rca or chart, ..e rhum line o 0°[,T.. 'bat is tb, great ·1rcle rt e
r

IT

c from Durban (3 .. 032,E) om Perth t 1mb ,[1,~. •

(0

Perth ( '0'. '1 6E

rn"

a.
b)

21,O(T ~~2a(T)

c)
d
"·0' e:'

2,: 0 24,0

)

n t tell ,.,II the Thurn · line on the same pat;aU, 1 of ],a'itude).

th ex aminer rna

,)
b) c)

d

reater lila Earth c nver ,- 'c" "co Tecf~ I, $S th BI1' arth COIlV 'r: ency ual Ion x 10.' '
I ,I,

18 -14

1fl...

. -

O ID''. .
-

QI
,I,

R : er 'Ito is L 18.1
_

"2

a

R

~·T·

t 1.1.3

.·.tAl

c)

'. tricky questi n! Answers (a ane

·ru.rcJ son Meted ..~ quatcr and all mcridiansr

b are eorr _ t. But answer ([:J 15 111.0. 'corroc~., .. as traight i e· bUI[ only in th . '3.· See Questi D 5.
1

. ··s, .

Thi . is a que tion involving
.R:_ fer to
m o ,.3 . 1.

u'l.

onca . . amd 'icon ex" and the :E uat I ' and the P ~es..

·..7 .·

(b

This is a cIOn· rgency/eonversto rt angle pro ~~,nFJJ ut often _b pr .blem, A creator gra.t~ ."rudeCID b a. ,"ood way to \ isualize he prmci 'Ie : and rule co re ' in l'':. 1.7,.
I.

Q

ppean as a

creator
I!"

'this probl m, Ref

to

as abo- e

Q."
.

d

. II,n1.IDl1en_'·as Q=:-/8. '. oti. ~lbatthe' quesuon involve 'two places at ihe '. me latitude, i. ~0 the ame parall ... ofI ' itud " . ". '.1). The rhumb lim track bas been. '1V 1 as l '. '.0°,'. but an :_" .~ m y ru t eees aril . ,giv ~ . ~ : .nllati 011. The t s

exper t the .tud nt II .,.t. ognise tha he rack b·· ..e 'n . latitude must be Ea·" Wes;~ O· 00 T)l~ 700(T)

0

t .IC'

0,

th

e

R rer to

r· .3 ..

© OXfo d ~iatiM Servic s U 'ted'

I.
2.

h between meri -"'[iUl" tative fractiou t 5Ui··.·.. 7
1

~ [I

apart iSI 3. _ inches, \\'])a.1 Ii the cale of lb. char hal i·

I"

I,

b· constructed [am scale of 1:'123 -,000 in latitude '4,,-, a SP!C ~nc in een time tres betwe n merid 'i an ~ I0 pan '? '.ercaior
IS 0

I,

e re c lui:n~d

The cale of'a ~41' cal or cha 'i _hart r m A (S'N' 42E.
I •

On ~_ ercasor t h rt the sp zing ,fmc ,-, b ' l: t _ OO?
I"

m,

11 VI

hi b 1am, itude will the

"C

le

II,

5. 61.
7.

On. a .:leFI .ator chan the s acin x of meridian _0 apart 'W'5,_12 em. Wb~t is the ·cide 0 the as a r pres entativ fraction in letitu e 5'16 ' ?
I

he . cal of a Merest If c]lar[ is 1:3 5' O~ l) "til ~ ltill II C ',2' . Wha .. between meridia . 10 part

'I

me sp _cing, i

ce nJi . e '.

a"',. b) c

di tano in nm d .. on in ' D [the cha ' epre ,,- It in 41N ~ ~ hat is the. pa jog ;n em b etween meridians ~l 1° apa . 1III I
I

. ould Ute, aJ'e a~ ]0,' have a larg er Ir smaller d~]~Onlina~orhan S m07 1)O ? Give a t r ascn for your ,answer ~
1

..

IOU a Me'n:ator. -hart a line d~ '_ wn long Itbe parall 11, a disra CI' of 11 0 km,
'1'

0, '. and measurinz

4 in.

at a _'represent ti e .ti, n. YOr ~ . _y 1]8 tical mile wi Ub, ~epres nt d by a lin drawn ea uring 1em in _Dglh?
I
1

l.!

I

g the same p allel nd

.

.
a) What

b)

the spacing in _enti etres bel e ',' meridian IID'l which Ia.H"' de do -s on· inch repr sent l: .4 nm ?
~"I

10° aea '?

I

] .'6' '00' 000 ~ '" 00-' ,',00 ~::5
;; , 'I -' " '.
111. ,,~ ',..

!7J ..
'I]
I!

b)

I ,th, re a. J ati tude on this chart where 1he seal

i I'."6 ;'50

I iIf!I

"u

0.•''?

119 9

GIIEINERAL NAVIGAT110N

1.

6U' of long @ .sO ',,', = 60 x Cos 50(:)mn = 3 ~.58 nm, 3.2 ins = 38.)',8 nm. l in =: m 2.0j nm Rf = ]: ~2.05 x 729,60 = 1:: 87933']1 or
60~C'~SI 500
X

6080 x '[.2

=~,

:Bl96l4

3.2
,2. I\t ·44 ". 60 @ ~Dng ~ 60 K Cos 44,0 nm Chart Length = E awth Lengt h x
1

=. 4l3~l4

nm

=
3..

..l. RF

=

:80 inns

8,000,,000 2~237;OOO

ern = ] .. 576

eM

Ch.loag = 8" = ,~,80" = 480 x CO~ 5.2° = 29.s.} nrn Cbart ~,emlgth= Ea~, leugth x ,...L
'RF

= 295.1' x 72960 ]5'{HJOOO 4.

=

,6"l'

'j~

(Chart Length same at ,51 and 5,Ef,)

As, the RF is ~:,2,319",000 Earth distance As nm = min long x Cos latt Then Cos Lat ~ nl'll min
~,[G'l'lg

=

2.8.2

A

.2 J ]9~n[lO(:111 ..,588
=

=

65.39 kID.

=

]5.28nm.

35.,28.

60

=.

Cos 54~':_lS

j""

1 @ 56e =- 60 x Cos' 56°rom = 33 ..55 nm = 62.] 9 km 5.42 IC.~1, = 62.119 lou m crtr = 11~47 km
Q
1

RF'~I,r ': ha.rt ~ I:
~i

L.1,4,7~IOO

A1 5"2:"

l0

=

160

X

Cos 52°:llm = 36 .. 4\ nm = 168. ;1 'kID. 9

Chart dist ~

=
7.
~ ~I

Earth dh~'~ x -:~ RF 168.47 % ,[ 000 J( ~ 00 -I

=

,,!~l;fi CD)

3"jOO~OOO

=

5~ '1200 ~01

,

409.2 x 72960
J',~ r07,200

= 5.845

111

=

'~~4J~;5 em

c.

At .JON' the' 5C!~'~WSless than at 47N~Mercators eblWfl. EX]! A '. D~',a\l\r;~yfroln. the Equator, There'mr'e seale dC'Dom'inator wli')ul,d, be 191f'1er~

GENERAL. NA'V1G,ATIONI

- EA,C',AT10R C:HARTSI ""aC,ALE

4

= ,'F =
H

~I

0 km I~~= 50 tID, = 26.97 11ITI. 1 ::21, .97 x 72,90 = I~: '1.,961-0','
ru

o. ~,16ern =
1.
=

,":- =

200 n 1,96' 001
1

] em = 19.6" km

( ",'Ole th t an ,'~unit of mea urement can be used a' cal .. s , arne for both)

Q.

a.

At zquatnr 10° ~ 6 '0 nUTIIJl~ I I [2.2 km. at ".. l.: ~",~ ~79,,1, 00 = Llll.,~ = :s t,,04 em
__
'.'

.1.

f.I'i;

'7

b.

~

I

-

l' .4, SF =

a

-

ru '~ I, 342: 46

-

~'116"

r

1

a (i

Scale at 60
,"calc at .quat
-

-

~ ~

..
a,

. ",DOn

0

~

. ,,00·

a

La'! -

.11

'OJ 101

ti"tOO 0,,0 to = -at

to

~

60°

,_,

b.

':0..

Scale

Mere8~or i· alway m'inwmW!mat the' . quater, a d expands b ,th ",orth & South . 'way &onl the quater,
OD·~

191- ~11

Oxford A'Iiation

SeMcee Limited

1.

,An ~~'rcnlftreceives

a QTE IT1o,m ~~rfi,eld~A ,.of063°T', Airfield Ai,s in th ,: orthern H mi phere, The convergency between the a.i'[icrafi: nd ~he airfield is ()o. \ hat hearing should be p~'cf"edon a a Mercator chart from the airfield?
a,.
b.

c.

0600(T) 063°(T) 066e'(T ,
I069°(T)
~Bi" of 31S00(T).

d.

An aWt~,c-araft receives a IQT: from airfield

B, is in the Southem , emisphere, The' convergency between the awm-craJi and the airfield ~i,~.2 What bearing should be plotted on a M'er-(,a'r'or chart, from ttl" airfield?
el.

Airfield

8.

b.
c,

3 ~4·D 3ID.5° ~~,,6P
.~. ""rI

d~

"

~, IJ 7
Q

J.

An aircraft fllyilThg ill the' orthern Hemisphere has an RJvll.reading of050 to VOR beacon '~'C~~ Variation ,~ttthe ,9ircraft is 50 -. Vari ti 09, a~the V O,R beaeon is 8 0' ~ I f l1b~ ver gency between com the aircraft meri diCJJ'D and the' VOR meridian is 4°,~, what bearing should be plotted Orm aJ M creator c hart from ~e beacon to the ru~ raft?
of

a.

234~
.2:36,0

b.
c~

d.

2330 238
0

.
'

An aircraft flying in, 'the' SO'tlIth~'m Hemir phere has an JtJVU reading of ~.30° to VIO'R beacon '~'D . ariatioa 'at the a"L"traft is ,Saw., Variation at the VOR beacon :~s2eW. If [he convergency between the aircraft meridian IDle 'VOR meridian is 2,~ what bearing should be plotted on a, 'M,ereaJt:OJ' chart from the b eacon to th~ ~ircmft?
I,

'!

a.

,j!

...,'l O~
I.

b.
C'.,

307~

308(l

d.

3'090

,20

=

11

GENERA.l NAV~GA'T~ON
5., An aireraft and -0 NDB, an in the Northern lemispher _'~ The aircraft' s heading is 2J6°M'~ Variat men is 13 tiI"l at the a,ircraf and! I j oW a L the) '0,8. The rebl't i,re tile;a,ri IIg] fRB:I), of thf: "':'D'B is 226,0 (R). Convergency between 't'~e aircrafls meridian and 'the meridian of the 'NUB, is, 40". What bearing should be plotted from ~'h~ND'B, on a, Mercator chart?
3.

211 C(T)
169°tT)

b. c.'
d.

27.Jerr)

2~5°'(T)

ll.

269°('T)

b. c.

267°,(T)
27l
~I

T)

d.

265°,(T)

On a Mercator Ch.eU1, pesitions E and F are on a parallel of latitude of 30o~ The: longitude of E is 008Q'\V; The great circle bearing of" from is 26,5°(T),.

a. b.
C,._~

In w:hich hemisphere are the' e two position ":1 WhfaJ't is the appmximate longitude [of ? which longitude would the great circle and, rhumb ~Imnetracks between E and f n8J,V'c'
the same value?

,8.

The: greaJt circle 'bearing, of a radio facility ar ~TS facility an a Mercator ch,~r:m?Ir Assume
B.

Q

,"

from an aircraft

at

175°E is 068°(1). Given

~ha-[he convergency between the meridians is 6~"wb t bearing should be plotted &011.1 the radio
'_<. orthern

Hemisphere),

24

c

b.
c.

ct

,_4-,50 2540 ')51c .,.,-

I.

248c

b.
c,

2r4l5°T 254 '1"
0

d.

2Sl'°T

20 ~ 12

2,.5 1,.1
(e)

Simi lar to M rcator Plotting - Exampl

]

Cd)

Q

S 1 'ID1 ils r

~O

xrunp 1 3 eut Southern Hemi sph ere

(
,

",',uthern
0[0 -

b

[8

d)

20, 1'3

@

Ox ord A'IIia~ 'omServices Limited

NAVIGATIO(

t.

1;1.

iI"""',·.,1__
ILU

C

:-

. r ud rd parallels ar

OJ.

31~

Q.

,a' d 3 a

..

Chart con. rgen y is D.Lon.- x 0.6.
·a111,e., great

the cale 8t 43 c'. the
~ I

r or less tho n the

ale at:

]U

i'n

45°:'

370 :. .' 1 ~-

a,:. -

-.

traigh~ line track on th j,. chart from The direction of this track i" 12 O(T) _1.
-C,,:

1,00': 12 0 E) La .: whic ( nd ._ : ~ T, at BI. 8

~ ....c· w

pae·

I B' llULLlIJUUg, '. I
,p,iI!,._:

.. 1

.

. . n,

at at B ,.

3.

A,.' amberts Coaforma chart e -I1!_nd',rem 42°'>, 'b' 64C!:·:·. hart c 'over,' _]]ley i· ·.L .n,- - O. '. f (C· n verge n, y aemr) A ...r ight Hn tra,c_ u tbi. c t K ' 4, 0'. ] 80 trac . [~uK is ~ \.~0 )1 and t

an from

to
:i

r

[at ~

0J;},

~rHud. 15....

0

passes through

LeOTh _ direction

0

tm.-

9' Q(TJ.

b

'hal'

the approxim te ilIl,!ue0 th rhumb fne track

.om·. to M.

22 -10

@

Oxford Avtatio.n SeN Ge s Um ited

4.

,A Lamberts ' nical conformal chart I as tandard paralleh at ltthc COD ,itt' rr 0 tll '_ _.'. OD.
I
1 '

I[),]"

and

IN. What i '

b,
,

c)

. 5,'

d
'C

.701

~)

~" C

In tnt
r' -c

b,

d)

is c ,,', .'ant alon . meridian of Iongim -",~ ,,r, til' a' ,_ W" ti, : 1; tirude and Ion itu i'. ICO' tmr L ng a" r_ ll _I of 'at itude
,a onform ] c' ,
I '

!"

on t n11 f the cone?

al
b
d) ,", ,a,II,
I',

"60.
I

..20
.446 • '9
1 ~

'D

b'
c)

d

I

con - nt al 'ng _:_ '' latitude ~ in C: n tant long a 1'· " cf loagituc COD fa t ev .' b, rr '1, t th sar llel 10' ~ origin
_'

,n

.amhe " chart, the co 'cant, f the c' n is .7' 585. ' . _~,t 1" 'Ie paraUle~of

ta gency?

)
b

S'1°0~~ ' 6~1
f}:,

""lol,5~

,1e ',,'

22 ~ , 11

@ O)(f~'lidAv,iation Services Limited

NA IG~' 110 1

f

LA

BEIR r IS CO,NfDRMA

C'HAlRT ..

9.

On a Lamb rf· ch rt the on tant f'the t ne is Ai a~,- '0 ,I~. ou J n to' Oy to B,. TIle initial Lambert': cb rt straight-lme track " ql}'(Tl and. the 'R1U 11b Line tracl , em At, B ~s0 (1° T I, ~r~a1 is [h, longitude of 01

a
b
c)

2-,
311,~5_

d)

1.

i)
H)
UJI

4SN 3
3]
.'

(Less)

--.
')

hi

i)

3..

a

d

,IS

4.

b

6.

.'
"

d

.

22 ~. 2

o.:dord Aviatlon SeN'

s Li moo

11the auestion . J"

. e .tanda . a the' D' ,,PL . tam . i' is just th~t~' r i o l11 tho e p S 0 f the y 11 II . U hieh h ave already 'been covered . at. . xactly I in th TPL e- am" and mos o. 'th _m " om apers, II are' - ry s imilar, ~, I., it If presen a ~ an _ [L ali 'lie x
.0

. a:

I

I.

Ir'

,Pra:."···'"'IC IT:, .'1

l.

.. hat ~ th - . h .~. 1di tane i . metre be kl Dubai 2~N o~7 ...Ir.
I ~l ..

e

U'

an r nci co ( ,.

Ii

~~

3, . and

70... 0
b) 807., 3001
1. ]

.' d

':':0
• I -

2.

_I: "

f'3

1OOW. Tb:_. outhern . enex 'i~J?
(I M81k)

.

.
a)

p

~". 'I') •

6

1

I.'

feet

b) )

d
,

1 '-5':' m tre 1863 feet 1·0 2 fe L

.

How much is 'tllil
.) ~eSL by gIi

olar diameter of th ' Ean

di fferent fro

-I

the. qua nrial diame

t _r L'

.ad!.
40 km

b)
c)

···te'

iles

.J

le by _7 . 't 'lute mil .S greater by 27 nautic al nl~~e·

5.

TIle maximum difference between ge. detic and geocentric ladrude occurs It abour? {I Mar.) I) 4SQ North and South
b) c) d) 90° 'North and South 6()f~ ,:., rth and ··.··.OUt11 o OD (Equator]

16.

Required eou rse 0450lfT W ....= t,IQOO'(TI/JO F L= 55@JSA, Vari ation 120 knots, Viha.~ .wsIl]a.guetru~ beading and O/S?

= .~ C AS = 5[)E.
(3 Marks)

I)
b)

05.20

.

1

15415 -=,

067°{M}
037t1 M) 037u(M)
L,C

c) d) 1.

IS,
113

Vib_at is

shortest distance in kilometres between Cairo (30~~7~< 030o~.OI .) and
(2 Mlrks)

Durban (.29°48~S 10 0° ] O~E)? l
.1) 3605

b
'0)1

d) "..

4'~4r6 4209 6,676

An aircraft at latitude 02@20fON track! ' .~ ,80'°i(T) for 16,85 km. 'What is its, ~a'itude at the end 0 f '!he' flight? (2 M3lTks, I) O].n .!HliIS
b)
c)

d) 9"

02°50'~S 02Q~lOIS (l~5,5iS
h[JUm'5

An aircraft is at tali ude ]0:.' and is f]yiEg South at 444 km/heur, After':3
lati 1111 de '~s,?,

the

r(2Marks)
a) ] OS

b) 0)
d)

02N
fJ.2S

o

IS

(1. a)
b)

ark)

43200 nm

rn ·00 mm
21600 nm 540 . 11m,

c) d)

.23 ...2

INA,VI GA,TIIDINI

IID.,dCOURSE'TEST

11 ~

S T ~ +3.s°Cm Pressure alt '.correeted for barometrie error) = 5000 feet, "What ~strue IIt1 (2. Marks) I.) 4.550 feet
b)

c)
d)

5550.feet 4920 feet. 53,20 feet

12.

Giv ~ml, 'Lh2JJ.t value of eni·E)'[iciLy of the Earth is 11.'291' and 'tbaJ the semi-major axis of the the Earth~ measured at the OJ( ~s of the Eqr~Ja'~ors 16,318.4 Km, what Is, the semi-major axis i of the earth measured ,~l'~he ax is of the' Poles? t

,0) b
,e)

d) l:t

6,399. 9 KIn 6!35'6.~9 Km 6,]7 '.. ,4 Km 16367J) Km
1

You plan '~O fly ,21, track (course) crr348~rr I; Driftis ~7(lport~ Variation =32°W, Deviation is 'oR,. Wb:~.· o~npm~:s heading shotald you fl'11
(2'-

arks)

a}

b)
C
I

I041~~ [j133Q
01]

6~

d)

3590

(,~Mark)
a)

b)

c)
d)

depends OD the value of'magnetic heading depends OJ1l the value of '[rule heading varies ['"',~owlyover 'lime' depends on the type of compass lnsta ned

a)
b) c)

Dip Is zero VarIi,alion is zero

Devi a'rio':n is zero
The' sogonal is] 8.L11 agonic ]ine
ru

d)

23 om:3

~IDC:OUIRSE TEST ...
I, ,

..

The ' Iue
,1 b c) d
1

(f

nagn '~i variation in a hart ch nge , iHl1ime.:, hi, i du
I,

r-

0:

crease incn a e in the magnetic ,t I_I,d caus i19 an increas redue 1. ion w n the m gm t ~·cfie~dWjc u ing a dec rease 111' vement - tile magne ic p "e w1mi h can C!U -I: eith r an inc ease cr a de, rca '_
ffir jI

vent- nt of'themagnetic

olcs, can ' llJlgan

(1,
) tu ing

ark)

long JfuI;gne~r

b)

ell
d)

keel iL1g ih rn gn tic- ~ ,s, mbh rna ~',-~ to th, Pivot point and using d arnpin I' . w res pendulous su .'_ ion of the magn etic assembly en using t~,e lowe st acceptable viscosity compass liquid

1.

-,'

h~ n:

.

Tnle' rae \' riation
_'VI~tl0D
• f

-

3 '2°(T)

1 1Q\1,

~

Drrjfl

Wh
a]

'I

i

H'COR

ling

u

I'

YJ

078(]1(IC) ].' 611(C)

b)
c)
d)

,5 }l(, ~)

t 9.

ltitude i 27.000 fe t OA T ~ -35t1, Mach ',- r = (t45 ..W O Track - 200n( T). V,lha ~sdrift and ground. peed?

Pre

:UI~ ~ A

r

,r

= 2 70/5

~I

) b)

18 J2.2".,Jl:·' I"R I .1 o
1' •

,.. d)
" VI'

17L / 218 kn 0ts j 7R I 287 knots
I

phi to Ltl k off frl ,fill ." hami: "~'~ ushayt, ,'audi 'n b~ ~ ,lc- ~tion urn _ient l 'mCf,aitllre' i.. '.5 'C. _II 1 i' our' 'L;' ity ,'Jlitud ".
(1)
b)1
C"

6"1

a

t, The

d

3500 I 6500 ft 95 fl ~2~~OO .n

23,- 4,

@

Oxford AViation ServJces Um]ed

2. L,

!

U

r flvi ng at 4, '

'"A

n 'ica'ted

I[

mp, rature ~-,

~ \\!hat i' Y u:r" 0 - . ('I Mark

I

B)
b)
c)

d) 2' "

-33° C _1-0,"
I

VOl! are 'fl, ins at FL ~30 ,a~rvl;~ No :h i your T~:?
a)

1.,9

• ,,'m!.t. rn L mper 'lure i' ~'S"

151.-,
(1

ht
':ar1k)

6 0 knot,
,~"~ knots

c) d
.23.

540 knots
,O~ knot
,t

wind velocity i' 1 I0/30,. - J,3r1a: ion i

'J
bl

d'

15_JS Ok 2 6 is 3 ts
1

,

L

"~,I

~

i

',- hat i ih

, S?

a h)
IC)

l~ kt
-

d
,25,
,jven:

l~,~ ') 10 lQ_ kt kt m
1

T" gr un P '"d.

00 k1., Track

1~0°

'" ", ('

0 ~5/'

~I

caleul ne headii ' (I

and

0-7H
b)
c)

-

lL

d
." .-

09 ' t ,]0 ]' I(]
if)

=

- 200 kt .201 kt -9
'~

.

" -iv -n:, Tr B)
)
'I'
J

,H' ....I:·~ T
135

o ,,1<;

rue

rack 15

1

..

G/' ~lOL

C' ~C,I

at

dcl

\f'

,.

(2 Mar': 1

c)

1,0/35 t ] 5/.~'-

23 - '

, w '"'2'
a
b c)
d) 2
'I. .',

,5/25 calc alate th drift and,

,0

I.

'_I

tis 'e d. Marks)
l,

IlR
lOR
9R I.~R

_,

-

1'0 ,t
14,1 kt

140 kt 142. kt
1 __ .'

airera r is aintaining a -~'~%, "d' ell on rune ay ,ap_ roxi ate y? a b)
I)

at tern in, ", heigl t at , nm rro

the

d)
.9. GI':'

,640 feet !890 : eet 2210 'eel " 8'0 ' eet

= 2,
-',

, -kn ts Di tance to go -:-'~OO n"
I

_I.

a) ~

minn te '.
miilii l W,Il'II.lII

b)1

_

.

1T'iii'ii 1"I, ..

..

A "",.

'I

,_h.·
'b 12 30"
COUIse
l_

~

IOQ(T)., l' " ',20

- _',ind speed = '0 ,015.

ro'

I.

hich direction will ~_,_
(I. - ,atrk.)

.. ind

': to , great -,st drift?

I

..

r

y
J,llDm

z
20n
'

II
m ;il~, ~,""t.J \

'I

"~'

'Y'~

Wbs': is new ETA Z?'
1.MMk,1

, ,I,

50 '
1

b) e]
d}

~5r
t510

51'

23'
_""-

- 6':'
.. ~

3,2.

' ea.drum,g is 156C](T),~T. - S is 32,0 kno s, 'WN' 130/45. What is your a)

true track?

(2 Marks)

1.60
152

'rb)
c) d 3],

104-

222
_.
1

You are :ftyin,g at a True Mach '-,.0 of .. 2 in 3, SA,T of --4,5° .,At mooo 'hour' you. are moo 7 nm rrom dle CPT DIME: and your ET . ,a'~ CPT is 10m2. ATC ask you '~Oslow down te 'be' a CPT i~1' '! 1016,. WhaJ:t shou ld your D,ew TMN be if yau reduce speed ~n 1O~)i m to go? n

(3 Marks)
I.)
'b) c)
d) 34. .67 .63

.34,
.51

Track ~ 1~),90~(T}T·

460 knots, W ,,' ~ J.60Q(T) j n 00, Variation = ] OQE, Dev iation = ",2. ·Wh.a:t:'m s compass heading and gr-(rtlnd peB'd?
e-

.s:=

D,l
b)

01'9,0
0690

...
=,

470 kt
450,kt

c)

d.)

06,80 01i(~lo

460kt
5Skt

35..

You leave ,A'to fly to BI,4I75 nma,w,ay'- at

~I

00 hours. Yom ,ETA at B is ~130. At mo 0 ..

you are ~90'nm from A~ Wha groundspeed is required to arrive on tune at ,BI? (2 Marks) 8) 317 knots

lb)
c)

330 knots

d) 36
1 m

342 knots 360 knot

The wind ve,~,oeityiB 359/25. An ,8ircraft is ,beading ,~8010(T}B:~ _,A,S0:( 198 knots, (All a d'Wr-ections,are Tru e), "Tbat: IDS i,'ts'track ood groundspeed,?
(2 MaJ'ks)

I.)
b) c) d)

. 800 ~,lCJrJ ~
:~ 0 80 ill7'9~

223 kt '~' 220 km
,_.

2201k~,

._. 223 1U

]7"

An aircraft is climbing T A,S and 'Ma.ch, o?
a,)

at

a constant

' S in ~SA conditions.

'\Vhl~\vm~lbe the effect

0]]

b)
Ie )1 dll

,AS increases and l\j~'lch No decreases B'ijl~b ne tease
ru

Both decrease
TAS decn ases and Mach
NIDI

increases

a,
b)
c}

]' 361 knots
316, knots

146 knot ,',
54, knots
Wba~ 'is (1 Mark)

d)1

39.

Airfield elevation is 10010 feet. The QNHI is I 88., Use 27 feet per hectopascal.
pressure ,~d [1tude?
a) 'b) 67Sfee~ 325 feet 1673 feel 825 -f~e:~

c)
d)

40,

You are' flying from A 'LO B planned track 245u( ,,[, distance 225 nm, 'lour groundspeed is L Or knots, After is minutes n.Ying~you fix your position i;1JS :3 run lefl of planned
track. Which
a)
0 "" the

following statements

i,

correct?

",IOU~'drift

'~is1"
'[0

b)
C,

Your dd Ii is ,4-,
YIOU should

d JI

YOLl,

tum 5 right should turn 8 'fight

go direct to B

UJ

1'10 direct

tOI

B

Radial

]0° +/=, 1°'1distanee = ,200 mlITI \\lJh~:L is the ~PJ~lrox imatc ~ml~x· mum error?'
(], lark) +/-, 2 nm

=

a) b) c)

-+/.. 3.S

rim

d

I

+/- 7 nm +/= 1 run

42~

Yf'R rout and have b cotne un _rw~n, f y. ur . , j i In.. Which is th b '. ~.? u ,t caurs '01 a no .
,3

'au are fl_ ing

c

I)

[b)

c) d)
3.

line feature - , oasiline, river or motorway tum wound nd fl ' ' our fli Jhl pian tracks in revers e until you S~' sornet lin r YOt recognised. bef n~ fly a erie" of ever-ex anding ir le from yo' pn~, n~.pr "Li n l~l']you nd yo 11. _J ch c:k pin' urn fOU ' an, -.fty . our ,flw,~h'pial] in m'C:V, rse b ck to b se
_~ hea ine towards

By waat amount 1~111[['. t '.OUl chang head "~'nd on _ ].lJ gli eslope?
,a~

,our rare

_ Ie· ern riven a ] U kn t

j

crea: e in

~]'. ark
b) 0 . eet per inu te increase . 0 . __~per minun in. r ·M_
5(} feet 'er mini

c)
d

e, l per minute
Il .

t

deere ..~',,", d 'c ea

D·' . E r nge j.. 2.: rnlm rom the tlnre·hold. I t i' your J eight ab ve the run, ay lnres'bold cle arion? se [11 rn in,c· rule and 60 f" 'l = ~ nautic I .iII . '.
eLY',our

You r. on _

3~d gree

lidesk pe w~ ich passe o· er the unway threshold

al

5

(]. "'~I'fiL

[ rk)

'.) ,)

dJ
4 -.
1

745 • feet ,6' 50 cell 7 j ~'O feet
I.

Am ... qui .p. dl ain 'j\ ._ . flies [T01TI, 56'· ~O\" f\ aypoint );0 e "JaypoiEll 4). h.' iuili _] IN .... sired tra .k En Yl-~vpoint is: d
0 6°(T 02° T) 7- LJ(T) _7··~1(T)
I

'6, 0, ,0 ' (1 " arks)

) b) c) dJI

46,.n

tu ',,0 d .w· e t~1J l posi ti 0 n? u
a)

air' r

.L

st rl a~ po ,if on

I 4]'"

72 _'A' nd track lru. orth for _,. - nft101' hen . a rhum ine t k for ,),': kilo netres, la~,- , the
]

550 . '"

l~

7422,>

b)
d) ~50
I'.'

~7422.
'17 3 .

23 - 9

© Oxford Aviation S<eMOOS Limiled

47..

Ol_n ,El chart 49 rlml,Wtruci1J1miles ls represented b(y ".0 centimetres,
a)
b)
IC'

M]~.t is the seale? (1 Muk.

m

I 700J)(JO II ~296"00
11,,156,600

~ 12,015,],9,6,
ill m

d) ~8i

On aJ, pani:cu~aJ' Direct Mercator wall ·bart the Ji,80W to 180E parallel ofIatitude ,~l53N is, 1]:) em long. Wbat is the scale of _~echan III JI~)S?'

,all
b)
c)1

I. I 3,00,1000 1 I ~8,~O 000 00. I 2.1 ,10Oo.~OOO
I I 26000 000

dll
49.

Milch of the following differences ill bltilDd~: w~~~ giv,e the biggest difference in the initial IGrefJt.Circle track and the mean Great Circle track between 2 points, separated 'by ~orO change 0 f longitude?
~ Ii 16.1),'=",'

an d 60S

b) c)
d)

0, and. S.s-~ 30S and 3 ON' .lOS and 25:S
3'~ 43

:;o~

IO~~ chart meri d ians I,

shown every ,~, degrees apart, Th isis shown on the iQl chart by a di stance of ]'" em, What f the seal e?
".,are

(2, Mo'rks)
a) ~ 12~OO. 000

b)
c) d)

1 I 4~OOOJnJ(]1 ] I S~OOO,OOO
] I ),,00'0000

~. '\'_,ark)
a)
b)
, ')1

'is produced direc~lytrl[)m,3 ligbm projection of a Reduced arth cannot' be used for navigation is produced by mathemati c ally adju sting a,~igh~proj ection ofth e Reduced Eanh
is U50d for
[I

d]

Polar Stereographie

projection

11 Mark)

,)
b)

small C' rele C','I1.1caeto the ne rer pole curve' eon ,N to '(}m,e nean r pole
I

,)
d

'. 1J11fe straight ~'w11e

complex

53.
.m Marl: ;R' ,

cy ]indric~d

b) c) d

conical plam I ~n.111tb·1 ·omple·

1 Mark)
e
~.o

mas a'" Ulc seca11~~(~ co-l tru'tu. e)

b
c)
d)

e rpands Iirectly with '[be secant of tb 'latimd _' co _on the' tandar .~pa ]J els ~expands uts id them, contracts within them I_'x'pan. ,',a the ,__ of'th ~ E . gr ali circle distance .ant

2.' -11

@

OxfOrd Aviation ServIces Urn teo

_

.; U'_
-

lt~o'n

n

II

,-,

r_

r

....

_
I

ou

.

0

-

c
dJ
-

_.

1
I

'I

_

'I 1

,

-

,5
I

I

1

e
d
Q

,-

9 I
I
_

II:
__j

,

I

it!

-

tJ
b
b
,
=

l2
1

"",I

1"1
I

~

1~
-,

a
-

t_
[

I

b
I

_

I'
m

f.

'.
l
I

e
-

_

[

a
-

_

,

_.
I

C
,

_

1
I

_

I,

4
,~

b b d

I
I

L
:I

]

,_- ,._ 2:'3

,_

,,'~2'1 I~

Ques f-I.OID
27
],

·m

l\r

r

-

3lFk!

-

~ our .•• o:r·li!·

b e c dI

2;

:2
I
~

29
,0 3·1 3.2 [3.
I
I

e
D

I 2

d
-

1
J

34,
,

b

],5

-

e
,8
,

1

3'6

:2
1 1 I :1 1

31'
38
'9

I

10 a e
c b
:H

4111
I

4 :1

41
4..3
,4·4 45

1 1
I :2
],
~

r d

e
d

1

-6.

47
48:
4,
.

e
Id

Z
:I.

.

b
d
I

50 "1
,

1

:!j_

.....

,

e

1
.~.

d

1

,23 ~ 13

a
jlll!4 .. , ,
.

h

%

I"-you have seo d 1 .,than 150/(11., you need to do

·0 - ..

more revh ion.

23 ~

. Oldon:! Avia~on Se·rvlces Umi'ted

THI: 1 ,~6 " '.... ............ '.',p', I . What l :::ereographic chart?

I

'OLAR S, ERE', lORA HII' ," I

me

ini ial straight-line

from A, 1,75'

60W) to B (' 5-' .. cO ) on Polar

b)

diagrar fa to r of B Pola ,terelJgrapruc ·hart is ] 'I ie, he
IOIIl]

of the ituation,

meridians \1\1111 l ar . ldegrec J 3.: ar i 1 longi rude v j U ha
an an ' J' 0 in Iinatien to e, ~] other of ru degree, A the longitude f A 'i 6 _~ ,

and th
'i n )

'1 mgitud

ot B i·

, t, meridian: , .and B art

moo to

NIP
1'20°
A
75J

a ,-.~ other' 1 'I, p.

md We 3.1" 0 know that bot at lanmde '5' , • Tlu ef r' the c ~.~ tud ~(1 'li e-ach,-a e is 15 ~ ie, th d istance fm-01TI, the po le '~O Ai:, the same _s ~h"' di t n-, ' fr 111
, ", ,'.

'15N
6,0

B

SOW

the p J to ',~
S'

", hal, e an

ele '. trian 1 .

Til il1tema~ angk : of a ' i~D~J mus 60 'them to b ~ , .'Ii' equally rt if
I

iJ.

~

~.2' of them aweat the P
':(J

x

that le v '
I.TIf'

n isosceb

tri_ n L ..remembe ).

angle ' ' nd 8

b dfl 3
" O\~

ll.

the dir 'ct' 011 rom A '(or any other p Oi]11 on the .,a rth 's lr. :fi .c'e or tm~t m' . ~ to .he' ,... .rt _ IP1oJ·is due nor , 0009(T). heref re th air _tion mom A to B i:, 300 'I, Th an··, er is ·1.
I

.lthough the question didn t 'ask it. we can al Q work out ~l;C straight lim track ~fi:Gl~e from ~to , ~ In thi case, th . direction ProHl B toth ' " orth PoL .'~.al IQi O. '(T als 0 known _~. ·Ou{T) and 3 the lirection from B [0 A i.. e ~et 30 J OQ~ ~ , it mus~ b ,1JOO(n. T,
'0 ~

241
.,'

~

a',
' ..

© O~rd

AVf9tion Serv.~c9slimned

Ifthe track angle from B to -, ls 3.309 T) art B~ g'oing baek [0 A.. lb. n it must be the reciprocal. l.~O{JI(Tt going from A [0 B as it passes over B". III other words, the straight-line track A to 8 starts w i tlFl B trac k. 3.falg 1eo.' o.J OO{n, and f nishes on a trac k ang le of ] 5Or~(T). '\\l e have' shown from the geometry 'of tth~ triangle that tho trac k angle ij nercases by 1.2Qll.. We shou lidexpe ell bis the chartconvergence from A III B is ]10~"due 'tothe longitude change of] ZOn and the 'n' ·rEu;l.or
1

r

of 1.
There is anothet \VI,)' of solving this problem ~ by use o "'~heRl1un1b, ine, If latitude A 'is 75: . and latitude B is. 75'·' then ahe Rhumb Line track between them is the parallel oflatitude IQf7.5 . and rherefore 'must have a Rhumb .inc ~Bc'k of 090'lr(T).
The c h art con vergenc e between 60'W and 60E is '].200 Therefore bal f c ban convergence 'i s ,60u This] s
0, 0

NP'

12010
8

~he difference between the numb me and the ,stT~~ght
line. Therefore ,600 anti'~FU]nthe

'1,5N

ISO!E

clockwise

Rhumb

Line track of 09Uo( T) gives us an initial straight- Iine track of I[jI]OIU(T}.

GM

The S31ne' method WQU~d.work for finding the track from B to A. rne38ured at B,. At B~ the RhuI11b Line track tO A ~s'270'j(T). Six.~y degrees clockwise from :2 70@(T) is 330o{T),.
01

I

Exa mpl.c

what longitude does the straightl::,
'line track JOIn " '. (10'\ 4-0W)
[0

At

B, (70N SOlE) on a Polar Ste reographic chan reach ifs highe '.~]atitude?

NIP
1210~
B
10N SOlE

I)
b)
e)

040W
O]IOW

020' ·,i

d)

04·(JE
A. ,A

10N 4DW

GM
F jig 24. B IPo la r S'bere.a, ,si111J ion at

24 - 9'

occurs at th '.hortest co-b. itu c di tance il_' the hortes dis In ' fr. m ih Pol. 'TIl. shortest dis iance to the' Pole mn t be
~t;"
I

11 hi 'Ill ~ e

rude.

\-. h-n t .' line bet . ell th . PoL.~ ~J1dthe' tf1 1£-'. is . t risht n~.:_ 0 _I· ' I.e ,as ',m
Fig 24,., 'E This [lust OlE,.
OCCl1J

t mid.-m.

ridi n ie,

,~L

lB,

TON

80E
A 10'

40W

GM

Fig ,24,,9 IRJghlt'angle's to frac '._'
1

Polar Sn 're,~)i,aphic map. a lin- i· dr ' n ' : 0' -t A' 1 ~o po 'lorn .'.(".1 I,: 0 6E).. The point OIf. ighest latitude along lhjl lineo 'elm! at (t 5W~ . hat is the initia 1 traight-Iine tra ' . ang II. 'ft"'Om _~ t D, me sur .d ,a' A?
_ ..'!!,_~
I~ I I

pIe -.: On

1,-. -

I

a bl
c) d)

o '9~(T)
. 77u(T)
.9fl(T)
I

~3°' T

A

in~.'l rt by drawing a, diagram:

A
_hi- is clearly
b eeaust 1: ,..i udes, i '.celei tt angl .,

new s rt f ~'ro·b~.en, and Bl are B~ d iff rent
J~

10N
1

11 02W

..... P
'.

There

p.
Of

' . to b'

DO

triangle

rilhl~ -angl ed

B
SCiNI

DOB,E

Fig 2,~ 10

24 -10

However, w~ have no t 'Used ~d1 'the' infcrrnation 'in 'the question yet. The point OI:f h ~g;he ],mtilude st must have ome s ·go H1k~ll1G~ other ~_wse presumabl y the
lex am
in: HlL e F'

.

7 0N '1,OI2W
1

a

wouldn'

t

have

" m~n_fowt~d it so ~et; draw tllflt
.

we ha', e a right-angled triangle between, A~ "':,IO,11(
','OW

me

,035~'~'

- - -w-

Pole and me po in t, 0 ' highest latitude, Angle b Is HI, dl terence between 035\V and 102\V so it 'i s
67 . Angle cis 9'0°. The internal aug es 0'" ~ triangle must add up

IH,ON

ClOSE,

to 1. O(J. So angle a,must be 2Jo.
AI1J;Wer

"d .

24 - '1111

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful