Rachel Greene




& Hudson

world of art

RACHEl GREENE .. e<e<unve DI",<"" 01 Rh'tome,org, ~n onllno ,.-e.sourc_c .and pl:.dorn'l for J\~ medea iiIIrt EdUI£:3tvd~! thil! um"'el'SrLie., of Pel1n,),l""n'" .nd Sun"", she ..• formo, <I'U",1 "udl", fellow ,n the WIOIrnQy MUI~um'l Indep~nd.n, S'''~1 Prcgfilm Grot"" 11>.1een b In~olved w,ih p'Omo,lngnew m"dl'~'tt "nto 19<;17 ond" ~ fr0Guen, l:on~dbuLQr 10 ;)rtm:i\,galJna iJrld Qt.1'ogue~ Cl.lrrll!!olJ~ Ihe 11:l tlJr.u(l~ •.a1 fellow It ,he NQ-wl"u,eum ell Con~.tnpofil"Y Ar, In New Yorlc





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THAMES & HUDSON 'NC ] 00 Fifth A,enu. New York, Now York 10110 P,.lnled ,n Singapore



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Rachel Greene


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Internet Art
232 illustrations. 174 In color

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Hudson world of art

oh C ~tgn and ~o&el'Ii!!nnut Borm..menwry Mode. Parody. EveRtS and Venues 218: Mailing Lists 218 Select Bibliography 218 Illustration Index 222 List 220 . C h ""g. 'Art (ar Networks' 206 Timeline 214 Glossal'Y --¥tl'1 IJ<1 t . Turn o(l11e Millenmum. Forms Q(Sharmg. ASCII.1ppl~¥.mo31 89. I. Select ExhJbiti(!)ns 217. Hypercext and Textual Aes!/Jetics 10'1.lIloJ Projects and Resources 216.Contents Preface 7 Introduction 8 The Internel's History and Pre-History 1 The Arc-His!oricol Conte. I Shu l . Festivals..s ~5..l(! (or imerne! Art 19 Chapter I Early Internet PartiCipation Art JI 34: Russian Internet Art Scene 31>. Remodelling Bodies 108. Generolive and SofT-wa"" Art IS2. Appropnatlon and Remixing °2: Mopping Authorship 103. Gomes 1+1. New Forms of Distribution 110: Sexual Personae III Chapter 3 Themes in Internet Art 119 In{owar andTactJcal Media in Practic. War and the Do!com Crosi: 128. Data VisualizarJon and Dambases 132.s 78: Browsers.18B.e 119.Surveillance and Borders 173. Wifeless 180: E-<:ammerce IB4.ow-fi Aesthetics 200.7 III PI/blic SPaces Chapter 2 Isolating the Elements Emml-based Communilie~ 73 73. Netot! 52: Cyberfem'nism 62. . NewVacabularies JCJ: Travel and DO(l. Video and Filmic Discourses 19 t. Telepresence 1. Exillb/tlon Formats and Col/ectlVe PrQ}ecr. OPen Works 164: Tile Crash af 1000 16B Chapter 4 Al't fol' Networks 173 VOyeurism.. AU[amatlon and Error 84.. Carporole Aesmelics 65.

1thtml I had to leave eue many of the extraordinary reason. '~04' .gurgr"'''ng mom In 'Un •• n q an appendix of projects. Its hlnory and the themes [0 "='~.}Od! . COmpetitions in cyber-orgamzarlon that feawred This book Is more like the portals of the web'~ arranged by tOPI~ _ for example.7~Mw" l~ _. offering paths for readers Wishing to e plore the field of mrerner art.elds and hiscories art and media .html ~ and topics associated with it.nd ·Un sanr' ...Preface Contempor'ary and promotions. Its: "am~ (..11 commu"ieu~OIl :it5.JI~ exe rctsc by u<lng em... Ihrec :Ii sector of nee development. and an imerest creating thrs an and other r.explain how co interpret ccnre mailing lists or software in an art-hisroncal c. my own connections ~.org.[Urnl fntenCtjviry inro a fu. and hence it has been necessary and engage With particular web sites. and they served as conduns. As an early experrenced user.hIm1 !!~ ~!!I !!J~ Rhizome.lts foctJ1. <lell b~r't~lr rea rn "gins0 r cen!orlng ~I' or h~r Input Iby re:mo'l'jng vOw~I!f'~ 'Unread'.< html 1ilI_><lntml t> t> Ii'l_Mrnl . draw their Own concfusrons.11-""'" ~ .1.. experience in the III a command of programming a closer proximity between of can temporary It Is an IntrodoctlOn 1 Jodi. _ _ wi '~~plr'.n" "'on ". and contemporary works I wanted to . co Internet art. """ . The proleCt Is ~pU[ j'lto -'Unr~'d'. work. htlp'If~Of. languages.-gm the web browser C(rgr or.!!I7~ HI.initial e~perlments links and Conte tuallnformation..a long·time affiliatron with the online art comrnurury Ilo <. and [0 flo .~ ~ to the field .• 'R. first years. users Who recognized independent travel Or brrds They were Compiled by experienced that the internet might need some co make those early signposts. and fiiJ t> t> ~ . In6t. fer e•• mpl. from email search engines to shoPPing. For trus offer additional resources..whroh "'''''.each af wh f-ch ftustra[@-s eh1<1 u 5 er b).1 bllllnl Ii) .--s lil . web pOrtals offer a broad array of re~OUrces and to services. This ofren required significant detail and delineatIon. h35 . rn Interner Jat"-Bon• iii. education. further. 1997 Jodtor(..- ~iI:[jOilS cover [hac have rnspired my own interest in net art. In this diverse and relevant field.. .org commercial and familia rit)' With the first yean of memec an.. and become . guiding others My intenClon Is that thiS book function like One 0 voyages mto the vast and protean onlrne universe por-tais. archives and portals partlcipnnts been added to encourage readers cc e~pIOI'e.all inform the writing.

production from the history p3r'tic.ik. to name IUS( 2).for example.manifesting in the world but rarely in museum where the past two centuries Sy virtue of its constantly diminishing and replenishi!)g medium and tools (e. IN am June P. public space. pJc(.Introduction deployed With agency. its dematerialized reach. apprOprIation. funcdon increasingly teChnology and decentralization. Nam June Paik's (b. speed of the arrwork an office comput Beyond the activi its its glo! art difficult and capability _ ana aesthetiC explore the field in two ways: firstly. lradlrionally platform.ud ccmmerdal how media spheres as ilp~ralUS become a more opefl of military and unwieldy and it follows the changing roles of from anonymous. 1963 (1988 VO""<>n). public and private. is a c:haotic. that decorated century cultures. Impacted It will on and. onro software is the market. upgraded. Inrernel lUSt thar the tools and Issues brought to the fore by fnternet art are current. therefore.r0duction a can take the (arm af a laptop. (on!lu"'cr~Qrgei:ed dC:'r'lce CMltcrng sigrul.g. . and shaped it into an mter~crlve canvas prefigured . relative youth. cornmerctal. It is Inextricable commerciallOnOVation. Moreover. a cellular phone.o<1fc/p<lffoo TV. the computer.1 common 111 intemer.!i~m. broadcast. custornrzable instruments Which have developed and respooslVe ~)'~temrc r ilrt ::'iond' comlllunrCatlon.paCory:spue Not 0" l'y does dE. portable. In turn. d erna [a r '·3 IlZa[j on. whiCh took the televiSion. software and applications become obsolete. networks artl~ts an. internet historical is dear: as this: nature.Su. software. web pages are abandoned new plug-ins ilr"€ brought internet and removed. animation. and deml:lnstrares pUblic space. fundamental for experiencing Internet art. can be both.d movements Both everyday and exotic. rhere is more ~han an evolutionary argument for rhl! Slgn.r~ and Ideas in _he work of earlier . a .Jk tra1uforms the oml1fpr~ent teJevislon -:. P.s. to find the internet of contemporary autonomous and form a broadcast an d Inform arion. I[ impo r til n t to explore parallel$ between net . whlC:h treats browsers as fodder so many art forms related photOgraphy.each with its own screen. radio and email. diverse and crowded to it: web sites. iirt-m:!lJcin. art is intertwined with issues of accesS co and consumptian. Stili.lficancl!of net relevant to how we live within an. It IS not now. machines to reasoning. the experience Internet's summarize software. 1932) Paru'IPorJon TV (1963) [3J.d""" 10 f produCdon wltlun Cine! Ul~rf.iCi! 1. Paik's appara[Us for receptiOn and production browser art (see Chapter for experimentation.lriJrr. and therefore an: ISP""t of a continuum an I~ hiuory chat InclUdes . a channel a nd a means of p.. P. Its location. ThiS book will show how the shifts in mformanon technologies that began during the /9905 have affecced. cyberspace like the gre~[ works of arr public areas and buildings in pre-ninereeruhart resides in a largely openzcne= itself on computer have suggested desktops anywher halls and white cube galleries we look for art. complJters. by offermg snapshots changes accordingly.or ••d platform SWi«hlngrom bro. blll Ihe screen emIC-rgeJ as.tI~O:r are launched). coordlnatlol1 and selecnon. issues make Internet survey such and ephemeral singular ability to host many different in other novel and complicating a critical and however. web sites ul1Jdirectiona:1 an mt1!ra(.into the iii .iii.ch ~traregies and themes as mstruction. been Influen~ed by artistic practjces a few.g. It is hardly surprising.

I C"r\ll:il..d. In Chapten 3 and 4 these threads expand rc Include other salient mpics: such 35 orOI. oonton" fund::tm~nt.. traditionally through Its and use StaWS GerhMd Richter (b. alternatives. doubt."er medium.1rIon (1910-71}. Their strategies Imply [hat cOmmert:I~1 mach... ""d'eo ::Ind Video a.. commercIal complement It http) .. by pre end ng a ch ro IIIcIe 0 f rh e tech no IO..1foreru.mtions inflect art and orher fields we tend to thInk of as removed from tndo"ry. software. Alloway. advanced art-making 'neLart' where post-Cold critIques inTroduced by new media anists secure a prominent place for the genre 111 the blurry and shlfrmg space between mass media and physical being that comprises contemporary fife. Often assurnptions technologies...''''rtware ..orgl to 'dorcom' era caPitalism but of an aCtiVe COunterbalance to Its e cesses and has been net artiStS who. b..d'Y eressf"@ Inc~ude POlItical COnditIons. Cologne.. functlonaficy and II . In a new and lmseulmg Alloway favoured alternative that 'all of us are looped together diversified fields of art expernsa Without exhibition venues and (to accommodate a youth whose all d secnnd Iy. starling-point of this hiStory lies in Europe.-t. of ~rJ[ic:l5mand an 'data'. ond the jourNll WD.. .iTl.and ~nlSD tnte~E£d in dO<etlmlh. of Information (b. which an and media acnvlsm that gave rise rhe [he cOl1'1plexfabric of work by arnsrs scene (with a requisite to conceptual transfer IS descnbsd In I There and throughout art is indebted simull:3neously the book.u ""."" . to do with the ascribed to art objects... burlt mto flew Or e isting computer net arnsts often generate developIng pr~ctical productS such as non.. I relate [he ways SLJ~h :>$ whlch internet of networks. atleasc currently.hort·I. often communICating With One another through art proleCts as well as on emaililsts. movement'< Ire• •or. ever alert prominence mechanisms... AllOway woutd have been Incrigued co see how methOdologies. capieals. He would also net arusts have been abie to devise alternate and communities halle appreciated the extent [Q and commerce are ubiqUitous. grasp of popular Culture could outweigh hls own generation's)... in 1972. gaming. and little.ll r-l~'" IS.. War technology of [Q which many of the strategies and Eastern Europe In particular. alongSide ""nous cmlques agaInst the and Itlrorma[)on acuJal critICS and aCtIvIStS.. clced sophisticated increased communication..-.gi.. "~Dnhntr . as well 35 an account of its art-historical precedenu to reveal wider concerns information The geographical and democracy legendary in Chapter about societies 10 which medfa.".c~".. rapid productIon rhe marketing and norlng • (and screensho[s) have created of some of the diverse methods by which arns and shaped cultural expression by using che lntarne dissemrnatlon connectivity'.. The projects in detail in this chapter of early net [0 art businesses that thrive in New York.hilS mfowar. oken uniting parOdy.e of s Internet art.w ".!rre TIli. I". goals (0 those in the 'offline' art world. Internee art has less cosmopolitan do. It 15 generally a more marginal artists are covered 10 London and other culture and oppOSitional form.· and '". .ned .profeSSional and critical networks which artistS and therr work circulate. 1967).. compared German with concurrent [Q Initiatives opened up spaces for pockets dot)..' m"dJ~' " A. \lllc..t~. softwa re and i'aCr1C31 media Sometimes politics and commerce are referred to because Internet art is no straightforward something injuStices. Chapter artiSts explored the constituent 2 desCribes how early net of the new charaCteristlcs c'IlClpliNrynd a Df. with objectli or soc~al or bypassing the autonomous and periodlzed financial prestige. he wroce 'The Arc World Described as J System' in (Q about the various SOCJal. .ri>ed '" le"'~olo"aJ <C"""ml. w:. wnten . Indeed. 193-2) and Arnencan Matchew Barney emphasis on aUdience interaction..sUe:s em now be..4 /IDd""./ So. or documencatlo'l.Y. of the mass media. B ritis h cri nc uw re nc e A IIOway se e med ro an [j c~ re the net pa when.ved pubhc.mg mWJa. have formulated Furthermore.

do not readily acknowledge such. as participants often be~ome caught up in the tricks (to which authentic." ~Icomputer screen Is too unfamiliar both conceptually and' p YSlca y.different to a reclusive pOSition Within the world and concem5 of cybcnpace Some argue that the net conditions the offline world. There With field's linguistic and practical £omplexkies. that preclude Its qualkies are mfll!aed With aSSOCiations of labour. hackers et 31has been such that many dialogues between Internet an and other tradrrlorlal art pracncss and hlseorles remain nascent. use. For many VIewerS h . an. illmed at the works' creators ten self. internet by the mO[IVlItions that have propelled Ideology: technology: and memorializing communicate. anachrOniSticnlly. The labour Issues or ecological ccnsequences In one category and art in another presumed banality_ with its labels and Navigator.the n. and eXist. I tlunk. pOp-up Windows and ~panl. n producer viewed by the For crrttcs. medi~ Culture and today's SOCJI!'C)'. museum discurSive sYStems. Now that the 'lnternet boom' Is over and Its [echnologles consume. space. email. sUJdy. online Communiries. such as museums tendenCies and undermme internet Internet the benefits the fleld to would muffle Its most vlcal anarch" of a precise study of Its of official since one cannot gloss over the mutlJal artists and instItutions art IS sometimes and ga"erles. 3rt1S( 3. what skills or 'trades they as ernblernanr of how we live now. actively reclaiming public spacs and circumnavigating boundaries that seem entrenched Jnternet distribution and in the same world ofgallerres and museums.oes not help eltner. an open pl~ylng field ~nd and class bIases. play and arnsuc practices. worse stlil. . doubtless their functionality rnean chat users and passers-by underwrinen experiment. establishment curators represents culwre. e"t an en COmmerCial. sculprures overlook ~5 art has redefined of the materials of CUIrent art-making.S ~mes IS taken as derivative. Moreover. and the technical steps necessary t not reconcile With 'art' . n Order to View the art d art a . modify and soft'wilreJ prOJects offer rich rnaterra I for those In[~res[ed In them iZing about an. the tiel 'to are nor 'real' artists. of video art) to place new uses of associated m~S5 characrenza tions of the incernet a. Mac:romedia Flash) and Ics COmmercial tools (Net:scape sense of insularity among Ilecheads. booc up and log in.. .'ever rise above those limIts il<:h. programmers. or. but at Other immature art practice. ca n. . and these mstitutlons differentiate themselves from Commercial or practices tend!!nI. Ideals or ernonons. users to becOllle ". possibl!itll!s and ccntrtbures ccnremporary For those who do not support perhaps an is often thought to lack the craft and direct Impact of work in painting and sculpture programming by privileging commercial cheap.. Whde the movement focused on pr~ervmg and IUl(taposltlon of these Corpor. to Seemlngl'y. As with public or 10QlIon them ~rt is Ilea rly all of or murals. in internet a symptOm of [he changing modes of an and the evolVing should POssess. dominant art discourse smgularltles. Il seemed more avant·garde. research are entren<:hed In the way we work. requiSItes . When the Internet was new dirt re d' I . consumption. untainted by gender.ne easy mduSIO" within traditional and dialogues must also be explored. the conflicts art-historical To conf. practices 1[5 desire: the urge to the eiabora'ion arnsnr markets observation or experien. and what their critical COllcerns should be The can bl! suscalned only If the role of the is ImagInl!d in limited ways. Tbrs criuque. suspicions between the form's Inception. some attack the prevolenCl? of b''ilnd-s:uura ted tools and While Internee art's contributIons compose to Contemporary canons. work th~[ begins with or e ists Within Internet or Commercial forma ts can . there (5 k d f a In a reversed e~otitlsm in play. outside the time and reach of tile web Internet an has also been critiqued for a perceived elitism.Y (since the inception Consumer eleuroniC$ The internet's operational often want co fields. expectations objeotions It. softwa re and web Sites are easy to as 'art'. or free from a r!! mlsleading.aenvnrn under a smgle umbrella.ce. veering to bang' an should such as and IS also <l media clese to graphic design. software art do not align With existing gallery. 'whin meaningful net practices tools. whrch a Situiltes the Internet as a space of lelSUI e and contemplatIon. be subHamiated.identified"s 0 A related criticism 15 sometimes that Internet and software artists. Though cheir tools and venues differ. critique or destroy. expanding operations networked because out to tlle most remote from rhe white cube gallery computer. ethrue haven where one can dwell on the vagaries of net aesrheucs and Indeed. that have persisted phenomena.eed to turn on. Or explolung naturally be 0pposed)_ Furthermore.eve the status of arc. much of tIllS book. For some of these detractors. fresh aesthetic and Viewers who rake an interest art discourse.lCe P' oducts and free-softWare (a dIverse and International red. TIllS ('rltlque can be taken as ofwhar artists sl10uld be. 0 access It simply do experlenc:ces like brOWSing In qUiet galleries or naVigating vast museum collections Indeed.stribute promOtmg the freedom to copy.

. One of 8abbage's rnosr Significant on the engine. Backspace Nemme. Gallery (New York). has been a shift away' from al'lYurge to concentrate authorial mastering approaches is possible figures or final theories lts meanil'lg or declaring In m3p$ of CIl".UlSf>Ort~seC'tcr Zcnes Wf'Ule Its.j:. one to new media or give them 'cyber' to write a more open history that IS in dialogue with other epposltlcnal movements.the d[ffer~nce engine and the far more ambitious analytical engine . as well as a programming Department of Defense. now commonly kno"Vn as 'programs'. the milItary development mtertwined hrstories of the computer marna and hype around the internet's substantially. was Auguna Ada. are now supportive and developed art without its importance order to suPPOrt Its programming.curators.. in how the field Illuminates power.ke are 0'1.Ao-'i~ aa.hm red ""iii 'he G PS . language used by the UnIted States that of the internet centres. re longer seem as alien to the general art enthusiast. theOrtHICilj IUUc:t ar .~ng londOIl black cabs. institutions and communities -.oveml!nu. videa is told In government (ilf Lovelace and the daughter of Lord Byron" who wro te som e of the f rst In s rrucno n ro uti n es fo r me eng) n es. of the mainstream C0 art world and within rt. such as versions of RAM and memory.FCW"rl< dlscu .. and for apparat:uses that performed by following IrlStructions. 15 . The initial scepticism the traditional art world. museums.ed tn Ch 'pl. iI Brltfsh m l:iUU ccrepa ny IiIE:ridty fOr"a)1. radio and even satellites. Enn. Charles at Cambridge Babbage (1792-1871) nineteenth-century was an early VIsionary of the former. Ada would late I' be the namesake of internee art platform ada'wab. . having limited expertise I T~. mailing such as the Waag Society (Amsterdam. King (18/5-52). and Old Boys Network. and momentum novelty have all faded away sites and software Though in media theory concepts such as web orch . of change and development amplified by increasing usage of the ne. since the mld-1990s.'y. 14 COnsumer research electronks. Wherea sensibilities. the desrre for polemics. but it was and was never built during Babbage's Iffewl1e. ZKM.were fleXIble and powerful calculators controlled by punch cards. these critical issues should not obscure that incernee arc has received attemion influential quarters <It the faet from various both and support .~"cdy ''''oted. above all. (London). oil. of net arrlsrs toward5 --------- ---- -- -. Netherlands). part via the innOVlltors.that made Its inwatives and.. tools available. now It .However. my view IS that now is a more appropriate book on the subject. companies..SIlce!JJcetrilddng -and ehc IIllil!rnCt '0 who began to write about to art during a time of urgent crldcal geSUltion.--------RadloTal(is the edge:. Postmasters lists from the earliest And one could net offer a naming tIle frUitful provided (or Art moments (Linz.org. the Walker Arc Center SyndiQte by Ars and Medi.. art and daily life. fa:. a mathematiCs professor and labour would be raken tasks COlourfu' University whose work on production who deSigned prototype. such as Muu' and Intelligent AgenL As someone and pFint publieatiol1s the ropic of iOlternet to calk a bout the time for a as well as the no the has bee the 5 lIad'D Taxi5. up by John SWart Mill (1806--73) and Karl Mar:. r ~. cameras.. the LIS). The Internet's HIstory end Pre-History Like the histories of cable television. truthful history of internet encouragement Eleetronica (Karlsruhe. platforms Tlllepo/is. on single impacr resolvIng the internet's Its radical singularity. His planned 'engines' . The analytical engme ill the modern felt a pressure earlier years to come up with fresh critical for a wider audience. - ------- major international from Seoul recognized O"-~ C1""_~ Kassel. markll!!tlng consideratJOP1£ <lire nor "'. the Center Germany). in of net a rt.l002. Central to the evolution of the internet are ttle and eleCtronic data. Austria).5Q. THE THING and Rhizome.: (1818-83). deepen my own interest relationships between and These shifts in writing about intern~t art related art-historical the included mal1Y features chat later reappeared designed to be huge and steam-powered collaborators Countess CO"lpucer. when artists and critics were trying develop new vocabularies medIum.. Outside conventloni11 art ilnd tr. (Minneapolis. Many fund ng institutions and festivals. Arr.

Today.ed on a single siliCon chip. logical voltage levels (on and off) combined laying the ground for many principles Another computers computer developed pioneer of computer mathematician developments \\\\ Alan Turing (1912-54).Ised (or tasks Involving characters Dr Grace Murray Hopper twentleth-cenetiry sophisucated language) on In the development at high speeds. St<Jnford Research Instirute: Douglas Engelbart's hand-controlled device called a 'mouse'. with human logk systems.shell tra.ne and her By the early WOman to be involved in the developmenr of COBOL (Common [9705. true/false method. they were unable to With the PC until they developed the MaCintosh required users co [)Opeinsttucrrons. Besides her w StaCUS- rhrs. . home compUTers became more affordable. Zuse W<tn<on bUild . bUll of Zuse'...000 v.The work of George Boole (1815-64). was che British in the field Turin.central processing languages for computers. and ho in 1943.eCtories.pOWered only two objects: yeslno.. processing and zero/one. Though Steve Jobs and Steve W0zni~k.. . He also used two With bInary numberlnf. or conflicts of error Toddy'S 'bugs' in progr.she is also remembered Circuitry of a Harvard are metaphorical moth symbolizes computer-related 198'1.r .& Konrad ZUSCts thll"d CQmpLlt~r. In 1981.l (j~rn 'fO have be~11 Electrically cperared 19)8 when German relays in his parents' were first developed the f'jru frl ereC'rf'Qrljc camp. I. manipulation Museum of American ENIAC.le. or and John In 1946 . . [he 17 .alves. or PC. from electrom<tgnetlc living room.r d""e'opJng II and Z2. movement Macs also of the compurer In and its application for the US military.lnsmissions on the German Enigma devices could be input and processed demonstrated chat computer ( 1906-92) I.. the 1960s. was .level program.errors The Mac Introduced clickable Icons on the Screen. COmm!!rdalir (Universal AUtomatic Computer).i .. IBM released Its personal computer.ed compete interfaces popularIzed several Apple models In the 19705. :Jw.. the second oldest high.s user-friendly SOftware pacbges processing Commodore and spreadsheet and applica. and use of electrical became central to the circuns in the 19305. \~ .... P.. microcomputer.he Zl dUring World W.had been aggrega(. 'bug' in 1945. for pap of future computers... valve computer used reader systems encrypred calculete tabl!!.tions like word were offered by App.. for.ry in Washington Integrator at the National and Computer.and was used by che US Army to 16 and 1990s. J.000 reSistors and 5 million soldered jl!lints. Its !!Iectric. Employing this non-steam. teChnology could be as well as numbers. The ENIAC was enormous. Cursor was aided by an Invention our of with 3ccrvides... electrtcal computer: In around logic Circuits could be built to Use Boolean to form an electric. was the highest-ranking computer female Navy officer of her time (rear for her discovery of the first admiral) .Jms . developed Mauchly (1907-80) The Electronic Numerical by John Presper Eckert (1919-95) and Radio Shack As more and more replicas or the market during the 19805 at the UniverSity of Pennsylvania 'clones' of the IBM machine entered the first drgital computer. memory and controls . whereas PC a Visual representation the centrality interface. n reached tile market In 1951 With the UNIVAC and the advent of solid st:!te the bulk and weight of allowed for smaHer and smaller microchips.. the Z I..nlnE Konrad 2u5e (1910-95) [61 constructed telephone a large machine. was likely tile first o She was highly influenn Business Oriented k . the cent ra 1componentS of a Computer . By tlie early 19805..fQrmed tho . were so available the world's first electronic the computer consts cing of more chan 18. the 'desktop'. IOtenrlVes to decrease [0 have dimmed tile Called the Colossus. 70.dl The nuchlnc 111M[D b tlHl:WQi'd~l fi rer fully (uncuonal F cog.. had relea. It is preser-ved Hlsto. Aft. unit (CPU)..al POWer reqUirements great that the computer'S' usage Is reponed computers electronics computers llghts in the 10c~1Wen Philadelphia area. who perfected a binary system of algebra chac allowed mathematical equations to be represented development by true or false statements.. 'D 1/. who not only engineered asking ir computers 'could think'.but that to and breakdown DC.. computers engineer algebra and combined the n.ontrQlled CC"1puI. operator but also did some of the first experiments processes compared of aruficlal intelligence. che CO-founders of Apple. an actual moth that had flown into the Mark II computer. tape5 punched Data intercepted application in by the many female military teletype (rom tr.. Dunng resulted in substantial Size reductl0ns.

more condensed Many would pomt to US Army scienuse a.. the Stanford Research Utah)._h.. whose methOdologies online.el a strong (onnec tlon to the werk of French artisr Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) pal-ticipants in Dada (rhe intem3tlonal and to the arts movement that began and the University of a governmental 19 .a of the 1960s through to the present. . system Immune A R"ANET r-. 1937) reitera1:ed the terms 'hypertext' called 'Xanadu'.n <he early 1950.Jmmers. Though Internet art has been diScussed In a number of books and library of data as a [001 for research ca talogues ~hat have appeared since the rmd. soon after but were initially only capable of displaYing text.Lee (b 1955) a global hypertel<t projec deSigned by Berners-Lee tile World Wide Web. Nelson's to Sustained crItIcal explorauons and such groups. II"Iternet usage began to expand and develop In rhe halls of edUcation. Though never cOnStructed. modems. way p"ople wort..compuwn 6. the conneCtions net art and Other arc-hlS'torical movements documented. In cable and Video. the In Internet culcure and whose audiences remam mosdy useful as it IS. Web browsen majority of North computers hooked American and European is rather schools have up to the internet... 8ush Imngll"l In a 1945 article entitled in Atlantic Monthly. when Briton Tim Berners.. orme worJ(.me comme<'d>I'p . Berners-Lee's facl'.sthat are agency that Sponsored was designed WiISf spectacles a tOrnmunicarion nuc Iear a tracks and developments first Implemented by fOur American universities • (t he Universlcy 0 thene Is Only enough room to look atmme in dialogue With Interl')et aestl1etks. as well a. Vannevar Bush (1890--1974) who had built mechanical An M IT profess.. which was often hlndered by the literal corrings and goings of reSearchers to and from prolects and centralized Information repositories (such as a libr~ry)....s ItS grandfather The history of rha mternet that of computers. Tile An-Historical Context (or Imernet Art be built intQ desks. T.. Within the scope of chrs book... Usenet a nd bulletin boards were _ that locate and display web pages _ were InrrodLlCed Navigator (1994) were the first multimedia (able to display Images. the internet.f. ThIS 'Internet' 18 Institute nemainedlargely Ca II crru '3 at Santi! 'f and Many net artists fe. and ~ handful of net art archives are ava II~ble online.bl.~£Li~ pl:ane se:aa (or """"lie . Their Ideas.nbK. concepts In h net an crl tics and writers.. ta eed. describe Bush's ideas in the early 19605." .. C~ 08 [0 texts. Weio lando. The to enhance the effiCiency of was standa rd research practice. to 0f of Defense in Art and Technol08Y). COIDPU. EAT non-linear of experience. Parallel to the web's Interhal development. Happenings and mUltimed. were unportaru bl ueprmts for what would .nd lIVe.. Named after the Department Its development. multIple use an Intngumg system caned Meme The Memex would 'As We May Think'..does not always lend ItSelf of the retaucn between net an: and art forms as Flu us. A" Term.r hobb}'lst and community venue Applications than applications such as Gopher.mnn'"l th. research proposed web [001 until 1989. In pan.ble ~IJ J. movements (Experiments 11Ft espeCially. the net was rast becoming a popula. video and audlo] Mozilla apphcaoon and mrning it Into a commUniCation pIadorm.. ".7 6EA R"""""""". pha. which was published Later browsers InclUded the open-source Microsofts Internet Explorer. MosaiC (1993) and Netscape or 'graphics browsers' computers in the 19]Os. . If data docurnenu. AcceSSible via powerful web ran on prOtocols now Widely known Markup language) These specificatiOnS ~nd as HTMl (HyperText were thoroughly reviewed and refined by progr. thil1klngand hypertext become to be and 'hypermedia' informaciOn. allOWIng the Mernex's browse various microfilms interactive at the same time and input their ov model of an and ecucatlon Til" data. the University Barbara. California at Los Angeles. from the constrain es of phYSical lOCation. .ne JIaK to !. H.1 In "'" 1960. and freed could be made available through publrc hypertext research Would be effectNely decentnirled.. thiS may be due to [he specralllaClon Of many and sounds rhar could be Interconnected Both Bush and Nelson of systems modelled liberating potential within a 'docuverss were Interested on associative..1990s. Im~j. greunded are ~O[ well are often berween picked up by others in the field or electronic Nelson (b. Their experience.

were also based on the u~p~edjGtab~e exeCUtion o f . opo" prod"""""" l."'3ed H. sound.110& and I>"rlorman.was EAT.111ZUrlC. . debriS as mUSical COntent. 1934)."strue t'10ns or premises .."peolng. A5 computer-generated of Sight.. .q '" 10000er. anticipated artworks.. sound events that. 1933) .. for Instance) cha t curranj. Like man~ was heavily rnnuenced by came from what he saw as his inheritance expresslcnist American abstract people.'1& """.. of mUltimedi3-laden. the interactive.I that. jasper Johns (b. 1939) began encerlng participants in dispersed locations..c. movements. rorms the ran d om as ~ means of expression..yberspace (hie 19605.. One inrtiatlve of the 1960s that prefigu"es internet modes of colla boraelve prodUction . odors. pt. the gallery purvrew (1927-8. BAlian IUpmw 18 Happ. software art or net art as 'research In the late 1960s and early 1970. who b!!g>n '-' .lles an John Cage's (1912-92) interest In found material and Marsh~1I McLuhan's (1911--80) Ideas [bat each eype of an acnva metaphor rherorir able to tran.. Dada firmly embraced 9 Stan VanOe'See" rnf"'nt an: pu bl') a II of whom helped IC.". is II pion network-dependent feedback and choice has often been Invoked in arguments rs an open dnd encompassing democratic med'um. . H"'fI"".. Images by artists such as Bela Jl.c 1966 0"111 @nv. 1925) and Yoke Ono (b. was part of an expansion into spaces that can be Considered a mise en scene (or (at the MIT Media Lab.n" .rened on instructions and chance word .ndud. Mclunan'.onillr' in Paru.ronmll!'n(Olt mQv.. Th e net analogue of such instructions .>rm the experlmen ts) . the algOrithms (the set of steps for solving problems) basis of all software and computer operations.." 0l>ie= . 111). h rn . Yvonne Ramer (b.. .ly Itn~. w.. S Interest whIch In the layers In of time. associate d w irh the Huxu s group.o. 1959 . IS code.. and publishing Events and Happenings (performance that fo. satellite-linked venue for film. as well as by Can~dran Writer and media should be considered Many decades I<lter. funded by Bell Labs.<Il"n. ~ me.... as Ame anrrnation and collage called Mov/e-Drome [9J in 1965.aprow (b. satellites came Into use as a way of connecting Stan VanDerBeek who bUilt an audiovisual. music and ocher forms of mass culture. lI1l1C and Michael Noll (b. VanDerBeek prototypical of rnternet data enabled by web Suriing a nd brOWSing. '.e theatro for exampe.. re note thar many large-scale museum exhibitions ""'''npor.J I<e Imny p"'recu lnom Ill .fte<j h" p""CIlC~. Allan Kaprow interaction. deSigners or other speclall5[s . 1930). "1''''''.. a number of exhibitiOns and critics began to focu. n .. Robert Rauschenberg (b. practices like hacking. Pollock (1912-56) to 'utilize the specific substances touch'. lh.n .gt.which began in rhe late 1950s with artists . chaq pnrw::rpltS ~d to -MabiE Irrtt'fil. 1925).late into new forms and revert agency to the partiCipant of subjeCtive experrence...seem consumption composer theoretieian experience working In medIa art. 1°16 as a reaction T to [0 World War I and to a traditional ilway from Greated POetry . EArs extension Interdisciplinary and development' mto sClenrific engIneering. " group formed In 1966 by Bert Labs engineer 8illy Kluver (b 1927) During the 1960s.In which an artist might work With programmers. [a] Roben: Watts (19H-88). JUSt as 19605 VISualartists opened up to dance....tron l1!d .1Y2IT1enL 1m. space and lnterpersenal many w3y~ event-based jackson nature of some com pur from critic Gloria SUtton has nOted. shift art practkes Its members trad·· menaI r ~< of pictorial representation. at StOlley Poln~ •• New Yor~. Ilonged rigid <Io!Jn_os or. Including Allan K. on articulating cntical vocabularies It is interesting 20 went beyond the 'art object' to address infOrmatiOn and systems.. h . George Brecht (b.CL<>np"in. EAT would involve such diverse armes as Andy Warhol (1928-87).-0""".d ". 1927 • . variations. john COlgeand David Tudor (1926-96).

:dP1llFcmclu ilnd saCQ_rn~·bilSed c. The duo's EJectromc Cafe (1984) [1I]lomed up various areas of Los Angeles In 'telecollabol'ation'. and p.. are pan of (he New York Correspondence School project of the 19605 and are 2 . 1968 If Kit G3Unway .lIt S. fa and mformation Co bla During [h.5 'InformatJon' took rts name a Work as its 'sOftw3re'.aJ llinlfiarrc:C.nd Sherrlf' Rabl" . Arnsts Sherrie RabinOWitz (b 1950) and K.ll and U!mpor. multlm.. an. or a UU. lrt. <1g113Nr1! mod"..t to dam:e In the Soteilice Arts Projen (1977) lUkfit\ d() I t" Galloway (b.3 well as satelh re. place then. ndipJ'Y.e somewhn radkaland Unfamiliar premISes malo.nformation be "embalmed" if given permanent forn..pato. (0" (hell' of net performance materials _ R~y models.. and networks formerly Inveseigated by mlnlmaljsm and conceptual art. and the external obrect Or sense eha t an Was at an Imp"sse. paralysed by form (If there was one) as 'hardware'. from the curators world evenrs and werghed down by malerlaliry.rfcrmonce. InIllI~' "f Int_ern-et.. earn MW hu. amplifying the themes of transmission. American crrnc David McShlOe's esSlI)' as proposing two Significant Would only claims.. only a handful of new media ~n and shows.'/ ' 'image as place'. inCluding 1968's 'CybernetIC SerendlplCY' 10J at the London Insmute of COrltemporary An: (curated by Jam Reichardt). obiects had come to seem practlcally Obsolete'. and 1980. Ars Elcctronlca and S~n FranCISCo's [[ Museum of Modern Art.bwon venue of thOse that Cook place at that time The curator of 'Software'. MeShine wrote mat {he artists 'With the sense of mobiljry and change mac pervades interested embalming the Idea in an "object'" Joselit interpreted thetr urne .10 ExhlblUatl postedQI 'Crimm.S and ~l>chcwed ""gul". namely '(hac by 1970. Other kinds of network art took biological or SOO::ial example. relatively affordable technologres teleVIsion.:""''!i hlp to emph35iu lh-e Interplay p>ruclp:>nl'< 01 . 1911'1 B«UI>niCCDfump. a parrent systems. dlstributJon and CommunicatJon.. jack BUr'nham. ~ave equalled the scale of exh.• poaod .d'£. came In (0 Wider usage by anists. rachel' than te~hnoJogical one" as Johnson'S (1927-95) m811arc projens. who embraced crOSS-pollination between anists and Computer scientiStS _ shOWing work by computer innova[orS Theodor idioms whell referring " Nelson and Nicholas Negroporlte [0 ~ I I• t (b.olbb-oriJ".nOn5 wth os EJo<1ttml< Cpr. 1948) secured (undmg from NASA ro bring remote paniclpants together creanng a new type of performance that allowed what they called yoking together ~-'\I\f\-'-. and also Chat art was something very sepan[e from emertainmenc-based spectacle In the Cat. and chat 'a dynamic e change of .wlt:r f).Srather than In 2003.logue for the show.1970. Cybernetic 5erendip~rv based On the. also In age'.mon" Cote. In Our recent 'internet Modern AI.' of video. 'Software' In r 1970 at New York's JeWish Musevm at me Museum of (eurated by Jack Burnham) and 'rnrormallon' 1970.are In ways of Idpidly e changing ide3.. r dIY~.ranr.t in New York (eurated by Kynaston McShine). 1943) alongside those by self-styled 'artistS' _ employed computer Hruetunng che concept and thenna "(. ."ded . originating at {he ZKM.. .

e tIl.u'p"naod .tla" ""Ill" fOr Cybernetic Serendipity based On these ~omewhat radica Iand unfamiliar prerruses took place then.~ un s !" R V!~ Dlflt\"<J( (b. lnforrnarton and networks formerly InvesCigated by rmrumahsrn and conceptual an. 1948) secured funding from NASA to brrng remote pa rticip a n~ together the SOleflj!e Arts Project { 1977). claims.pa<I.uln >5 Deammc Cor. only a handful of new media 1970. '50fcware' ill 1970 at New York's Jewish Museum (curated by JacJ~ Burnham) and 'Information' Modern Art JO ..l.. pcrlo"""n~""..3re In ways of rapidly exchanging Ideas rather than In 2003.. as well as satellite... In our recent 'internet shows.showmg work by Nelson and Nicholas Negropo[lre (L[CTf!WIC (N[ computer computer R Ul1PIJI[R ~D IIJlr I· "[DrA 1[L[ClllUtICAIlilt<S ~ !I11N. or UL ear. McShine Wrote that the arusrs Interested the sense of mobill t:y and change chat pervades their time .'Cyb. as their materials ..t .j e<J ". ". American critic David McShme's essay as proposrng two slgndicam would only embalming the Idea in an "object" [oseht rnterpreted obsolara'. wllo embraced between artists and computer innovators Theodor CUriHOr .1 and . that allowed what they called yoking together creating a new cype of performance various areas of Los Angeles In ~)~ I vtllA\[ '/ 'image as place' The duo's Elearom: Cafe (19B~) [II J IOlned up 'relecollabcwation'. for example.~re'. are part of the School projecr of the 19605 and are New York Correspondence 2. T(Q flU nVl CULlU"".. and also that ~rl was something very separate In the Co l:alogue for the show. <pccllIde> ..lly and that 'a dynamic excha nge of informwon be "embalmed" IfgIVen permanent form'.ngn. FrOJ. 1943) alongside those by self.-.. originating at the ZKM..2 .. Arnsrs Sherrie Rabinowit~ (b 1950) and Kit to dance In Galloway (b.. par:llysed by from entenalnment-based spectacle 'with world events and weighed down by m3cerlalrty.lIIfo-l>.lctrca.Ra lohmon's (1927-9S) mall art projects. relatively afford"ble teChnologies -- q do 1~()A of video.cle. and eschewed sfngular" . AI'S Electronlca and San Frarwsco's Museum of Modern Art.. During the 1970s and 1980s.bonltrcru 10 ExllJb. 1984 EJKJI~".. have equalled the sC<lleof e hlbillon and venue of those thar took place at that time. The 'Sofcware'.ntern"tart..I dMde.w.1t. 968 1 II KIt Galloway ond Sherrie R<lbinowi<:r.. a portent of net performance models. an. objects had come to seem pr. IncludIng 1968's 'Cybernetic London lnstl Ute of Contemporary Serend/pr'Y' [ro] ~l the Art (curilled by [asla at the Museun.11. rather than (echnologlcal ones.In hg'" of .styled 'arnsts' _ employed idioms when referring to [he concept and rhemancs 'InformaCIon' rook Its structUring a work as its '50r.hlp I" &mph.uure modes: af ou". D"". ColO. discriblJcJon and ccrnmunirauon. Other kinds of network art took biologICal or SOCial systems. also I~ age'. <pen. namely 'that by 1970. Reichardt)..meocStlrMdlplzy'..lV Olv[RC[ lu:.n" New York (curaled by Kyn3Ston McSh'ne).nd . Interpiay of p"tu:lp. Jack Burnham. fax and cable teleVISion. ""m new hlstoncalslgnlrlQnce of croS'-poUrnaCloll scientiSts .. came Into wider usage by artists.nb. and the external obiccr or form (If there was one] as 'hardware' from the curator's name sense that art was at an Impasse. m"ltlmodl..ompo. amplifying the themes of transrmssron.

TeleVision (1971). New York.stmg it of Its uSUiLI Coruenr..>. publ.se in Signalled the Widespread influence of Marshall McLuhan and engineer..h'U'':Ictnr.. Londo".curprUf"aJ ...' Also included in mat show was Paroclpa:lirln TV by Nam 12 Ham June Pa1k. 1969 Gillette. 'The merle of mls overloading (somethmg like a play Within 3 play Within a play) is to escape the automatic "Informacion" expenence of commercial television without totally dive. 1941) and Ira Schneider 1939). (rom 24 ..}'1~ 111nt:IJOP'l Pho Feter Mool"C Ii:) 0. he.aclonis emblematic or ~he period's varied anthropological explorauons of process and ImmerSion 111 field usually relegated to the sclenuflc. offermg a blueprmr for me decentraliuaon networks.sion. ant' rnagazme reporter Michael Shamberg. Gllhwe described hiS prerruse of underlining the relationship betwe1l''' seeingan image and aSSimilating the lntorrnsnon it contams..precursors of email art. likewise. odlum' M elhrbltion or tho Howal'd W"O G. Boston pubftc television Station yo.~lgl1:. 1765 P. the icoruc artist who in that work and others like Magnet TV (1965) [12]. In which vlewe themselves on a rnonlter at eight.d~:ted form .W. At 'TV as a Creative Medium'.'8"0'[0 ..~.M'CllerTV. generated celevtsuals VIaparticipation or externally 1'3 1/'(1Sc h "c id~.000 sea gulls to a certain spot (in the air) by some delicious fOod so as to construct an atr sculpture from their combined mass' Haacke's [Urnlng away from the an exhibition space to ort1lthologlcal organl:z.. N . mathematician andarchleece Buckmmster Fuller (1895-1983) and galvanized an Interen In mass-medla-based Soon after the exhibition.. Cbmumar u?lev..or sixteen-second inter v while other monitors played live television or footage. In terms of scale of distnbuuon and access.gave me ii'I monitor ~[S s.""" of PCIC( Moo'oNAGA. Burnham cited organic systems as revealed by Hans Haacke's (b./" C. on 4) rlla TV oW June Park. Schneider and Paul Ryafl (b Raindance was assooaeed with the Important pubhcanoru (. . Gillette and Schneide showed me important work Wipe Cye/e [Il]. so impressed with th rk of VIdeo pioneers Frank Gillette (b.o. 1936) 1966 plans for II work: 'I would like to lUre I . co-founded the artist collec::Live Ralndance Cerpc the in 1969..-74) [~J. one of his seminal essays on systems as a way of thinking about Contemporary art. earurmg mar f interdiSCiplinary and technical approaches to democratizlng media. an exhibition curated by W.shed I~ ArtfOrum in 196~. 'i produced and aired lts serres The Medwm Is the Medium. together with Gillette.. ForWlII'd-thinking galleries like Howar Wise Gallery (New York) supported the format as early as III 'TV aSB Creative Medium'.1j an ilb~trnct.k 'ppfr... dI.t. marphrng lu . and RadICal Software (197Q. more relevant than Cinema or satelhte.r on0 Fran k tim 'TV u ~Cre.Iptlnx u"lndJ. couipO~itlon JnlO rn tli pro(cls$. television an is a pertmenr precursor of in[erne! and.d a large 111.. as well as his many multimedia tapes for television.. In 'Real Time Systems'... Jack Burnham's technological neles had actually been Inspired by artists working WIth more natUral phenomena. 110rkiDACS..$l"'l. IOD~ '0.

1t1o"11 ilesthenc.d. networks. While this highly influential term was d'scussed Without specific reference and crincs developed necwork technologies or the emailll.alectic between the no original . Bill Viola (b /951) and Tony Oursler commUnrntion' phOtographers (b.lllatron mode. b"oadcasl and audlo] formats of or Images. Cuban-born to prominence Amerkan ar[lS[ Felix Gonzales-Torres In (1957-96) and That arm t Rirkrit Tlravanija (b. behaviour work. eoxplore technologies of using video and Installarlon. 1949). theory and adverrlsing.focused closer attention seen In the rephOtogr"phy as commercial networks became in~l·easingly cenrralile. A !'. of M'alcoltn MO/ley (b. This isapersi~tent Isabell Heimerdinger and Cindy Sherm.. worked Or' the inst.f)' Qufeit Imu. dealing With the multlple (e.IfuPI!PiO:"~ ruscn n tes: wrth internt!t :artllitl who cheri To" artlll theme in net art. questions interne that become more complex whe. and deSigners. and chen replacing corporate [hem with new representations. During th. in the 1980s included techniques. tactics and formats of public space or information. loose til"".s. curnted by R<!lbert Wilson.J Kruger (b. 1953). 5(:otJ. n""vanrl'" Orp'1ilatfon of SCl"'e"enlAp (llleluding (olub/oneal In GI>sgow. Appropriation and plaglamm.".Inge of paInting Strategies. tr.nd.t.ra. Halm Steinbach hyperreallll1d the influential specifically slmula[iOnist writings These were bolster Jean Baudrillard more generally. fOcused critical energy on questions about medlum_ speCificity. cr:ysmQ. iU~t a keyboard shorreut aWay When using a computer to copy a file. e. as David Josellt writes.!:·pcUlrliIc. and the role of a work's contexrand aura.!on 01 'IS prod" <tlcn Other artists of thiS era With explicit impOI·' for Imernet art indude video artists Gary Hill (b.. . like-minded models often mformed by and systems such as rree software Commun. 1999. artWork' "".. appropriation (b In hi 9) I the colonization Ocher salient trends art. BaUdrru"rd's formulation of the simulacrUm .en forced (or example. 1957) [15J. text.g.. [16] developed languages engaging with the lconophrha and 27 . points of comparison from arc of the 19aO$ and 1990s Include identity-based various inequalities oft. writing tha t 'the artist produces with the world broadcaSt through works of SOCial to the Internet.. "I pul>fo< coordln~tcr.the copy for which there exis.$e<J rc me".. a signature In his book practice craft. rr"". functioning as produeer~ f":lcflit. ". es of t990.. As a precursor this kind of practice stereotypical anumpllons srracegles reference about. Barbar." prn~"''''m.. lrt. 19(1) dealt with the obiecrs and materials of consumer Culture.nd new form. American Ashl.deeSO. t!'e cros. 194~). Bourrlaud deScribes In emergent connections 141Rlrkr''tTirav.I. are seen in some net art . Cinl. cphl!m£."ru. of fine arcs. OppD. theory when artis. Halley (b. is emblematic of what French entre Nic/1ola~ BOurrr3ud calls 'relational aesche[in' RelOlional Aesthetics.-penod.n of the flesh by electronic dIlClpl'n~. 1931). 1954) the 'colonizatlo. which SUcceeded both within and beyond its makers a woman's to repf'\esenc virtual and the real. Television art ground never really managed co programme co hold its it. 1947) and of internet art and actiVist £tracegles. sign and form'.1) [14J. have become f~lrly Standard forms of maktng in net art. to reclaim and COntf.nbUrgJ.:.seatOn (o{lor Old.applied means... 19(. 1950) borrowed respectIvely.00 . coupled With ongOll1g debates about the 'dearh of painting'.for example.n (b. breaking body. 1951). Inst:!liaejon artlse Maureen Connor and (011. BICkerton (b. both of whom Came 'n the 1990s. who.\. The creation of partiCipatory aspect of Tiravanila's work.ts on the d. (959) and Fnmch Sy)\lle Fleury (b. or the pno[oreallStlC paintmgs. nee arnsts gestUre.ltors more than masters of social events.ani. down Widely ~eld relationship to her Suml Richard Prince (b. like the from 1978 In the rea~h book SlmlJlocres et Simulation and elseWhere. works by American artists Peter from ~rstems. as works of Sherrie LeVine (b..ma (PI <J of relational and transitive are. though European video sketchbook Some relevant highlighting channels continued V. 1945) and Jenny Hetzer (b. and SCulptures by Israeli-American of social theorist and French literary (b.

sler~ pofll'... Perry Hoberman environments. <ad 'pm. hkeJuh (b 1954) and Ken Femgold culture... dlmrd r In rtlt.. (0 catch .to If~ ute Wnat F1>J"goJ d technol her (b. b'C". Jeffrey and Shu Lea Cheal)g (b. ld JCJ-Ju"km"n 99~ Fe Igold seU. o!...h.0.r .. "he rl!rrt bngtJAge . '"".. drfficul.u".15 Tony O"I"'II~.tt '.ytholo"cil well v. Installation artists Toni Dove.d 'po" k on .ID. wer I< brmg' che po"r.1I:rt.nt of gleul.. rradjnon In Une. ol ...". zerHegn>e 2 .n mag.la b .k-d nlm 1918 ")11> ull on . pl'VfK~d . interactive Ken F<>hlg . .UusenHe the more developed Internet culwreand technologies de. 1954) used computer create immersive. dr..ria..dueed 1.mgmg o. addressed are intertwmed to SUStain computer-dependent artrscs made the claim [hac consumer In complex have become.pr-auon$.n.. 1954).'IS the I.mad" up of ."• rnng.:'111ce technolog.h~ m-out "mloqu . film and [elevislon! Similarly develop and rn $hJ en. Works b technologies ane 9511 ese . era tv. '"..ted th'''ce By tllc~Ing on rhe~ebuno".fies rty secure per-c.o imel'naiintion of media (for [hem.no "'JT1OVe ~ny ~'..J"dy 1997 O".urfin& 6 Cindy Sh~rm"" U""..m ofJudy d.' Ill.on lnd 5lJf"'¥f!!Jll. ..I1.. or..WI rh d1 e cultu r(! 01 c.. user"'" m>lu! me If UPp" -he.scnt>e. Net artWorks on surveillance mise en scene.th.. or €U. p.~An ""I'lo .epbO" of rilE .'ound.ltu:w tQ med'l~ 5tt1Jctu["~ 111".".l1On. ways .nlpp"'" I'Gm pu b IIc-<l'omam -Jlrchl\'e filt'-J round CH'I the Internet .a claim chat has bee and ...m.nfl.Iy!tfe aSler [I7J..On" as U!'JlNJI.ub/«' or "!>joc.e Qf 0 doll""o~". P"PI'". cn u orfI'IUlbpl~ 1"""0"""<).nOed by""""". .

GUMBOGUMBOh~olerDON'T KNOW WHAT TO SAY A IJ'ITLE lEARNING IS A ~ DANGEROUS THING FP.rE!llCANEED IT ANlMALS ARE GOOD TO 1'lllNK AND GOOD TO PROHIBIT BE tao ~L'Bi Tno!E TO BE GOOD r LOVE EVliP. d . mIlII. (Tm "...fUCH YOU MAKE ME nEL 1..AWAYYErFREEDONT COMEAFTERl<!£PHI KAB NAUNau ~ FRAU PHI NAI1NG SEX RELATION BETWEEN FIRST COUSINS ARE FORBIDDEN THE MOON BPJGHlE>1SnIE.. As a result of this Isolatron and specializiltien.Ii' and SUCcess of [he art. /Q mai..:YBODY I RAIE EVERYBODY TBli: SON IN LAW MUST NOT alTER ENTER mE SLEEPlNG QUAR'rES 'l1IROUGB: THE DOORWAY OF THE PAlUiNTS IN u..MANREBELD A STICK OU1'TO ME I HOLD TBIS STICK orrr ro YOU AI:' "!lIE WORLD IASK YOU wmJI1 WILL YOU COME TO MOSCOW AGAIN DOUGLAS er nurror IllITe. SfJ'A1I.... Early In:~rnet art is very much Inl!J(trilJlble from the technolo and politiCS of the 1990s Mid early twenty f gy I .. dmavtan brcuu winch mode me r••tsoufilif'.m Dor 01Jl'bono6!.. 'inreracrion' and 'system"lInL d th' • xe e genre to ~e5tc0I1Ceptual art. oi and.o: buuaful S.r. JUS\ IW: ""''Y0De el•• Alier tlu.'Gpcp loot a Imw mo. on&"ln~ <oll. ENF ANTS RED. know wln!llo "''1 but I W." .IIIolo&lcol pt04C and poetry. wInI.RED RED lIED RED RED RED BLUE BLUEBI.. """fWrJ iIIId IIIorO and more lind mo re but . "rtlm.EHIND YOU NO BODY CAN SWEAT SO H WE mID 'fOU I._<.:...a~egories eften reifred in the arr world aod beyond. Frr~ C.UU 10 •• y.orrUption will be pleased to know that.rsJIl mo"tm oJ! ~ 1lmt0l'D!.rtlclpallts..d.\i"!"DOI1GI.~ •.IKE THIS IlIIllemaI eDgg....r Ill. 1m d.IJaboroP)\'i: Semefi(e. mull/me dl•• oDi. . ollere ways to rem....gT<d I w>ntlo b.:d sul»... pollY Vlo1".t my !IlIl and ukod me ..)II'oclu'DO~"" . n>&bt dust (aDows dwt In the . tho aonrbolll of_". n? the world of.. h~er..c 'C!J thqhad 'g.l'ER. ". en pmcnmms. lon.. 1944) as neted..... but IS IM . to stOp now hr alwwy~ comet ulutalrS like I!!J£ II ~ addle "fth.. lnterrtll!tilon. _.0 wh '"" b .ESse . m. feedback (email) or find tools to create an alternative (web publication).lIy Qnly 'Upparred .n& "Jill : blbblillg 10 0.~1J.ov. • rmerephene held up 10 ha-....mRICA Al. Compc'~d by Irjto:mot P... 11m makmg WELL ISN'T' IT JUST '0 ~.....d s aeen I n.'.enleterm tho OlIl'BO hold of tho ..olo!>J:zlbclu:n·warc 1001001 SOS 1001001 INDISl'RESS 100100 Everytbmg .."dl.S APART AND TWAS SURROUNDED BY PEOPLE HERE TFEl. Jen dECIded..... h." Mr! !I!1OlWy-wbiLo ...Ihor. an emblem of Intlmet ae..iHES 'I'WITCBID AGAIN 1l.1< pro""mO'll ~fb. problem [0' th' ..-.1. to m. wtth orum cOlllrbLlllng 1I... s Or pro _Utt'<'m.'N'T A TYPOGRAPHY I.ER Y LOO:KlNa AT rms BIG PHNCtL Pr 1 AM LAUGmNG COGITO £ROO row GO 00 GO s:ENTBNCE >wmg SIWIg rwmg nng 00& ""8 ""II rtng 1« tl!:. ""d wby does til.~ bu spacy) !heR or. 31 .nllIoru OV. IIIl run b ..t my 6Jther I """"8 near hBv.. WORK KXfJ' GOING WE Ani B..IIJi I AM IN TIIE GA. ad !lit Wom. 11.spersed..' .Imost u if for ont.<o to 1h. or e rt ... 10 attempt 10 bnng tho kilI'rlm Jwl<C. sofrware and web sites. I tboI:. 1. YOU SEE...~ zme reViews or monetary w . a I. on th..... U!E..."uod '0 dJ_.l YOU 1I@%-!TIIlS1:.Ike Ih' on.& lb.IUIl-e. whl.1J . •...A. attraeuv« at I••" r •• dahL: bill !hENDON'T m.d by all 'lei won 10' p<nm..W CA.. economic and seetal sPecific3tion.bo ra. net artistS have also de~eloped and created new method ~. R 'd ortn.ts preeccupations with themes su~h as 'Information" g cemmunicatlon'."'od b •• k'!I""".:> HOW ARE YOI1'" FAP.. As artl~..fThI II Moth.UE I lAlJ ~OBlUE!SAW A.. 1r)'1't8h".r.. !hr. but I d.lap ""til lWI~)JI.}om. elhns uplown on Ill.r!u<tl<" l'''' dlOn befor. th.BATI1.tn. The World.. b . POllCE GIVE ME YOUR HAND r FEEL YOURFn'lGERRERli MANY MILES MARTI THINK IN BASEL WE lllroliRST/L AND APPRECIATE yotlP. d. nt.EEDOMFREl'DOMFREEDOMGET OFF ME GEI OFF MY BACK SCRATcH M ..eollfie.T CLOSE HOW ARE You THIs IS DURBAN WE FEEL WE ARE A PART OF mE WORlD AT LAST IN 1l!E PALACE 1mE I AM \V AlJ'ING 1'0 'IRE J'JiE. had b.1 ofthr: cO!llllllmlly who mrd W5Iclled!her _cs progren from r. Irl!in to Gc!u>k ad Ib.HOW BEAUTiFUL YOU ARE STOP DYING WORLD EERE IN TEE BRONX WE BATE TEI.0 doma.'. nil !till tho probltm--wu how 10 us. o.nL COmmunities.E CAlD SO YOU LIKE TO LOOK A1'MEPAYFOR. leep.. her I.. consumption and exchange Not only do net art practices extend the arena.!JJ. HE RIGHT NOW TO SA\IE THE WORLD I LOVE 'tOU WORLD WORLD WHEN wn. I. Uni'lue econom:es or """e ~'od of gertrude of attention eXlsl. <OJ removed. SO F~G LJTIiIl.. wb.'.x.Il> STICK BEGAN TO GROW SHOR..p tIw collid be . 0' and email forwards and downloads censumprl0n - o_ w ro . as yet...vi. cyberspace seems a '1960s Id' 'r• . ea ..able or stable market for net art. 6 tram. and theorist Peter Weibel (b.lXE A QUEEN! SEND GREETINGS FROM FRANKFURT GOD BLESs Al.~ .E'S WOMA.1"01"...~• ocopl1ht.1T YOU PAMPERME SO !. Internet arns rs often develop close-knit online ana radical contem has remained SOCial 1~~'. ap' rates of reactIon and widely ~vallable preduction tools have also been defining. Those who View commerce as irredeemable c... Net arc's audience is a medley: II varylOg in background. !It tI'IUIm tho """'''':mhcOlllla'y-p.d Il. domtna~t tools are ~rnall. but they have II d . 'Vlbollanguoge you tbnk thoy'n noIkmg' Ill. finally. "" OWD"""Y.. geographICally d.tl ~.. these art enthUSiasts are able co morph theIr involvement constantly. nd .. 000'<>5&... ra'G'1Il.".okiIy. clJI' ungu!1IIl1¥.rt!lllIIlt.. I u 'c If one does 18 Doug'''' Da.ifercllcc .baCiC humaruly IS . eduh g..rv~ \York. are the Indexes of the p bl' <ll /u:J th.i 4 Chapter I Early Internet Art Welcome to the World's First Collaborative Sentence: I~ IDIDNOTFm..tmg •• !llI~..l'ro<G LOVE TO AN ANGEl.fth eucs. re'Vl!.A..LI.IrS! cemury al[hou h . alIy m.. For example. for the last .ext.n. . 'j th -""> mportlm as "se hlstorkal connections are. and 0ppomional an undllu~ed component. n<DC like a web site. u.I!!I)'Z. e~en. who d" Ihmk w ..mdom. lome LIIlJ:OItlI'11!b~lt!mwu .maI. 1Il.h '~II".onmr b .RID RED RED RED RED R1ID.Ih'lIg:HhlllI:OIJd lui df}7l.. Jilbb.rp_r'I'E TOGF:TIIEIU..a WOJIlllIL gol on 111:! 3rd IIrO..~ hllvo . IS THIS WHAT DROVE RIM INTO HEL WELL llIis IIml& oroIwnImg maD capr IS S'Inng' btt llre'.. a man and.1N BOTHBNDS HERE n KAUNAS WE l:!A vr: SATAN MA. and reVitalize . deeplJ 1ll"". .. It was not technIcally VIable until decade:> I~ ter ".fy "'e prole" " alt"n held up .. Imernet art IS buoyed by the technological.JDENT SEND 1'011 GRE:ETINGS H1i..Illa!. . as opposed to COnventional means of valuationl such as Visits to a rnussum show naga _ r. """bl. ug su eva ving today...Al'liD IFELT VERY CLOSE EVEN TBOUGf! WE WERE TliOOSAJ:I1Ds OF MILE. now ho.. capability and reach of artlHic production..uy. of Its medium Tho h '/1 I .irr which interna tional web traffic . ". chances are that one can offer <.rl.. om..-hap.. rhere exists no v.JEAA EVEN \1IE!EN"FAR TO THbI!EALTH OF DON CESAII.N AU ImVO~ !&.ON'.

uc. java. and device usage hipper tt d 0 ~_ began to be used wldely_ A new of communicittion of Defense.abinowitz and Kit Galloway. (949).. Roy Ascott {b. such as Heath 8untmg (Bl"ltain). these new computer Centres and media art programmes becam~ more prominent fixwres In the European and Russian culture.pe r1en ce of til e respec worked with teChnology-informed (an .. D Will" . download of widescale OT'~3d5. or from desks at cheir d~y Jobs. The Internet was emblematic of the increased access to Information in these regions. however.aneous communication. Art and Communication were at the tentre of many Initiatives undertaken by European non-governmental organiZatiOns (NGOs) and the European CommiSSIOn in Brussels after the collapse of the SO~let Union in r.. involving video. began as a preiect of the US GOven more and more civm~ns. digital graphiC5 and Phocoshop were likely requiSites (laceI'. those who find contemporary art on and about the Internet had LO In the early 1990$. aesthenc ones. of u'. '1. of the net elided teleVISion. and endl events er emo . graffiti writers and filmmakers before experimenting accepted aesthetic With an online. called browsers. reality televisic which p~ople living together made theatricahzed and frequency Although Department younger. they came to make a rt from media . oper. nel1 attention from the venture capital sector at t h e tim . And Internet arc's e:lrllest beginnIngs crystallized within d"s mdtriK of communication technologres. office v..wer ~ the ne changes. no t educational tools: HTML. LeaVing behind more s and Irred practices. With allowing for instam. e . however. Ilia sophistiC.web sites. Its ability to realize Imernatlonal alld relatively Inexpensive Communication and e)(change. Satellite. wi h web pages.and leisure.]1and and technelogles such as Netscape paint. Cellular phones the internet a hit among young Americans.drawing from roles such as arrlsr. 1934). satellite and cellular devices in their everyday the Ubiquity of globalized television and Operated twenty-four-hour deployed he~ The media.he early 1990s. Olia ljalfna (RUSSia). was potent. Alexei Shulgin (RUSSia) lind Vuk Cosrc (Slovenia). they can log on with net access and the right so'ftvvare. lnstead of ntm Or 011 From its earliest governmental development commercial designed the ways in which comrne . collaborarer (one who .USt watches 'vlewen' from any computer artwork. Sherrie R. hl mg.h 3S installations or lIl[ermedla Roberr as 'democratic' f 'nterll~1 lind press outlets route d the rise 0 dI rti~ . I ro. interner art was juSt one Small part technology reliilnl on of media and consUmer Increa~ingly rn t~elr enthUSiasm. 1935). Adrian X (b. technology interests browser. phc>tographers. but directOries Such as Yahool or Nec$cape tended to bury net People in the West were becoming first Gulf War exemplified CNN. cntic. Email and rhe World Web (the 'web') became tools fer work and home. and the opening of imetna(ional borders. an d commerc. see all It. like were based on everything lind anyt.e powered Navigator. an under man'r bye . Hank Bull (b.:! d At around the same time.fon. CommerClallnterescs. from the pragmatJc. the Cyberfemmist and Ars Electronicll. Who searched the net for new pOSSibilities during these early r"a~s were oft<4!n more reHrained sought [0 With net art. In the mld-1990s. These a!"tiSG were able to draw of the Internet's rnest basic [8 according or aml'l< w h' h wer e reCE!JVIn& IC . studerrts aad artists used it follOWing the development and HTMl viewers. worked as offline artists. and the web various graphic lind communicarion for text and image publication symptomatIC social groups thoughts of significant in which divisions moments. . cultural hie! de appllcattons. These between behaviour. Not only Would a search engine not pro~ide the right kind of resuks (or a quest for 'art'. International on the work of 'early adopters' offerIngs. in face. share t or copy It. _wIthout participating). was ElV. MTV's The Reo/WOrld were taped. . boar to for car mechanics. exoeri c chat h~~ been to corporate . offer'ng events. and was very appealing. Many net artists. centnlS like TO (VIenna). 32 33 .lwd _ . internet access and production tools. have a direct relationship Or 'lurker' Finally. like bulletin boa~d systems (BSS) and email. They aiso be neflted fro rn til e e>. collaborators and travel compaOions. suggesting norles e oenL . proliferations look qUite closely. They were Introduced to One another via the internet and became contemporanes.scapes. an international.. edited and broadr and mediated daily life friendlier. C3 (Budapest) and Backspace (london) via cGmputers In their living rooms. broadcasting computer became weaponry systems. network eVidence of being an easy or refined venue for artistic production.and media. Flash and Dy. • t he writers an a criticism.t-heavy aesthetk. news groups software) Though culture lists focused . educat. mterests.. on Virginia Woolf marketing syst em requiring 5pe(~ 'ill\! the more $C holarly • such as miIJ d d figure s who . mteenee bulletin. and 'revolutionary. meeting face to face at technoan events like Next 5 Minutes.Olund and computers. Even beyond Its tel<. fnends.namic HTML). they used iow-f net prodUCtion were obVIOUS.• Th es e diverse collectI\I1!l to social communities and orgamzanens. One wou ld experre nee die .

ne Inga @ kings)( ".c.. These ~t art en were explored between through configurations These often appeared of six main n~ In combinulon _ 1993 and 1996: email.r . encounters web projects ornamentation flow of pedestrian in instigating activity. or 0 a PUtlcula r Settrng trng can ee seen as II br artlscs of earlier gene '. museums and dealers.UIIQlt -=. In addition to IS ntr train workers and commuters to the lnternet r1l1 King's Gross Phone r I rbec •• " CQ 1re~ oil of •.(!)rmanee 'Ib II my time wande' h . Though Bun' !. hacklng and street culru .tern et in 171 rely d'OI'tJin:a~.tlj. With this work h collaborative performance that I"k e sets up a. b P'80 11 ~yeh tnat .U fllTl U' . ' cornrnurucauon referring to and mergIng with one another. chatting Io'(ebfunctionality traffic in and around King's Cross scurcn and conducted minimal into friendly phone calls from around of participants Bunting and his group In an unlikely venue. describu1g his research fo h projeCt.. . pOnes. and 3 web y ay qualitres but I hei manner of d I ' n C err means and ep oyment. IItr1t)C1~ CVbtl'QfL 'I!: :::-=QrI ~ r ll5J~ . artlsts eXhib ted a diverse modes of also bears the hallmark of siruationl international anlsei( and pol' I I sr works.. or . To some.. artists were internationally programmers.se e ertez The quotJdr i. .s ~I"O~ :(1. Use in King's Cross Phone 1'1 _ ubl!c h an orrns chac are pur to page . ran a OUt of rus living direct dialogue to realign tradirJonal pursuing from ~ oroUnd the world.I.. Into a venue for ~or~j:aj .JIJ IU u..lo hi I oductlon 0 'brlng high tech to street level'. and mU!:'QllpeC'tadE!.. In~pired by forms of public d rt e . .11Uu OIU. These partklparory ."-tr)' lloo (..1fT century avant-gards interest passive consumption response channelling the world._ asrca r Spent most of nng r e streets at th looking In trash' B .h.• tron.Ld r:a. Bur along with devslepsrs. white' n. Jf lay. IIII'n '11 no:3' !.no. Bunting listed the numbers surrounding London's King's Cross international of public tele station. Work. iote t cseed ill ~ublJc!"pl£!n t:onul:x. ULN~ Significant to early net artists. J1 . nst an~ musical in a public transporra and playful aesrhec fr1d?.:u"nst:5. !he web w. 1967 f n 0 more radical or recipe almost to I ) ollows the sltuaclon. by virtue of irs rna 'r rs un I "those of tus forerunners nloeS!atlon of the web's ca organization and colle tt. eehorng thae It (a movem r' (/957 tactic of tranSmogrlfyi '.n.. .Jln n.11'I"Ii. web page capabilities into public spaces. ". (l. Thou. change the ten f and time. their screens. enabh On a simple.es- (making a call.. Kmg'.retain their ever d p .sUl Men.irI(I I. PorficlpatJon The earnest.4*1 !JIll nt UtO c!-In illl 10H IU1I JJ7 IU. also stand as part of a r. trave Ing pMhs broken raclOns. or email. Buntrng (b.U. re In came out of Bunting's explicJtgoal.JU l1li7) 111 lUI 1)l1l IJ' III"" I>Olrat.This early generation of Internet set of interests. In fUlV..u. working from wildly disparate outlets.e I.r paetry for tn(ernationlll c ve pe...ll commuter hub. s -n) famous ng eXI~tlr')gelements f t <OlPPOSitiOnal forms.~~ Wr. at pornr dOing graffid and . iln street art.. local contexts the pr" 1lse dispers~ or organizing principles.. shape it. fcu"" il CO b •• rrch cr •• avc pl."0 life. lVt'g~ (f ess Pho..RJch u Ilun.. 1994 10 Ih. gra'f'hics. BUllring's Interests at that trme also foc' 'sed .r~g. the digitized screen with other artists and art enthUSiasts and computer themes formats aesthetics were dominant preoccupations. texts and imagesWhatever video and arumation.. replac TU£fHON:~ HcH of a medium (the web site) with en with a stranger). independent of the cumbersome commerCial cha I nnes of galleries. communigtion and exchange Some wanted and audience address. pag~ wim black text. and using dlffe nt tools. web sites.! Cron"tr. Used to transform. chant( It was one of Bunting's earlielt a basis in direct action and tht but it bears many of his hallmarks: and low-fi graphics.-1"~U~I:1~~:::' . Disrur ged ng die 19 H""th Bunting.lI! hub. tone of Heath Bunting's msr an opening ION straightforward on the web site King's Cross Phone In (1994) (19) belles the of what the arrisr points towards: to extend and artistic lntervenden.. orchestrated commuter a telephonic phone-in. rrng tone.:In I ~. IUu HI 1:1100 capacity to unite fields of public art. untong sar'. significance subversion even as they helped !!rides and -dlil On all of these artists were watching [0 net CUlture evolv In Public Space.« :tnl~~~~l' of booths Desig rh time and date for a collective. lUll 1..tform as an art plado • .gh . ~_ on expression and communtcatlon Via new technology' he BSS . lUI 011'1 1!U ')1:CI}l1 111 ~~H Uu In un en1 :2'11 not 01713"11 ::lUI 0111 "1'1 lUll. audio and graphics.we th- ~~~~ ~ :::..

\l\br.r own w visuals Chat co. _ i.. r erne! reflected In the art In Ho! P. the net in the. screen With mo evolve In tho of avant-garda film schooled on a computer and screen-centred We see these elements be ork of Oha Lralina (b.he group Medical HermeneUtiCS (Serge. who fi began to use [he net in the mid.the Orfgrnal 1997 essay 'Behind [he Screen' theories as iii. che internet'.and v..of a mere mcmare.. ' ..b.nd Ikrdr f""" <he Io'.. Anu(nev. Cilme Come Bock From the War (1996) [20].t Root Nor An My fJ{Jy(r. li"II" a.I.end va.iujQIlS SheI"cr In . ument:.3rt1st. 1971) and Alexei ShulgH'I (b.fl!~m. f)1rl"ilt . COupled wlrn other al'"'OS:u' Of) j~ to Cre:i1re . of TI. means clear. . sec against th (in whictromantic support backdrop window). L"Ii~a ICto. of th gin notes some of the Jmbigultles e medium. and uses frame programming and subdivisions Its balance of text and Image across by new media art theorist and film director divided Into quadrants has been described legacy of screens. (1898-1948) earliest influence included examples on a single web a darkene Lev Mano en in !he men po". and wider audience'. h • nne arts now rs c angmg itself.sod art.suallze the described phenomena' Shul m's eleeu'omc phoc II ' g o ga ery e eracrs photography (rom the offline gallery context.1990s as a distribution outside adopted the Moscow film and art worlds. ovel by vinu! photo gallery'. as a commercial was marked as American beyond their borders young artists extended interactive anG European from the beginnmg.ctonill ne e~ampl~ is Empty Icons by . eve opmem of the computer technologies had PUt this pOstulare on tria I. 1963). The former narrative. both of which were made at a time when [he web cc Qnly the simplest dramatized graphICS lind text. cheaper the Internet was 'the next logical Step .room and had a voiceroail system based in his kitchan cupb(f)ard For his experiments.1ry aspects.. no· nib t«hnlcJI.J in faveur. Wnung in his introduction to H p' 'Ph at Inures otography for the long trme seemed to be h I th r c e on r credible me od lor re31ity reflection But 'he d I . 1996. from the Russian gallery scene. respectively plar 80 its Idioms and tools as the core of their pracnces the directness of Kings Cross Phone In with d of Liallna's project approaches !leidy IIOff Contrast medium-conscious My Boy ld 1994) atss Mll! \'is~r 20 011. h to W<J b.w~lch h"l'Ok. fo. and there w MlJ. tn. Otoshopped photos of Russlan religious 'cons.onod th.ppm. palnti ng and photography. of ItS self-styled centext: a gallery space free f rom (0 white cube constraints. The Interests of boundaries archive of "York of a work in which the user can direcdy the compUter r and the separation of 3rtwO ' the narrative the dissolution tmage. as Shulgm called It. Vlad. Hot Pictures was n rnF11erclil. Scene internet his KJng's Cross Phon I11. Russia's rtch hisrory in narrative and reconsldered capabilities. Russian eleccronlC . . an oblique. It to communicau: s man I offered ways for Russian new media artists and reinterpret Finally. depictmg it as 0 broad medium that accommodates We see these covers o II broad At chis time. ..Iuded 'ho work as role' I 'n re anon to art was by n 0 ere no 311thorlracrve or complete formulations on the subject. Ut a so an a tempt to ~esean:h . arc. rnanlfestatlon ora Ru Ian Com.r. ne 3rtF'ractices in wi th artists' Ioenture Russlon /nterne[An In the same year milt Bunring organized three maior factor> were encouraging reactions RUSSIa..illl Sergei Eisenstein's It is also one nhhe professed between in He! PlCWrei of parallel montage. of war. amenable te both private aecesslbte reflection from home and OffICi!' and and public reaction 'k ( WOI rom the politicized to the p. mechanized and doc h . My &rfrr. decor'illl'ie. c.'l". As the 'first. then POpularWIn. which range of paimerly. In addition.C!ures. Shul . or Shulgin's Hot Pictu [21].. ilnd. Another example IS found In Evgem Llkhoshers(s (also called Chumakov) 36 J7 . net rechnotogies synchronized agai rlS'I: a local commercial mough the internet and publicity-d F'Ven an scene.Firstly. So photography which In its rime had changed '11 r: . fJ{Jck hom ~. d1ar tIJ"~el perscnal . net . Electronic photo gallery is not only the presentation of speCIfic crusts and work' b I ~.e.mu' Fiodorov and Pay I P h II Ph e epperSteln)eav y .

.khodler)t.sed modes of art-making. If you wom of COurse. 'Symbols and Incerpretation'. The combination eonreoe. closer I.:-e-.. In a 1996 manifeue.nd publ''''Qun. It establishe.. 1994.rtl""'plUJfikhl stand ar ds. artists Joachim Blank (b.. Barbara Aselme......I"taJn Ion 0 r h:~g. He is one of [he most talented and promotion co his critiques declarations not the flrst artist to undertake 'interactive media .:~ 1981 -rut CfltI..d'um '~l guided both new media arc discourse and the work of che next wave af net arttsts..1'1 . In ~ 1991 fcnlHlli e.IS. 1963). "J.works thae are about the 'impossibility the concurrent tragicomic.. ·AnI .lGnli1 P1\IidJ!:by Ettjt.. a! WUbldo •• 0. ~ IUl.. accOrdIng to !:he Hot PiC1Ures. Karl Heinz Jeren (b. 'Ufe and Aided ~z::.. apOcalyptl! Shulgin identifies c would celebrate apen realms for upon 'afficial' an. In part mformatlan sharing and cammunication.hw.. . communication' 'pure and genllln '~ommunicatlon'.I on £hat we uld DIMr'W15e "G.. BeCause af the nee's casual climate of constant development.0$ 'The QUiet'. As a result.. social 19~ Ii< b .ot. Shulgin applied internee of censervative art CUlture.. discussion of canceptual and media art histories -and awareness of their own artistiCally Impure contaxr (and conseguently.f"!(t!. •• t.I10narU5fs olld theori~l$1 Just gel fjd O(yaur ornb. JAillnhvn.:-:"ul_.d mforrrrn f.:!. He would go on co focus On he formal and medium-related fetishes .. =. that OCCurs When twe modems inceract. <he ..Media artists! Stop monipu/O![mgJ people with your' by the prOtocols.. another was provided constantly eV01\1ing vo<:abulary of in ternet nowadoys.-""."IlJ.a". This p""enhl&blight.· l'hc.u:-.. new terms often sprung up In the vernacular.ruelligem Inlerfaces'l You are very dose 10 th« idea O[commVfIICGtion. it seems apt that an artist who grew up under the Saviet Communist goveromen mechanisms.allery ~nd museum culcure.. COflCer'llschat have . Theoristsl Stop pretending rhor you are nOl artists.. f. much internee formal rhecorte has a sociable.historical of online SOCial spaces and arc plaoorms THE THING and Rhizome..<1<"" in Eastern Europe' and 'Electramc of user-generated An or ElectrolllC a.. Your will to obtain power [ovel people [by] seGuCJng them with inrel/ectual speculolJons IS very (chough understandable). and forebears What was at stake in claiming web territory like for art) cl-adj(ions shows this group as both knOWIng heirs [0 3f[. is the no IS). lor 0'"..."r and Armin Haase allude co thIs term with the.1:0KDW . or usage deriving HOf P'jC(un:I1LdlrUnhprJ1 h~hft-P-'::-':-'. publishing presented in Futurist-like. 1961)."'. But [a} realm of pure and genuine communication 0.r. Art'. ".. 1990... 1993 web project Handshake. ~Yf-OIL USSII called 'Ronchach Test'. work of British photographer On They were. frl1poj.I.'!!ons and don'! regard people as iri/()l$. from Its use as an academIc tool and large-scale message board In academiC settings. TOday YO!J call find chose thOI call affiliate {WIth] you an (an] equal level." in IWIII.artefacts chen. the .' ". The: 'lIIilDt1U _DIll h~ IH!t. 01 !he ""u ... terms..len'HI ph"'''9tOph.. information couching and unsettling._"""11. and belinle art that depended as a tenable goal for the net artist: ! sJ spaces or intellectual 'seductlons'..n. • .l is much mare appea/jng and is becoming very PL "e New Vocabularies If dlsda!n for the channels of the art world offered one route in to web-ba. The 'handshake'.. OIl" Work The 10" .. Curiously. And in light of the rigorous discussions about the cultural role af the internet chat would lacer 38 . Llkhoshe"s['s last works~ photographers in RUSSia: building hiS own 'The lase evidence Cert:unly distrIbution capabilities prescriptive chat he is an a r eist.H Lb.. pracess mutually beneficial InformaCion (or example.h'b"". Handshake Is a visually and organizationally baste work With a smallilwerltor)' of law-fi images spIlt up among sections 19'1~1~~':..< hOW (Orget che very word and notion ·ar~'. cammentary...org.r-nt:t L5 -OlbJe[0 host .s transmission speeds and Other related German exchal'lg" metrks.n9(0I/(I[lons'and '.ul. Forgr:t chose sill Shulgin did not make any mere web work relating cl ely to the saCial and eC(!)Oomic conditions around him.. k.... are imposed [on] you by sUPPressiV(' SYST you were obliged [0 refer your (remive actiVity to.. ... provided of being an arrisc' and recall Rkhard Billingham. friendly tenor. after Hat Piaures a5 ArtlsulTryto 21 Alexcl Shulgln HOI PlCJJlrtt £"' . [un[II} (or crealive cOmmunication.!.~lblillY ar " In bl 9 .hjtSk~.. Beyand his Confessed ~ver5lon to g. He keeps silence since 1990...

: The inVocation of 'fuck' could be seen . They ha. and their persistent oblique and nonsenSical communications.~tar language. Its s. a means from the completed divide of the browser work ISfree-standing. can read their' subtle. protocols application. there were also early projects. discordant and alphanumeric. 1933) deScribed to works In contrast rt.ll programming.urg. The Fr. indicates the capacity of develOpment by some IN lnd Its to merge effecrlvely the.vlsual research that re eces very well the stare of can "emporary CUlture and com~~nic~~ion. Tn mugh the collaborative address the first working across and rhe moniker by which its creators Heemskerk [0 onal web JOdl. written language symbol Chat means nothing and everythrng at the S4me (Ime _ a synonym for all other words . propelling work dependent As sue-specific components networked them towards operates Tools serVicing mterner protocols on and inseparable sculpture Handshake tendencies. creators are obVIously bearers of cyberpunk ideology wilh rather good taste.org also made a web page '" -a pro'dnrty-rtddled work WhtC~ ~ses the Englisn word 'ruck' as ru background _ for Alexei Shulgt. people who value experiment. composiocnal programming are almost Irs very 10gicaJthat they a re uSing the English be seen In hap:/Iwwwwwwwww. During the duo created content rnultlple projects. word Their experirnenrs began in around communn:y Interfaces. hll"II_/odl0'l.y evoke minim Such works instead lack the nonChalat or reo of Bunting's approach: leftovers containing ethics in which proce-ss is valued over product.meulared.llpin wrote 'The e . a quality shared with Handshake's manifeSCltion of tcs process Its tools.n runs) aesthencs is (onfuslng. I!Jg~.. them.n together Internee an derive in Significant ways from chelr location Within a and consumption. COt imp readable Max KOlloff (b. Alexei Shl.org(1995) [22J. Callforrua. inside OUt. J968) and Dirk Paesrnans (b. while the coupl the first few aggressively te and hving near Xerox PARC's engineering-drive In Palo Alto. statements here the markup web page lies source In a p3rli. Q 22 Jodl. online. public field ofvlslon so do many wcrks of Take. cunning code.org (bot are known (b.te-spec1flclty [he earliest web prejects: discourse sneakiness and self-awareness. and radicalizing the e ecuted task the unreadable. discursive muddled. (a computer's 1994. which reveals a cascade of traditional images and diagroms that or astrological.now~days It has become a mere repernive. gee caught up in. and objects the web site) are almost photographer or 'leavings'. of separating select 'View' and the" code seenl~LI (che H instructions Images In source in the menu of rnosr browser 'View Source"] Hiding coherent playful and rlddllng. but It ~Iso reveals the code s human authors. [h. often even to have ensured chac theIr those who task (the from page). mto Jodi.take place across small llsts and web communities.e presented pos[·li~gulstic and pose. Unlike many orher projects from this nme. on which all other soft Some of these lnrenu re s c. ene Moscow 'NWwArt C I entre ntr'oduclng It In August 1996. al ignoring coherent central turned in favour of desult and operating system representations of cede..S full of Inlernecine IntlltllCtlOIlS for user. ThIS surreptit!o~$ IS accomplished by ra rca d' I' - IZlng the source 40 . as writer an. (page bur he f<)ck as a background . (To view source code.jadl. and Independen t of external hnks or adler Sites The disinciina [Ion of Heemskerk and P'esmans to sU-alghtforwnr~ use of dialogue with writers and eunl<or~. for wor~. look applications. scientific HTMlJ. place.as a juvenile anti-authOritarian gesture.1'I95 of net arr's self-aware more medium-speCific from its location prOVided inspiration vis-a-vis the pa rticular and uieologlE!s of a. own motivations remain un. appears as a preSCient example artrsrs. that appe-ared and impenetrable. S Site. od belQw. 1968) were a abstracnr g ere venture fully lnce pure technological code into [he pictorial.. to effects are not what they seem: for behind tIlis code (the..

demonstrates while Desire. readrne.e:! reveal technical information about a site . such as www.19905 domain names were entirely up for grabs.com word_com becomes. rely on the. 1996 URLs (Uniform Resource Locators or file addresses). _readme.o ns ofbotll. one knows that It was hkely programmed Page IS In use. like land tieles in unchartered cerrlcories. at the II Java. signals inter-cultural d lmens.html ( 1996) [H]. possibly purchased for subsranml The Inflection of expertise In II domain name can be under by considering how 3r'1 art enthusiast would receive a text in the ardorum.com In(ormal terms (0 engage vmh chI"proiecr.'n:y and frequent Stra~geness of the linked sites suggest [he net's organIC aspects. and organizatIon. (which was at that time En g rsh·13nguag I . today. An accounr of the anise's background. never. even . an article pl'ofiling Bunting by loumallHJames Flfne from Bricish paper The DailyTdegrapl). The multip1icil<)'of a Is paralleled names. domam names and URLs can help define communities deSignating certain parameters of authentiCitY.con1 a.com) As In LlIlk. the (Ide also serves to Unite several regiSters: personal. by Ale.oI order (0 a chaotic space. H·15 use of Engll!/!. family and In rerests.Both Unit.org' (for organrzanons] or '. fundamental to the functions of the web. elemental aspects of internee art. readable names. dormnacec): the project's form.)5 ehe unpredlccab. for example. used 0' Remom IllvISI~/e) rakes ICS name from the I[1structlons documene .lnm[ (which Is also entitled software OWIl. serf-prOmOtiOnal. CreaCingil n overall effect qUIte different from Ian ua e. procedu.nec. are llrruced. gg Heath Bunting's conu-oJied and more eynlcal project on dornam the links.com doc."r use).that accompanies Ins~/lers.sports. of references another' In (signifying a . though often obscured by what fills the browser's main screen. by th ve ~3I"(h CI made . mayt Kmg Leor-esque secnon.for example. domain n3r'f1esare thl" most rudimentary.l<el Shu/gm and Heath Bunting respectively.arr. When one mouse' ns.desire. web's prOto~ol linked to IP addresses) and for dividing and organizing files into domains (domains are the 13 AI~~el Shulgln. tt> or power Demain name. If a UP has '.one may end with '. e pertise. while' asp' means an Active Server of writing It was difficult to buy tides for Iconic URLs lIke or hrrp:}Jwww. For example.o~ would yield the Finnish Cannabis Assoctauon! Shulgin's arrangement of concepts dC!lmainname: here. On one level. Often 3ddr~ . like 'desire'. always. repeated words indicate further Within the name .'never. the .net . The pro) how SWiftly expectations or associations can be undone With the dick of a mouse.org is an Inter-European mu (Development of a EUropean Service for Information or and Education).com' enterpme)./. based work offhne. X. emphaSizes qu alitle~of . X (/996) j)!3J lind _readme.b are u~ified by a lournallseic texr.an_com been occupied Shulgin's unk X forces artennon to domains by listing thernanc groups .com com. ~ Owned neutral suffix.lIlmfs the web page ex cernal links across the e -.ink X. foregrounds is a porn site. es n In one ntel me!'(lll coherenc".jSP' In Its address.semantically equlValem domain (every. while seW effectively emphasizing some of words and language. however. one sees that.~ the more surreal aspects diScovered by mOUSingover the linked words Unlike Link X. each word In ths article Imks to Its .com domain versus ene reSiding on a Ge or AOL server http://www.hlml has a text file called 'read me' that users are meant to read before inscruceionaJ and mchnical like link: X the centrality of che link and the . ehe finks are On into groups brings a modl~um ofpoev. In the mid. now. InViting the vieWer in fairly (aimoH all softwJre all the ideas it represents. a lin. 0l' not his native language. On a" her level. work and the medium we.these wou long ago.net' (a varied ways). They are sigriflers. Who would imagine that sky. Jer]fJme.

. teachers. and the With [eXt ilCt3cklng 'blg ch n8 '. the colours are b~rery there. BUdapest. fundmg conferences. governmental edU(. a cOnmtenL3dvocate 10 turope. rnnra crves were esrabhihed and Wired became an Jnc:reil'llngiy ligmflCan[ part of bOoms caking place in the United States and George 501'05. Macedoni3 and other Eastern EUropean e nib. Tra~el and DCKUmemory Modes Many artists and CUr.splacement ilnd decenrrahz. subversion of It1 With us faded pilleue. publiCized by n .hlml h'nts ar a different operatlona) between artist and CritiC ProfiCient In progrnmmlng various Cricks lind short CUts.. that sped311zed In arc.JngIt into hiS own set of Concern I Jnd Idioms SIm. The ljubljana. to the small net art scene.~' sorts of {(<lnSItlons Were enabled by the slgmficam pohtlC~1 and Cultoral changes rakmg place.repreneurial Many projectS thar emerged la.Hors Involved In m"d. In me midst of an econorrue boom.. light grey on wh. came ro or academIC pamways..lC(ended their work 3nd In[crests easily mro the Internet space. ent.aIQ l""'IIbloJ..med.rhe power of til ermc subverted email softw.Hlon and open-media as network technologies he development Or NGO.a art of the 1970s and 15180$l!. n prominent ne..te..ter were spoofed when te ts aeour ner arr.. ls CreaCes a [i!nslon between [he domams a mode or artln and hrs Invoc.e COunterfeiting of Yarlous critics' IdentitIes [0 be 80t~ Trrn Drudcrey. agencies.. There are poetIc Strategies at work: rhe artitle's COnrl!OlSpe3jq 0(30 Indlvldu~i and hiS preoCCUpiltlOn 'large Ideal sYS[l!ms'... an InYocation of melancholia. many Americans 14 H"uh 1996 BuntlllS 'ea<illldrrmi Moscow. ting centres regions.luly. Philanthropist of media literacy. arnsts..ltlon of eIght hundredcommen:lnl (one (or each word In the article) d.~"tI4. accessible and wen kno . In /997 Bunting was widely ~on$ldcred behind th.eCt whIch m kes cnucal and hyperttl arnse and dIscourse tua] Jinks between relationship and adept at readme. BumHlg modifies the authorlry of Flint's artIcle by appropna t. In Europe and Roula rhe.won U~ers encounter as rhey Inceract With [he pro.lre manlpul uens.le's re-publJshmg and mapping onto the web Is Pro oC3tlv v Does the artist approve of this proFile! Is It press milt rIal or . were po ned to vorieus by Some basic. was responSible for suppo.t'OIlS" nd workshops [0 Cliramrs and critICS .. mailing Jj~ts .ho exlsmd near Or Within 'technology [han who. from these networks were fllghly these scenes often had different relationships new media viii Consvmer. and critic Joshua Oec. beanng their email addresses and names..~ art CUriltOr and Writer. II< Dvm<fJ Of R..".

Wagenur's n around 1996 (it has Just been relaunched) began developing bur. European perfume and high heels to trade) were for those local to Siberia. 1955) and Kathy R~e Huffman Siberian Deal This was accomplished by analYSing trades brought a co 'realize the vin:ual and vinuallze the real'. like SU5an Hiller's celebrated prOle col/ecnng diverse postcards collections all entitled 'Rough Sea'.lIght away. exploring new dimenSions of global ConSCiOUsness... Used the web to aggrepte and Index vanous aspeus of the legacy of theacomlc bombmg or HiroshIma. [26J by (b.rnd Wohlgemuth exchanged SWatch watch..mages easily and. consequently. From the webs Inception." via phone lines with and basic HTML.J1 dOCUmentarIan Am~ncan Joy Gamen the very like-mind witness had as much to do With me web's plethor. documenting scenes of their travels on choppy interfaces that feature . AcceSSing ex-Sovle[ [erritlmes provides the landscape for a prolec. Employing sequem:es contradictory.l.rth a global transferred rhe flgurl'S and ("1((. as With the r-."<. IdentifyIng geogr"phicallocation. Th. text and . DedlceIl of object or data the Unknown Artists (1972)... and its ability to publish matenal Str.". or information.. as Americ 'it (Omes to exist by work was takel r" rnnc Susan Stewan: has commenced..elepresem culwr'.a •• " • the documentary. Shown at Ars Electronica Hiroshima Projed brought (ogelher Information . Germany).jr.~ L::J nre Bomb Project rUj in 1997 (rhe web me Was nor launched unrl] 2000) WIthOUt 3ny prior knowledge of The Hiroshima Project The role of [he artist as [ransnartonal or . f LS pnnclple ~s line of organllltlOI1'.~. !o ----------------r". Wagella. 1958). pes/tionll'\g map. One of the earlrest proiecrs was The (b. of data that were ofr. with ~'""'''""ICilI . ~ID~~I~Olntlud·.Jdlcal/y different kinds of access becoming available In the former Soviet Uflion and EaStern Eur~pe'.. In the the pair made as they crossed Siberia. 'OP":. evolved as the artists met... or via technoan HTML pages hOSted lent Itself to in this vein 26 Eva Wohl&cmurh and KAtht Sj~"Q" 0'.ve che anise the role of CUrator and.mcludlng eVidence of denial and ignorance aggregating hnks.me media centres where the artists worked.1.. Austria) and Transmediale the format Rae Huffman.. the paradigm g. Items bought words of the creators. considering a broad spectrum To understand element'" the work as a whole required eac 0 IUlCtapositron. Huffman . Slb!!flan Deol (1995) Eva WOhlgemuth was conceived t. Wagenaar presented In 1995. The Hiroshima Projed (1995) by Akke Wagenaar abou~ the bombIng of the e~enc _ by of Opl )IIS. IntereStinL mUltimedia data-collection r. festivals like Ars Electronlca [Berlin. An emodonall'\et:Work nd bartered w.tt !<><t'IJ1I1<"lIans em !Iu. communicated" Siberians. who had pre~lously made Imelder/ve installations. and exchanges In the West (for example. Huffman and Wohlgemuth poor reception rn(ormacion about a largely unfamiliar re.. 1'95 (Llnz.

These t"dveJ·bi!. an American Institute of Contemporary who had been a curator Art. festl venues at which to soc Wo'iS POtentiaJly nattening cultur'a I differences and pe peW3ung r problematic trends of capltlll and Cultural flow from the West mro less developed areas. with small bunens offering the user chokes that are Other images Include qU0eidian shots of and corner shops. 1957) and Philip another. o explol e onhne and geographically. The loggIng of encounters focused on personalizing and travel demOn~traEes by bringing mode that persists today. Contrasting tr.vel. Huber and POCock'. diary 19905 and has since worked with a number of institUtions <lnll festivals focusing on media art In Europe. inclUding the Soros Centers for Contemporary An: in Vienna and Moscow with these rr 90s. the artist's home (in whICh an old Mac Classic Is visible on the tllble). documen [.t. curators.org. actiVISts and theOriSts fOcused on net to Initiate international At the same time. (barh 1995) .s the culmination of a year spent as London streets are embedded south.based explorations as Wohlgemuth ~nd Huffman had done.ty. chan~e. depicted through photos and observations. Her involvement Institutions as well as with such platforms Te/epoIIS. Remote locations were not the only obieCts of online documentllt'on. Arruc Circle Double Trovel and Siberian Deollinked the net to less media-saturated environments.org is in some ways emblematiC In new media an's trajectory. east and west directions. crashes al1d this time of pre-WIreless Irksome wires that characterized offered participants and publicize their works and Ideas. vaguely cartographic_ skateboarders '18 19 a new reSident of london. Heath Bunting created two web Sites relating expeditions -AVlsitor~ GUldc> to London and which hosts projects by it Creores Conflia. without SUggesting alliances with or romanticIZIng the connectedness of cyber life with Arctic either.and-whlte images of followmg north.net technologies.ingunreliability. USII organt<. the cyberfemims[ particular moment natural landscape. moved to Austria POCOck's (b. In hiS own work featured on the web Site. as well as fairly bulky CPUs. Felix Step". he Is ~f entries and photos are published from the fringes of the phYSIcal internet In Alaska. Arctrc C"'/e emerging OUt and Ar Double Travel nUra tElspersonalities of isoined Electronica In Unz.art The senSibility of that period.low. and in thIS aSe is Siberian Siberia and Its people [ogemer culturally dfsparate fields . 1954) ArClic CirCle Daub/eTravel of 1994-95 [27] follows exploration and diary genres evinced by books from Dan. and sltuaoonist of artists who share a subversive edge. even as It penetrated ernail flsc Faces and the new med. many arnsts. Austria.photos and anlmauons based documentary of objectS of exchange morphing into one a net.~nd fe. interaction anc engoing narrative ~ rather than on any particUlar final destination. photos and maps. portrayal of the artist as explorer of pristine territories ably captures ambIValences (ell by net arusrs at thac time.ation Rhi<:ome. A Visitor's GUide to London represenr. In the mId. culture and relationship-based networking. one sees In both an emphasis on process. nd conferences many ~espectable all territories. Bunting follows an intUitive if sometrmes cryptrcally simple approach. how to make the medium a (orum for art. OUt of these prall s y I- scene and CUlture evolve when there was new terr. to less extreme Communication assocj~tlon aesthetic.led proiecU' also break new ground by memOrialiZing the drudgery and Weight of the various equipment they used. Black. Huffman. dialogues. It was more concerned With form than Slbrmon as the Berlin-based of a Deal.n HUber (b. Rather than condUcting Commod. (ocused genre of Works. had Its analogue In a rr networking. along with photos Qf sites . and has a sleeker design chat emphaSIZes attractive graphjc~.el Defoe's RObinson Crusoe [0 ar Boston's In the eilrly Jack Kerouac'S On !he Rood. Here.fi Idioms.amred [hem loose on his domain lrational. It and events that the seminal net.

Its c~nce. anal' Y. Rather than laudlr1g 'communication' as a Straightforward ethics Uf1[O Itself.. of communication.orm .m. space and If! On one page users can metro Some of the 'Perpetuate each placard t~r:heve P~bHc: emJ1. 1959).frles Wit h'rn ~ wI beucal .Its opening baJized fI one can navigate A V. simple senslbiliry Yoko Ono and George your own myth'. for enhancement of self perception. . perlodJ'n.". trol\on Internal durupttOn..ce CJnd harmony of CClnStlou~ness In each of rhe work's varIous SUb-pages. theorist of media pragmatlSm as a tool for social and polirrcal writer Da. ... praC[fces neatly With the Ideas of many of the intelleCtuals h~~cofe. If the Other travel projec"l:s mapped out terrain WIth IT [0015 and wei/informed aCCOunt5 and narratives.lsh TeleCom. Wall oro. 'Culdvate A results page. Including Its prOmOtion and attendant @l message ! commOdification by cOmpanIes such liS Brit." ' ell e an user) liSting.• .e relationships 'Id-ngs and roads.nguog e rIl:tc form .communicatIon. I ' ld es a contrast betweenoften hermevC the city. r . ~ut is futIle as p~OCel$ ~~esslOnless. Macrunas (1931-78).Wol/ of Cill"". 1'1~6. used the pages are ~plcally not usually seen by Though arm hi~ It IS introduce d b y an Index p d {Index to organize . roles In Bunting's dOl/etailed Bunting's Interpretations web USers' active and eXpress've pares of the Work. ch' C. untt l d'estructlon through c~lexl'ty I cO"trodlctlon por"dc!~ Clttac:k.or9 of interest In contrast project (such as SBC headquarters to user-frIendly travelogues and Covent CQmlr)g [0 promine"ce orr marling lists like Newme and Syndicate . 'Emotional your Own weirdness'. ChInese I'ndrnark. Bunting shows a sense of sGepricism and CUriosity throughout generail'led SUbsequent 'humOur' pr"sence Stations.~t5(:nL::(j'nuSt~g oth. to Lon d on • b UI I 5 . • ho" "ory The G. By "~ing !h. h 'It good to talk' $~ ~rttlS e ~com. onguats desire far .51irnple . self define by external.. Bi&1!' dl"""~ aUudQ[otile I"nc~on. toned by en! Communication version 0 t:go at che aruS . of time. plex com 29 Simon Biggs. ."ts.rnt of CommUnICatIon IItIat Creates Con{llcr Q!l! 'fj(! 110 7 shifted the focus to intel'actions. outirnlng a more .ThiS work dro"". . re Produce tiyo>m" [. with AnglO-Dutch H d [hrou&~ I'ke a psyc hogeograpbical wanche hyper' er cartographic pointers. creo e L .he biiJfl or p-erccpeJon. Kalka:.m.. 's rational order of alphabetical files and the artist order. Communication encounters were . energy depleotlon.eCt documenting a rrip to Jap" n.mporr. from a datlilbue or wordJ from Fra. this project IS quite j)rera'i . LI e: arts lnitiative of Japanese telecorn glan 'age features.. Within chis lyrlca bi aspects addresses certain candid ' an d u ncomforra e Poem .figures Such as Geerc lOIl/nk (b. leaflets share a literal. uttempted eXpression t s ~nfhct.c of mucho(<hr. the index page proVI . unwrttingry und~rrlnln!'lh. or submit text for placards that Bunting would distribute as per the TOkyo CUStom he had discovered. CreOles Con fI'let [28] was commlsSI lk AV/$/!ors C~I!II ' t NTT. of 'attempred e preSSIon' and and use tech Cools to add elements to Burrelng'. .~( poradox. memOrialozes but tile language ratIOJX!le fights bock. who was a primary G !Il).s h ' . ..9rasSll!ent.. I. ge from . of tactical 16 image-driven. WIth works by Fluxu. L .er by change and. The the level scrutil)y and tenSion of the Po~m heighten pages explore themes i Mllease a message vs destroct lon to destruction. p 10 London. oil dear I and notes how mall)..mortpl~ty ln6ptred fear. artists Che pre.rnet '1'[. were distributed b)' Bunting.. P(l1n.S/lor S GUI . • to relieve dented damlnat~on of ob)ectlve/1angullge/structure c!")'ptacon se~·otlve destre for breach of borde. noe ratIonal COlT)putlng'. 01 pl"e ono I. . n'\rlga~on' I trepes 0/ dl. Gte.vid GarCIa.Untficat\on t 1via language. Tokyo "'lCOUnters.

per se. 0 confident directory.sed these a[tlwd~ intereste'd In 'a mailing list. For free. luka Frellh and I was thinking of arc in chat COntext but very little wasarollnd and often ap.media Nertime. an.... Then in June Geerr Lovink and Pit Sc. but that rem3med less Wrm'! McKenzie Wark notes that Netrime Was c3ptllred d'e spirit of lIle artlSt as a catalytic and SOCialforce. also had Most complexity essays OIl media consultants. Then in Marrh I somehow met Heath Bunting (frrn contaGt was via telephone) and found his web Site was che best thing online. I felt very deeply. o( my actIons were part of the very general oppOSItional activism. Cosic.or. and remained aut of the lray of art·related COmmunitie~ like THE THING and Rhizome.based taught archaeology experience rnrough the Soros Foundation the amount of time between publication and feedback [hat POSts ranged wildly in style and topic _ on the Status of Brazilian radio. 19(5) against hyped. was salient .' In 1994 Coste came across the World Wide Web. the Rolling Slone of new me la lightlil by of 1t to sellouts.' 52 53 . often _ American _ I 1995 as a reaction plarform Was press tOU ung the mternet as a". reports arnflclallife. I immediately decided chat I 'Vane to at the very first moment. rneir email addresses subscribers tl'le list's master address. alms of Its paruopanes. While Nettime example. Many of the artists who elipoU. A Seminal project that ilIusrrates this position IS Vuk Cos ie's Net. . and when an email ('posc') is lt ls aurornatlcally to all make Ideas It was materia I (such as teaching. Some of those were artistic.'.s..o li .. Gerl'nan Pit Schultt: (b. larger-scale discursive participant time Nemme and continues ofarrists to make polemical statements and ge&tures to attack as an list. This context I liked. many artists workmgr . The ocher was [flat various aspects and mdustry were discussed often in political terms."them" both in social and artistIC chinkIng. and Felix Guartari French theOrISts Gilles Dele as an ac(ivlst: 'My bac. (1925-95) for projects connected users subsc~ibe forwarded ad ng to a list. It was one of chose siwations when you are 100% Nelof[ in Eastern Europe and Russia . has shown conSistent interest in histOrical narr~tfve (he worked as an archaeologIst before becoming an artist) and variable ways reduced [Q discontents of cridcal theory.vy on "us" VS. 1 remember surfing (or 18 be rnvolved. By the late 1990s this genre would Involve subversiYe product design and hacking. . wined in their highly IfIfluential constantly. Ne European rarely focused was an invaluable network net art COmmunity.Ilulu invited me co Venice for the first Nettime meeting . and announceme of thoug~ '1a[ in the ranks of what we called the DiSSident mOVemen or events .norms of [he art establishment. One common theme of the 'Californian Ideology'.!. I believe that actually chere Is a bridge between that and whar later became net. marketed disavowed of dominant important technology 'democracy' internet and ideology utopian discourse. Vuk Caslc. Though by Richard Barbr Ing kand me tUre ime 1996 essay of tht of technology in great detail.'utopIan free-market small yet enormously influential to International media aCtivIsm and theory crrcles until around 2000 important.. but eventually led him to create internet.org. The SOCial responsi 'bllity of ulil LOmilfr group of artists . barn In Belgrade In 1966. name. hours for days. cultural and political decislons regar d' access mg were taking place. Australian crltlc and lang. . which had a huge Impact: 'I saw the web for the first time .kground Includes several years (1930-92). I believe I have clicked through the entire Yahoo! By 1995 I was busy with tile ljubllana Dlgit3. writings and art. an d 0 th ers 'n I set up by Lovink.1Media Lab making sices for everybody chat wanted them. They tended to tn~ their Own declarations and definitions. ar on art. and publicationl 01 the all of whom could think of i1:in their Own way and imagine everyone eJse concurred. art and writing). were unwe Ie-openly com the consumerist. It thrived on the pOSitive confusion art discourse by non·artists. and pOSitioned itself against the "unbearable Wired'" On an email list like Nerrime. on the list. but it was also a series of meetJng. some jOurnalistic and some were agitation..n Impera(ive to create a parallel sysrem of values that Would COUnter [ile dominant diSCourse in SOCialist YugoslaVia. I Started . .. Who had and been active With cultural initiatives in Slovenia and Serbia. particular Ii· a t m e when JTlany y at eIlCOuraged a nu .there were two strands them.cal con[enl It! .cultures In W h-rc h the promise! . The language that I used at the time was thus hea. for the emerging everything I was doing . It found a negative semantic ter illn In its hostllity to Wired magazine. . related projects Others made work thar had a less practical reach. musings on electronic rm. that whIch was no more cl'lan a group of people talking.nd dropped was intellectual3~ critical scepticism Andy Cameron a term ref to the utopian vislons of the net.arr. Following the collapse of the SOYlet U' man. (It] arose OUt of in different formats.

lJ Coming across the conjOined phr"~es in an email bungled by a technical g. With the multi-typeface logos for which the Atlar staff and banal I This was the f web sire d eel s'. of HIMl H ing Net'Jrl I perse (as 0 known as CNN InleroCrive) [30J WlI.Net. The main one b jlinel influence of HollYWood. did more. p. In May 1996. 'ner. fashion and teleVision.rS[ wave of people wor~lng dUring the 19905. images of Pentagon about baseball and advertiSing promotions. communication fields. he began co present artWorks. art practice and the Nerume consisted of mailing imag~ to 8UI other arnsts and !rke-mlnded peers. impC!lrtant field of net hi. than suggest an art pracrlce rha r was rosted In net culture. CNN. distribution through which It is published.. per se fmllolY. Finally. Neton.art per se'J of artists and theoriSts in Trieste. N a repl. a rnlrror (or as suggested by German critic Ursula Frchne. Net. Alexei Shulgln.'1 lI:f n.Iltch (a morass of alpha~umeriC junk.whi~h COSIC coined after - - . and the smaller headlinE which were buried under headers such as 'World'. and his mastery his own web-based evolved.ica of the concurreoe CNN site of that time. per se is absorbed by the sYStem of COmmunication an . COSICS Net.. meetings amI COnl of the "art applied to the Inrerner. ~ ~dltlUU"1. how the 'modernist romantic per se'.mng a meeting (called 'Net.art') . COSIC'.5. functions here as a celebration The subverslsn of corporate aspecrs of lIblquitous American media and propaganda after the of artistic potential.ar. a belief ln parody and appropria( commodified media informaCion should distribute perception of the interplay of art and life. The name . Shulgln.At first. per se begins ~ campaign fer artistic au~hentica[lon on a St<lge stolen from the heart o( American media. idiOms of tabloid (etishizing and self.ar. Jodl.J. found possible'. Igor MarkOVic. 'AIiPof 'Music' and 'Style'. Indeed. CoSic equates with sinrster complete CNN news and the findings of'Netal"[ company was famous. Walrer van der CnJ1Jsen and Adele Eisenstein.1 self-perCeption.[ Schultz. Italy. There is another echo of pop art and Andy Warhollf'l particular at work .org. Net.would come to stand for the (Onrrlbutions of that ------ r. including ~. Cask. 8un~lng and Uallna chief among them. Andreas Broeckmann.orr per se II a fairly comprehensive statement of the ideas that were crldt. and which ie addresses. per takes materials from fields of mass.aggraf'ldi<ement Warhol's media attention IS Indeed. if Screell Tesl$ marked the onset of ~ paradigm In which a focus of Social identification.1ll <II that stage of development SCepticism towards held to consider in internet an: a serious engagemr ijl On. and how artists ~udlences When ropi~s and premises per Sf IS could deal With glot SI! were not universal. media. 'Veb siees shares a blurry border a mainstream some of his own headlines. a and a ~ se ere rk'" rt With popular media. a neolQgism ConjOIning artisuc and Internet individua.7" WI! ---.S his first project .an 'Technology'. Internet art projec::t to appropriate COSIC created both as Idealoglcal and contingent wrth a bralen senSibility. which was for many synonymous first Gulf War.art how net artists work. . But as his affinity with crowd grew closer. 0$ tIIUU. formed a poetic announe Gr lrnages an Like pop art's early herald the British Independent whith affirmed the banality of photo-generated 'h~ With hacking and agitprop practices that would become an an. often referred [0 as 'taC[Jcal media' Located within afield of mass media.or. 'Specific Net. At 'Net.arr'.-- --DaI. By shuttling between per sa'. a fake CNN sire commemor. its only legible term ·net.

rhlzome. Sarajevo was launched as a BBS for artists Cologne. nodes for discussion Drall well-known Eil5tern European started projects to connect Sofia. 1995. repLJI:3LIOn gifted group of arnstS. 1950). An unmoderaced discourse.t was clear that RhlZome_org had to become a nOfl'profit OrganiZation to stay afloat. <hoi.Staehle n up for sa Ie an d a year ISler servic e proVI ' nd distribute PUt digital files by Peter Hal/ey Marlko Mori [32J published images and sound files by the likes of Japan".Worked "'tit (IS?) of chOice for many artists based .org. for InStance). Stal' and ~ characteristics channel. u'lng o. curators. work. that they thought the 'new economy' Germany. Rh. eo OJ J Capitalizing on its strong EUropean medft. or friendly chatter welcomed promotion Ilee y_ in focus. like RhlZome. THE THING's and kindred spirits to POst on they would dlalrnlo and politic! DUring the mid-1990s. founded On De/euze and Guattarl's notion o( il 'rhizome' as an anti-hierarChIcal. sell was (or a long rime a Standard-bearer [0 11 and art projects.err 1tI. NeLort per se's headlining conclusion was possible galvanlled discussions about onhne. made the pleasant Glmaraderle discovery were the dominant artists impulse buy In a cornpur After logging online. curators.org's m. Rhizome.x of EMatter and theory.ome.Jlk about netwOrks and collabor.~ . THE T including those behInd edltoria' ventures like Telepolls laking shape by artist WOlfgang Staehle (0.me of Its formation In Berlin In(ended to be Such art critiCism and consUmption pa'r-tklpaflts' preoccuPUlons. . Or for lacking critICal rlgour.mong Tribe and other hew media vlsionafles. (Tribe later relocated sprouted up internatio in locations list was Syndicate.focused public forum. New 'IIor k a ndGerman~ In ties and Stae hi e '5 history on THE THING. reviews !:he text -based hub to trade ideas on art. media art practitioners and Estonia In 1995. of most BB Staehle's Would serve to value flew ktnds of content. sticking to the web as its bas" through most of the 1~90s (as opposed 10 ernall or prim publication formats. Morl.com was che mood in 1996 . an interconnected. Belgrade.org a for-profit venture and Started off as """"". In fact.known ortis" •• u.orlgmally and Word. By 1998.zome. se artiSt der [ll] - THE THING was the Internet 3l ""arlko Mori.org as a venue fOr arc discourse che changing Conven tlons of electrOniC by refUSing to be abOve Its At the t. leveraged the archl"e model and email lists to form W~atlts Tribe has referred to founder Ma rio: as a SOCialSculpture. ada'web was mrred that a Specific 'net Internet art lai<l( Whir sue ther "h I from hIgh-minded [heorerleal POSts to patenr self. THE THING built itself mro an InnOY~tive arts lab.. that Information-sharing eXChanges. 57 .. Thre (1991) [31 in New and enthusiasts to New York).!'tlve platform run by new medl~ artiSts.the gallery scene. Rhlzome. crItics and Viewers. but Rhll:..un::u w. '" nUI11b e r of Well . technology THE THING hosted Besides being the first diScussions.. after a curiOSity-driven led him to Set up a large modem.c .Ome. to t. A~lIell'Qlnr. and for many art platforms art on 11 e .org was Singular for using email hst hosted all kinds or Criticized for being too 'AmeriCiln' models of free-form discLissions as Strategies for an ar . Albania.org were based In New York: THE THING (1994) and Rhil:. deceruralized network.( meJfl$ 0' diStnbvtlon {o. and he decided as an intellectual would benefit from theil an exceptionally version of an online communication artist attracted intellectuals boards. It ISnow cOmmonplate communities online.5. lnd G m {Or~ (1996).

_ sponsored EAT In 199'1.rly 1998 when p pa Y 0..ect r (Jons before slwrong down 1M ea. ken a [. and Beliefs aggregate~ m d. LIke New York's D.-der has Its sexual side across a web page Chang inodfly these aphorismS'. WIthdrew fUI I there 15 no way [0 group .lditlon o( the Bell Lab..es.CuratOr 8eni~mm Weil was at. Chonge and BelIef" unsettling aphorrsms.ada'web convenlcnuy Without sertcusly j t ch 8 .. Occasionally one comes across a VideaS [0 Q. Holzer'~ long. whIch had "slmJlar programme for collabor. such as 'HumanIsm is obso nd 'Mu. owned largely by AmerICa Online cq red DlgTtaI ewes and ada 'web rn 1997)..he wlde'ranglng pro)ecl:. I.. Well teamed up With che arcs-l"l1 llded i Brrtlsh busml!ssmM John Bon:hwu:k to foulld iida ·web. but was Interested arnses [0 creace online experiments CUt his internet teeth In workIng Closely WIth that e)(plored new terr .' TO i"'orov~ Or reolac. Well had wlm THE THING. ada web produced Its first art Site In 1995.. Canter for me Arts. uSing ltem~ Sue hi [S or more commerCial forma [0 [S Including billboards tched he rni ed context of lhe CommerCial an d:i w b would develop around twenry other pro.ne$ of production and disrriburJon in me r. an Onhnf arr pJar(on'n mat complemented Borthwlck's other web Site gUide ro Manhal:t<ln called TolO/ NewYoric. Please.l 'fours will be added 10 a n~w m~SI.term IntI' pJtlJltlIng informaTion In public spaces. Ihe 1I"1:I15m -'!!.fped tnIlsms.r lin.1[jng with blue-chip arusts on web-based prOjects. refreshes named for one of the m/e words. Jenny HolZer's pi ChQnge BelIefs lsl The work divides Itself inro three parts. ltal C.t. tted version of an aphorism.o IIltere5red In hybrrd forrni made poulble by onllne fo~mats.

ntood as delaJls or. numbering JUSt a few thousand urltll 1999 t~_..A V"tdlto o.. .iUClI1. <he Mg.• foot tnknng 0" a Invi:nb] e L tves -Illruc.-_ ~-~ ON THE lIAY We or~ the [llyo1 sons of dlstonc~ the mll'ld Every morntng we ~epart. .-~~~~ ISm ·1 I In1ervul.l1 .~II.3 h. (flgh'I. ~"""'al """"""""II.tneleu '1~"rr.P~ oe.and Doug Altke (~ f. 1~91 The M"'eu'".. " In a varrety ."".11and his cOflab ar-:rJscs wju. Serb 0. More than slmp.)rcr.~'0 Incrod'uoo 'nd jn Ultn"'~ aes ~Qt. 196a) h h .~. ~ II" (I. Flash Art and Art N".nd CDmidcr 1So'''.1 MOdem An In New York un dcrto~k ~ bnj!!f e.. FUrthermore.. roup partiCipants...Signature idiollls Or intereStsIld u. '. "'tU. h _L organization.SUe" as I Lawrence We/ne. abloze 31 8arb .<ton lI.ftl. h~.1ti1s(:S. and acio."Oll/tors..(plCli.! o~~r 2 we~ able to e)(p Iore telr ."""._ FQotfo11s echo in the memory. Oil anoth" .N An <>nll"..lrs . theSe forums Could oft res·emb. accOrdtng !'Inti" to tile rhytllin c 10\1" the songs eSCaped boc~~ord Cunrr"'~OilP<1lch. unlike the [raditionalJy influential channels of art~ . 19<1 ).r (. jlliia Sche. EipllJdmg CoJl.Wltrne J latlon Ur Online nodes like ada 'web fiJledlmpol""tant gaps between artists and estabHshed institUclons and audiences or art h ." fiom . ~tr'pre 'l ~.lifodal r'e5e.print magazines such as An(owrn. cu.n:l!ld th e er t..ng"".rlorr 3~ er Pl'lt"crnet art.. diStflb.U''"l'lnU.. ..utlon of new media arr prOJects. .lImol Mo d e rn Art . melt th". With the email s. " these COl"nmunitles Or networks solved everything -If artists still lacked inclUSion in broaderarr diScourse a I( they COnsidered InsLj[ullon~1 acknOWledgment [0 be there were shared Concerns about how artiStScoulti themselves. "" Orators 'fl1!~r 31 . th~ ll'lStalt~ 001) Lon..le variety-show stages or SPoken-word pe.. whol1'1 they worked .~ And.. thrl CO". .o. critks and enthusiasts to nand or footing.fry-..'iVlu~~...~ to r'l .os cJoar An:aytd ""!fun 1> rrllm e. proJo~ sl.o doc-urn en [ CUr. a Wlndcw en one. s"rb. f-bl/oy' '''plo~lnl C.bc tw'een thord... '''en of [he eura IOrP.. all o{wlnd! can be Wld..lley. Scnne.underrniningthe of the well·known artistic goats of We..exn rr.re. ~ ~r -J i ithO!e Wm II wL!r~ OO'H. '.r eern eal. the smafl..etting making an end to dl~cul Virtually ImposSible.g of.of ways. </on r''''m: S"'.n::h... H. 5 lrt - . .:~~ rt . 1"7 Mod".oJunrt Il' 0")10" . Iflg t elr affit· . ~Yhible and PmtHcy n ere.H:JOPl .and Vjy.d I "'< somotlu!lg I The tne were thr!II.--_ _J 61 .. Co om f outhoe III"~ a let Q£ .j~o.'''''''y ""c. ell ts utJp1 ~H b OD£ -------- ----.b. 1~96 Contnbu~ed IO an intimate and cfose-kni!t sensibllft)! " lei -'en IOU5. [he net had many shortcomings.d that VIewer.~.~~.~ ~ . rl'lo>m 1I""~""'m"._--N (I The heart lIIelghed down iliUM core and bitterness Vilego.1bcranoPl ~nrJ toJ'Iltn[u'O'iJl1g d... li~ts enabled arliSts. Qwl" 1111... they gave usen L '~~ to communicate_.ly enablmg the prom (Jnt (J~~u ..iI!h th Ullil~ u.. london 10. Indeed.. develop critiques and amuse (hernsel~ online chat a persistencactivit)'.

as a technoart and manipulating Identity technology referenced (b.. IdentificatiOn (I.':t. wirh itS explicit of the 19705.Cyber(emmlsm Among these discursive networks.iirsr ccmur). In~lud po end. thac femmism'S migrarlon Into In(ormation-technology fiel of 'Third Wave' feminism's occupation of diVerse pial for public action and rebellion.. matrix like Sadie Plane (b.s '111. 'CybElriemimsm' practICe.. cyberfeml [he p 11 1111 lr describes . also based divisions of lab()ur Within these fields and Industn Women's expenences effens on work. domestic Commenrs on [he gendenng ferrufllzation or erOticrzaclOfl.x _ C'om~uU:lr Tht pon. generally of Women In technologic addresses speakIng. rt!..'. Where a fairly long hinory Newme offered up deprived verstons of net dupes. rhe approach VNS Matrix took a different accepted and searches /Tel behaViour With sexual and creative for fun and knowledge personalities. artist').lrl il'l"d. as well as rhe combinar 01 res merl' ers and on email hsts underscored o( male-dominated users 3..".eo". re jen~ el and sexual politics can be addressed'. includl! of technoculture.nin Manifesto is at once sexual.te.. Ani or JIIY. Francesca da Rimini (b. race and class informed tech" and 3l often took place. IC . 1943) It. who left r digital spaces in In ics com changin group wjth [he stared goals of U' to 'create l:anne roup ch nlque.. 64) With 19 COined the female lnd MOte. 62 ...I[ Iy ill~r in 1991 in Australia by men Starrs (b. Wieh a decentrahzed. Their Cyber(em. cybo. langua.$ howehe net could be seen as IUS' the la[es[ media. often unknowlI1gly _ overriding of various freedoms or lacking in cririca. It can also be Identified . 21s1 Century [39]. suo::h ~s faith Wilding (b. in A Cyberfemmist Momfesto [." espectlvely.. 199j ti.~ "'og'~h~' fer g. It. ~ sr. A Cyb<'f'. c". c." . the scrurlniZillg of "olit' I~S r[he analysIs of how gender. 1966 Pierce (b 1963) and VirgInia Barratt In 1996. VNS Matrix was formed Josephine life. bf VNS Marti N. SOCIallife and leisure. various technologies.r ~d". connection-dependent VNS 1993 ~o Srlll'rom All Now .ge.. 1 diSCiplines and labour. 1959).mmsr Mo. the crux of net culture..O"' Gu~ c:ollea. male-dominated The presence of of sexual pOwer.lve VNS Miltril( [l9-.1 dJ~me or lila SCU!'lJn-ncuon_b:'!ri:d 1m. femmlzlng Other rheorisrs was One of these fields ocuIUl~~ of . c. {it. Whom the Ausrralian term 'cyberlemllliH'.j J9 VNS Mdtriw."u".f:Jlnilry !I.. eva k es the '. As well as SUpplYing a rern: "'a.ii:lmo Marrl~. 1955).!OJ fountJ the net to be Inheremly feminists. or the frequently and spectrums at conferences Intellectual. 1.. pleasul"es and Writing rnarexist beyond discourse and fixed . graphical and technical and. do C~ predj'l It!' U1.tm~ 31"'1 In d t~ frrTOr rew )"e:iJ f'l pan er rh'l.1 ab"~ty. (IInly...e 'I am a cyberfeminisr covers three areas. the Ma[rix flaunts strategically sexual and technll:a I languages.uot art with 19805 French lemlnl!1 COnceptS like Jouissance and ecriture w h· h POSit.

The projected .:he group popul. ""'. L r onve~~1lIW ' .. the aversion to dorcorn culwre and ethos was seemed often marked by e panded Uses of satire and parady _ emplOYing rhe IntrigUing hmlts of these models [0 prOvoke critical COnSCIOUSness While a Web Site CilJled ®TMurk. One of these was the 'cyborg 1:0 a CUltural dependence on techl1ology. but we had aCc:ess[0 a so We just Started writing about technology. ilnd was bolstered by critique.onccxwal. s 'll1Ji ' y particular new technology.lrreptidously COnfuslIlgWeb users abeu.$pe~t of die reakey are in relation to daily praCtiCes Incorporated In 1994..il(: As her 1985 canonical essay.com Would become an epicenere for thiS activity in the late 1990 . n"n. and 'n 1996 a Search engine hack thOusands of search engine called Digital HiJack.ghl.. ..t. SlVlrzeriand +was the first to US"edatcom aesrhe[lcs reposition to .om d If . their al]eles Included sl..ubieO'f) as a politically pOtent feminist aesthetic by Donr 1l<lWilyJn . of COurse. Amazon and Yahoo! are dotcoms.fOolery and confUSion wieh ambitious.1990s. True. .. One should also note t'hat In virtua I ne MI ronme'u '.c I.mat1 ( £il net heralded new kinds of fluid identities.zcd In $(jbie~ve. on of self were often rh0ugh [ of as alternative per sonae. Cybor fJl'igl~g of eh"se policics COokto c:I~imJ'1gthat in ter~et [errltory was 311d ar[/scic.I I~rel'i·orlty of commerda·' vemures.ted In Sw1r..hough ~ey also maintain In art circles. I<> focu.styled hybrid of business PIOlCt. the 1'rJan'f~!1c I d r." We tried to make it like technclogy r It's fum to Use: Another reason the 'c:rber'.r h referred ~I Eva G.. p~rtrClpanrsdOWnload and concept of the time. utopia offresh social formations an d Indlvld1l3 !Je~.:gs- 0' Users to the etoy home page. Century'...im'LiI tiS !1m. rtlcAp:3nr. OnHne. ro get theDr] hal1ds on the [0 fun with it.th. The plan. hsm. II' .<tJ pnrn OU[:I b. though ambiguous.etoy members brought office aesthetics into {l'Ie more margm..i!! It {or we. of t deal artists in pilrticular. On ~nr like Palace. Grubmger's web . dec""tr.s of the !I1tellectual.hies and unprecedented 'mtercon nections. backgrounds: writer... Image port rays the Inter Forl'l'om!I' . WhIChredirected q That people could be liberated f rom tr e S ta n dard (Jescrlpul'f !Iih ualities of the day-to-day world gave way [0 ttl eortes .inscribed In a cir Welgnt..lti. The term 'do[com'. e-commerce beh'avioLlr.noj. In<hIs ea rl~ Work. masculine aesthetics pnYileg "y el'llmlS[ me at ' • Inte"Vlew pOSted to Nettime.meaning (which was identified as male and bound b e language). In 1999. popular in ["e ml'd -I990 s. was 'to esta bltsh a complex and self-generating an·'ncuba[or regimented art v. 'sexual' and 'fer< so compatible in che hands of the VNS Matrix IS rna de optimistic theorizations of network techn in the mid.5 r~e Technology. Via Identical (OHumes and highly disCLiSSions.Jveb QS[fy tc be r... and $oci<llist-Feminism in the Late'): [Ie!h ~o." Ideology". As prOViders of solely online-based serViCes. a lei hierarc. the content etoy offered. "d Iinel W1 '.I"O<I sw. PIl>fu"On or It. We didn't have access na . warried chat it seemed Such a boys' domain ac th the arrworld and So On.-driven.ces..an: arra~ d3t.1 tr. ce AI 'Ice Jar d' t h. We had this agenda of women to get inVolved if they want [0 lOok at thl wjth technologies. eto). com pIece wahches! '. based on detailed research and e haus[Jve and socrety Into cultural value '. and One persIstent articula[ion of polr~ICilI One Strand ftusCIOl[lon online has been an[i-capitallse sentiment In m~l1h~!O We Wanted to work With teC:hnelogy.Junded If1 the 19905 With the aim of capiralizlng on the rise of inter[le( usage and culture by prm'idlng specialized tools or COncent.ubinger. 'ndlvl<fu. ". e[Or become embrOiled IIIa remarkably complica~ed fight wJ..mJOe. as artlculaced on the web site. 'A Cyborg Manlfeno S ce.die. 3S they 'were taken to be emblematic Utopian 'CaUfornl. dotcom named eToy& thar brought the spectre of corporate mOckery InIO the scope of AmericOJn finanCial ma~kets (see Chapter 3) Anti-commerCial sentiments POSing a relatiOnshIp of binary OppOsition vis·a-vis che 'artistic'. refers Co the semantic SuffiXes of new media Companies genet'aUy f<..illld eustern Iz. fuelled its self. Itself travelled as a W<1phic.llly mfect5 the nature of tOday's life and business at large that turns the essence of drgltal lifestyle.~ . Josephine Sr~rrs ed Inearity. .'''f :]. iii I'"eJ!utt. Part of the prOject was to use hUmol1 process.lruo and e-brand which reflects ~Ild drgir. or'a\llt3fl' . 110t.1 scenes they rnhab. grap hical r • esen14uOIIl One COStume cr p. been. hnpOn. difllcul. a[ion~~·p d to nal'! whereas companies like Apple and IBM are an online presence. group • goals and methOds to Dutch art crrtlc Jo escrlbed [he s h sep IneBosm ~ 'We Started POstering cities in AUstralia With tfla[ " CotPoroceAesthetJcs Critical consciOUSness of power imbalances tOok many forms net art circles. performance artist. ::ier(in. deployed by the VNS Matrr d advow. etoy_ s created by a group of European artISts then operating OUt of Zurich.:zerland and AUStria. neatlve mora.c~nclog. We're all fr. DOtcoOlS were <:>( the marke.=dn'~meL thl'Ough r which a -. TIll' prOi_ ~. NCI:Zb1km" 1795. filmmaker I I ereol f a phOtography baCkground. Further establishing its historical . trajectory .an allUsion to [he argument POSed b e'/Ing If !lear (... these POSSI 'bTfes held a grea rI I aesthetic pOtencial and fr'eedom.stlnc[lon b erwe en 'real Me an mls 'f ' but rr was a popular aSSUmptIOn aro und the rime 0 353 'net manifesto. often the fOcal POints for thrs anger. In ~n . 'pure' and 'progres<lve' were .Jclnl p:n~urn (. on relied on making a d.c~1 ..

z"P<r. Pro)! at rh behaviour.t'gy WOrltshop. the COPICof dotcoms c varIOUS corporate beh3VIQUr and allowed artists rejection artists of feeling In a different place Or . U~f"ml""rity and Wonder of dIgital aesthetICS SUPerbQ(j In 1[$ earl~ icera(10r]s seemed to disregard programming limits and standard spatJal deplOyment. private sec B Benjamin (b. Abo'~If!ft hard [0 SUStain In such a mIXed environmem context as til IllImilOll "'es! A term derived of coordlnatton. media M05tS ' . Especially In .hlml. The grand speCtacles these ~rtI5t5 created as el(per1ments Were unable to reconCile ehe tenSIOns between the aesthetic and commerCial. 1910' and a Belgian artist. newtor MlChan '42 1] an American base d In S a n FranCISCo.3Jl h b't exC1fl. programmers in the new me dlia. but they ISO I..~ much commercially and Connruc"ve ' " arnsnc minded . Netscape and Qua/comm (free-softw. 'I. by new media giants such O~I Vu k ern per se.rdmr remlna' and nm. This war k w as thought to ex I I h ph. Iti>o-r (I~h' 43 Ben B". 199$ .. Zuper and Superb ad (1995) to shOwcase arc and de.· Of SUpported themselves as pro ~ esSIO nal designers. 19(8) ·he could often be found at wor k In t [44]. pro wileII' . 19905Jl'" i designers/artiSts who began working online In ' 06 [ Samyn (b. 5uperb(1d used iI range ofaesthecics practices 111 internees. and aU of them found ch di$tribu"ted Amenca via browsers Th.n 19'17 of market Stracegies or obJeCtives.nual'. and undEjrpirlned by rIch syntheses of games..time by Virtue of technologies of much Interne.es that inter"el In 111the way that readmg an were dependent on cOmmerciaUy produce of Adobe.lghly absorbed the playfuJ and IOYous aesthetic capabilities of HTML. Ic rnusr be added. . (/'Om Z"~". America.. ces fantas. £a". and their WOrks reCOver a sense of the (un. including rOlolialil' hiS NIL" o mlffi(1Il ons madec/l. because . or Heath Buming wich _readme.njarni".verSe and multivalent medium. SOUl' chese very COntradictions bu c With therr own "nt Mo$t artists. d. Highly visual. governmental suppOrt lor arusts is Jlrnited.s senSlbiliey has enCOuraged stal1 Industries ""d cultures are 'v. lacer diversify the fleM). from Virtual reality descr. pop CUlture.ign work. suggestmg rh"r the Web Was a laUnched respect/vely. Itle qua r ' s . eXisrtng rk ommerc- ether Or tn an almost filnl4sr" realm. 'that in net art eire I . though. pr-oduces were almost alllV:iys fraught Wlch paradol(es: from an overseas (nend a kind of InUmacy that belies geographical d.bmg the Sel1. lands . advertiSing and Signs.1atlon 'telepresence' is a duractemcic ""lJII '"5 of new media art. en ere tWO such f H MI<~alJ SamYfl.whlch were then stan softwares distributed Online.he _ D rerm 'commerCiaI' was conSldere d as' bot h pOSitive and egao.e. natural reSOurces.rOI~f was as mue met artilll a many mte dLicers posicion as It was a rea IIStiC one.2 ·Prine. Bach Seem to have thorOl.! some ted of the nets mare deSirable and glamorous posstbllitles Te1epresence Ben Beniamln IImRo rl<lli<bu. With no ImpaC[ on actual behavlQur. w the mid.web sites With similar n"me~.

intern at Users . Is the physrcal. bringing represent. making use of a local nerwcri k co visuahze . sllch as [hose found arneng natural lll'tworJi' phenomena Articulating a link berween natural proc communrcadon netWorks In symbolic and mechanl""'1esses and The Telegarden (1995-presenr) [~51 by Ken Goldber"g (b. set to emulate rhe anOnymous nature and brand ambition of cornpames tr. rhe toxic rna cenals [hac (orm th by factory workers were moulded Thrrd World C .. and It IS Berger In [his Installation . 1e{J gh lre lor also POSSible to see through t fellow-users along w. seemed t etworks • the realities o( life offline.ark."". and the relentl lud€t) rgo the stock prices ofrntemet-related bUslhess for ~ mne. er'" arnsts who Immediately recOgnrled the net as lUst 0 Ii!•. of d~'o'jte~ followed the sam" In electronics. Steven G Carl SUtter. Ir between partlClpalns IS further encouraged 'village square'. several Users rhe garden at one time... orld 'glill. W<l an early incernet-related project sec up by Jeremijenko.. "Itill reality e slIY'nlSS come [of new media Culture_ The haze of press abo revolutionary p:lld to he Cdpabllraes of the net. Jeff Wiegl ey all ' lt11er It~ (b. which is headed the work of the artist grouF Bureau by Its engmeer Nat<llie OUt )eremijenko (b.ldmgo" the stock market. 1972). 192B). w co tend a hving garden {phYSically lOcated In Llnz. ilCtlvity With a String chat wiggled accordlng to Ior al computer hoi usage. ·ng~elIded the $'ta'lldard activities of [he Internet (browsl sending an email).th cheir POsicron In cnegarclen.0 the exrem that ihternet n espeCIally amldn media and economic hype.tetlTlllf 19 I) ~Q Joseph Santarromana. a public chat srs:tem_ The other Side of 'telepresence'..ll. The dangling sculp[ure increased [ h e penp hera! reat . cannily allUded ThrTe/egorden. and the product slm£!.wons ofless-YISlble infOrmation into ilr[istic Zones.. I~ munt. for example) A Viewer requestS are earned our In (Urn.. most of the worlr COn[l/lued to tra~el by sea (not high-speed packed and accompanied as Other compUters and related eqUipment Internee by people. In fact. like eroy. highlights a sense of by gemng VISitOrs In dispersed locarlons to manage Ow (by wa[enng It or planting new seeds. cere:un realities. . The projeCT.or eXlstmg systems... o OCclUde . And 1.. uve Wire (J995-present) . tries These rssues underwrote of Inverse Technology. literally and figuratlvelv the. Rosemary Morris. 1966) and. George Bekey (b. which 15 Controlled throu Telegorden's web sire. ne next ro many ochers. whldl . AUS[r' commands to a robotic arm.

at sculpture the earliest expression. -online tr Joseof years of net art practice.. With UveWire. its Wiggles claimed lI[[enrlor lor necwork In Lve Wire.ihe "" f99~En~ ~m 'll$Q/f.o od cafes . . where neg1ected inf0rmation. creatingan assoClatioll between mini IllSt and the internet. allOWing aural. .were to be eilrned forward in years to come.. screen and do collab 'nfllflll>' Jpter entary ~d olldnd 5izrngth! communlCaoon. lfic)jus: tile founda [Ion 0f much net art tha followed. st.y ng. Or "'tural 70 . was an unusual. ill pare bee)' requirE: ca I • aUseo'. the browser an Increasing foe In fact. mo (e. and IOp'CS...." very banalley. systems).. t<!r.. The work also Signals..d by actiVity. " Spll(laJ and Visual impact This Pie el( fOr • tc ~I.l.. a formal element is Vitalized and comp. Xerox PARe io activity. Palo Alto. illr-traffio:. !!l(pic reconfigured using new means of production. many of the preoCCUpations of h.. IfIi . SCUlptural and SenSitive I~d '..the formerly inaccesSible and unarticulated network While screen displays of traffic are relaclvely cOm purposes Interpretation . their symbols uSualJ or-pratli 11 and the String. tic or I~r<!m '/. NataheJ"remijenko. Initially installed in the heart of Silicon Valley.h ~ryd.nkD~ /u-po"Oil the /ormal fllons of technOlogy >tid rll an» "'"..Jeremijenko intent on er Would bee representation of In terner concepts (such as nerwor and [his interest t as much as functionality.tlorl.g. 15 audience. and attention. tl'<lffic f. California.~ The more of Lrvt>W.

such as softwareculrure chat emalls sene to this name are automaueafty fo~rded list of subscribers.. came Increasongly to the (are £mail-Based Communiries Email.'c SeWIlOOC:. Though the email format Initially limited users co texts graphics (HTML and gl"1lphicernarls did not and Instantaneous expression and irs or Sarai.hlight"d (h~ ntt'.he cyber Intelhgenma and art fields.lng medium for many dfscussions .. analogous to the way in which Pansran cafes hosted the of eXlSu~ntlahst thinkers.Shulg. music and animation.. diVerse.. which was iI key e'~ml!'nt \11 the web) ile5-cJU!:.ng' By d.n3UOM of '"Iourful bhn'i!1g bo .e was little interen variations H Alexei Shulgin.egoriU 'u<~.Chapter 2 Isolating the Elements By 1997... 7h" .. (.I(Uu. net an: had become an I!SCilblishedpocket of relatIVely autonomous art-making. and parody.category ·RUJe.und the wl)rla (argon]>". wnter who can chen respond accordrngly CUI.t dId not origfnue In IiIn~.ed <It. hlng .r"J prile.h 2'.rent <omb.uc development. It was certainly the In Widespread adoption organiz.1 by COUntry).}ovQ Flo.ur WIth dlff. media feStivals and arnsts' immediate SOCialand professional circles.rch In Tou.rd cetebrsres the n.w:. Bp . Shu'gm alludi!d to lln InfemadonaJ.m and hl.... able 1. c:at. 'FI>Jh 3' Or iFWh 1/) tht user I!. 011 In and even less money for net many and artists' work. 'flu.hlng. though it had not succeeded In reachmg a Wider public..' become popular unnl around 2000). The tradition of web pages had fallen by the waYSide.FlaSh I'.tlstlc Context.ml. Since the launch of basic web browsers. . ftom WWWART Aw.. ItS advantages were Its ease as a method for spontaneous lnternauonal organized penecranon.re3moc w~b 'Ilel tm..on Sf"..0 Yfew ".Ke..ffk "~H". using basic HTML and Images to make an documentaries "traighuorward appropnation and formal explorations. 1997 Shulg. 1~97. 'FI..ed cultures unequivocally smce ns dunng the 19905. <It of the Mw JaY>Rash option. 'fb. Mailing li5[$ consist of email addresses to .dlngthlS web s. HTML web pages had emerged.deto tome (ommon t. a system for sending and rete""ng network.n crea. cor and David Ross noced in a 19991ecrure entitled '21 DistinctIVe Qualities of Net-arc' Chat forms of onhoe discourse. messages eleCtronically over a computer communication has changed the nature of work and '<11:"'" in cechnologiz.. as well as email. Beyond the spheres of internet communities. WW"WArt Award for 'R~eilrch in TOlJl'i$tJ~ Scmlotiu'.I..cklngon . v'sua' informat.. so co rhe such as Tel Quel or Odober provided a forum (or postmodern discourse. and srrearnhned 48 AI"" . the.n foundod me "N"MNArt award to ul. .ttlmu under one name. .. such as 73 . i Shulgin..h f.:"owtedgc c. cnu. WiJrd a cO"(::lse gu. and literary and an: journal... Jacleor :atcn pOlnl(!fl.mage.

.. \I . Wjt)..enc....d~ fe 1t5l\1lt1i H.1 <u"..'hII . ~ b_t _ '\ 11 •• _utll ~ ~)A""'II!' of 1 1i~''''It. Jvel!hil took place. 1m ColiOClor OI""r...r bod> I>ic ...IOn from {ne.a"nt~rfci~cd Idontitl.. I ~y lol."on o11d . abl. In'pel> diSCUSSIonswere less apt to produce the miSunderstand ~h artists working in the 19905 actual meecings which writing can lend Itself.... -c..cl.---.. . '-....1-----.hls. thinkers invigorat. Crllfa.u...ntin& Engll'h cha".nd in. h~"" "... drink. ambitious young artists and of veritable nomads who hopped from Nertime festivals.. new media art wen nerended by slgnrficant arusts . <1....le • nil __... 49 Jod1.::'"'I"ItI: __ IaJlt .(':~C'IIIIIiI"" ~AI"1 ~ ."_" .nIly ee large . Ir. \."d... Or Illa~f were vi~1 S net Pok~n ccnversanon allowed more nuance than electronic and .m Cilmwr Ci:>mlliodity D While email offered fairly Immediate COmmunk~ . me scene's connections to (Dr tho "..... " WOI'I of nui>tinl rhe obleo~fic'lIo" . th~ direct lorte 01an ~maJl~nd the ....----.J t::..:. ..~d .. 1996.'".! to face).....\ n-~- to the early net an scene...rd ~""'pu"'r «>de lor "'p..-PUD. :5o)l.:. break down boundaries generative dialogues... contemporary art field.. events gave those involved the sense thar t were taking part In meaningful and productive discussions at l ~ultIJl! Though the artists involved were by and large margin.... from Next 5 Minutes annuals organized by media centres such as TO in Vienna..C<eN.. _ meetings to Transrnedlale to conferences C3 In Budapest and many others.er·ests. . J.. ""=IIIIr.ril!..'d.'-- offering expanded obscure \\ .. Ot..~"Yi .. l1li . especially on fnternMlonall1 mother-tongue excitement language variations." re the and engaged intelligentsia were a kind of compensat'O Ifest.. Indeed...ed by technoculrural 1_- l--_·' \ rc d~II'.. to sprmg 1997 for the .mailing lists. . J -.).._I \1 \--~\__ \1 absence of an art market for net art events were consrstendy subscribers the 1990s.SCflll""i n. field . more [han twenty-tlve per cent of Nernrne's travelled to Ljubljma. II.emy of .-tiUIUOOllfl%tJ'tro" of art.._ \ I.lfIiPl.. users aenve today should not the extent to which tF<iveland rneeung '12(' were cam ra I . oaillboruod w. " .ijld apell. e . ("~C~.rtu __ 'L-r.I~r:~f.)!..1lhng of perennial email correspondents 2f' (fa.~J4... beyond mee['n~ '.cited.. ... Despite the near In . .. t-.a "I~ jllIL • H Olll!.. r • .r. of physkallOC3tion f ....~e term 'm!t.r!lJJ1l QI(hl!li work j .Jte..h Bookchln '0 cre.. and the bonding over food.or-g..". we.-.I. i • fat~f.fer example. t. _-\ _ '\ .f_:m_'t'''Il) 'l1g.rm"~OII. Moreo"er. numbo.. espeCially In Europe.Beauty and the East' conference.i'I ..h ~ fj(lmQ(fllllC to bL.-'..". expressive pOSSibility regardless between tritical and 50 Heath Bunting and Natalie Baaltchln. on and Bunting c<. to wtllr.:Jft 5 IV.arc· to be 'aICD'3nd ~ f3tce prCClpltaUnp ~pul" dlf'nc....tI..al and 'eJ<t """" sa t'" quickly 'nd "W. ..Iio~_ ..lplul1vmenc symbol< or ASCII (the stllnd. worlu: sueh .HCffi!ii1nd ':ClJtU:M:.0 of 11151010rm. q . . the In~nltely number of Interne. Slovenia. danc)ng an"'" . !his 011.. • Il>(U'. Yeeha.--~..."".g wtoriil.. l •i -. ----. ..\ \ il sense of shared arnsuc lnt.cl1lt. ~ II ~I:c-rj _1--"i.'I: 'II' 10 • . _ . and fesd\lills was necessary dlsrrtoured a contingent The prollfera[]on of meetings sustain a culture made up of possibilities The result was pockets of e..n the In . .

lke "I' 52 R~<hQl a a koc ood Kas.. The inclusion of electr'onic: music wnlC" . the wor k uses a very s! pi rn~eri1l(! m to remodel and rediscrtbute art discourse.1998 musital: lnterludas. "tr'' .. ~ l. highlighted a conflict: UBuncing et al wanted freer ImproVlS'"tlon and a Ct. shared Yisual an. dea . recalling Mcluhans dkturn chac'the content of any medium is alway.Iim n: ""'IIPI: .! from the cartoon music) 3'nd. !. ld mMe d e The ~ mlln prwOlf d esl re fa r p erma ne nce a "d a wi de r aud ienceo fore xa mp Ie. . Its formanon Eyen as these gatherings limits of email-based Josephine Bosma remembers thrfved..ju'1 pag~ from Mr Not.!U Jl. ~m "I1I\.(tIl format prevents anyone theme or opinion -... whlc 'h like and choice with the web..!lI ftl.. 7 _II. They were said te feel offended by St..' 1 ofjcs interaction mal·1· hse..."C!rlll J.ur prank mails and other artistic An art project made for 'Beauty and the EMf. moderators.Il . bbe.org and Alexei Shulgln formed together..f:i1Q~e l.esponsiv.j ~ Itli ~!!.tlII lH. Bunting. howe v er. !. london :r'elies firmly 011 n".1 W. m the name' of c!iScursive .ienL'l[ed mailing list 7·11 wa~ founded in 1998 because. . as 3 ud 10 files are mco rpo rated into anocher lorm... 'We needed a forum that will be a COntext and not an audience. .!j I t"r'II"-'!Ir-jll: :$.I'll'JII.(C~ nprlJ. invoke. ModeHedaftera jukebox but with selections of criticism rather than so~. L" Il1Il 1.. lim UIlo ttl) IW. an 0" S _ .ommunities were also becomil'lg ey wou 1d have to OVe ream e cbs L'ldes brough e use (more subscribers).the internet. '" w tn 6J:It. UIIiU.-.! a nov. but by the that at the 'Beau. W !J' Coslc.~ and [/"lISt' about not o"ly by broadened c€lnference 1I..r. daocifl8IO of senesrJ C Ivln an d H a. l.. I "r'U! be enmeshedcog"ther.1:1. time on iBeriin.i:!Jl . .. by . ? I a.. elg. In europe ~nd also defred Standard . f rom dominating .t ItA r. ..w tachnologie~. another medium' TheartiSt-or.a5 rnustc ~ubcultur" that and elsewhere very popular at thl!..An <omp"~1ioll... ".'IUI.~~.empha<lson remi~ing. cheJukerng I . clps:. by Bo~ma and Geert lovmlt..l'IiIIw .• disjuncture berw-een many net artis' hardeore activists was taking shape: 'At the e v em you already see (in hindSight) how Nettirne WlI$ going to c.. shares the nooo:" II . as Vult Ccsk recalls Heath Bunting once 5:J}'mg.I «110 tt JJ:!I ~ Id' J.tUl 'RA :MIlI. The wonk concj~ely demonstratB bOundilri". brows..:I I tl~ IJI RIll !J. 1[.~ sepa~ting COIU Net Cnticism Juke Box hOlykldl. . th c. ..8«nl.h artists mails had their private meeting and did not interfere I meeting much.s . '. l"PAD !o jII.j". JII ~ how t~dlcional cr iti ci 5 m ld be brea ch ed.. pokes fun at the endless srrearns circulating by Vuk online and addresses discourse together these tensio Coste With material from Interviews tv duma .!111 UlI '. illhUU IIIII~ Cwllifuill IiCc' £. 11M! _ .'..ln terms by an image of Cal v in and design... . music and aud:lorial c'Onvemlon~ With authorship and group usage. establiShed a new vein of creativity rooted in email.IN kIl.. "h" 1m!\la I_ll.J:1II JJ. " ~IDt • 11:1 . l' IIMI II!!.' lndeed.ht Inhibited email an and pranks. the • Ery Nettime founder Pit Schultz.. ~~..: Dr"".e elements (intervlew~).. vIty. h com b'Ine w 'Ich elect(!l r.mdemail If Nettime decorum.. which T'II. Jodi.!." . me'5illhas a friendly look (It Is adorned Hobbes..l.I •• ScI_'r . who tcldthem tc inner v ention down a bit p the !(~sm rreus P.. Schm!tC. ·d ubleclJ~e. Net Q' juk£: BWI (1997) [51]. HTML and broadcast almost as musIc All data can L luI..lIH~1III r lUI I_. relymg on the Scuttle of multiple viewpoints.!U . the fund.

that Integr1lted net art into 11. hltn WlIS the first Cybeneminlst Faces. that used the terms P3&eJJll Mr.. . e . avatars..1 lii ndku~ The Web Stalker (1997) beyond l.1 I It may have been largely due to the growth of archive-friendly forums artists them altogether... mess with which $ .. museum sUppOrt provid d .' In Mr.lrators Consldergd e e Internet. art meeun . which included a number of works that resided on me web or used new software like Rachel Baker. .. universities from CQlornd . apprOXimated a model of call and response. of moderators (effectively editors who ch for their relevance) and the establishment email posts by archiving ves (whlt~ them) were two such that many emalllllh of web archj k lie em. f ~ ku. to '0 Paulo h D g new media art and t eory espite the small audiences anendmg the h tl1 ' . 010"" 1~97.lmernet art was difficult to sell: I[ was ephemeral and prone to' h' Ib . S<hmltt. mtO more populous. o ~ 9 . .. replies to posts. and Inrernet. . alienate some female I( se scale online exhlbiticns launched by 'Ind' 'd I IVI ua s and a IJ df I f CUr:l[Qrs aSSOciated With variOUS lntllrnad~nal .. perf~rmance er moving-Ifnage work. a horizon of gender . sculpture and InscalltltJon was New York's POstmasters Gallery In 1996. an u 0 AI id " . by 1/0104.ncry. NetArt A playful art cornpetitron to mock celebrity. It had unfamIliar diSplay aesthetics. looking for ways In which the main. and foao women's group out of its all-female jury..Alrm Art tompeduon I I c allillill 1.. were expanding their re~earch and teachm 0. 1997 was and it was the ye in new media.8 \1iIIIIHa " !l. Or. the experimental Bosma describes environment International [52J ! 1998 _ (10 II . Mr. the mailing list for women be subverted to the advantage winner. their OWn mark.S aSSOCIated huge data-collections... NetM and personal ~llIlm~mmmllll - ch allenged rh e claims th at net art cui tu re was e nlightened. of the workings (3 multimedia authOring tool that hosts audiO and Video) to parody It qu!ckly With the Mr.useums ongSI e these CUr1ltors. had not even been a contestant. ubi emalls brouphl attention to the formal elernems of ehD . IJ orne Cl. _. "e me IJ an.. arnse abandoned On 7-11.I. . &s an d d d with I~rga- .5 phYSical space and online presence from an early point as PUt 01 a roster 01 painting. and fake personae a £pace between email and performance. ~ like Jodi org's messages.. e I!Xpos'lJre for man~ artl~ts and gave Interested viewers a focal poi t d Oint lor l~cuss'On Off1me galleries remained generally uninte~e"ed ' ".or nel which some of those uluseraucns initially SUbscribed abounded the 7-11115t reatlvt Jokes.ec mea 0 solesccnce. ASCII pictorials enCOuraging and technorub SoI1lf ~re. mostly male dlsce notion of the Individual male artist-genius The eventual contest software indicated ecolM he 10 . . se SOWS and I! occasional dum. Occupymg to ma. politically Incorrect described pOSturin~ effort in extemaliting observers creat:ivlty and exper rauon btl!} by 7 II I such as Baker. (or example. .. One commer~lal gallery L5ner~ WdU Though me list managed with 'sexual.....beyond caregorles created a de me terms This artist-Created of the COl'llpeuU!I'1 charisma. P05tmaSters Director mounted 'Can You DlgllI'. Cornelia and were sufficiently Sollfrank and Jos(' of ar inspired and repi. and prOjects were teChniCally complex For many galleries. which put expanses of datil In t line.1iI l1li11 -I I·. NeLJ1 was expose ear or .1ii at the time. starte of women. With a physlcallOClitlon and actual artworks. Innuendo. identity W3.. .introduction documented obstacles.lo: . the contributions bore hiS personal contaIned of the elusive artjs~ m/e/tla but Otherwi such as a POSt consis.based list of serial IP numbers London-based pioneering Participants and the web Sites that OCClJple [0 work SImply did not make sense to [hem. egousrka]. In IIlternel arc In r h e 1990s [or a number of reasons LI" d . &!hibition Formaf5 and Collecttve Projects The visibility and influence conterences of Internation:alnet such as 'Beauty and the East cOlnCI.. NeLArl mol •••" ••• !. eomperu of a be asre Bosma were shrewd and discourse. n. his email address. . • r:1~ !" il r. S.

~ .l" CO't.nd th~r teXt and were distributed online.ir (:. E>.. Forms are HTML convennen.. UliI! mGdh..nr d .ri'L LJ:j en are eflCpected ta fir'net" .or many Internet artpr'Ol.hlui' f9i1J1ty duktop rl_' renaclion or your !l1dlyjdu.. Included works using 'forms' as a dominant motif.rlllr .(cn pqe.hows a varied exploration of the possibilities and properties of forms.b.ar IInvlronmflnt cr•• Mup IIi.tItlU!! dUktop ~I vvur window to the d'g'fl. IIkl_QP ."o server space to host files...exhibitIon venues could no fI '~r b. Participants included Le and SaWild Brooks (b.lu.lI:rqW~.. checkboxes. While in theory thrs developmem h h . ll. • .nDnt . """. b ego enes Inat l. rv . Two playfUlonline shows that turned the mternar art community spotlight On previously unexamIned formal Ingredients were orgilnlzed and produced by Ale ei Shulgm in 1997_ FormAn [Sl-S~l and Desktop Is [55-Sa] cake their subteccs from elemental aspects of imernet culture: the web farm and the computer desktop. In FormAn 10 SI L . experiments.uen InlO ~nInleroCI..ei Shul!:. • r< dilktOP InUitfAc:O Is the mfjju el~monl et iI human. For example.In:Op It: yuurlilvuyday v.. Form Ar~ commissioned by Hungarian arts organIzation C3.. forms have a concepOJal appeal since their coment is often submitted seemingly Inca the ether (though mare likely to a mail server or web server).fIly de rktop I~ iii s'odu r:Of d'''~'''ttJIpll...lilJ. Irllrlll~UOn!l 80 .ktop If.Jlon oryourofgll. II ked to mjlor unrnount aFtexhibition. . in which artists made' use of computers...nJ idillacp h: In.0 0 .ndlng rhe pll)'ful. enlarging the functlo~ of museums or galleries as rllters and promoters of an: ..fmI" 01 .nh3 It them. eXIue as we SItes.n".~ AJ" . is a I.' £Qmpuhlr dOll(top if yvw . As.pl.l ronme. as e e POtl!n[Ial [0 a eel the relatIonShips between CIties and eh II L ..I'll )1'"0ur '1... wah «ncdonm H""lngtlte ""P'''''l' 10 be higllly~'ment~l. With little but at herr enlQm: premlSe." feem FwmArt web "'" On rho< p:lg. . I. lett . Instead. or even more minimally. and thelr curatorial practices were able to enc.v8ryd&y (ol"bJr. the mounted ·MacClassics'.:and ~milteu" alike.. as long as one had access to progrJl]1mong .ns an proiecu WIth missions [0 map Online an have formed. Artists were ~mong the earliest to aggregate artworks all web Sites and develop exhibitions.. The range of projects in FormAn .nd . d6J. treme~ On the positive side. 1964).. ff.o bill ..top '"'0 .n<llarm>l U. w I}e a. resources and server space. surveys or qUl!monnalres Small. mUII~lln dnkklpi 1$ytli. mlldsln.ourage new aesthetic." .. dialogue boxes and labels: they are often used when fillingOUl web-based applications. IS[Onca rea Igned e fixity a( the gallery cOmpared [0 the flUidityof art cycling through It .. assuming the role of curnror and exhlbltion-5pace proprietor wimin a matter of hours A key f'!I' Innovation was the reduced amount of rime nee d e d t a moun" .tl)p II 55 AI""cj Sh"li'in. (30-0 aryo .rb!fr:s. n t. rd< of IMg.n lJK"tf. {he driving force behind these [wo sh Postmasters' curators Magda Sawon and Tamas 'Bano much to crystallize internet art for the New York an loovlch y ~a'(nIo!l exhibition spaces could be mobile lind collapsible Thl' h ..:sformed lnt. chat appear In the guise 01 menus.rrnil' fj) tither pilliGple dtl'ktop (Ili dO'll'ln 'Or m S·ttttlllrJeJ n dO'iktap Jiltie mlJllllrnbRn.Uti biJlwa .. radm bunom.. web-based expositions wer cheap to produce. a slew of nee-based oroamza'io d . international art scene. $U I~ m on p LI1h• did words ""~ u""w. one could build and host shows easily. 111m an 12rnpt)l' field b"npn Th ..1 runny 1. The following year.11 dll'l-':'u~phi d~S I\._0_ Q_---..l'\d joy CllI'SU"C'P l:r YDur o-wn UW.I h'ft I' th ' . 1~97 yo~r 'tion -I PlYttJ DIflIlIyst dIlillSk1C1p II YGIU r IIWIt hI! [_I:IlB'r dllklk1:lDp II' YlCIiur. WIth a web page programmed to link to other net art projects. so far the impact on offline art spaces has been limited. ""." WOrld desktop II your nt~1 . interactive sections of web documents.... This rnad e I paSSI e k ·thout belng curators as well as consumers to view artWar WI h rs while restricted by geographical distance or gal Iery ou . with projectS able to be n bl (ar .nd "per> to l. rh. lt art centres or other nodes in seconds.

executed with a small to a 1997 net art comperltlon OUt to Extension (1997) called fxlension Hamburger criteria Sollfrank [59J by team of programmers..<.• -.. Kass Schmitt's CJ1QOSe radio button.. -he desktop material of [he exhibition and often Its stage In Desktop is. 58 Nilt>lle Bookohin...~ CJ --D ~ Q i .. like Rachel Baker's daskccp [56] wlrh Its coyly named folder 'Bakers Sexuallry'._ --. and for thetr meUlphori(al Interface In his book for [echnophobes Interface Culture as the are Simultaneously It seems apt [hat have been outpaced for entertainment IS age...~C)~-. 0 _ . 9I' . With colourful Icons. folders. By unitlOg ... desktops artistiC and semiotic.... ~ ' . and documents this project the discrete and FormAn find some works that comprise ° their striking a balance between and within comrnunmes 56 Ra<heIB. desktops are significanl for thew pre~alence.. •• ~ URLAn by Arvids Alksnis tney are used to Crea e figurotive sh'pes. eventually. and there is nowhere create [53] uses forms shapes that 5l:...is".u~PI....----.l. identified mounted at the Galerre der Gegenwart of the Female Enen""n set cnuqua [he tne museum put forth and address what and . Detk«>p For O!:S:h(~~ 19'7 1... the as a dornmanr leature leased OUt Issues 01 personahzanon and privacy. a Flag. - he .. II r F- -. e' ~ ~ . De'ktop 'or Ouk.. . dick around a nd browse [0 • ".. Nowadays. Viewers Input maten~t where they can. Another important early collecuve protect was Female Cornelia A reaction Sollfrank. 1::1 -• _ 1--. .1991 57 C~met Hertz.£. they are lell: With one small to go.. normalrzlng by writer 'cathedral" architectural.. "t.~ -...&&erclumsily across the f -__... pa rncipants dlrectedness.e._ . I _.ompuler turning 00 J nd no appl. meaning one another. 1 g... f of. faces. a castle." II. aliases or shortcu~ If tney are often peripheral. t~ . contribution.. in-between Others .~- e . " • .ker.. under a formal COnscr-alnc.. In Shulgln's prOJect... of desktops the 'desk' or 'office' connotations by the widespread Use of graphic computers and recreation._ _..he ensemble of works consticu[Etd a prOleCt of medium-defining value DeSktop Is [Oak d"le cC!lmputer desktop as Its cen tra I theme Now common requires interfaces standard completed it an Interesting currency premise amC!lng computer for an art proleCt when users. .....bed folder icons. applications Overall. 'desktop' what made some hismriciZIf1g in order to recapture Desktops are the basiC has Populated even that exist on i'-apnIC computers home or office computers) to (10 other words . In a work Sorne submissions followed a doctrine each one using the desktop rendered of goal.ItIOlu are runmng apph~auons with files.e. Descr.L . e• ~-~_...like Garnet Hertz's (511 overwheJmlng and crowding them.a screen.. undt... i f ._ . Insecurity of 83 of judgment as a 'lack of competence . 1991 arusts WOrking tn an IndividlJaJlSI mode or networks.. n••ktop for £l<!II<OOp ". were chaouc and optical.-_ . Kunsthalle. the computer Steven Johnson of the internet and hard drIVe and value..

' The Dmner Pony (1974- body of work and a legacy of rem Browsers. FMtolllftt.' the aenhellc Sollfrank used a ecrnr rnarerral progr.. 'browser Fuller alluded to Internet E plarer and Netsc3pe NaVigator. II IS rhe lecllmcoJ Opportunity o(rmdlnJ: ot/le) way.. ised1lt» . 'technologkallnnovac h he prern the name 1/010 4. 199. which was at the time around project work recalls. publ" or educartonal Ones The Web Sloiker offered an alternauve to conventlon~1 browsers and was de5igned W map data differently explalfllng connecuon.". Over rwo hundred server names dalming be w HTML is received by !he computet os a Slrenno o( dalO. for axample. between web sit!!s.bS. . adequately With categorize experts and judge 'let art who are (ralne of the new Wllere do you of a 'ompule. OJ '" .ngIII {rom tradirional art.o!lo!rn" m. as do. time engaged Opponunlty In the highly publir:l7ed wars' (a b:tc(le for marker share). of net art fa II victim of the curarors. thus enabhng the USer co v. Matthew Fuller. but hurtling roUild an eonh "mhdded this understanding [0 imo a glgarJ!Jc (todemork 'N' or 'e' WIth the power o( lome YOfll(!OU.Ite The :Sn'I::IrilClrt:leJ..t! pope 'G reen and artist imcn 1~~I.l01 I since the early 1970s (its central aCtIVity was t he dls(rrbu[ J 011 C .he release of the sohware.cw web pages and content on an enllrely different Interiace In 'A Means of MUlilclon'.m e Ih I via search engines and reco and entered [0 cosmological roree.W. software and its source code for adaptation .ougb Th. and suggested rlre for and pCtentl~1 power of alternative sOftw.iIInd Infoim:JtlOrl d!'sign Qf .kJi b [J twee... an essay accompanYIng !..ny (unCtions. Calling attention to [he genG bal~nc.on.ed \l'i@1::i . working under Fuller puc it.lons ::f1ow Iile braw«" <01"'<1')' for re"callng the arehneeture . w "lIe the oil In totcoflnectl i.rJes 0 storrmg palm ror 1/010 4:Th" Web Stalker The mOlerlal 'OOl~~1 o(lile web (Dr !Ill) group IS Viewed mamly os ClII 0ppOf"llmlly raliter !lwn as <I hjswIY As all into web sites.. Sollfrank's Chicago's legendary created a symbollc fictional) artists. W' 1[· tne general -'-_ ' !he Ion wa s class wa"". products desi esigne d according (0 84 . J At [he Bdtish trio went on to create Th e W e b Stalker [60.e. whJch Were at tha..I~ InterestS as Opposed 0 aesthetIC. u X o z l- w Z VI 60 11010 4 Th. Navig. sra rted to develop an artinically orrentat ed web brows .r[Orct almost all users viewed the web th rou gh Net5cape corporate Internet Explorer. and offerrng Views of web I'leighbourhoods Industry standards lnsread of orgatllI.ASClI. or deveJopmg and using Ihls stream o( dora !hO! pro~. among Other~. Without characteristics consideratiom to collect HTMl data automatically were uploaded competltlon from around men ar oOllm( collmg up frIes. l~ldOJlI d Pa&iIb.lp the l'n.. Iller ISno[J"ng 3rtrltl to the museum's under fictional the world. represenr l. those deSigned to sugge>110 the "ser Ihot Ihey ore nOllll (0(( SI1!. programmer Cohn er in . m the stre pilge" prodUced readIngs of HTML hml<ed 1 to text and links. p urposes]S' (r. "97 .. w. to female. time.... It .ale Ichalso Jlbelt among technoartists.. need an understanding on pracncal experience. jj.lf. go 10day?TllIs echo o(loca{Jon IS pre5umobly net an.lre WOllt [0 those who show.li~ Sol/frank.lt.b St.Automation Inspired by the free-software Clnd Error movement t ha t u" had been oper. dlBlc JlJUlt"r. w liri1:!:50 .lng Ja"ascl'lpt or Im"ge.5i Com. curate.lure:r:t.

dl'dl\ced p'ogr>mmcr>.s K••~..ch opposes. it drove a wedge between passively consurnm web conreot.t on discs artached to Bmish magazines.lip digital \lPpllotJon .. such as Sill" l VanDerBeek's Movie-Drome..t$ compIJUi!:"mJllu"-c(ure) thilt make Ir pos....lp""k d.. s or Namjun! ed~' Park's Parlidpalion TV respectively. lllped pr>rn<es thJt . mass media. a:'nlQ~t IC:U'PUII"a'. comprISing 1I0lD 4 took advamage of freew.. not vlrwal. Crank .l. rQ~ ort. AlongSide [he c Clnll-ort and non-art.... individual With a computer and network connection could use It mechanisms such as web sites [0 d.• Jeer projects II.Jtl.dlili"iJ"!!Iierj withe m Nfil!'f(!ol1c~ Ihe a c'tl. .' l~bOllr: Cn::rnJ..:oh"".... and uSing them rind cheir constituent Ie ople~ 01 magesot :II1d HTM..~lum unto iUf'lf np~ CRANK TH E WEB b<. a genre that carne [0 prominence in around 200 I.IS being shown In museums and galleries: At die same vme as !he proJea was SJWoted withm conrernp ..Wcb.and TV-based afts11kejonl "'50 Cage . In his essay. the deliberate prodUction Df non-on IS oplion but not necessary in thiS context. The Web Stalker made a dramatic impact on Its au fully functional project with a strong conceprual if no agenda. s. and used stickers to Increase awareness of the project beyond speciallzec art zones. 1001.jbi/ity therefore emerges. n Ina"" of phy"". The ord" h". I genre.. Or radlo."ch.... But unl... til.hworP prompt) t t""" h.. 5cJmufnJ ren1l1r. Funar also linked the s .. c ""mk Ih. . on d or 0 thers sImply re(u ses to be excluded by II thremeJl5 co rewn{1gure enrJrely whot illS port The 'A art Another poss. Fuller and colleagues forced the se I' ..II=..scr-Ibute Its work. Web SI. . In~tead. How can this multiple posruon be cmoQd by on art-world thor is srilleffectively In ttlrol/lo the nOllon autonomy of the objea? Anli-ort is always coplUred by Its P lerul sel(-placement wlthm a subordinate position 10 thaL wh. whlch 11 :500 oft!!'~ . It IS a so WI e y operarve 011 ) e a It Ost obviously illS 01 verr /eas~ II piece of software.j I" bou I to lI!~om:mlt~~ (!uch.: di(~I~b is -:Ii brownrth~t rBqul niL5th~ turnmg of d ". • m nrc' rurned an IIHlde It !h~ PI""'T'I' below). ma[ soughn<l create apparatuses for production and recep~ion. such as music or television. i. [/I.lncluded . ol ar ed ~nd t'Xpcdmenmd wi{h the b ser as a dynamic. l<!I~h 8nJ r""(1II'l~!1 or b. rlre' to funcncn Bn. 1001 In.ldes apenlll! as an artistic practice. The Web Stalker IS seen as an hrsronc work of rwo addition.iLlaue be>uty quellJam ab""" ~ondIDc"o>d l>eil._ o"""IIre to what \O\I. cellular phones..any 86 . dlJO.."'au'. Alternately... mol.s Imaginary Londscape Number 4 of the I.. and 'darn mapping'. wID. The Web Slaiker was able to proliferate.ivu .~cltjng . rowsers III stand as rnatertal Itsalf to be reconsidered: nor jUst a d IStrlbu~on tecbrnque or filter through which artworks could be v' leWed but content In [he public sphere. Fuller's pr Lion abouc 'nor-Iust-arr' is that The Web Stalkfr spe(lficall~ sohmrt 62 JOMh o'u" . should be used and aSSimilated In lives and behaviour: that they resemble both Other I... ltilbl. tool). fair game for perceptual and ' a conceptual scrutiny. em nglt generic and almost invIsible presence of COnlmerclal b ..1ld fU"01<>1I3111)' art more generally. .lheWeb [62]. The Web Slatker wa51uell capable of both production (of images) and distnblltJon Indeed up programming the analogy the project makes between day-tn-day reception of information and experimental composition bnngs a new perspective to other works in different media. this pro Cl re/(}tlon~hip to Or! thai at times works on a baSIS of/nn/! nOr alliance... Be. besides 'sofrware a r r' 'browser arr'. and tools.a field devoted to the developmen t of alrernauve forms and means of web browsing (examples Include [he 200 I protect.expenell<ed c.r<>un'" the In'e'ne t.r~r· Co he n n phy"""'1y . M . SOmething else spills over: IIOCiUS1-ar Influenced by theories of mass media. rebull.slbrl'l 6J Kauelpunk. by Jonah Brucker-Conen In which the browser becomes a mechanical.. I 'd I t ts d (. norm.ike these other m based works..to (orce odhenence to the design instructions Written mLo it These Instructions lire IInly (ollowed by a device obediem to diem" In their work.re links to compose other kinds af Visual structures.

. \~" -..a . the field by Isola ttrlg other computercod ASCII (The American Standard the standard ..·e 31 The Web )lOIk~1 wluch had Its release dose to lhe Browser Oay. rlrst.blc t codes 0 represent rom one computer re to another already uk C051( combine It H.. established 3nd form~1 ~nalys. With e~ch lener 127 IS one or these forms COmputers" which makes It pcss..}rlle te'l Deep 45[11(1998) ..I '~~Ii 6.p • 5C.. ASOI ola~er dl .:lnlinp.nd placing Information rnro new formal compou tons IScentr.s to cr eare prOle(l~ that elabo poss bilines and aesthencs frec ..n 1998 In Amsrcrdarn <: h~pr I A an event span~ored by tho WJ~g S 'f$[ a devoted to browser art .lmmers pursuu of functionality engilged directives During t!. Vuk CDo!e o..a rrned to prev ro create SOftware whether Or mOl" aesThetic mnontlon ar 1= and progr.)S COde (or Inr English characters to numbers..jl! \ "' . •• .! roo'"'J .11 19'911 mO..ll 's' ~ . Tl' . (he corwer SIOnor the 1972 movre Dl't'/J Throat Into film turning J iegendal 'I porn &S 11mmto J I... players rhat convert re mO~"\g Images mto A and spr-erh The best known appllc~ Ion "I Its softl'. e same period controbu lions cevrces Interdunge) tram 0 to a number of a rtlSts mad P'Cloqal for rep ~5S P. J...pro/ens In wlnc 1 the sn uegy of processing .. pliJr""J~· U1e t~tufl..

s qun« serious. Edh.hIS kln. Pong was the {Irs! comme I y successfUl moss producrthat triggered the entire industry. In dramatizing hi. Ti..hms of c code. own a work that ca IIs the artist creates for more -- - - Own. 66/D Iman /. ASCII. egms Its progresSIon towardl .H- Gillen recalls th" me's gaming An leon de'mb~d b~ a az k 32 Grid Allowed Any elemental blockal whl!!? Shown. IS a twenry-(ive-year-ald film so it has a history Tilen chere IS thiS whole thing obou: pornography being 0 hidden indu 1ry. Simon posed the questiOn 'Whatare the limits of ..1 Ir. Beyond the choice of Pong as [he project's The dominant pastimes hardware eep t:. II is au! in the open. the program displays all possible combll')ulons. Cosic translated a number of movies Ind art projects into ASCII. - Anin'.the first compUter gar Ike D@ep Throat m theporn industry.ded an ye 3 gOrl. it Is not Immoral. but it is nOI W!(i II Qr! or anything serious. as sub.q. . but it will not render well in ASCI' Oco~ .!nw'_'.!. Then of course: which porn mo~ielTho[ Ivo! pretty dear. 1966) projects uSIng f1Im. the black-and-white elements w II " . e rloe 0 the View exhl~ltlon 011998.r Jahn ~ Slma·I'!.:: •rt- "II .quiring eOns for f II 5U I' In Every Icon (1997) [66]. You use an Image with a lot of detail.ey are good (iJrASCII. . (our years in a row nDW. as a commentary on the circu!~~on that is both of entertainment by the net..heti(S. tilkes the leet In a project ".knQwn Porno mOille. urea Izatlon Simo Image-makmg process autol'l1ated b th I' 'I prov.ln d1B Ih~ g grid 10 be colored way. J. Til me indumy in America has earned mOre !. bur ocruolly the economy o( pornography . In Deep ASCI/ Cosic situates porn in the realm of art by calling attention to its particular filmic strategies. ns ram tne gnd emerge In 2020). Itt economy makes i{ pretty serious in m. and the a flutcering ef blade.' Illhrlt hidden. .til'lgnQ'lI:" J.d some his!!Jricol research and discovered a very beautiful coin lee You ptobably know o( the game Pong . fI.1 PUt g hardware and Deep ASCII software together to ul'Jderiine If rtll In June 1972 [of] a new civilisouon. Every Icon and industr iet -j_ and porn are telescoped into one grainy filmic project.'oooo pHI ~ ~ " - 90 . . with formal strategies similar [Q those at work in artist Douglas Gordon's (b. StJl/. fee. . Deep Throat POGg were launched in the some momh and year:June 1972.ect matter. Second.fon N um Dill. ~ 1'1 on developing a display of Deep A SCiI on a Pong video to Josephine Bosma In a 1999 Interview for ezlne Te/epo/is: We deeded to work on a porno film because o(the close up. Proal SfiJ.. Porn ophy makes up abaut SO percent o(lnlernel contents and traffic .r. .an aniseJoh S. . I rnannesr every Imag~ . who worked with Luka Frellh and Walter Cruijsen game console.. . n uncn Jr (b 1963) production of iconic Images as his b' . (. II is not for decem opl e.sOc~ as 24 Hour Psycho. : r- -::::. It further removes Deep Throat fram!hl ranks of mere smut by presenting it as raw data that allows for a rhe~orjca! context far different from the cinematicoriginal. A n a simple web page h pi d ompUter • ' e ace ~ grid of th" _ thlfty-two squa res.lons. ver lime.. Deep Throat IS the only really welJ. it is not (or kids.han the film Industry. Visual .Co~ic.nterested but less patient parties can manipulate [heir CPU s system dock for previews 01 What ICO L. explained their choice of materials van der focused VIewing strategies across rhe boar preconceived noclons ab • d.. A code runs or 'oue • ty two by = CUtes. nion Here comes the coinddence:thase two things. pixellatedappearance graphiC interlace 1 -0 -1 !. f-L .. 1. ms as SOurCes for data and compoSlt. In a deSCription of his work publish d conlUnctlllln with the Walker Art Center's 'Th SL k ( ... 199] ASCII's green-and-black. the work also funcnons of CUltural artefacts and farms encouraged and exacerbated care fu I consumption.t. '" Ie at [he same time denoting a Structural component of net a '. Fin. If CaslC used canonical III a!>sthetrc merit. The arnsr eStimates rha t across s Ih '11' evera undred [n Ion years.lt just outgrew cinematography. nobody reolly talks about it. ose ups In the porn Industry ore about 75 percent of llie I'Isuol conlene. such as its emphasis on clo!>e-ups. -1. as the sohwa re b . Americ. regardless of out a partIcular genre's ..II H..l' ~. Viewer sees an all-black grid O..d of autOmation/Is It pOSSIble to praCtice Image makIng by eXplOring all of Image-space Using a computer rather [han by recor~'ng from the world around usl What does It mean [hat one may drscover visual imagery so detached from "oature"" The • .

. angi~ OnlyH"". <I. in which routines and diuppoimment of misunder5tartdmg.nd opinIons.. :!:ugg...""" R . Clut 01 four u.". each inscribed set an important Confusion several projects precedent. bec.1I if peoople could .abllity offering net artlsts and consumers to mainstream art m~"kers" often characteriZE the din U~ aUke.) chan.org (rom the late 19905. 1'J99.. supporu 92 .blr.""cog. 'Reply' location removes the vowels in data entered communication participant.tz~ her....palpable"rm. and buyer's name. The proi~ and creates futile exercises the notion o( interactivity lnteract acr 'Reply' and 'Unsent'..omlE "t!"urnJtud In from 'limited lIablllty' just like any other this team 01 artistS. however. capitalizes on habits by takirtg the sequencing 67 Annie Abrah. IIze d field. 'Unre by the USer.. all ailed Annlo. the code for occasions a server cannot find ret'juesred I (usually web pages) or sections."blecti. Using fokee a. Each one frUStra by censormg the user's input. in a more Internal and restricted Parody.oy. mi.I My NG"". per""laIlty .S Another Jodi.".AppropFlGrJon and RemIxing The collective ®TMark explains that it benefits or [6$-69].. " core of asd(gJodl. such . p"""onar..org.work's strength computer Ues In the tension between its OlUtomatlofl and of a results are ala tUTle .org. in light of registered 'Unsenr' erases [he consonants archiving complex memories (IP addres by a n ures d ful abour from text encered of interaction... akln to scripts and direttions.iToflmenu Ill«! IRt: (In. One wor when IS http://404Jodi.sBl:5rcn!f .mlolJ "" quesdon--and~"'5Varer .l desirable alternative and technical breakdown experrence of using computers and the nee. windows and screens its hidde Users are likely to look first at the flashing full of code fragmenrs system.. asd(g.mpossibly gradual results. h2t I> . using this principle.. "'pef'menL 3fI>w~r 'Ibch visible in the history wmdow proscenium. repressed history. delivered quickly- Every Icon. restfng "'<08"'lIon and sTn<1!rfEY. 'he In ed [0 esc .thar while it! programming is inverted In expectations is complex..I~rfocus lies in th browser made from file The more cogent descriptive naming..org (1997) [2]. which were sold. company of its kind.. This model of finanCial v. The standard .arg work. memona. attempts to unsure of their status. where one finds alphanumeric data. I.jodi. 'Unread'...en thit: normal . L kdol'on I' are typical and standard af files and directory of the browser. takes its name from 404. and are addre~ by Jodi. legally a brokerage corporation. Every Icon was in (aa m~rkecable. between Perhaps beyond the reading of this work as one can cor lind computer r I() descriptlOflS of the relationship -a relationship.ty belund me '"tem~r Idenlltyl'. It lent Itself to the produCtion wirh irs discrete St3rting'pornt of unique edltlon5.oI. Produced when very few artists or gallerists could manage to sell net art. the sabocage manyonline venues. In eoV.j5pem that defy oc . Abr:Jhanu Inod 10 su ures."'" and what w ~5 net. Directory-structure are the backstage. y C".. patterns ~ number or quentaru. as ·Wh~f. whose name is pronounced 'art mark'. The resul".

®TMark actiOn stlpulatlon~ srand On the" own whethe they are enacted or remam unre. \iE[~a: ODBlitm11iID ~ !1'l.a. I vr~I . Irwokmg anonymity 15 J way co underscofe the protections accorded corporations Sinct! their own incorporarlon In [j. 1999-2000 @tmark to YOUI Bringing IT \IVVVVV.'sJre and action like works from the 1960s Flu «us group.". rt Beyond the framework of Identity shifting.MO fr<>m v vE'U!1iHlS to t11 e Welre building a better vvrench. from dolls and children's teamfng tools co electronic acuon ga rnes • by channelling funds from Investors into 'mUtu:\I funds'. context Film muSl be ~cheduled as part of ~ m~)or I egl mal rllm ®TM~rk prOJec[> OCCLIpy an Imen~e space bttween pO/ltlcal dl. ®TM3rk Interventions appro InI.nks of the last decade: gwbush. rates. however: hes 3 mOL e contextual motive.or as they might PUt It.lg~. rhlde] then aesthetic praWCl" as Duch~mp did.cOrf'l present themselves In genel-:JI With fOlke namCI and bureaucratJc job tides One reason (or chiSpractice.e mld-1990s. perh 110 discuss "offiCial" corporate solutions . rtmark.I<. sometimes regardless of [I'le Cultural Or Sial Implicaoons.c. ®TMJrk represenranves have shown a genius for deploying graphics.llng Ie.llized A ~lgna(Ure t. nOI finanel'" While regular corporations function to inc rease wealth for shareholden. parody and confUSion by stagmg Informal. COnStit enl3 lives.' Plvorlog between SOCIOty. UnW!!d.lL tile IIlstruCtlonal nature of code Ruher than allOWingIilgahly Or Pl<lctica/ICY[0 cancel OUt their particular pi 0gl1's. domain names and mailing lists in conlunction with those alliances.mp:uwo.ac etc _ wu II wr m.It dl!<rnsed (CIn~urneJ"l to Idealistlt nnd ridiculous WI[h t~"" serres of COmmands. declaring whnt they're dOing as non.1CtICof®TMark ISthat arusts I[S repreSenl'l{l'c~ Or I 68 ®THark. set up to pay for the producnon of speclfk 3rl prOjects by 'workers' The group says Its bottom fine IS 'co improve Culture. . f'rom ~ti. Bush dunng the 2000 election in the Ul1Ited States. 3S DaVid Ross explains. IS 'to shjft Identities. and SCrllt!!glCally wleldh~g press releases. Their projects and those they co-produce are among the most publiCizedill t pra. chi"8 Qm~. It seeks CUltural profit. ®TMark works towards Improlo..of corpOrate products.. SlmCopler Hock (1997) [70J wbtch Inserted homoerotic Visuals Int0 the popular computer game The Sims.ry(! Vl510ns of festival. . sometimes at me expense of corporate praCtiCes ®TMark projecrs frequently stake fresh ground for iconcdasuc and anti-corporate activity. publ. LIBERATE U ! Barbl.· prvmOllor»l m."Olml WE WERE FOR ED TO SAY THINGS WE DIDN'T WANT TO.alllances wlell other artists and activists. though rhey ofte! H as blueprrnts or mscrucnons: 'Produce a documentary lin ti1~ IncreaslIlgly harsh realities of the Amellcan workplace an economy to the rtse rn mental illness Within the Amenc populanen Perhap5 compare With Europear. "n.3tI"n 1~9] Il"btlJ rfOO~ &1 rblC! . such as Yoko One's IIlSU'ucrlOn$01 La MOl1[l Young v '~I scores.'t'lAl HOS1ITjlA~DHjDTHEnAIt~u: £RIW rou[Ulltlr [J!I~IYEIlSN . the Informative alteration . rather man 1[5 own pOCketbook.\y. Barbie Liberation Orgl'lMillltion f6'ilJ. ". d s.. an Intervention that scrambled the genders of Iconic AmerlCJn coys Barbre and GI Joe.CGm. a falJ me for American presidential candidate George W.Proz.

ertmg hi."1""" compu . Cos". In this =e. !h~ 'congglcu> mlOdl.... granroots complete artists' one.enDQl1~ 71 Clover LIO"'1' Coy Gem'Le.. Ch apter 3) .nc .the rrU5tration ro the neutral But the Il'Istallanon of tnternet was that lestlval orgalllZcrs had other aruS[s for tl1e" In Kassel was considered an office envirOnment In which to show onternec ~rt.e ea lneJi of this V8ng(.l Jt Q """A~+ Gay Gamete Donation Levine's work articulated relationship. feminist positiOning Cmic'5 cione seemed OffiCIal 70 ®Tma.]ctured oft . grass-roots campal ' dispute betWeen art group etoy and dote go responding to a legal li In .rk. had uk e n to he daring step terminals net arnsts contrast InclUde Internet an bodl on thetr web SIte hrghly problematlC by ome [e. artistk inscription provided by 'Docurnsnra that.rody. ro'lt .." "'. the web maolfescaclon of the "Dccumenra X was taken off the web by the management So.edi. SlJgg!!<"red an as recyc I a bJ e d ata w as also n aesrhenc of Italian collective 0 100101110101101 ORG (also known .d SS 000 from ~N. tend". 10 September of 1997.a Done as a readymade. mal prolocc. prog ra mmer Ie r In. C!JI 11"'1 rervene 11"1 prote.ad almost every fi E: rrom the official web Site curared byS.ud and prestigIOus exhibition of an.ect> . br 1"I"..ed worth p3rodlYI fl"rlcrm.o. (If p.ln<) ®Tl1>.rl< dr. GIlT d~m)'$tifi05 egg iLl'ld rperm donation..ing Documem. S""Gp"" Hod 1997jTh"Sim. dlreu 'rtte". articulates the [echnlcal capabIlities of reproduction oil. 0 .urt. be-conrrcntatJoml.... how actlol •. a manuf. COSI..un that cop.h~p i<eeper to .uellas tt""'l'ply many 01 !he techn I4:lUe:s.uch U thiS on. given away for web masters rCi!dymade. 'Drawmg on the 'to lorm his Gam.rnon Lamunlol~ (b 19 like Sherrie Levine's photograph A(terWalker Evans and oth appropri3clof1ls[ works.!i Inc. . but hl~ cloning of the X' Web site in 1997 made~'n~ ~ h dl .) to denlgr~(e Lh hierarchical original subserviem LO.. ""d . 'Once upon a time.. objects <rnd canvases...'s ".1nnell. This action speaks loud IS to artlcula[e My nexr idea In this department works by ne[...and TCJywor of 1999 (. .... and raises questions about authorship In Wh.tI'I!"'~ .. as he would with any other source. a.. .dures. Industries and d.jt_ and in the actual exhibitiOn..»odi f. I did the copy roac PSstill tl'le only publicalty available enough. wt-tlch In tho Unlrod StiteS ""dude 'goy . r &'Ime TheS'rnl WI1e . ".] Slovenun lab and then the arusts dornam: nccp:lfwwwfjudmlla org vn d by offerlOg it 3 web address Descrlb. ereu Ci COI'1~n~In to M:3XJ.. errnJny. 2000 T. announced thar net artists were 'Duchamp'~ ideal children' Coste also Cited archival and access concerns as well. held every flve ~ears in Kassel G I . all material Leveraging strategy eXIsting was fair game.rnQJ I11edlo pro.artists [0 a Initiacive where as many as pOSSible sets of would be toasted on DVDs and make rmrrors. Cosies clone of [he site Cliled DO{ Done (1997) [72J. (ti.i. ann e oys. that ye~r on the Status of the object In 3rt.nd res~"".~star spaces provided To poach 'Documenra InStallations. online."I.· proietti desCDi>odonC~pwr 4 die oU~ln..... hrstoricaj canons by uSing the proposItion 'after to denote. COSIC used a shareware progr. DNA' prosaic object that becomes reassigned as an . desc'lbed Vuk Cosic had (jrafred his Own CNN headll of the 'NeL3rt 'Documenta The curators contemporary focused h nesln Onour Per Se' conference.

1 I )1"& .. lev M. but also merged ICOnicgraphiCS frolT)well. rouar. . In ." O".u..thor dId IIpP"'P"'''"' I o s m..he arn= noled thn lhl!'lt" n!rrnxe! s~olil~ .ue-fl~m Q f (or-...... InclUding exh.ORG. ~'t'IIri'rMQrbl@fIl1.. moaning< 'h".QRG.p. ee )G!rlICi n.."d culwr.~. .lng II tOIE!':f. Lh~ . Underl~lng this work and Documen!Q Dcne are the softWiJre COncept5 of'culung' and 'pasting'../II<I Done.. In 1<"". This pOte'1tial ol new media Operations comes to fruition in a series of workl by American lIrtlst Mark Napisr tb 19611 Napier's The SJlredder r76] and Digilcl Lcndfill (both 1998) 7 respectively tear up and aggregate web pages based ')n the URLS that Users sugges~ HIS . Which lire two of [he rncsr baSIC c:apablhClesIn computer operation~.m 01" m. and cop)'ing Is COnjOined with m~klng."m. the use of m~rerial from the net.. the ability CoCOpy entire mes Or Image~ With simple Commands or keystrokes. 1997 98 .". ""rlgk~ Tbe bu:t.blflon sPace Hell..art oeu"re 15 Itself reused. including Jackson Pollock and Arnencan fTllnlmahsr 72 Vuk Co<.. which in 1999 poached nOt o'1ly ~ome of the most recognizable ~n Sites online. 0100101110101101 ORG group hoTdJ "m~ h as <om.' r.comphc:ne the nOtions of 'cunmg nnd pasting' by saying char [heil' art is really in the 'mIXing' n'e 1401001" \\l1/li003 &Iaw'!I1 m~ rOllOI.o'g.._~ta x .. Io . 1J 1999. .O. in other media.u~."" t. h....__. as [he Q Is) [73-74]. for example .! Q) (@ CD @ doc"m.tI'IHU I~ yo" are re.be Cil~~" ~~ln5t web art . 2<698r6986. In the book Lunguage of New Media.RG... known works by art1sts Ale ei Shulglll "od 0110 lIalina. IJnllke [hose of 0 100 10 111010' 10 I.odjodl. t .hI! 0 Is Hybnds.num rions were not plagianslic. lnl. nor were ehey IImlred 10 the immediate net an Circle Innead he drew from the work of "1 ti5L!.1 o o o !o</IIWkfrc o roo ro I 110 10 110 I..com and Jodi.novlch notes Chat mall)' artlsu the DJ.org. .

nlls wort< of bra_"" ~r1. 'shredded' pages share a senSibility and eVoke ab5tra~ of web eleme~ . ORGand I her or course. OSe 77 Marl< N~jer. They aide exhibition and Installation of work by Serbian a .land aniS[ Robert Smithson (1938-73).. of SOftw1'lre and rhe graphiCS display..' Though any web SIte can be 'shredd~d' and results will vary depending on how c:oloLJrfui or COmple" 3 this material IS a construct site is. ur'"g th~ deb. whom they would later reveal to be fkrlonal. b I'll'" (".~ th" brow. II""" >no I"'phlos) fronn p~"'" u><~ de<wunore..lonr bot ClI'" 0f!p0W l><I-. of che web and use [hat infollITla(ion directly :W[OflOrnOIIl~ expressIonist pamcmg In their redistribution and division of [he screen.nts do no( surh. COOlbonmg HTML 1''''''0''1'' . A former painter.r. p>rtlClp.. Mave.. anonymcus collective) used appropriated art and aCUVlst o the materials to assert a dimel soctal reaJity easily obscured by online culture. Becween f9'17and 1999. deSCribing h IS attendance at art schce . RI~(. u.".. Nap er Cite.0100101110101101 see .rl. PollOdfs for The Shredder: 'I wanted "content" the raw material that make up [he "design".·ti~[ Dar~ [78j. methods as hIS Inspiration "Information" to call attention to the to e p and materiality of the web. Blissea: [another Italy-based.. ernbl ."0 ~.. bIography and CV. 19'19. It Is "raw" only by VIrtue of the conteXt The Silredder creates. mail «>!1>~nlp~""of!iho _h.

.od ~~ In which lOla gel and {I:' could be f. ond documont> ""I.th Singular addresses.1yanymoren{1..agacha/~[art!.rarrve. and ~ Mapping Auflmrs/up to asserr IrofUthe s~rne pel . the Dorko Mover pl'Clnk I t"e anarch. Indud r~'no Celes/e.'iUC and' I freedom. • Ir Copied OIndprolifeMt d... the arnsrs noted rhar It "" Step' [0 myth the Venice Blenn~le that year mduded .ana A media debrIS ~ppeared documC!ntmg Mllver's perSeCIJtlon oy Yugoslavian aueheritles. J number of ar mag.. Impersonal aspects of the meerner.ornesSI/-lf/lltimaJ/agarhalt:rnveIS. DOM and Tile Shredder were associated with an ill"tJ.'oMerv and one was used as the Cover photo fOr an -ralbum by 3 Spanish hard core rock band Maver Yr... rn dllrm. cWm"d Wl 'hI> . th~ onhl1 0 "m ouy o J 1m l~e I'rose.gnc t/l~ r"nllICineou.I1 htr.orgl-vuklagaehalgoes On html While files can be copied...Belgnd e an d ltal"" wer~ (jI'culated online.I~ engaged IxIth con~eptually and po!ttn:lIl1y.c..lveb.InesI. Indeed.1IIne. abour ~ cou n try girl and J tech... Agoll1oAppeors begins on the 5(1' ver of CJ J Hungarlon medm 'nSUtll[!! but Its n~. theIr loc~rlon~ or address $ cannot so liallna JUXtaposes the unlquenes5 of digital comenl wh.le.. co worsened information cl. adrnlnluf!nng and maintaining computers... r'.com.hrmi htrp:flvvww.ng 500 ce files detailing crual murders. also ava/labl e onhne.nl COtJr. rapes and i1lrOCIUC§ Thi prohferiltlon and duplicatiOn of datil In works hke Doc.o . In faCl. Included photographs of staged '''."..specl(1C d scnpUve system IS offered by the 1997 project Ali/rlIhDAppear~ 1q C.l.a com/agarhaltr.al. p"ntq5'_. an acquirtal and tho Imprisonment.olent at:gressions' and murders in the former Yugoslavia. I Ie lnd 'rna... Seen In light of a related prOlect such as Dor~ (199S-99). as one notrees When looking at [hem assembled http://WWWhcre.el/><d to ..dmm' (or 'system admlO1Hl'Cltol' an employee responsible for COl1 'gunng.."~9 of o:nhne ~nforrnil1io:n ndp""_ M.l"..lllve along. . however....lges hosted authorshIp of verifying any concrete truth In a sea of data by" hany of IOWrn. phOto . J lot I'ltml hnp:llw-ww: lupercomfagath:J:!wan ts heme.1 t 10 Maver as a O!lu~lty of the SerbIan criSis It wa~ nor long BJennale events honouring Maver that 010010111010110 G and Luther Bllssert revealed that the artist did not e tst works attributed [0 hIm have a far more dlstur b.ljudmlla.*"}. HIS dea h while In Isola [IOn In priSon Will In early 1999 On the web sal'! thill 0100101110101101 C maintaIned for Darko Mayer.olent rule Mavel" and h s work were held up .. His work..c Work was mcluded In seve.. r...ru/agatha/c.:ulLOn:u>d deot/l D<r .. These Hllggering Images qUICk~ g.ulauld descnblng nls arreS[ II connection WIth II series of murders.u e e of free speech and e pression MeanwhIle.. th artlu' . networks and Soflware systlemsj Cl"ilvencs dlfferen web p. nevy life htrnl hnpJlwwwd. b7 ".. these prorocols create discmbod d exutnsie experiences.hrml httpJIWWW2. uve.tru~tu .Ubl.. The 0 I..p:flwww..m1l ""dmy... r qu« d new methods lor describing ~uthal ship Jnd $ para ling Informallon from V~rlOUSJ1ternpu Dar a Mover SUM S[ [h:1[ the In!' n ml~lnformatla" On 'nnov.".and hiS unforgettably gr~ph. e~ted by OU~ LlaUn. Other parts of her narrnnve are rcvealed In .nd servers O(ten_ r"e UR15 thcrn~eJve5 move the Oa."e..savvy 'sy.WonJI 180100101llQIOilOLORG domains .lIne d no.stop.. al group shows In Italy and L.r !hrl<o Mb<r ~nd h. picked up on the nory of arusnc freedom OImldI p S"'~ and v.. " h"fll.ed !hrlw M..uin~ """'"" nilrr.".eb.!. is not uni'lue and always has eh poteO[lallO be copred w. 199~99 OIOOIOIIiOlOJlO/ ORG ~..

telling love stories whIle paying to the scale of web pages and interactJvlry_ Will-N. 1963) publishes e enrng n1any of her texts via wtgate.s closer to teleVISion and animation animation. large typeface to jar che normal optica] field lnro a n articulation of the vector chac can connect ar[IS! lazz Score~.other claim th 5 . whIle Hal{BreedApac:he renders a lover's private langu~ge. an autobiographical readable work called The &dy (1997). Consisting CHANG deVOId of intel<lctlVlty the dawn of the web altogether. in this respect.. ra Hrategles of narl<ltlve: first anima don. strategy. then m audio and ani ariOI1 formats. hypertext workl generally extend a narrative over multip Ie pages. has HAE CHANG modelled HEAVY INDUSTRIES. most up-co-date work Her work also repeatedly of the Ie. As we saw In the flames! of the web with literary of the twenty-one 111 characterized by multimedia the last chapter. aU With varied graphic layouts As With most hypertext works. Testament (1997-presenr) [82J. obiects and people. writing'. .the layout informs the Identity of [he work CUlm1l13[Irlgn a i multi-dimensional and OFten arresting that r..ec'or • y [0 a te tin Grammatron. more filmic. and Textual Aes-!hetlcs The narrative capabilities endowed protocols intersection architectures underwrite of virtual and narrative by sofrware dimensions and iote can be Iialed cove edes IS. texts and diCkable.rmat . such as music. l1arra[ive and the interaCcive Screen. which lends Itself well co the hypenext many text-based werks as well. where anyone ceandOl ~ any and uncompromised reveals an in[eren web site. or via floating rext in the bortom of the browser text .ery lnibOll TAKE of digital of words . Tf ill In fo. the Idea t ha t earlyMD ~ but used Protestants (ended rarely to read The Bible cover [0 cover. as Amerika continued to broaden hIS cecflnlque USingthe circuitry of the web and Other forms of mass media femihist hypertext aurnor and code novelist Shelley jackson a hypertext (b. low-fl Image a large map fragmented. Hypertext works were described by Nel!OJ1 1960s. there is no clear "near [ra. of electronic a Singular form of hypenext In format. literally controls the movement and behaviour .. conSistently of a screen of Scored musIC and rimed HEAVY INDUSTRIES' projects YOUNG-HAE American In tho uepl towards developing hypertext authoring cools based on 'e model of assoclanvo thinking. but on the web they are also often and narrative options. TypIfied by branc h' structures.hunl and Alexe.for example. name of a file is its location and that. COllecrlve. 1960) had prOduced experimental fiction WOrks that derived from Screen aesthetiCS He bOunded onto h [ e net art .S on Its web ilnd Spanish as by dassicaland and viewer. .erteX1 domain names. adding up to what IS more like a prosC~IlI~fll or operatic stage. the projen unique work that Is effectively protected critic Josephine Serry points out in an essay pasted forms a from plagiarism. Ram en cht: Sea (200 I) dark personal reckoning. One of her text5 freely Mailable on the web..ead. and is strongly archives. or her body. text by in Irregularity transfarming and dispersal across we band pages.. Lislina Invented an origInal narrative. a work th~t employs seve I it as a multiple enery-poim hypenf!l(t . IgtJlng. at Compare (arms With cinem. 200' Oppo~ 81 TOUNG·HAE CHANG HEAVY INDUSTRIES HoI(8=4A~IKh e.1' ftJrn ' "llJre and linear landscapes.". ~uggested creating digiClllibraries of texts and to' as 'non-sequential including Vannevar Bush in the 19405 and Theodor use a clear.}apanese well as English. scene With Gmmmatron in 1997.. Indeed. YOUNG.. web site could tell a srory. sofr. Shulgln's Unk X both pivoted on the overwhelming plethora of hyp. nean Wr'ter Mark Amerika (b. often a rext into something Site. In the thar one I~ verSI rn hoy langu It ' Wlrlg of the Net. as Bnblh to Netilme' 'Llallna Is highly conscious of the lOCation and names of dlgll. and one salient strand relies on the Hypeqext THE WASH of words.. ~rame as well as through figurative graphics and block-IIk. SOme of which are [wadable Korean. 2001 error window3.w. the artist's URL ISthe only guarantor the "original". and rushes of CHANG HEAVY pro. b.ecl. YOUNG-HAE works explode The narratives propOSitions. seeing them as the onlyindel( plagiaristic environment of originality available. Later WOrks would Include even mOI'e formats. When these are ali linked.Hlc ones are more Incr . a Korea-based IS in a range of ways.n [he I field anp corners 0 browser. val'y in COntent. IMg .are and pub/j~h[ng Company that delivers pages over the net to paying CUStOmers. combines highly i[ derrves initially from Hyperlerl. then straightforward hypertext. Ocher net artworks [00 (200 I) [80] narrates a [81J relied on using the Simplicity of hypene>« between poweriul sites. historical evolution linked to the Nel5c in the sense of clicking or moving a mouse and.ars close attention My Boyfriend Came Back From we War [20J [79J rnada the codex (book) form . Characterized INDUSTRIES' HTML and textual surfaces.an exOimple of the new penormativiry Extending the fiction Into the address .80 YOUNG-HAE CHANG HEAVY INDUSTRIES. in which the artist bequeaths her 105 . identifications between While many of the claims of Irterary avant-gar d·~at Ism Circulate in hypertext circles have precedents r emphasl~e relationships In hiIHorical uses In d0 Qlia lia/lna's early works and AgatitoAPPe. Heath Bunrlllg's _readme. well before the Internee C3me Into being Arne' . known as hypertext.. OIl rhe S. the ways in which a. s pa dallzin8 the .Jlfill!.

ty member or lIeagt1f who will keep the work upon the artist's death. The will oper. mode as the baSIS for h er 'magined I .e!'Wor dly and mec.lphors of [he desktop. laboured project. In wh Ich almost every let as a separate file evincing a handmade. she has earned !he mcknam r' h • • eo r elnlernCtsMa[Tilew Barney. online projects engagemen~ of appro)(imately and possessions. une I ro tm e files. New York-based (b.Twom. The second ends."'lIn.ng on her Work. war . well-executed futuristic I d• arid "{Awe mixes t an full of Imagined visual propOSItiOns and b stapes W'tl1love let ters 'I cy org cn~racters Ka'la"ek sn I publishes new p~rt.m.ty 3nd age'ng. reveals social and prof~ u$ing a single web page and hypertext Ad r 1I rnent oadl frfty-sl)( lines.lle5 on at leart three levels. fam. ma'l voc~bulary For her mixture of rich.tal her fnends and colleagues br. One is a tradulonal story of mOft3I. [0 includes rhetoric of the law and property The third explores the artisnc Inscribes art cbjects use of language for conceptual vitali1:e or awaken a non-existent with value derived art economY' Lmlina from the social or [0 Intellectual cap.s of tillS Immense k h '11 . clean. Testamen! memorializes borh digital assets . 1967) used the epistolary 106 bear I 10 I artist Yael Kan~r~k .L 19'17-l"" se nt Wjrl-N. and World "(Awe its Cremaster co ou L 8l Olla l.narrative World o{Awe [83]. . lsraell-bo-n.)Ces t at VIIel are between the rant<!Stlc al'ld L I 0(. personally wrought myth I o Ogy and Iletwor'ked platforms. to enure works-and the friend. texts and Imerf.. LaunChed In 1995 W. I rfur. Similarly. forgmg a hybrid post-hu . .fl'om the at number of Lialina's ICQ (an InStant messaging tool ~N.

Remodellmg Bodies
&dll'$lnc. (1996) [as]. a project by Vietoria Ves"a (b. 1 59) I~ 9 ccllaborauon with Robert Nideffer (interface desigoerl,l<.en Fields (sound artist) and Nathan Freitas (prograll1mlng), .... Ith sponsorship from ViewpOint Data Labs. a maker of 3D bOdy While StOted! HobbylSl tOok on the mild eh 101 curiosity-driven home page, ocher prOfects C ah cter of a
. n e roplC "'era less neOtral, BuntlOg •s Superweed Pr01eel (1999) f87J t de ' an rlclear Ar{ Ensemble's serIes of Works 00 blocetooolo",", 'dd i.. Of 4 of farming, reprOdUl:1;lve technologieS and genefe' ress e"e Inva.'On b

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m rmiinces web SI,e5, two of [heir many artworks and [11 s 011 the b,otechan commercial Complex whkh [hey call che Flesh J\1ochlll , employ e misinformation and parody, caUtrlgattentiOn [0 the dlssemmatlon of hinoriCliI data about reprodUCtion. fertility and its embrace by companies Whose Commerciallmerests are Jilted with eUgentc~ 5upcrweed Projea Use"sanalogous tactics ofhackll1g to perform an rncervendoo in specific bioleciloology prolects Reacrtl1g [0 agricultural COmpany Mons,ar1to's Roundup herl:"'::lde and ns plan

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the avernge h 0 bb

eIIpgl r

iet 0 partit:ipants in the field. I n a manner typl 'cal 0 Jeremllen"os en:.1~1 d5 to t he dominance of comm work, the webzme rcspon . . k mlrronnl oi and expert voices throllg h a Iow· fiI, tongue·ln-thee •• vre In II)" their contents; it is also character i . of Bunting 5 ceu an sue . . II!ge nee through parns redistribution of corpcrate mce .' h companlf ,
With biotechnological faux sponsorsr hips from blorec etlOn, edillJilI &A se d has Ml Biotech HobbyiSt also offers a malTIn,g llst a Q Intervention. With
0 , 0

debates. expan d Ing rhe cur"

l1li,." ill' I'IUIt.Lll!lh n, ~ ,hl'l..!lr.. 4"" IIjJLiCI:;:I ... Fi.... ''''411 .. ,""II! t'l.rtrlt. -IIr .. Y~or-'I;ij.a" ee... lurr h ~lIViI!'r 1"ILr' •• b.llI~ I" ~ lHlt I!U~ 'l:br _1', t.k--" 'ra... Itl1"~"~', b:f.. '-It ot III fIhr." O.-~ .ldru U.JII .. -r'f' O::AA' 1;t"o-J .. ue .. w t _n ... I~


You art

lIoi iiJOrtL.


85 ViCtoria Vem. 10 collmar"tiGn Wlm RDb,,~ Nidl!fler ~o Fields and N~an Freitu. &dies IIIC.. 1996

~ and links. The prclecr was never f u lIy developed anrcialln We1 . points rowar ~~ewm~. b 'ncorpora~ng been m~intained, but It leading debate and dialogue on b'10 technologyidi YI atit'm ( k5. a • • industrial lnformadon With the arns (S' own 110m 108


Rachel Baker held a launch at the London InStItUte or


Arc in early 1999_ Their PrieSs release Included from American hacker technology biotech actlvist Mfcha~1 te~hnologl' pace 0fsoftvvare dissemination transformation constituted heavy corporate development in thiS fleld and the eVt d. In31'y gives us the means to adOption of MP3 as a COmpaq, fleXible format for ' of high-quality audio files. gave


quotation 'Genetic

Boorman: oppose

massraor ~

chis unsafe, unnecessary

and unnatural

I hOpe

Way [0 D number

thar this SuperWeed

Kit will empOwer others

In their actionl

of eXCIting tools fOr sharing and mOdifying music frle~_The or music Files and chelr dlstrlbu[ion music and artiStIC property on the nBC large-scale acts of Interven CIOnin the permlssion_ clrClIlts whkh 5eek of

We are engaged In a bioloEical arms race with CorpOrate


The kit, whlch does actually eXist, is Pictured On full of different rema,ns BrasSIC1'cedi

tile web sice as an open briefcase

Rape, Wild Radish, Yellow Mu:ocard and Sheph rfl generally

S.po_ p"'J'a. 1m TIt,.
bn.'=e full of • ...,ds. sold ONline, .... s In,,,,,ded bre.k down the lIIu.n", of <lMce Jnd ",,~ouragQ popullr J)al'tidpllDO" ,. bio",."trficd.m~

IV Heath 8untin"

to regulate crleat.ive use and shanng. Not onl)' Wer'e reCOrd soles hit significantly by Internet alternative radio practitioners

Purse). While biotechnology specialists, capacity to share Information In fact. Supenveed

In the I> Ids of

mUSICpiracy. but communities and enthuslascs


511perweed Project centres Project


the inter

were able to grow

and galvanize a parw:ul.


an extent

prnVlOusly impOSSible. As

resul .;) Significant

Is fOCused On publiCIzing and

dam, ciung polls which Indicate that a large majorlty Citizens are against genetically Innoccous kit, sponsored modified plants. The


of net artiStS have caken to creating aural analogues of the of the medium" One example is

largely Visually based el(periences ngly that raised questions S.ld to be the world's

Alexei Shufgin·s ]86 OX (1998-presenc) a bour authorShip fmmthe forst cyperpunk ilnd SIgnalled Shulgin's departure

[88j. a cyperpop classIC netart

prof en

by lrational.org"s

CultUral ~

Agency (one of BUnting's initiatives)" helie:s a poliuca VOKes are not being heard or measured processes. to dramatize The developmenr commercially counterbalance produced in existing d producl have I if" herbiCIdes

ef [n,1I

In the diglLlI envIronment scene.

or a fun(tiona!


rock bJnd, 186 DX ISactually

a computer.

which plays Songs by famous artISts _ InclUdIng The - USIng text-to-speech

Sex Pistols and John lennon

the fact that corPOrate and immune

OWn, often separate platforms

from democf3[ic elaboratt",

Sexual Personae sses.

and chat to stand up to them requires for both speech


(1998) by Shu Lea Clleang (b. (954) was the first web

and feedback.

site [0 be COmmiSSIoned


the Guggenheim

Museum. Irs tlele ....... s

New Forms of Dis!ribUlJDn Other fragments of cultural data began to circulace B erw~e

ew Wilyl
9971"0 on ,h.nneJi

COurtesy of internet 1998. mtJsic scarred and formats, traditional developments Communities,

tools and applications"
[0 emerge

dismantling related



net and an d p Iarforrn s . Some of tiles. various arns IC pracnces and d~ . 'r" larger-sea I or even global muS C e d ten wou Id-be online bl1,13cal . d t'rver~(O

in new onlrns d·IStr)b boundaries• oetween the In L.

such as those of experimenta I music or mlcro-n I .

thac offered alternatives en(erprises_ (called 'neccasters

. ASIde (rom content,

anf s jtauGId ew . stat I proliferation 0 n siles rf'Olll sec up thelf own radiO ons.sc a . d. 500n energized the medium. 0 n ma ny early art ra 10 • and . , 1998 - including Radio 90 inltla IIy run by Head, BUl]tJnAUsuo d ') really on Iy nee d e d encoders

. colieilEues at the Banff Center In Alb e.rta Canada. anok an .c~ . . ,s Frequency (I OC - ehe .userI to The w I< Collective Rad,oquaha IlsL t role in programming or CustorTlIZlI1g the media pay ..


inspired by Teena Brandon, genetically


WOman, who was

murdered by two local men In 1994 because she "lfed a"d loved as a man, Brandon's Story was later pOr trayed in the 1999 Amencan film Boys DOn't Cry, Cheang's BRANDON e plOred ISsues of gendel, Identity, Crime and punishment, challenging the VieWer's Ide~s through mUltiple Interfaces, Probing CO2 "including question-and. ililSwer .sectiOns and finional narrative, Was supporced by \farrous striking images, such as pierced nipples and tilrmo-covered bodies. It was an ambluous and incernaCional pro/en that '''c/uded many live eVents and, though te is no IO'lger availJble online, lhe Thearricum Anatornlcum, the Amsterdam venue Where some of the project's performances tOok place, does have documentation, With Its USe of bOdy parts. BRANDON shared SCr.ltegtes of repetition and disassembly of bodies across virtual surl<lCe5 With another impor I:;jm Work of rhe I<lre 19905, Bind/girl! 89'). Created 1999 by Amencan artist Prema Murthy (b, 1969), Bind/girl IS premised on al/teral pun an the no(.lon or 'avatar',ln an interView Published on Rhizome.org, Munhy explained: 'Blndl is my avatar Not only IS she my alias In the virtual world but <I play On the Word [avatar] which in India means an incarnation ora Hindu deity. the embodimene I!l( an archetype. In this case she is the embOdiment of the "gOddess/whore" archetype Which has hiStorICally been u5ed to Simplify the Identity In

or women

and rheir roles of power In

who only recently to identify himself.c to beM on gl'Cl. HAE CHANG fiEAVY INOUSTRIES. an OUtcast at school and a subject of town gossip. Ihe <I". the artist po!e! 8mdiglrl conSISts of a n array 0f P hotos II of royocativeand nu de a nd In sexca IIy p he decora[lve In each. [ bol/zlngtile mark worn on the forehea d 5 0 f Hindu wernen.~ear. It (200 J) [97J. a Dutch one af1d. unsettlinE tne sl te's ll1ysrerious Olie. on artiSt TakUJI Kogo (b. cOlhpl1ter paru fQctary form. ha\le a degree of /mensit chern almost like slidesl!ows."proper" place: The crOSsIng of technical and religious r~lIlJre~ in helps [0 CQnfront certain stereotypes.II(0... mar Hindu oblerva 1 f socieo/: other South Asian women of che bodies with taboo Murthy wrote this space! nc an d ex·terna! forms 0 I confined to . as the field 111 on the web. J965) was a Collaborator and video as the bases afnis Mouchette projects and USes phOtography incernet practice. YOUNG.he web been recast as obsessed 51 te.t<! h" cltd".. in Its e~rloes[ Iterations. in Bindi's enllne blograp hy. . Then J rurne confined me ha\le let me down. On . sym pnva p. His presence as an n MClu<'h"l1:e M_hef!e. Butbilnl n [0 m1 . gives lhe neo-MoLlchene problematiC persona japanese a memorable. me. Houchene IS an angry adolescel'l[ In ehe French pr'OVlnces.tur'l:' anil'ml tlOn and fend""" for d . ol. Mouchene evolving the web SICe of [he same 'lame since 1996 [92J In che 1967 film directed hy Robere Bresson.I«>1mu.s."Whyam here -10 gQ f h At first I [OU ght j How and what d a I nee d to gee out 0 10"" woulo 5J ~ h signa. reproduced IS~ Psychologically broke character Clips. I~~~"". has been ehe feminIst context An avatar deri\led (rol11 a film ch:Jracrer.I". They conunue to keep no 01 to religlo .p of thl5 forehoc!mg cell. arm me with my weapon. innuendo and disturbing which an image is mecha"."'8" beyond my boundaries! tee d ..nd YOUNG. Hol". Forever (rolen 3S a sad-eyed wieh suicide old. and Videos. such that renders His platform Candy Factory hosts a number of Kog $ photos o [9~J and Who( an Inceresting Fmger per frame thar often orrginue WIth phYSical locations as Joyful (2000) Let Me Suck.c~lIy ""aught."u.~t OPl>o'~ cb"" . suicide and child pornography 'Ire Outlined WIth unsettling Sound Im~ges in chiS proJect."" '" Ucn.. 2002 The delrng of.. 9l Candy FactClry . Mouchetce's kitSchy persona \leers Into [he senSiitlonal. HAE CHANG HEAVY INOUSTfillES bnngs Its . Revivlllg a filmiC personality auteur.lrll k [he te spinW31 eye) superimpose d on t he photos. che rebellloLls teen h~s she was [h'n:een. strategically place db' In d'15 [tradlucna y.

U! 0f the i"'frnl' to creare a ' fTV howe~er: Beyond the capa blll ines 0. ion y' . &![o"lfM Sm e 1998. Accumulated.! "omespuo 100r. S03P II ry 2000). the arusts considered In this ch r drew between imernet art and other pracnc y fOWling on res defining materials and traits... Intern"t r.u. Vi" . Suck /. J bro1dcaJ1 .ku . BI~ were >1.e. lncreasing y.(ogo In 1998."d by T... from the web br wser (0 tile computer desktop. done with YOUNG-HAE CH INDUSTRIES. equivalences between the net and public space wouldmoo\ll(! some of me most interesting and highest-pro fil ncernel art Ie. mternet arnst derived from his Interest In cellabera: artists from around the world. "nd net was highly decentralized... ". like the gorge Halbemh (2002) [93]."t M.sh &. the Images and videos. lud! vIsU3Is With rna. Th. book bprtl!ltSJohoM. .1 "'''II .!<eM rl'<>1n Opptrnt. space and culru-ar arena.. th.) and Mouchen" (F".. as a delivery rnechanlsrn for rich media.. 96 Candy fa("tory...--_ WPIIIIIIIIQ COIIldy n.n. As will be seen In the next c hapte~ d1e!e • .)l unmphl<th:u@d are <ambln"d talent f ' In varying ways.resu"g fmgel J. 16 .."nlb ~"" which WU"'iOnl. combln"'on of gorgeou.dy rn". Kogo'work I..<.".k. Kogc's photographic and filmic renderings expose [he Mtl" another way. making many f orms 0f In(era(~on intervention possible.a'Y" firs! .II"r d1».. . by Jahn /1dler (IU'" ""'h l'lea. J'p.0 ""h !baed Oppomr~ 91 C~no'y Fartory and Teuu Tal(lIll'i 1'11. '0&" ~~hQwn"'J PI'<> e<:uon.. 'I platform nor dissirnllar to television.dl!(l. ro the net's slippery authorial conventions. would derive from its ability.. •• Int. 200 I.0 0 .'ms.T~" IBn . .'UQlI .. and hrs proiects are supplemented With transcripts of email or media el'.:1..nd took place o japM Wc.~ure of . like television.u..d phooog ra phic UI'bleaux w.. testify (0 Kcgo's exceptional compoSt[jons and atmospheres.'" ~lJpJ:" f<i<1:ory J"rM lOGO. iI "g". distinctions tg. m.. pmJ. 01 c".

J998l cherne was the more ormnous and belligerellC 'lnfowar'. 'Endo Nano' ~nd 'Intell genre Ambiente'. chOOSes a theme around which parody and policlcs. Wijs now revealed defined by Inform. [0 period In internet Ars Electronica arc dl~course and prodUCtion orgalU~e I~ symposia. actIViSm. Gerfried Scocker: the festival's crearive director: described [he cit/e's significance In an imroduction [0 the 'Infowar' mailing list: II' . AUstria. lu participants would lind themselves embroiled in a number of fM-reachlng events and campaigns durtng chI" following yea I: These would CUlminacewirh Toywor. There were a number of ~pectaCular. which took place ~nSeptember at in lim_.Chapter 3 Themes in Internet Art Irr(owor and Tocuco! Media In ProcUce The 1998 Instalment of . and their examples delibenuely blurred Imes between an. installations and reb red events Whereas prevIOUS reJrs had memonalizedrhe eXpanSion of net CUlture wlrh OptImistic themes like 'Welcome to the Wir-ed World'. networks and Informatron Its The festival.ui('m as much as If not more [han by phYSical The Internee's capabilities to produce.ion.' symposia had been Concluded by mid-September. the global economy which W3~ tI1nvlng In large parr thanks corhe boom In che cechnology Sector. 'Jnfowar' eXllmtned how informational. hlghprofile Installations and interventions presented ae the festival.1 a trurh at che hean of the Interner _ ~har b~rond (he rapid flow of information and Increased ease of Inrernc(Jon ~nd communICat. While the 'Infowa.he Incernadonal feStival Ar~ Electronlc. Usual represented the beglllning of an Intense Every year. SOCialand political phenomena Interact. centre location of debates about economics. whith WOlfgang Staehle called one of rhe 'graa test works of the 20ch cen tury'. exchange and duplicate Information In largely anarchic packers pur it at the commodities.

Increasingly the vital significance o( the global information m(ros for the (Unctianing of the international finance morkets cOmpels establishment of new sum:eglC objectives: not obliteration. but manipulation, not destruction, but Infiltration and ossimilatlo 'N '. as che tactical deployment ofmformo!JQn and dismfarmouon n, ! erwOr' orgel~d the human mind, These l1ew forms O(posl-rerrnoriol cOn'llcts h
' c •

' Ond


tacocal technique


at Ars Electronica they charred tlon, evoilling experr a sinister

was haCking, with vrsitors progra mming computer and after access [jon to

Hackers were set up with eqUipment Brucknerhaus.

m tents on the lawns outside

fcnival hall in linz, where collabora gained libraries,

about their echics of anonymity.

standards and open-soFtw~re
programming enchusiast):, several high-pronre


na ve for sam e time now ceo sed to be the preserve ofgoyer~n lent! their mmiHers orwor.. NGOs, hocken, computer freaks in the I
C "


• t>i'ieVet



orgamsed Crime, and lerrarrst orga'lISOtlOns WIth hio/j.tec/j e~p , 6 (rt"fore now che chief oGtors in the cyberguerilla mghtmares of notlOllal






cases In which they gamed unauthorized of corrupting are called 'crackers'). standard While

systems for [he purposes (mese kinds of hackers

data or stea Ung mforma the genl'!ral wielded measures. Indeed.

services and defence

" , mlnJSlnes,


popUlatiOn may halle been wary of how hackers

their powers no one far more

'Intowar' had its COUn(erpan: at tile graS~HOOts level influential term 'tactical media', articulated by Geerr Lo
David Garcia in 1994, frequendy memorialized used on mailing lim Ii~

ro program

across and beyond


expected that an imernet

artist. Ricardo Dominguez

(b. 1959). would

receive death threacs for his Ars ElectronlCll projecc,
hoc.king chan rhe ability to crack certain

in essays such as 'The ABC ofTactu:al M< upon at the

'The DEF of Tactical Media', and expanded


kinds of programs in antlciparion Theater

were the.

Minutes conferences In Amsterdam. 'Tactlcal medj; ..... by 19705 'ti!cticaJtelevjsion' practices, and In partlcular theererk.an Michel de Certeau (1925-86), who farnoi 'tactical' te describe ,he invisible practices of consumr course of everyday ufe. Garcia explams: 'We theorise revolution in consumer electronics had transformed
(rom invisible into visible practices, of the primary rather ways in which people than simply the obiects Turning tacciG!1 m were becoming

rnfying messages
p'red ormance

left for Domingue.:

of his planned

wich che Electron,c

Disturbance and Carmin

Theater designed the

rench >ltd


who founded

[he Electronic Disturbance

Stefan Wray. Brett Stllbaum
Ormance group as an heir e of collective

to actlvin
of net-based

and theatre performance

traditions the


Gran Fury and playwnghc many

Benoit Brechc
functionalf~ onl'n.

cavely. like
od}' s field e to as


"toone ,b,ew

-rom,c Disturbance d '0'.

of modernity:


or action,

Uses imernet Dominguez's

to extend often

Part of a Widespread


an indivldua l-centred approach eo critical intervennc

Igltal Zapacismo'.

. e campaign prOject. called

utilized the capabilities of consumer
resonance for many arttsts working

devices: and il h with emergent [


kM, developed me aCClvist vocabulary of dissent by incerie ' the web sites of M ' P nng the F .. eXlcan reSident Erl'1es[ ZedliUo, the Pentagon rankflJrt Stock Exchange, DurIng SWARM's de ' .d


'ram b bas resoe~;c~~~:t

99 Electronic Oistu,b ..nee

Th""u,r.l1.odN., 1998, FloodNet drffpred r"'m many "r®TMark'
.and-corporate campaIgns 11"1ES t !!1lg4gemen[ ....... govemm~nt. lth .~eof'<l"'l:e" Pan: ,on«ptUill on 'lid pI1I'I p~rf<>""',"ce .rt. Fl.odNet

D9wn1O~ El)T'e


/I 'n his Unz hOtel
n .~



OCCUpied ,some

of the targeted phone but



"".dI'CU'I.cmaiFtoaWe:r.~ l~l. Fklu~l
Q4J.o( 1t

J.~. ilt.ft'd!l:Dl_fJ~



prO/eer senou /v h ,ST' to r e extent (y re eased a counre I( .pplicatlon~ thar run ff h r-app er applets I!(, ernment agen

e Pentagon tOok h'

room warnIng him [


reCeive a menaCing






e performance,
chat the


"...-on Dtlhe





wrth arts af"e.le(tro:nlc. o.fvH d""I>.d,e~ce·

pro""" reclillm.d In.!!I'" B' space

__j iapatiJt,il Trblh"kM



ltal.o conwibu,ed

TheTwelv~Oars .rOmslma,

Q1np>lgn, which helped "to)' to win I", ba<deWith dotcom eTOy$ «eel', '261.

premIse of 'Infowar' <h h ' OWever rhetoricaJ S(Ocker'~ ",ay ave seemed' , , governments and mW In writing, rn practiCe J Itlry reacted to dl ' ana ogues With force Wh til. 5rUp[IOn~ in their online 'e erth E'I ConSidered the projeec . • . ,e eceronic Disturbance Theater milS art was Irrelellant. A s media Could not rei n action In the field of 5pe I I' Yon the ethics f c a IZed :Zones Ilk c more Open or me ®T 'e arc festivals. re Mark, in attendance to . "'ward that Year, Used Its ex

er software oft; d. , en use In conjunction [0 neuter SWARM H


are Small

I,:,dge the prestigiOUS Info Weapon

awareness of the ca<hpa'

- tenSlVe mallmg lists and Sporlighr to I Igns and co ra se unter-strikes against the EI ' eC~ronlc

ThIS alliance was followed bya ~ nOt"er the awarding of the InfoWe<lpon c h as and honours to the small Mexican town of POPOll Tw rhome ! a . entleth Century Fox had filmed some scenes of the blockbuster fil sUrp(ising gesture: Tironic in Popotla, building a giam cement wall U,ar CLlt h 111 off from 1[5 beach. and chlorinating [he crop of sea urc~t e "II'age IIII\S that PoporJa had fished for decades. In reaCtion, Popotl villallen a Wall with fubbrsh and marl" a media spe rltan;c a pelle fOr ' It PDC", in the film, ®TMark honoured Popoda I r Its • resisUl.nce co real h igll-tech descruc at play in chis decisiOn chllracrerize and carpora[e
ill"(' r




of it. While Ars ElecrrOl1lca awarded effec[ technrques 'symbolic lew-tech The cwo srrategies of®TMark ace cracked comprising


as a whole: instltutianal


open, and is-sues of capitalise ideOlogy was Mongrel. a Britain-based ethnic and rada these tactics to expose Individuals of diverse

Also in attendance who effectively combine and class. Mongrel for this project

r bac

nds of race

had alread)! gained an lnternatlon Harwood (b. 1960), a mem of Ashworth

from Its i1W3rd-wlnning CD-ROM of 1996 Reheor301 Graham group, collaborated HOSpital to create

with the inmates a work about



life uSing fly hospiral

which a map of paoencs'

skin is linked co docume In the CD's liner- notes, (I and at [he same rlme [<01 machine filled with fllrh, tI fancaml

lives as residents at the maXimum-secunry

as deSCribed by Harwood
'assumptions of normality With a clean comfortable and the demented, inexpensive. This cheice 'machines'; production security in the effort of excluded of format opened

ork, ged

edJ us

its hygienic procedures human relations'. underlined [he doors


0 Ul~.

are easily distributed

and straighcforwa Mongrel's computer

Jse 01

Rehearsal o( Memory.

cechnc logy and
of a maximum-

and windows

hospital. work took an importanr turn when the group bepn Heritage Gold 100)
~~Itl'~~lt TUfl"l


[0 make sof-cware and web sites, debuting

. freeW3re .In 1998. Hentage insrallatlon.

Gold. part 0(·M·ongle I's Ars ElectroniC!
found inspiration



in Adob~ r oper9!lons 0 Phetoshop and questioned the supposecdIy neutra I . ," . . graphics tools by creating an lmage-rnarupu I>1[10 n [001 nch wnn . g co loursdfromc( class and race mechanisms. Instead of chOOSln. IJ NO{Jonai Heritage,
100 Mongrel.

earch. ,;rnd





paletteGold. 1998

blue, green

from categories

see or cy<In, (or examp j e - use rs woul Th k an d Japanese. e such as Caucasian. BJ ac


eernrnands of Photoshop had themselves been pL h a '1[osoPd cosmetlcally changed to reveal an ideological basis for I pe. 'I' ll1:1ge pro d" U(;[IOO an d ma",p'" atron, N' aliono I Herilaae c .. onSlsted 01 gallery installation of (aces of vaned ethniCitie5 S a appendages called Colollr Separation. Street POSters and a and newspaper. In an interview with Matthew FUller L d ' On Mongrel member Richard Pierre-DavIs (b 1965) " I o~·ba!ed . e"p Jlned hi view of the confront<lcional mask images: 'I believ .1 one of the most defining aspeCt[sJ of tile wh<lle P"tllema5K 10b e

• ewn rnasl<,s

mask: Mongrel's Matsuko Yokoko/I (b. 1960) nnd Gr

'. \Iv; h.'1 to wear at che pornr of entry mro Britain, It represe U a h . n [ 'ask thaI I wear repeatedly as I go about my everyday actlVIPI • , e_ hiSIO~e~ multicultural state.. And [hen it also represent[Sj III I. uk that] mongrel "as [Q wear In sourCing resources for d11~ p t So you see the whole Nallonal Heritage project is a consritU( Jf !be

rOleCt In 1l10re wars than one; tha masks represent tile mask that I I

Artll ...


fi{'IIIJ r.l l't_•• i !l ..i!fJ1to :'VitI


kr ..hl.i





Harwood no~ed that [he preSenta[Jon 01 distlnct an ambiguous, visages in Colour Separouon shows how
Gold's mixing capabilities could suspend distinct rae mro malleable data. Predicting - in tongue-m-chee~ demand in the West for this software', they desert Gold as part of a '[Slruggle] to find images that deal complexltles ef the kind of Jives we are livingnow longer black or white ... :



••• •••

Harwood did more chan extend the lineage of
politics into the net art sphere. He also described philosophical Now, dominom congrutu/c1!ory

tt aM

stakes of technoar-r Iesrivals and dis
racial and cultural groups In Illaely ar rnuallsed

to !heir own u:chno-cultural-medio produn Bleached the ri~hl people

distancing. ~ymbolicolly105'111 control, restrict. and censor eyber/a
accepted notions o( orlK'''' rry andgenio!

has helped call into question allowing a fe-evaluadon

een co-founded by tlJe military a rlSes.Are We about to remake th I e arms dealer I h e s Gtery. migram-Iobol.lt p c ass! at Profited before from war .L. ' over~ deo!h dd ' uP lI.elr future rmd com Ii .' • a~ Isease? Or ate' we to dlr In ConjunctiOn w' ~ ~"te their deSires wl!h filth? cy

IJ whl(n ,:.. e /s as the 'r. In,owar 'I eo"elSI1Y5 'a bottle In.• r;. bl power o(knowledge is managed as a pro",o e mo no/Joly 5(1(,t,,,

of the codes of co/rural pradu. on Just so IoIIi as this does not include the filth of uncom(ortable soooj fe/allons Given the rOClol/salion and elillsm o( mas! electronl( art events, attendees might still thmk that underneath Iheyre all suUlo~eGblfTlif mulliculturallet5-gel-{)n-with-each-other-ond,ger.-/mppy numbel hal {DI F; 'd' • a long lime been one o(che mom tactics ,or h ling ,,0 rd , dlfficull dM.l under a sixties-style love-In. Mongrel c.ulrures "ove (CJme lao longorr.fi ,•...r . in intellectual rigour to be (obbed Of(Wlth 11flower p U~hed up iii! IXI"~ dI

rell(' IWencieth century) tha; have rech"ologies from wh' h Ie newmedi CUltural Paces {cor tb S


of their gun,This


have learnt nothing from !he vag ed· 0(uns ,enWry 1f!S

((11 tne Storm f anee 11. 0 events around th EI ' lIeater. the 1m e ectronlC declarations of its rnemb ~a~t of Mongrel's installation lind the technologies prOvided ers ~,ghtened the Sense that new OV Strategies for real' ' A rs EI, er the next fifteen rn Onehs the fa Illng agitati(mal goals . eCtranlca /998 b . ee-co-face eneo etween ®'rM k un~er at , ar and t I. e oy. tile largely SWiss

D'5 urb

11medra was to share reporting. despite irs v"ry J legal stakes and the SUbstantial rnorues Ilwol~ed.troupe ehac parodied dO(Com brancs.:lble of Yugoslavia. d parodIC work Acknowledgrng these parndol(es and InterCh~n e 0 fOCUSing on the often hIlariOUS cransgressrons [99) applet."mance. a relatively new dOtcom business..srurbance Theater:s F/oodNer " po stings on the nnanclal message de.ous. analogues of corpor~te power That TOyw()r. but they are also easy co shot down' Though ttle and create possibrhrtas for mdependent the hosting of the 891 Radio Station (based rn the former Yugoslavia) on Real Audio servers. full of desperatIon. aWSUltag~rnH etoy was resolved. s[!ndlng releases and courting OUt k !CIty bl iucces. and Toywor received enorr r cenr. Etoy solicited the Support of ®TMd THETHING. Rhizome. The bubble of the IMternet neus pu alleging mat etoy's site contalned ccnrenc chat thF<!atened Its business. is pan of their work. The not.n tlus regard. which had been online SInce 1995.. like media also becarna a tnpic for disclisSlon As Geerc Lovrnk Wrote about the silenced voices from Southeast initial response Information among most communities may be "tactical". fear and anger. and an element tacnca! medra assert struggle bin [let for sei<:lOg or reclalmmg public space had been devastarad by a more serious conflict /iStl Toywor was an exhilaratIng and empowenng rn the spring of 1999: the NATO bombing of Kosovo. was slowed for a time. were also capable of medIa manipUlation Or the [dctKal use c medi" to create self-consc. leadership role and. TO}'W()rWas the web sire headquarters (or 8 defenSIve carnpaign resUltl though It would be speCious involvement [0 ascnbe them II the Inn"ted . Gamepiay /Ocl rrcmc D.org and other hses: ®TMark assu". !!toy ~nd ®TMark we e USing some of the very material they WIshed to critique and Toywor highlighted some of the paradoxes of POh[i(ally progressive. follOWing the call issued by etoy's Rein Gr"ther for a 'new toy' to fight e Toys. was calie'J 'game' by Its producers brought on by IIlternet against an enemy itself as 3 method art communities absence suggests a new drmenslon to ~n p technologIes tt USing the prernls~ of fig and defending space.ncn during the busiest sales period boards about [he web site ar of the year. The lartel' used Its to sue eroy for its dOmain nam~ 'pornographIc and a nar£h.g rom ( so e y to the birR of The Twelve Days ofCh(ls!mos. as well as the FlaodNc of perfo. all seeking to Interrupt . Of Course. 2nd eToys declared bankrupt. pre~s media aUemJon.c UT n . toy marker. based partICipants on such as NetTIIT'C a nd especially SyndIcate (Its focus was on Eastern Europe) was 3c::companied by ernails from those who stlllilad mternet access. were dramatic' followlog rho ~nd eToys. would prove <:el)[ral to the hign-profile tactical media event known as Toywar [101].sful." after the mar et -vas I ."'ppE'i It seemed corporations that while e Toys exercised the legal nghts grJnt e in che Unusd States.. which Jlrned to dominate rhe oflline chlldrens substantial price of e'Ioys' scock fell by more th~n rorrv pe -r of tlloUSands of Outraged partlClpallt5.. and at one pomt a COUr[ in)UnCtion down the etoy web Site. as w I as made possible by such pOSitions. as well as by documenraoon and clvUlan targets was paramount.. deSigned a game. by POSturmg as CorporatiOns.s'1 e <np:!lgncalled The Twelve Days o( ChnSlmos. anrstS and like-minded grass-roots multl-hcet~cI the tOy-seller's The I ults. 1[5 a legal dispute between etoy. ot the damage to infrastructure for friends and colleagues the NATO campaigns WhIle concer n (he negative drca of on imernet capabilrtres and mdependsnr Europe: 'Sm. The lawyers of I"To~s w "I! collapsing.. artists also began to make . web me fjn3nci~1 resources from a round the world. applet.

's beautiful lunon documentation of post. wei e lust an email awa~. Meanwhrle. In an e$S~r 'neLan Year In Revi W Nec prOleclS about the 1999 bon.arr the genre besr known by the work ofVuk COSlt Heath BUI1Cin. 190"."". Bosma knew Oha llallO~.. in whreh CUrator Jon Ippolito conSidered (irme Mrl/ennlum..u were elaborated 10 sever. and conse"ve ephemeral and contmgenr new media and conCeptual artworks.he Inter net e panded ex:ponenually. Dotcom design shops seeking to create more sophisticated or innovative SItes for dienes.her 10 net was Interest e ed.Wrltmg rhar 'net.thOlll descnptl .1I Culture magazme Inrrlilgerll Agem founder Chrlstl..ltlvl! at che Venice Biennafe.org founder Mark li 'b e C<I lied II. mobilized Via the internet to oppose 1 Fund and World Bank poliCies towards the Ik OJUfrngcountries This widescale rnobillzauon enllne 1 offilM tests. arnst and to r progr. Kremer ~rtiu Trnbor Scholz's 79 DIlys' (~clr[ed In 2001 It!! was nOI launched until 2003) 10JJ COnSI$[I of Yugoslavians presented W.•'IS well as through M'( communICation'. 2001 11to gIVe w y. As demand so did the tools for web sites on the part of most bUSinesses increased. p rhaps with c:hildN!n. Llallna knew and had collaborated WIth Heath Bunting Colleagues.ld WI 101 OUI culture seems men dS net ar historian Tilmnn B~umganel... ".1999 Kosovo e anions 10 the bombrng of Kosovo and to To) e 0 Iy efforts 10 make use of the mech3n1sms of M lY protestors. began to support 'research and development' projects that were also consrderad art. Vuk COS!( knew Crltl( joscphlne Bosma. and Tate Brnam . regal'dle~s 01 t'Ilelr opnunns or behaViour. were central to ~he classrcal net scene nse of eVIdent In NI. In 1999 [he Z M rnounred ItS SubHanrl~1 'net COndi[Jon' show. set leftist ad atel g. wnh ScholJ. practiQUy a folk l1ero In Slovenia.mClSco Museum of Modern Ar t to op n 111 200 I The Guggenheim Museum also commlS5lol1ed onUn an and began Its valuable announced that net ar t would Art [n TechnologlClI 'variable media mltlaave'.llnSt stalwartS of the established marketplace and wor d order These conflic. . as Rhilome.. many levels of change were to be OVe! . At the same time. and likely to be seen at J lesc/valln the near future Bur a s !.. Lhe mlJlennrum {am a(oOl For a teart.s dead Endorsing chiS vrew W31 . '0 I a 101 Times' was scheduled by the S~n Fr.In n I8 such as milillng lists. several years of optrrmsuc In teener c~lrure had produced another kll'ld of aura for ncr-basad an. as m~ny wert' by rh "Vilr 10 Yugosl.bln r earnral works like Teo Spiller's I Was 0 Soldier On lilt basE'd works such ill Miklos Legradr'. of which Toywar was one e ample. and as partiCipants found themselves In different places 10 their n"es. bulleun board sys1:em~ and con ~ erenc es [hll d ' helped Internet artists to bUild and sustain"I Vita netwo rks outSl I liIe an world and to generate fruitful relations h IpS W iell both .ry noted formal srnfr. e r.JI instances as lnfoWilI'S fum dOOJI III be In the 2000 BlermlaJ.ll 0)'01 Ltalinn. who early as 1998 that 'the first formative penod of net to" close.ltlon from German h.lmn1er AlexlIOder Gallow.. rllnks conductJng live mage searches relating r f war The artwork compares m dia debFl~ ab culled from news sites. or by mora demanding personal responsibilities 0 11m thl5 sense of community beg.ane P~.'lvia.JC[ive design.lnd Tare Modern began commiSSioning net art New York'~ Whitney Mu~eum of Arnencan Art hired dlgit. 10JT~or S<hol. !.ul as 01" adjunCt new media art curaror. Vidence of growmg InSlltulional rt.practice of 'dialogue mrough work . was selected as the (oul1cr(s represen[. con5umed by other events.W(lr (lod the Datcom Crash I In preYIOUS chapters we saw the emergence 0 f dlISCU rSlye mode r.!i. aUdiences and each other A sense of autonomy or •p rodu(uVeme d ' margrnalrcy. VI! A. Status of Inter. production how to preserve . and the Jde Baule of Seattle (part of a protest III agilln'l the WOI Ii'll tIOI'l). Vuk COSIC. Including those who parncipar In response State of neLan 99' (or the net culture .1 and qUO[.ournal SWitch.'[ CrruclS"ljuke 52 The ne 3rt community Bo 51] or the Mr NetArt competItion g nerol 5 had I'nallltllined IOtimacy lind truSl for several years.

ho de-c. J. ~Itr~ H.d d'sappearvd I f rms cud others Ie Yin.Ues olrly 10ntl.. ..on..Uttlnr:s.art such as TIll" Wi b Slolho. In[ern everyone em b. I"n".lU f hnoIO&'e5.. tiel W'\OI W 1(1hJ~ Ll III w..ne..llll'cy In 1999 took words ponendally.p' " pcrOj C In (hl~" or the f pmgnmmlng.e •L tit. and ~ro<Igh CO""U'O'If!:f '~atllllty 11 bom.. Instolll PIO"~l2002) ( h. Imal:l!l and audre.) tilt' screen wlcI.I P..'nd I'thl1ogr:1phlC tol pcmses (0 the broadened cli"...While nOt J. ov r tluny mll)'on e wet wnply II lot . and resources cgmmUI1. Pwp1~ warn mol!' rha" emil" They wan[ nl'~ mle"acel TheJ l'Iilnl it apps a" OPplK.u or. ~O~w.OIlo" SUp!!nOT to Om!!'" In 11$ IlPnrf' J .' IormiLI seop benefited 'rom (he new I vets of e perIls II(j decor fl n:tIIy.out In adhDr nr [0 UadluonJ..org~nIZ them Independently I(H . Net.1lly conSld('. p re ean:h. lth d bUf( d In an h elOmal ~nd nUll!!"ng more dive 10 and populous had thl' i!ud. r I' move men! S III d 1'I'IOs ha. bUL mor oph 5 til Imern t 101I~Iell:lnr r . ~more [I l In 5. art.l< arched "rhl d .1f Pouma'.... I rJ\~tS .lm18 1... would argue th~( the tightly knit eornr 11 pm WJV of nut JnlSU who dr ...lIs re produ~lIon to hos e enrs ~nd (I.. g~m .nd codmg st:ln d ~ rds be me mQI"l' ~ophlnlc:.p.or-g m:!lnQlns lha lile "- ~ -llllon sues In 1998 and by the end 0(2000....cum ...ch .ltEd enh tl~.encel Inere sed mlffilod.nu'l.c .le 01 browu!t n lon~ OrR' .nor . l leg.. typed by [hE' Y'ew t and G... rled Whl c and rtiSU.. r-om so/e w r eng. promor. ~nd runs ~ number 01 em~IIII. ~o)(e d "~e.ng h d I':volved lOG I.. (the Jodl-lfI}"-~hulglrH>unM~ net rt 'fear [ In Rev.hole enuucs NNOn!OI treated the lOt rner 1.)gl lormu While ri. Ii IS kin [0. Stilte of net arr 99' GalloWiI)' observed .~od r. sl1rs ~hd web DO could gathe.. Into lIIult. ed 10 ~IJV chJngl"d rhc Way user s 10"lIed at bro . (( #fie and popul 'ity wer cl arly Oil he nse dat:! U St:I llsncs web s. W3tered-down en emb • ced more e p3n51 and de e long WIth the ell'lll n~ ollTlJ' '()11 programm rn r M. PfOPI mmes star led III swdl d new mE1fr r1 at prog In th rn d I leg' rln profeSSionals ..5 highly ~Ilual and mu/mn"dI3 economy Irom wh. umes IlL S nil" regJnere db ~ In[ere~ted I" new media art. Th!!) II1Inl ro elrope rhl! of1lme All Ort mP(/IO Involl'e con.e-Web 'illllkN 15 typlt.dl!(j to Or nd s ... I<IdlO.. flOWing d'e re5U1cs ontf.t e ZI on.mng d $Ign nd [hll' fre..d high producuen-valu -. 'or programm.. lrom cell ege gr::ldu<lt"s w~o th til [number..

We ore not interested in the faa thor: a user ( '" 'study I. .• 01001011t010110 j -'.Con be Irafls(ormed IniO a weapon.o .ta nt mes saglng _ enabling them [0 recognize ellch other and gaugemov ement • distance and shape. access 132 (. for Its members. p<lrtS. which has been developing Via the rise of entertainment culture and che expansion of teleVISIon med. s. in !he shoflng of resources. as well her culwre. 010010" 10 10 110I. time and place. m unicatlOn p..by to reach 111 ilnd couch [hem Export. in which a young Amencan woman lets a web (Om t rr!cord her every domestic "cUon].s learning.Itor 01 Steve 0 lea a t the Walker Art Center's Gallery 9 in Minn 'Jlis. a IOO~ !hot Dl1ta'VlSuallzation and Databases .n.3 slgnificant body of ar twork tn which media anemion is a focus has elabol'ated on chese themes In fact. from their net artworks to personal 10 Jne all In Li(e_Shoflrlg.the t11eUrtcahlauon of all spaces.a OVer the laH for-ty years. inslanl re (eawre d p redator. who ca lIed TOUch Onemo 'an e)(panded movie'.ORG's personality'.ORG and commissioned by new medIa Il. lacform Is another project . -comrked by (Onn ectlngdispersed so-called data places' (diffe~ .. harmg made available all kinds: of compurer data ii' umenranon.:Jh D 010010 1110 10 1101 . human psyches. sought to questiOn [he boundijry between public and pnv'l!e space.. re/otIons with che Net.access and gathenng of materials was one dirrH'hsion Scru ~lnrLlng of an Impo rt3nt work called life_Shormg (200 I) [lOS) creatt> by OOIOlliOIOIlOI. . II's not like looking at Jennrcom t a we IIknown web Slle.S computer '5 ch e same as .. but also . the stTolegles. (hawks) and prey (mice)... Concrete know/edg _ thai ISnormall u-alnts of geography. CDntacts with InSUUJflons. The user COil IJ til' whalll elmo! jfl !ze our computer. U1 I•• ~ tide ISa play on the term 'ftle sharing'.J. fco e from the cons considered 'p"vote' con be reused. Mmnesoto.. U'I cotrI!l' . Its a mor:!er of politics more !han (If'PSYC holoml' /IIHQ! '" . which wer~ "~aces able to move be tWeen different data places and communicated via In. No! only documents and safr_wore. It wO mputers can nee ted to the network) co form a matrix that Was In and goes auLAiI must be shared so !hOt die user h05 a precedenllO study. . alked around Vienna With Curtains COvering her breasts and enCOuraged passers. r.s mem 1)1 adolle! proJ~.the tactics and !he trias.. stating that 'the idea of privacy is obso A I format for psychic autobiography (the project de (rom ersonal Indexes of 0 100 10" 10 10 110 I . crettlngO( 55 (0 h~ (reE "CCfSS to someone .grega IOns of daca The t11earrlcaliZ<ltlon of a priva te computer's comentS and Work. by Wisniewski . but most of all one shores personal relationships _wng . experiences and bodie$ can be refill!cted at least In part In data. rather.. in vhard driVEare made available over an Incernet c nnernon (many music-sharing applications rely on thIS e hnology) The pFOJeCtturned a 100 10 111010110 I. . one's spoce.ORC ucers into an open 'server'. the artists deslgnate the ever-repl !'ling curnents and data as reflectlans ohelf and as art obi Wlfh a CQmputer one shares time. L to . Since the 1960s. could be viewed. In which the a!I'Cist.e .!he •• mechanisms that rule and main tam 0 10010 /JIO/O/IOI . or a computer accessl] rCI! nternet with no passwords or verifications needed mventlng the entrenched protocols of navigating' Site not engaging directly with its raw contents and the ors d It). From th. .un d··we flow of money u. framed by IdeologiCtlllntent:.ORG·s contention that 'privacy ISobsolete' has an analogue in Valie E )(port's Touch Cinema (1968) r 1061.ORG's SUPposition thar ItS compUters' contents. oMiy (f show.lngs is one example of a Wider phenomenon . ORG:u.ORG's paru J1a). reused and deployed suggests [hat. Rarted in 1996. one . and [hat they are indeed themselves ag. the collective adopted an aesthetic that left J HO agmation.

aver. a polkicfzed strategy. Richard Serra (b. WJl'1t SIte Those who do not G to comply with the stage that is the 0100101110 Rave no choice. nor IS Ole user ~"eing ~ participanr sed of the llnes bet een and rnoruror. Gr 100 101 110 10 110 I. however. the late 1960$ particularly 3SpeC15 of changes in form in works slIch as Serra's Props series of or Benglis's For CorlAndre In the ways "truth value' to point j[ of 1970 RosIer's work 111 relevant manifests the dubiOUS nature of any given medium's used photos documentlhg e one·way structure of film.ORG is nor conducting Image.ORG members tI"'~irweb Site is in line with standard conditions on the Internet.orms a field of imernet art loosely know 3S 'data Visualization' The reshaping advanced of information art-makJng. of a medium popularity artISts h.s[te. the bour technologies. the group's dissolution colleague and spectator. 1941). (he vente of everyday functions (ema'l. lynda Benglls Artists 43) offer 19 rich legacies In thts regard.However. of observation 010010 I 110 10 110 I. non's porous refleCtive and ab ' srraq qualities. an Imporqnl and ["'1([ proiect by Rosier Irom 1974 7S OUt and elide HereOti'pe~ of The codes of the economically power Imbalances. one akin to the open. to broader concerns text and image in that work are themselves subjece The area S of (merest of these and one of the dominant online analogues. and Its role 111 shaping rhe sublectlve e pen·en f .y are given oblique warnings in pop-up windows internalization and permanence that preface the . the ~has d. disenfr.>.mko asserte and rhe body polirlC In a the Museum of Modern An !edlnoiogi~' can 'feme well known via the contempor~ry of r might c(l)mmodlfy or neutralize e sian around the world. social reletlons and technOlogy. has been a motif for many decades In sl1ch as Hans Haacke. f ruzanon and documents) gives birth to a new form ordmg and what Ursula Frohne calls rhe 'media mise eed for rhose who understand the premise of UrI' . In Life_Shormg. artist and engineer the connection between [echnology Politics' t met genre.OR and private acrivity (such as email) in the name of [ransparency. While Haacke made Work pointing to the Interrelations of matter. and public .on oho~eurism conditions many of the interaction Ole kind of b lecrure called 'Database in New York. although the. IOUI 50CIOI relauons ThO! SOld.Mediated inform. SerrJ flalN!!d~nd tranSitory 15 (b. 1939) and M~nha Rosier (b and Benglis commun rcared the proceSSional. make soclol relauons longible Team%gles ill I perusing the 0 100 10 1110 10110 I . as file ~(ed With cornrnumcarlon The Bowery Two Iflad~quotl' DesCflpUve Systems.:e. In Life_Shormg.we countless through the aesthencs a Ort for many new media arnses was how new technologies varrous diverSities of InfOrmaCion Natalie Jeremlll. 11110th become entry-points elf-reflection into the work. IS een on most reality TV shows..loO IOIlOI. .ORG web me. Technologies ore tangible Ulerefore be used 10 g..s t. 13'1 no wnJ[I'ie10 secur[rty an d dacaveillan(f 135 . dial ne In early 1997. a work in th hty.sourc to users' privately owned locked software.. might argue [hat the .mchlscd shann IS documentary.

'IItre dl'l>ersl!y IS II' (anSl/mplion I myudled 'mp! b~[w en PO."I[IOnshlp' Antlth"r dl.. ucns a tiCIHI 0' made .ed user 3I1d the medium ~tOryb03r'dS Mongrel's Now".. and .s w b 01 10(1.lgnmmrng dl work tlu.. ta of 'Ii JCO Ddl lrld or Col" Llflf.C." r 1..1r u.1Clll HI I cot l ~j /idec·born lrrrn /O\h On III 1971 rnd 5 In fJrnwI.lC~ling On 0 th net ~ mOSt nOIOrlOU~ ~(ourg.. 01)[0 On~ dl results of w b PJr. rn Pl!~ '1$ n unwlrtlflgl Nl'W ho'rln.) Ru/t (200 II loq Opr fung rlu rum tron Rille . p~ I Y and .llloltfon creates J office ChJJn fa.1 lnd systems of the information . .' 5elecuan. Some 01 th [he ncn-neurra a parue nd prof Hlon.hr emljcnko's ob er . • d llke renr . One get~ st. Mongr~1 3I1d Matthew this [l"end..lmc~ 0 place where t'Cl1nOmlc's • 11 board .1C' 0 I .ll "nd I h~ e rrl U c Su I.he 'pphro II Ih· p.uI'tll of (hes r(.l(f 'R'Illl«hnolo les Tlus mdudri ... the IOC rnet's limits construct these constructed relations "". and Imagln .r.lS h Its unrestricted Iy lh kind of ImpentlVeSIJt are c:fiec[ change. In Matthew Fuller's words.11 also r 'mlnl~H'1ll of corpor.ll.1I~. set out to IOU h the project offers 3 f~s F u IIer prc:ograrn.. ploln I Til. rh. or 'nformation In (he s me way that an jnst.lt ·shlp· o.lppl"OJch [0 t.1 5 n arbItrary natu". one of 111 Int rn [15 ace 55 to n '0 S)IV {WUl sp "c I" On (h(.. rang rt!lcmbl.~ 'Along wllh porn.0:: 2000).l.rela ted membet3 GrJlll"T1l Harwood d Images. au d '!Illes.ltE~ e Who chart dlllgram. what gelS coumed... '0" h. doughnul..ous tI conn '(lll1g sc~nd Is..lIl:wng prOJ m I)' are':11101 ma/lud Iam mler Hl.jatlonsh.. md N Will. involve dJ.lg. spc!'l. bear .lIow\ UI r.' . nd neun .... propag<lnda.1nd.m U.LombJrd'119SI reflection.1nc(' de eVldtnt In works of d3Ll 'II vrsualnanon rigorous. d member' and qll~ntl(''-Ilion small Icons Ilk 111 III.. hal Ii 1/1 pol veal (abrlC af!ht II1(ormOIlo" ogc 1And whol ! I I! (dlt ~ made In a . gOY r nrnent offiCials and big busmess Tne)' .11'1 a magnet for reotyp-el ~11 fl!pr sen~tlon UndeMritltlg On's wor~ technically won d3tab35e of IIIform~tlOn about corpor-He board members A 'dat3b3se' 15 ~ and other offensive race.1n Ch~1 In ~ PJI r s COntingent on broader politlC31 ~nd social co 10 Ite shnr« tWG bO. re5h~pe e perrenccs and conrrol J promot'ln& rae la I ite CC)[U.. or flowcharts d SIgned [0 preCIS Out or the group's obserYlltJons rhJt the net.mdJtd."d In Ihe ep.IF. work uSing medium . have produced subject 01 thae aflow~ users c:l[egorJe~ called to rru Jnd match 1II!orrn3tlon from different 'fields'.nd ."~ If one': en! .. and a number of arnsts databases: as either a metaphor. r"nde v!SIble'..'s r'l'yc. vein calls Jl:tenuon rtc of Joft xr ys.ps p roiec t.Hld (""'.. 10m concemt'd WIUI .ot.. \t y'.~10 Jddltlon~1 unn h.lhzed Jnd bl Ie dl..lCIJllI\flc~lIom p. od wings by Am rrcan rUuM. o"rrorrhmg prrarlfy I] gov n III fom101 n and where UlI' camp/leormg tlnd POl.ll~. a se~ ch [001. Iups Th e WIt red 5USp. l r 'KI~'ly char '.1 Infor. ~ ind rnv umf'nt Th e styl cutl1d b~n~ /P Marg. veral uSll~lfy rnd In~I~. bUllllJset~ pIg s [he Will bl conlroru d h .1rl panicular rnatenal w. gav rnrnents another lpproJ h periorm hk a w b ~eJrch mu 1ll1g words without (. to Ill" rill' ".d WI 'N. ol g !S t«hnl1l h olld hat dol'S nOl.sults JpP".mons ~nd In..Hd I 'Jrch (!fIgm."~ uen rh.blo: rebtlolidupl In "~ow IKhn%gy Ii dew: F ileneQ deSign ~hop um" IInl ~I wher.1\ 'ndered In homOf!('neolJ~ do (arms 'den Illy' that mo~( son Llr • IN sb r' 0" 1 JI rh pO!ltl~JI don. access and opacity for self-publishing.11 to Is an 0 iJJ[ 01 til 1m.tnlirom Thl'Y Rul~ t~JI('d Phlltfrl & Fmonct.lncorporaun leas s.111r1c!1. I 'nl:"1 ) lIS ccnsutenr (oh I !(o/ldllJons WIUlln wllteh we waf. Na.ll rh I.l\ pha tlt13ttlJlltJ I 1(1. usuall~ \earch~ble.

and linkil!o other elements .I lev Manovlc h has argued ln T/je Language o(New Medlo that [he damoose Is a dommam new media (arm.ve of dam by one programs given to I'egistered 'Every' and Work of data visualization 19 Ib- 67). tJ Itt. Thus the troditronol broadcastJflg experience.. I»' 0. <i.'Migration'. and so on As defi'Ied by ofl~inol HTML. Te ..Olen Al!fln Turner.•. Mrs TerwE-n"de LaQ:!: PI~ e 2000 > Tli!lU· "-. most Web pages ore cOllecuons of separate l e SII. of the imernel numbers.Ie. unoues." Hi"''''l1urt!ugh.ghs ° *"''''M.. .sequenUollis[ o( sepOrate . I. called 'crawlers' to aggregate computer 15 represented Jevbram: explains how she used software the data and compose the interface: . fle D.(eowre coIID-ons o(reClpes. Out 1l<D(f..... far OUtw"... . hQlory. a qualities. 'Random'.-"0 .. its capability as a database The net's rate of change.G""~"I".I figures grOwing.s. ~~=~j _ -. ". nisin". Ott "1M . growth forms the basis of f:1 (2) (1999/200 I) (IIHI3J.1 ~ l Loa.n 1Ol1".h (unction of COurse)..o programs along with the option [0 listen '0 the current Droodcast. in which each registered stich elemem... " :i.I.~d .. oreues o. quotatIons. IRie~ Fem'" nil'..A site o((} major search engine or was m.d"./al CD-ROM (or 0\10.cil Consists so/ely of a real-time lronsmlssion. l! IS a 'ollemon numerous /Inks to other sites (%ng Wilh a searc.. [fJem.lling! '" <ollobl>r . reo.....m m adds that. I (2) picrorializes cannec·ted .em< Viewed Item< IneEI( lroo.t. becomes lust one elem".Itor\%rl~ \V.bloc'ks'b " OLV I ° • J. thor. computers iterations 'Excursion' rhe unique numerical to the net.and every visualization points. ° col/eaion Of options." 2002 Thll ill' l<>pitdd>"bu e.rI ' O<J II"0>rI lIIIp' "'lI1>k.."ono ~II . ."o~hn''d'Qb • t. wh.bu[ this current pro(rom is Just one choice among many other programs stored on the site... The work comprises 'Hierarchical'.. A SIt~ o( elements..(Jus D·omples are popular mUltImedia encycloped/as • ~ fi coJleaions br d e. rurfDdJ". Jan Will"m TerwEn PI". Manovieh diminishing and and depletion its narrative-orientated a Web-based TIl or radio stotron offers collecuon of VIdeo Dr oud. be~ause the web is always changing. pholoRrapllS.or...iO<S of M.en-de / f 0.mtiM as well as other commert.. With f.ntJIyJOg .""". by Swedish-born sectfons addresses arns t Lisa jevoran by using IP f. pages .. a Web page IS . ~(''''fIIjl'" ~ ..-. dig/col video ciJps. As CI result. contains thousands ..tgraphy The Silk KO. . ClI~~n 01 19~ O.. Tar". The mO$lD b·v.d..e~in ..

ar Work by Fry is Valence (1999) (116) .II 'I" a uVla -or sedimentary. In orlllatlon_rkh 0bjects. with Increasing resolution: lpossible quality to chis affecting work. the interface to Inrernet becomes the internet itself. flat-lands in che webs IP space: Uses In che work Anemone or~ank' I (1999) [IISJ. The ratio indicated by t:l[le. "ad they searchselecced sarnp. Larger gaps in the numerical space indicate an uneven and varied topography.towards the imagis6 c and repreSentational.In the case of Jevbrac['s work.festlng every imaginable icon only to be constancly mari<ed COlTlpletion. akin [0 There is the futility with " john Simon's Every Icon inches towards the wholeness of . 1975) h " hUb. 'H ~ crawlers don't stan on the first address going co the end. 14 . a landscape emerges and the work 1..cc.creating VISua metapb ors co represent web traffic on a given a I n A ogy In(ormation sets ana . revealing not a but an Image of the web.achweb address.... slowly mlng in on the numerical spectrum. 'I e![Ween natural sYStems and online Whichtakes' ~ ' SIm.&low" 111 I. In the F"rtlry'i[~ration of I: I (2). lo". According [0 Jevbratt: 'The variations in che compleXity of the striation patterns are Indicative of che numerical distl-Ibu[ion of web Sites over the availableSpectrum.i<> JI!¥lmitt. results In a highly dense Id. such as books Or web Sites. anise Benjamin Fry (b. Because of the inrerlaced ~re of the search.. yielding somewhat insolUble results.les of all the numbers. the dal:1\base could in itSelf at any given pornr ')nsldered a snapshot or POrtrait of [he web. The scale of (he web the pixel are balanced in an unc:omforl:1\ble tension. while smoother color transitions and more eonsis~ent Iilyers are il1dicaeive of .a pixeJ for e. tends. .

m.8d 126 2820 15970 938 126234 l26 no Opt>.t> I~ BonliUTl'" Fry • .

bl VIde a general overview of the structure of informatior en text.B. The data-visuallza.hlps >. . a Stifling of a media form ( musrc bY data base means. offered role-playing and also In fact on a players own and dramatic narrative possibilitl'es.ames had attractive.1 " song suggest. ehe dragon. architectural art's most the CUtting edge characteristics. based narrative Milnovich writes IIll'1TAAIMvkRhorm<l runwn. these ny . game art explainS a mode many online experiences. of three-dimensional digital deSign.mc 2001 Finally. based on he S0m. as the hacks a nd additions In these open games. The user lIstening to from Pong to war simulations. 'In most games. II. spaces. progression modern literature. Besides their poten dal forfun. nteract wrth each other. o on: Internee strategies of games eo find artists the ereasure.Uions between . . min [1m These ideas exist within boch the open-software new media an communities chac inflects that encourage feedbaCk critical disceurse. gaming has developed varied field of ilrtistic practice. !PPOrtUnities boasted show-stopping colourful surfaces. wor] mdebted to John Cage's scores ndam 'and ~~Julm l Hl4Il. and users are expected successes rc and their own conclusions about op. Game environments distinctive a game li(emlly depends compr'ise crystallize some of interner chief among them interactivi~: player.orrns of narrative '"lovement in which the plot is drrven by che spatial rhrough to defeat these diStant of the main hero. the musical scraps an d the orlgln.. 14-1 Into a lively an H5 . highlighting. ic] Games • Though few other projects shared the high econom . levels or words. a game's parricipanLS' make and share within their communrtles a Significant to come part tram of game Culture. i'sycnologjcal Jsychologlcal through theater rooms. d thn eXist bene~th the surface of what we usually per Other database-driven often deployed forms and internal are based on ell of random sounds _ In to dissemiflate images or Ideas. traveling ave the pnncess. or every sample from the song call oe so that what was once a f~lrly is synthesued t€l become heard in a random sequence. . 'rela ob that might nor be immediately compositions space. Creativity is aim "leal. a story by writer Jerge luis Borges is propelled by the playing the short Story of various seminal game models. The reverber..JnJII! :n1J~ innovation is encouraged.vare away I"' narrarlve and time are equated 3-D space. computer whIch are builr around and movement return us co ancient lands co and tensions between characters games faced tram lhe diagram's centre. harmoniOUS and cogent narrative something that seems full of more diverse and unrelated contents.. In this way.okchjn ae« Mortality (2002) [117J by American duo Mark River hidden (who work under rhe name MTAA).33-second clips c. .tion rmat. The more ofren a were! appears. be the audio file that narrates individually. movement of spatially As Lev and popular. In COntrast to in and connects each word by lines 11'1 tl1ree-dimenSion a (he further and cinema. songs by t TIle White Stripes are divided into samples equal to one revolueon of a 45 RPM record._ou·jOl.tened to In Natalie Bookchin's Argentinian The IntrUder (1999) [llaJ. D' 'elk. as Christiane rween datll elements Paul points out. through and "I5L1airzes Individual pieces of information. t and failures.ddcnl =001 R_. IC stakes d01 1999's Toywar Campaign. These 1. Valence is . with movement in The Language ar New Media.

•• . &.II""d.. . C:~<ed . -.· .. shoo(ing and so 0"... Itll:Jonto 1 nL.ud . """'Brody Condo 1lfIl' QI 10011-) Mmn~ltr "...nd techniques developed by game hackers and exhlbnm e patches created by garners as art' low. CoFI '" KJllor.-.. rely on ceams of programmers. .oJ J . Commercial games. eUratOr..\j... dJ.-f...~uu.Ott 01 IIIl>d. These and other mods sometimes acted as forms of tritique.oM:rno nrer .. r. 1970) desC1ribed these possrbli [ntervrew In ~.. ...~ 1-17 ."....· ::::.!. Arost. tco..nl"'MtAof '0 ..ri'" M''''~hlelo'r. ·l"_f e ... II:'~'II-II. . ''''lll._ '\ool~'~... lrr..•• ". and require significant investment to be developed.'".".l~~l'"UIu. H.. Art that flnds cracks n~ on of gaming and art strategies Iillrlr·l[tik!lp". n . ".. tun. pan experimenr I~ applying physical relationships to words..:u:::~::_llh~'lldll..llyro~~sr...".h .I.:... material methods (or diversifying a game's "trcs or rts visual aspects...4thww:..''''111 t . '..... eRl'I"... :t. in which one can change the 'ppealdnce of a game's character and ItS texrure maps (or backgroundsj.n".seeps OutSIde th darias of prescribed and engages itself With 111 er public (i..'nd ~n..··.l.idl..S and g<lmen began to explore and domesticate their olte astcrushmg rormaJ backdrops and Internal Contents In a field or 3ct1V1ry COIlled modification.h. d ".. catching..{':td 'l..)... Part game history.. ...1. I It'aprrJ'tIlIl le'I It . eto by providing artlsts wr ...jn • Cr:oic\!1f1g 1...-UoLIIl.~ ~""I and hacks into foreign systems...ltIi: IlD Bn>d1 Condo _Z.IIoU't.tI.:.""au/(IiiII(~.. rtipl._ltl~g .. in order to hear the next instalment of the story of . suqh as chose for Sony Playstation Or Microsoft X-Box. I also want to invite a era """''l''!m"''Y pn h S!n\. ... . d.... designers and producers.fi".. C hi L . " . 1111' 11141.$'m" 11'14)' inu .-a.....- . .. . ... . IJ~' II. ~:~:r:::d.. .must be an active participant. ~U ~1Ito. "lnc-l.~ II • III. p ~"'I~rby Anne.)'' ml (oad"" I""Cc.. ~ ••• '10111. ee 'nF LI'I..::I:ri~.enrlches the c.Uon1 I II tIIUUIIt'f!ct"M. IIi_.... a......IIhl Wilron T• .m... I: •• i (~.e.~1Io' 1.t. I 'I'II~. or 'mods'.::..:..:.L r /'<W" .wo brothers who love the same woman... Vlsible forms of Interveneion include the patch....ommunicatlon and literary palettes of games.'~d~0:. t.. 1)1lIIU*.IItjJ'IoI..Ut " . ·.. the gaming public). American artist.. .p W Idol '.."I••• .. The Intrude.l'IfJlne~ltrl'lI'ldt.."d 1'i'9\1: 'I am interested art audiences in [!'t@ notion of art as I lire hllcklng..".. . fI_ r I. art with a llrltical agenda that .lu"01I. ~. : ~..~.'''r'''''re.l:n1't'l 1'lIIl1h. 'lfl-oJI.. writer an -ner Anne-Marie Schleiner (b.IIIII!.b-"~0:::.".. iiorI...II. biCiOO)o ·"""'om n when <her ll"hto..

assailing rhe sexism or . King wrote about this frenzied envlronrnenr as a comment on the artenuon strategies required by contemporary technologies: 'Trlgge. 0 Jr 10W and other graphics. a shooter a game.ll folk art medium. who seem sufficlenrly physically endoWed (a p Iay on d rag q to prev a il In a n'l match . Her Anima Noir~PloySkms (2002).d b. !he girl uow ~he Or sh•• <tu'" lhe ..rml~e.r' cu. But these actions also Serve and assert hijack the game's and combat coexist in a work based on documented event point" suen Girl ~p m space and context performance: Introduces a newfound public space for street Summons co Surrender and it A cyberpunk-inspired project.. <h.a point.. • _L Melinda Klayman. sel-f allusions. ':1included screenshots dlglt. by <ildd".nIS Potch for Marathon Infinity.""P'"'''''' 1l LIlt rIih' lim. space. 1972) endowe arranves with political realism in his digitaillideo She!kAIl 2000) 114).. interactions e model of resistance utopian In[O ehe nostalglcaJl~ medieva I and homogeneous of those games. H<Iu.rme pleas fOr agency from an [0 y the roles of critics.hle/ner's web site he~ own work and curatorial Indeed. and do not remain Ironic or stagnant the Israeli-Palestinian is an experlmenr communities Microsoft's conflict. alcernatl . ~. take a more rheorencal (Urn In Trigger backdrop Enemy encounters Happy (1998) [125J by British duo Thomson (b.._ ""'ani» links deriVing from the quotations at the top of the screen distract even further. m whiCh gaming's shared Nn Stern inserted ccrnpurer-controlled game world as a live periormance actions says this 'm~y appear hke qulxorlc online.. Jon Thomson a version of the (b.. Happy 148 1S H'J . a classic among video games. mab:s m ~ Cl'Uturl! 1I\O'_ln .prleptlCV. in the exchange BecaUSE! gaml wlture has thrIVing subcultures of patches... fluorescent pulsating pixels and strobe lights player weakened by overload and exhaustton.. ore recent exhibition exploring erotic games and digital BI05som House'.sed artist Eddo Stern (b.. embraces the hybrid forms and deyeloped Wluo anese (In/me and rewards players for flirtatiOn char3c[IHS 0 fJ ap . and offerrng 'free' use of shared characters edges WIth desktop' 'til enthralled fan ..lng bombs while shooung beth).um!fy d'"rlij~l bntl lIpln$t Yi1fJOU) "el o-ea. the works enter into wider populancns discourses. BrI(lsh writer J. and muWiI I sex-po sltive In[eracCloAs. Hypertext at them (Il proves very hard do -pon Tho pb)'. . but rather quotanons from Michel Foucault's essay 'What is an Author!' from 1969 The gamE:! one's safetY amid (0 challenges the players' accentlon spans by forcing a dilemma between reading the quotes and preserving dropp. in tI1" I ect a lrere d verst 'on ..hI dura.' the Mue' [122]. curators. and "enOp 0 bIII0 _ . 1971) developed 1978 Space Invaders. Schleiner notes. screaming the g. bin 10. J. "niSI Sonya uake pla~ers. and artists. Gaming has bet' of three medievfll-themed games. tough ·(rag' queens Roberts rnade Q I ueens) .mE . In narrative USing the onhne 01 nd bran movies made with nude Sims Skins. So"y'~ EverQuesr. distributing tl me mods and collecnng and reviewing others: Los Angeles-ba. 1969) and Alison Craighead 12]MelindaKI~man f~L2001 hnofthePXII ~ow BI"""". arratlVe5 of standard gaming fare.. Within their online communities. Also In the exhibition was Parangari CU'I"'S E.OJ~'WItham. in which the invading enemy is not an alien Ierce. Stern's Summol15co Surrender (2000) Intervention. using the Stern Asheron's Call and ElectrollfC Arts' Ultima Online.5ch~n r 5IllIr "'. [ displays.. fbwor. on Sc _ _ _ [lve engagements with typical gender Ideologies rorects are crea P h · f games.'~tnOtNef 3{ & Craighead.1l . game characters. rnto buff. an e>:hibitlon organized by Schlemer.l i-Liltll KJrt· u'J(1e. In Cracking homogeneou.

to between opponents of gaming. black and while.mson &. as BI"ckLash did. and the tensile relationships Which Foucault's essay alludes.198) [126]. However. and a all ling simple graphic environment.~oming from [he point of view of a young black male trYing HapPY.arg's htstoncal conflicts lor their premise.may be those which in generating attention and catchlr e. With a jaumy score and limited palette the game space at first appears minimal environment supposed to shoot. hence the name . ItS the while taking gaming back to cornputerrred arn sts have worked wrrh games . it is difficult to ascertain and easy to get lost In Its dl. and create games that have got some thing co say: If many games rely on stereotypes exemplory Jodl. through game culture that it is possible to break rnto and different areas apart from mUSIC. was a web-based a player chose from four stereotyped thensle . The most successful constructions.his Or her to play in the Mongrel's BJackLosh (1'. Richard Pierre· Davis. Kafka-esque space. spaces for gaming. [he arn establish an homologous relationship Viewer. texts and readers. IS In Trigger Happy. which also appeared game in which black fighting characters. llu. The ways In which with feedback personal o SOD hints at prtvate emotions. Combining confusion. of grey..orlenrating. SOD (1999) radically modified the clas src computer game establishing abstracted approachable. CrdlghUd. explained how the game depJoys stereotypes: 'BlockLosh is based on a half truths and hardeore reality combination of stereotypical ISO . the targets Within the one IS Castle Wolfei'lStein. core. You one of [he stereotyped [0 characters. and lI1f1ecting eXisting games With more COM ten t . resolution between these subject positions seems ImpOSSible: the most appealing possibility anomer round 'Crac.klng the Maze' exhibition. One 01 the creators. to survive Inner (hoose proceed eliminate community GIL)' life in the nineties. or face destruction the fictional of artist and by that te1(t Indeed. we're I to produce rscmg entertatnrnent sector n:enllon. may become ommodlty. preCisely because of Its scarCity. Or arust and player. way to freedom by killing police and fasciSt chara(ters.have helped :owards the basis of a future information economy. interacnvuy more primitive.. un take the reader's fmger off the trigger' The player mons among writers. II .c rea into cornrnurutres new material for free widescale distribution and political and less homogenized a new dimension [0 an e channel s. It also aims after which you encourage the black battle the forces of evil that plot to convict or [0 ap~a nCB you from the streets. by configUring the game in this way..

-"ce and PowerPoint " dosed to rnodlflcanon and expen~ive to h . open to edrdng).'" Developed . . inspiration distribution inspired for use across a Wide snle com Inhibits experimenranon and autonomy er procedural Invention. popular open-SOUrce a com flu tel'. uses.~ "top d . ".t encOurllged I'll tlon The award I f prestlg"cus Golden Nita Award' to l. adjusted another user Some online software endurance of rnechamzed algorithms. Alexei Shulgfn and The Yes Men based repository art foreground. 'ould th software art. Pit Schultz. its code is available 0' art IS premised [12B1. Art generated ay software can lad. well as the proprietary or a clanLCal( • ompo ItlOI\ as software developed by Btll G~tu~ lor whIch . . programmers or rely on vanled input from users. With the suce 1l logrammers are e5S 0 Inu as a operating system (an operat'" .. British writer Saul Albert described as appkable to Fuller. paradigms keyword IS the term 'softwOlre are' One important influence of the open-software nodes. whlcf d on scores or instructions. In addition and refined by on the or art is open (that is. Importance as a din . enabling various forms together they suggeSt. Up system. FlOrian Cr Thoma Every /con. ' Incorporated.inu ng 0 th~ I999 I~ at Ars EII!ctr0l11Ca L t~t nes to Itl. as it was by the distribution initiatives databases cornrno by a team "f JrtIIlS. a rnaclu 01 buying (ommerclill software he concerns. diverSity and collabo eme. and writers -Amy Ale ander.he secrety of rh _ sou monopOly' Beyond the Irle I .Othel"5 draw attention to certain mechamzed routine behaVIour among users.. downloads 'art: that is made from. a computer IS the basis of a capnahsr program. I P. Kaulmann. many Fluxus projeces problematized [he tne artist by removing his or her physical index from the reduction of the artwork. • e SO. shareware and programming software as a cultural form and context'.org or user inpu •.tw a re is a bottOm. Often identified with the rubric 'open . lor software McLean. lcal precursors have been recognized to new media-based extenSively on how 'soltw.1 5uch as rh el r reposuc rre ty. It can be modified. free-software movement. contributing to or resulting in a 35 egree of autonomy r eted work of art' Fluxus projects and Happenings. free SOnw"re and its communities IS2 organize around me Runme. besides a diverSity of tools. RUnme. Olga Goriunova. while propnetary ware IS. n companson-Iorexam Ie Adobe Photoshop and Mlcroooft Word c.lre fo known as soft users These tll" I r str a COplCsometime forms of generative writes of the need for ccllectlve activity among soft artists and computer nurturing Fuller. . Image and textual creation.libraries of code or "artie I . which Fuller helped orgam.e econOfnLC and e-so rw~re mov innovation.. u ar prOjects I h the revisions and modifitatlo b . bu lGin va ry ccordmg to e1fternal data conditions If a prolecc of software from the successfu' organnanenal and collaboration. on whrch all Other entr~1 application 01 prOgrams run) aut h orship pa radigms of the fre f .. which is then set lnto motion w. In con tl'~Sl to a traditional exhibition or gallery Included a re diverse. Open-soure' ..org shares art WIthin an artist-drIVen dlscunlve context While the proleets growing dominance of sound.n t esc collllbol":ll'ol'ls • ns Y vaned p . free-s 0 few" :recom m u 0. ral eel TheWeb Stalker. or imerroga~eS indexing.OWn Strl1tlure 5 raove art. according to American artist and teacher Phil! ter I< 'art practice where the artist creates a process. su t of natural langcage rules. "ncouragll'lg the deveJopmenr of software and generative art Source'. that With its lllnited sets 01 comm funcnons designed software who has published of experience" engineers. of functionality. plly5 IcaI Im pro~isatio nallati tude of a Happe ru ng. I e . Ale the w severalmrerl feedback and free-software programmers Matthew such as John Simon Jr's or designers.. pure as!! As German cnuc Dieter Damets explains. g sYStem IS the c tn represented Microsoft by he precise notaucn Ccrporation. ' mo e m~frll\ 'or (reauv ccllaboraticn Proprietary software.

...t'DonelL..:r~. .:~e:~-=!~g rliLLy • • ·non... citing existing resource:.0.l!:Ie to""" I'I'h. I he phU51ble or of clvl1114tlQru. unlimited by proprietary word processor typefaces.. Runme.. L![t30zl (b. television ne(Work PBS by Golan Levin (b.. HI ~tun d 8y D.h~lt.cOhUIHI1.re [ at us .lo.or n "".ion. . suggests a different set of posslbll res.. while subject to the rules 01 that turn it Into an alphabet.:.. such as Rhizome. ~r1Ol _'1_' il~ l'I'I"v g..ck.. 1972) with I Feinberg and Cassidy Curtis..d T~fI A. 1ot~tt'*'.""ClJ1ym'O"U' !t4 • ..~mblc .ti:. ~ vlGl'to:r~ HQg. .. allows users to conslder dimensions of typography and handwrlung by develcpu typeface based on 3.org offers an alternative to other and archival models.:.1 . n ~ "'1)1'10 dot ~cm ~JlU!r.bet Synthesis StJt"MIl'.::cd 1 ~~~~!~r :!a.Se-l'). "..I!¥~ CoDnt. 1950) began to develop software that would help her ImprOYISe with film and video. .-. understands th activities online need not be devoid of handmade.Ire n AlphB.r-tS ..l:'Wo..~b . as inadequate "i d 10m orp hrc 'I would rather make my own software (whllt I term hie . gofn)ywOr a different process of abstraction: the active rarnm .h d rcre ro do Wit price. That price has less to do with money an me k .a online .14 I J'" ~ 1 -~ \. -j 1 :lliI"lOI'l'_''' 11) . With the model of wab-based discuss distribut.omeso!! software"). because the commercial .'. direct mark (made with the mOU5 despite his prowess as a programmer. American anist Barb.. 200 l as an art genre... i lJ! li ~o-.u1h 61pbQb::ot~ r~.. i(e5 of DeSign.1... . made for .rl:Zl a. direr urse <.lCil .. A/phobe( Synthesis Machme (2002) [130].1111 I!" "me n'l' soltwarc on ""'p"'imrr. ~rl(l] .f ..'1.org or THE THl many works in this field. pe. euc I unrnedlated line creation and experimentation" The mar gesture of creating a letter. War logIn film and TV as well as software.I. within ccnstderanons dictated by Irrelevant pract 154 i.:I "'6q'lol"I!!1~ ~OO] ..\1' au. software art's proXimity [0 Ir methods creates an important foundation.h_!.I'IJJ"''''I~O'''' 10 2'00:1 Sv .b!.ofrw".lji' Machine Fonl Archive ..nod cr-eed flD ·.:. IJ ill II!' c:.b liIt"r 10. By.'t<a In.

'Software !ten mto bemg simply a [001 IS between most reduced too "f pT'e-exlmng has for the achievement m Beru _I e lIy formu late d tasks: (b 1973) of the British group Nul'pomrer eli . source code using different bnguages Marcel Ducharnp._ M= by mstrucuons It and the It IS pn!clse1y a cO[1cepmal that was used to create OT'manipulate to previous arusnc that constuutes work such as Dada's (b 1928) (hat are with formal variations and the cone aprual pieces by John Cage and SolleWitt of IrIsuucclons: As a form. Rm.urderous the actual Quake player. any "digital been produced and instructions of the 19605: 'Even If [he physical and Visual man! estanons digital art distract software image" has ultirnarely this layer of "code" level which connects expertments III BottoV>o Lattan:zJ HF (. 2002 exhibition 'CODeDOC' promotes and commissions f American Art. as well as orked Installation-tum-performance perverted I' QQQ (200~ dlsperw in the based On the me Quake. The actions of che geographically In such a way that they appear colourful pamterly gestures exploits. Whereas ". Paul linked code with aesthetics and themes evident In of from the layer of data and (ode. 11301 Is revealed as a highly malleable Instrument. techmques of Hollis lreeware on her site. AV3ilable lor use at no charge by anyone who might want to adopt his or her Quick Time flies Using the film's Idiomatic style.pplI<O '" based on the execution interpretations ~ """""'. are QQQ presentsthe _e spao.ofrware for composing music. Christiane of coding rondinoned of one idea. Paul stipulated opposed exhibition experiencing former usual focus In software encouraged that the code should be the object JS ubrnit code mat 'should move and connect to 'what It produces' circles users By 0(1 thus reverse-engineering the functional works. rhrs group I to e amine source code tself before its expression. on the 'CODeDOC' web Site. the work undoes the ges!<~1 relationship t software and mass funcuoj1allty that characterizes apph<:adons. As Maahe"" Fuller notes. the 'In was II prologue to the larrer In her imrooucuon [0 the project. internet an at the Whirr Paul sought to the twelve three po III TOI'n8ot ts. The beau dful and Ul3tioos of Quake position the work on an arusuc e between gestural painnng and gaming.lattanzi's software HF Critical Moss [131 ene of almost ten pieces of J. rs based en the cinematic Frampton (1936-S4) in his 1971 film CrilJco/ Moss and noteworthy for its particularity. am Id!>t abstracted game as a a spaces. "'''''''''''. Cornrrussronmg QQ In space'.e for Image production. and artists' are varied permuratlons . curator how different processes ce md expression for the Whitney Art.

"'c dl.1Ib rh relative llU<on r::omy Df . rpla~ page' of the col. .ne Yl!rs..meres' .jl ..~5Ues tI1ey .Hlghllghtln." •• ". I I 133 Saw-ad Brooks. Us.oe:Ml. GJob<ll City.. IoIlIdl ~ . e .1 tJ!chl\ologle.n 0:11&..and the <o(:laL poliuc.h if pnOlnu prinl I l)'ll1111_l J.-~._.p~pe".p.this proje<:< queStIon. .a1 "oo:! phllo~aphlc..bltlon Wll(ottHrn'1 (from the 'COOeDOC at the Whim")' Mu.g" Perl. -.. Brook>. . SroaOls" 'Ill l. ell nCWSP"per lind tile _yin suc."yed...rll~h r.on$ of three n"W...r\niHlt- I '. whIch ..... ... d.h publiotlon...eum of AmenC3n An:}. ror SaWa Sa"""' 2002 the code for exh..ng programming lang<J>.

. 'beaten.. Jwr .. '.l. enslaved.t J~"'•• ".. and hyperrdtiOn...:bGpe (6 t:·'Jangl.. ."lI.ime of I IbO I .... • DI11~.~I".buk bn.r' ~... .1. cede shows I ts latrtude lor mrencon and personallry...1c ."..n It qt. and exploited to death' since 1792 (at the . .tion: for processing that: calculates a IlS Camill... CIIIIIl. VI. .cpp (Ill). m ur Amoricln I.mpl_fJ . I..I! J. I . In J. While Sswad Brooks uses Perl Glabel CII)'.111. r_ it • . London..00 I) [138J exisr.DGe' WI.aC'~ Dn uoSck t:. the collectiv" In the artist's 11u. Perl.pl lung Gapaci'l' of words...... Une.~d .JOvll!~Ir:~ onto ..11.. IU"'lril 'tl'l t lot I • ."l'It I il .b.111- . I iIlII.' i_ '111111' 1.pl (2.~pllJ rClctl:llJ9le) repttDutd o-rJll!!l..j'tJ!l ..r .. l" ". 011'-"1 :I' .l1 state.. Utterback's contribution.IV" or lingo.<PI> 1OD21("""...1. .. 'It.it•• c oeer l:II c:ompJ lCln e In ud ng C.l_l •I ..:..... In It is political in the hands of Levin.tlili~..hape (II th.'11 ....1'I:11 Ni~..for Soskia Sossen [1lJ-1l4) and Camille Utterback (b 1970) works With C In LlnescGpe.lldl "..! it IS simply an evetll"-Ss objectified form than an appli«l. some ele.' ..Lt.t..u'ound qet ib. oxhlblt>cn script in Perl (a language designed (OIl"S[5 of a program Arc) children in London who have been.&_~~ . of functionality Graham discussed works. Finally.. Golan Levin's Nus 137 and Milnin Wattenberg's Connection Study [136J reveal code "11th JaYB Far from dehumanlzmg texts... tucked.}+u ...<ln[ and terse when written by Wattenberg.11 r. 'COD.e...". notal! software explorations In an exists In a funcnonal of I[ remains purely prcpostttonal.l •• 1&1111....exl)." 'oI'UI!(lll .. I.-ur <. ·. Moving away from the Harwood's and visualization In the preViously London.tt do".. . tl"lIjtfCEory . opo. "J..".t "'.

.t-ion~ ~f:I."'-~'l~ thi.t.... rt."Y c. Er1gineerlng and runctionalityare designed but sidelined. Il10 ~.I'Il" . M. 'Q.1111 f)QII_iblD •• . eaae"'f"ft"~'" . They. AJUttllU4b lA!11 "''' 11. code calculates the formal consequences of the artist's prescription for England.lr.pl are akin to works from the 196 Os that amphastzed proposition and intention viataxr-based projects..t..plo-ar-. avl.1 Lo. ~.~... . J:rn :OWlet II.lil:l ••. ..doC'lLiII.r . ..1..\.. ..1.. '~Uilo t Ito duo ot tII't .. I.rt In et A. I"'t=le...fI. technical and SOCiologicalvalues different from art 101 WIll". .ttl •• 1.. Britain's Industrial Revolutlon)_ The vital stll~istic is used co time a M_C:1..Ax~.'..0:1 DOt. '"..".od..:.~iII_.ltab..p.·.n.~ Ilft "111.Qtmt..nlL t:or scream ..•• COUnl-1'.a.a.:itory of Ot" \It'hori. software art and earner art practices that changed the relauenships between the artist and hrs or her work of an. tt...menan .t ".'r7 (IT .d d. of .~. t.1a •• '1:_. ". and the work insread draws arrenuon to 1[5 500311y inspired inrernal content.11 of egApL"h~ v • n"I~"':I OUt-IttI.. Software projects such as London. which are remixed in the code along with the anise's premise and the Perl commands. ~ i. like those by John Cage or Sol LeWIrt. tilt 'COD<lOOC' ~lbnlaR octile Art) circulatIon 0f London.Hila..r.:tJlt!ulI bOIJ.i. 1• .-~ It.. r j ..... As Christiane Paul noted.a~tCln ttt 't.. 111.t. like other conceptual artists.pl" Or -t_ It . not its rna reriality.u' 01 ..!"i' l-h ... Ia" .n 1:1at...It..{101 aut. In this work.h. ot. "'P'-·...>.nat: I' oll . do no~ '. 1001. The consequences of the Industrial Revolution are also <Illudedto in qumimons from William Blake's Songs of Innocence and Experience. or .. OnT..rll.. there are parallels to be drawn between this form or generative art.. opened up spaces between symbolic represem:ation and enactment.p! and many other works of software art within free-software contexts as well as art zones gives them economic.bl. However.t •• t.. the IJ1 Gol"'l""ln.O~ t 1: ..~~m ot an) '1'1_ ~~'lIloq~ t'..U'l..~ ~...h. Mlr lit "PPl'o.d t1uJI 'l ...the collective scream of these child ren - 1O be broadcast in London in the hope of redresslng what the arusc Cites as an 'imbalance of imagination and innocence'.(11!! tI:I ot . It ISthe concept that gives the work its strength."a "~IIII' di. • ..l 1'1 ..bar- publ1. 1I•• U. .

across used by Its ccllaboranve edge Is that u ts designed to or software to protect III most firewalls (hardware lines of private . to form ralanonshtps technologies Gees. or Nam June Paik's ParUcipalJol1 visual structures. vlsualluxr.pl.. in ttku. 100 I .nsutuuons or companies from par·taking data or prevent employees leisure acuvrnes) 111 A sirnfiar work programmers of graphics for people 13'1 Andy O"d< Gfyphlb. An Important [143-144].ween Mark Napier's Digital Londfrll[7Sj.a cnlyl.ct If internet allow for frrendly encounters of social and creative pl'ocesses rendering around can also them Graham image maps... thee ex corpse' so named after a fragment from one of [he collab formed sentences. ~udlence ~nd of internet users. collage technique. the rhetoric dram collaborations highly documentary Harwood Inscnbes create of their critical potency. IS commummoge lI41'.. some artists which explored sought to the form I and audience material of the web by having Visitors chuck web sites m which users could evolve complex rely onessen~ial to the surrealist c. . A democra around eccentric. In GlyphitJ (200 I) [(39). can function like.. without copyright. launched 1999 by Ie collage tools c a I c and Johannes uploaded by visitors. It travels ea~'1 Iy. IRe ..~been foxed by Deck. Indudlllllcolaur Ibla~kano wII. or formal. work of collective In Amsterdam.cmln e:1eorm:nt:!.pl and 'CODeDOC model of open software knowledge In which users With represenl programmang me can modify or participate as author. as well as commun...>1'O'Opn. 'J>1tcforf" . Glyp/1iD beat'l.ve th~ f~om <0 c:!unge tho md""duoJ glyflhs that rnal<o up th. Andy Deck (b developed an interface 10 which any viewer can modify or Visual elements function defence. Perhaps the most apt metaphor e Is that London...r parncrpauon.no tesee rn. Who and basic critic BUilding on the general knowledge Ilke uploading and downloading dissolve boundaries be. commUnimogl' offers large-scale.5 free to sample and build upon. Nlne(9) (2003) collaboration created by Mongrel's t and cornrnlssroned by the Waag Society Into a social conte 'knowledge by allowmg users simple multimedia maps' (hac can be linked to . on h.. metaphorical are likely familiar with online communication art production funcn ns data.u... !U.lpOsltioIlS. London..AJthuul.1\c.cauon the.n1t Oe'5lgoil!d to fufltdon :a:c.'mli>n 'e< to g0'3ffitl In It> iI. Open Works In their own ways. and software art like P roperty It.ontributions text-and-image 'crash heap'.e~r own m. 1:0 SOftwllre.ro!f:Smon i1f"e'N'lkls. nes.. and .oon of pnv. p. a muskal In the public domain.. these Some In from their audience.nd " .objects or e .

.1. g"". ror -!-Jl:ill"l'lpl'c.t... ~ do an: II:In cam. <luI'''''' Commuo ..er~rm er$.1'Eie' :Jnd -.d Wi So.pll. "''' .r art al'ows p.~r whose fart"n-g.cd< !""r c(lecOI... }OOI LIkc 001 er ..Q an'a'l~t.rlC who 1l"~D thil.ht bell ef tS tha I: 'a n:: i!'i 'art. Cll..<>ft_ .[11_m UIjj""".Ild e.:/(IW "gin 1'. I.IInod.. In <he .. 'Valuing tIi e iiO!!li\t!onlll.unlc.~rl. ..lfl ccmm.eoplc ~oshi1~. ~bOlH pla(...n Wo~: of Fu.. ten ctJ'i~ ~ r6~lon of id.l. d oncl.t'cornpu~c.rt.."...1>..e<:Don ~ tld.Francas "hlni and . scr! .l'f1lmu"laJ 1~L..are 10011: .iP:....tiu r.. Amy . CDmp!JU:I r~..ltcrl'.<I ".1'.•__ C9.u bc~cen::!L pilnU:..i'2lo~h 0".prol~<" d'.

.thos~ made by other p~rdcipam:. have published lind di$orijenta~ng medleys of snapshou other media. thetr staff struggldng 1:0 deal With th~ technical issues related to CUrdling. Nine( ler ut> a poiltKal aesthetiC of aqualltyac like all (he software of the wor works previously discussed. oro. Named after the dlff .Jte e~hlbltion5 in 'educational contexts and a slew or 5 venues. net an suffered p31pable IOlsel in prest'll" and funding alike. left ond """n lrom til< "'" F" 'K..n Manchester.oJc:. rhe C-Le~elln Los' and Cornerhouse .. preserve softw expenSIY€ a' d flt>1>'>«<1>oI . Nln.i. after yellTs of prosperity driven by mformation teChnology (slOee 1995. deve. 'm. such as Dlre(tor for experts crowded 0. ~'i4 M ongrnl t"-. Perl Script>. rrtFm NI..:. Museums and ga also sought to keep up. ' ' ' out other shared features across maps. an Crash orZOOO 2000 an emergence of a number of books and ar:adem' u-ses on net culture and related subjects mdicated that orms were considered an instructive and vigorous mte r e The rncrease in Irmunacional museum and festival m urnents to online art. TO.r.> that the cornmuntry of the internee can and shculn ocrH11ed by expanding the ranks of who can use It.fle) from the mld-I'il90s was.f r<:1p<ai~ At the same time. nf grn!.I park.. H""g<S on til.. and the formation of new forums In South Asia an Amer ca registered Widespread recognition and relevance u tors eagerly took on internet-based work and found y. till! prOlect is somewhat to 1:I1e eye. such as Eyebeam in New York. '" er~nc~ in years between female life expectanCies In Jamaica and Sweden to the prOlect . scale and visual dl~er5lty .en users: at the same time. (91.:Ii rn laQ~ (f'I By2000. much more speciahzed.ng support from rneu ent es. The ilnks of Nine(9) map.s.lrn- ~l'"'h dccumenrarlon of an arlin vra his or her web srte. since users. "'~ 'No CamPI".e(9J has the tempo. xnd not one knowledge A (.loped in reaction as most graphiCS and media production another soclallmb"lan~c Like '1nd sofrw~re.. to peruse the phorographs emulator. ~eilrch _. displaying arld' mternet art.... become more customary 1Tiiw.[. but the c:onarlll"f. Thac ~Il It~ bor I~r\ map takes precedence the centre over". Pho{i)sillOp. the ongo.\lon&SN. England. lOill... even as many 01 their work rouunes were beto ng depende~t on tools like email and web servers. however.. The collapse of the AmerKilJ'l market In sprmg rIgI"" ~wck 2000. are Q 'ccompallIed by aU1:oma[IC:aily e~e~ated ernails that arm t 0 create g ~onl1ectiolls betw"... nll'\of :t1't11.~ willi nln~ prospect of m~lntalmllg technical enrerprlsa... hosting.e5. more than a third of Amerl. 'Uest. exe(.lt or . needed [0 ""'I" p~. scrolling view of a City street or crowded meet.. are de$igned almost exclusively communi mage...an .

1< pawo.art.. ". suggesting a panoply of the legacy of tl'le doecoms and nee.J. e:.! thl!l ~I """"n Onll'l! jncorpc.rn...£ ... ."tlr:r c . free software and film (I_e._ I)f co. po!lUo> 170 ....fi:n..~.l.j 10'1' Jue vmD 'SIt.wnomlcfailure.::d 1h!! mu~~.d ~ w.1 tI1:lt "'!<IV" 01 <flo 'Br. f". .. rich medi~ forrnav to In Ole hands 01 artists... Ideas AI.. the net wo fren apprOl(lmaUl a black market.>"1" "I: o!"".ed on unrealistic were dismissed as greedy and cpporui they pronounced the mternar cenrury. lw:.l~d"n!~ r'N!C. brought with It a sense of cynicism about the gy The market's bre'akdown led to milJor clltback~ In and funding sour(es natlon~lIy endowments in tile United States and rasuleed In a mere by the Republican poli~i~~ In comerYlltlVe climate in museums (these would only be exacerbated subu'quent ronsrsrenc tralectory years) Unlike television and film.Qd dr. QI 01... which shafl~d a mo'll of success as forms of mass media."' 2000 I" oIi!~ G' ~hl::...hl! T .bI.""i» :lnd Lh~ """"PI..~' .u'h oJ.. I"~ H~twood M0..wn...">h ~ ~~ i (:(If"I:ru-ua.Dn Bf'.0"""..o '''''ffl. hUulr. 0.~QI'I t. 'gold company valuilnons..II'_'d Lh..1 1Inwm/O"".... """"'oll.OMlrUruon 01 Ibe ~OIIt:t:1J.llion . 001 .. srO[1 to match erl over and 'paper milliona(f'es whose wealth fell.0 IIiI..'t!:: H.. Internet-related rush' day~ were proclaimed oprloru or secvllues) entrepreneurs assessments of net hype and m~l'kDt"I~1« (tho businesses shut down in waves.. " "Tho <.."...t ~mmI~jDCU 'Of the T::II~ "l"I«art In lLlftl1~1!: T.II.e{onomic growth had resylred Imemel from information techno!o eoterpmes). the net demystified was ramted by e.ili-tbl.>0 .. these ~ we'aken and l::Id~ Televls!on news specials seemed an when In the first few years of the twenty-first nd dl1tJnwVeness of rhe internee began utd become rnarnfest as the earliest !lotions of the auron to et ar L pracnres moved closer as arurnaucn and video] spomcs to other cultural fields sue" cncal medm.. tk.

ife. when articulation documented y an ongoillg pittOI ial medication on media voyeurrsm It the terl cnst auacks on LowerM'anhatlall. public occasions. every four seconds.Chapter 4 Art for Networks VQ).. stili Images char seemed I These three Video streams were rransrnmed walls. dyllic. as coun trres responded eo the US·led pOH.(!l:lrIsrn. IIbefrimd from time and dally I. life lntensified medlilted). an uncal1ny cornbmanon of art and Sawon (Staehle's dealer] by the decision of Magda ItS and the a reist [. the TV Tower In Berlm Jnd the skyline of Lower Manhattan.0 lee the s creams continue to document each stage of the tf3gedy and October. Su rvell/o nee and Border~ Telepresence.nt or Singular only light of cragic. pamnng became This combination of real world events and onhne surverllanre In mechanisms should nor be taken as rele . even as they were refreshed for broadcast onto the gil Ilel 200 I . the mstallaucn suddenly became l deaf. such as the events of II September But the attacks on New York City and Washlngwn DC did usher in an era in which surveillance controlled rnedl" environments and individual freedoms became heightened toprcs for debate. voyeurism and live broadcast rit were In rnouls of Wolfgang Staehle's lnstatlaucn Postma >ter~ GJllery 200 I.. September surveillance..II September 'War on Terror' by .lf of [he role mass media Images could potentially take on Onglmlly nrled TrJthe Peopiro of New York and now known as Un!ltled 11~61. he work [rnadverrently] t doubled J. a history painting' aftermath unnl the show c lased lus 'landscape In As Staehle (Old Artfarum. consutuung On mm a castle in Bavaria. IOUFl1altSrn and shared qualities ascnbad [Q [hat gen re (lnsranraneous. and privacy of internet spaces durmg the 19905. via the Internet II September umntendcnal. While m~ny artists had struggled With the autonomy 141> Wolfgang U"~d"" lOOI Staehle. Staehle had hooked up three Video cameras to creating IYl"Lcal.

111 Jic Rod. uen 'II e glob. t"'·e C~rnivore Server.. In . rncrueors Internet traffic (email.' fielding and representation of Information can be. and plans to end up in AntarctiCli by 2007..'.ol"l.. eI. web surfing. like ocher works In the da[..passing more stringent and pr-Ivacy re-emerged parodled surveillance and datilveill..l-vlsuaIJzanoll mode..ol. such as Jonah 8ruc.. Benlamin Well as demonstra[lng dertslve comment 'how difficult and arbltl"ary the 'I>. including Scotland Ihl. instant messaging. surveillance technologies collective Is Radical Software The specializatlOIl of governmentill In a work by the international Group (RSG) called Camn/ore (200 I-present). CarlllVore software suggests lhat there IS no necessary between information and Its interpretatiorl. security in culcur-al spheres as salient Issues.1nd In 1997."ce laws..p~"'OI$ on nu~nlngthe ! in OUf' ml"dfil~ melr. Inspired by the FBI datavelliance software DeS 1000 (nicknamed Carnivore). and natural phenomena A travelling lab fo telecommUnications .e brought the structure to a number of naeions. congruence 10 pholGgr>ph j long'IIJ~~ cl0Jll"l'1l f'I'tI. 1969) debuted hrs research Station Mokrolab at 'Documema 'in Kassel He has sinc.h . I .. etc) in a and provides the data results: the second IS speciflc local network made up of client applications by other artists who VIsualize (he data.ker-Conen [147J with PollceStale. SIOVel1J3nartist M:Jrko Peljhan (b. CamIVO~ IS explained by new media an curator rrttCt i C<Jnfl"~oct 1'lK: m. thus making a on tne official endeavor to rnoruror inrormation e changes'. There are !:Wo I parts to Carnivore: the first.or and Australia. tho "l"o..

olp~. or GPS (a system supported by a range of military.~OOI. scientists and tattlcal media workers whose projects focus on the abstract and intangible qualities of digital and satellite culture. l. un.. alpha 3. The roaming research station and its expansive body of data on the workings of invisible spectra. rap. as an index of location. d'ownlo. I' ""I. the USes.Po. walk from Singapo.accord this projec-t boundaryless status.nd to M'alily~a. As they walked from Kiel (the location of the web server of . and' that following these fields requires specialized knowledge and research. tile an performer's use GPS as the prerequisite for a theamcal Iocalexploration of a Los Angeles neighbourhood.n cl1oreoZ'"F'h dan.. research" Makrolob hosts artists. ch'rted. a duo made up of Singaporeanborn artists Charles lim Yi Yong (b.d. Global . In n ongol 19 performance series called 34 NORTH 118WEST. 1975).4 (2002).:S~ e.i1Cf.PS and a mobile phone registered their changed lotanons on w site installed in the 'Docurnenta' space in Kassel An earl! r w r 151 Iemes Bucld\"'>5e.rtirt5 like 8u ekheu se are 10. explores boundaries between internet space and geographical organization.\O """ngtilon <h" dance .kill..Do cum en til') to Kas~el (I le physical'location of the 'Documenta' show) in Germ. For alpha 3. r0l>."cl1nol'!gY. 1000. alpha 3. There. es.0.". Heath Bu. ef the net envi'5liOfil!!dby .net [ISO].ble onto ~_'m P.net's li~ work addresse I sequ ~nlQ~ m .its abili')' 1:0 cont ric actual activity of walking through various rerrit ne ""t 34 NORTH fI 8 WEST is explicit in its exploration of physlCJ landscapes via computer tablets and satellite technologies. atmospheric properties and the electromagnetic spectrum. created fur 'Decurnenta XI'.sitioning System. the duo used a. a poi". 'g.{..::ii toke . Users ca. i:om s.etiC spectrum has coincided With exp 10ratio nsof othe r bord ers us ing th e net as a ba Sis 0 r poi n[ 0 f comparison.3 (d~"il ofthe ""lk)."1. Peljhan's long-term research on bordsrlass systems such as radio waves and the eiectl"omagn. commercial and cansumer III H.mii.ISO . of departure. The dispersal of Mokra/all {irldings marks a new dimension of specialized artistic activity and standsas a small-scale and pervious analogue of forms of gove rn mental and mil ita ry res earc hand s u rve illanee. tsunarnii. II!!nabUng crea moe: sodal int~ra ~ on.or etnall ufOrllllts.ila~'~s USen. unfing. ny th .. finl!:hed .. of animated charaerers .nting questioned the releva nee of international borders in BarderXing 176 171 [151J. consisted ora. Tsunarnii. Palm PiIQiu.. a GPS triggered various web sues to loa according to the wal ker's particular position. 'Or seno. comparing .<her p""pie" F. 2002 applications that determines an individual's or object's {ime.p~ifoll"miJnc.. (1[1 their web-based withthe travelogues. mapping their divergenceslnto a narrative.C~<h. location and velocity based on radio waves). In a srunnlng lnversien of the traditional .net ten. wh1cl11. fOI"' exareple.by makillg til em pracase certaln di!)j-I'I::e meves.drom d'~otion to tFill!' web . JA. stored and conveyed on Its globally accessible' web site.." ):j Y<>ng.. 1973) and Woon Tien Wei (h. Peljhan contends tl1at these are the invisible but actual materials of globalsoc'ial and' political mechanisms. including radio waves. proiecL which p"""d'ed . commissioned by Tate Modern in Britain in 2002..rl<\< Lim Woon Tie" Wei). ThT. web walk-abouc in a housings! l Singapore.

~.WI'w!n)'OU lind 111 win:fSI((tss :l.. 'the border is just are many Supposed and rr: the net become' of the internet with the consumption devices. I.· primed alld used.ldlfl.. in BorderXing inseparable from national boundaries and borders. easy to cross').- dOS'good to b.. warchalk_! IVMBOL '3i. 01 th.. it also demystifies pointing out various geographical a shallow stream.li1....".S 'tones U3mg ttabonte VJs:ua1ymbo\s s o.g. borders.lllCl I'"C:Ider"~\I' 'Oo'o'n~ Of .ng teens 6 .au "'EtUdes ----_ .de<l.arlditiggMt:rOfl. but to certain and cyber-cafes nations whose and lraq].--~--I rn mu~m@t:c.W~ WMt~l.~""!k (lfd Iizt. downlo.f1f1 ilall"<On -_.._notes ------.2002warchalkrn9 pccketcard .p1baif I~ at~ to(..lld"n~'blac:kDlltJl!ln~lIi:co:m [. criteria: Bunting restrictS access BorderXing (an easy technical feat. 110.s.-1\ G ~on bolin~ 'NWr.il. freight tunnels.fY-&lIh.-----. Specify th. JtlndiJrd :P1i!B:11!'\emek"ow.1000kingrDl ~m.! PllntQU1llt:b CIld· h ihould . avoid guard dogs at borders.~tJQ!1'JOf"~lOH'e_TclaIkir1g -!)'mI:Idle1151. I:"..rOOlque< d. crossing about twenty international poli.l. kind 01 >Co.e:..g m n rtf! open pre5. rli:rerefl[~ OfWilTdialk.ryeW"li~II~'I'TllItfw Vo!T.RU of pIn IoIJU IInd 5J"mbal plll •• 1 -.our~~(t . that: toYn5_tlotUl de fI'lOVement Ifil!1 wfreli!5S ilCCe!.9 . his routes and strategies The travelogue the easlssr way from on how to execute boundaries by tool for plotting and offers suggestions international realities While there a journey. the artist has documented includes a helpful web-based one point to another.MCII'I..i d'!Y:f.ullure:.n:s O'r prov..rre. let's warchalk ...")'CIU N¥l:l'I'I(Idc E:llCw.lfly. pockar. G roa._-_ ..tc tI2J~-arqmufli~(rom" Illu'''''<ed h. Dep CWO" Markers on wail!!..-.!Tll!infl. _---1 ~ Ior. ref. s. Prcvi dod as a m.. 24."4 V..."'tr .assumpti0n that web sites are open and democratic to forms. ri: • lOll) "..y . I~ i.anl Y.!l"'<ei.kfIlg VW''IoOt "l\.tlcai contexts.Fks or Storefront. Bunting's by users On the web for highly unusual for net art sites) according were admitted. liberties associated various communication jump trains and traverse (e.._---.eut «!me i1m&5 to dnlgn WiWCh . as well as inhabitants visit0rS from public venues such as universities of entire people are marginalized (such as Afghanistan access policy showed bias against private consumption outside social spaces or oppressed site. tf"M"'~ d. ~ Bur. e<I from bobe <ammuniqui). MJ 178 179 .

One visual-based maps of borders. Topics of these map" A dense black-s betwc ~ Me:ltl{:o iMd C. European Norms. collaboration for independent through and learrllng a Faculty of Cartography research that advances experrmen 11 of media Its and events. to and participants from NYC Wireless.Chron/ques graphic files.n J. In New York.a. [154] and Mappmg a 'self- indicate free access points or. Stevens. set up Consume net In 2000 ..!y ".'.'s James Stevens cali. . . textured they open up net access to more users and thus impact the that currently internet waves of collaborators have taken up initiatives technological offshoot 'warchalking' [153]: that included wireless nodes and surveillance points. . open-source mapping of power relations' a tool for collaborative the refusal of specialized extensive indebted art-historical practices As British critics Brian Holmes and Howard Slater have noted. generate a new kind of map of the city. Contemporary institution operates map-making French artists' known charts and The UniverSity of Openness.HI '1.ulJ. of and 0'1 -co connect co the net began to increase.. media lab In . mark buildings with elaborate of Openness. art zones and the use of ephemera roots. I Y Initiatives. ncr and 'w~rchalking' into community pracnonsrs initiatives. of experimental of which expanded the contemporary proliferation mapping can be 181 . 'wireless .agardere. as access points for Relying nodes. de guerre.ques networks Media Skills. The University to and Bureau d'Etudes are Indeed. Mapping Contemporary long-term. . and inquiry. and world and government. Just 5~ name of tn~ produc~ and your posta~ ddr~&s ~- as the Tangential entitled Chron. EU bureaucracy. can be private or public. downloadable map with blurbs of data and ICOl15. of media access to direct new considerations as well as in BorderXing. mail art and Happenings. as a tool kit British wireless commun"t . MONOTHfl)fv Logardere.~ . the power of power networks L. The InstitUte for map of of and the Surve1llance machines that fit in 3.Wireless In 2001.po and resource wireless networks required enarmous Wireless networks step in the dome~tication roams of electrical power from massive devices that filled entire .. Bureau d'Etudes is maps. Who founded B k Landen that hosted many im.11" 1--1. Most technologjzed cities have wireless cornrnunu ' . since access.net. to ta portable of events Artists Applied Camera Manhattan The power program./ group that uses a larger association UniverSity to distribute • produ~t~ fot {rae lone at the im 1.. as Consume. I Y prOlects. interpretation London-based.11. initiatives. Contextual physical spaces and diagrams was manifest in the Eyebeam free wireless zones and tatget is the practice know-how of the free symbols to Consume. such as land art. bag and operate have become an organizing corporate Secondary demarcate hegemonies Without much eqUipment action. the use ef wireless networks computers high-frequency computers: them. and for artists they principle for collective control Sumant Jayakrishnan Players collaborated on a colourful. . Capitalism. 'I' ~(!!.u~t 2002 Autonomy. various visualizes through networks MONOTHEISM.dual and corpor u de guerre (2003) II suggest Lim of media company lagardere visualizations as well as being open to Capl!olism Is a project aimed at 'creating Inc. Bureau d'Etudes' are permeable. relationships (boch indiv. clouds'. an openrtant net art events until its closure in 1999. (2003) documents financial powerhouses religions. 'wireless clouds' and other wireless movement of 'warchalking' kinds of networks The University form three recent European collaboratlves: Bureau d'Etudes research. white. the technoarr museum Eyebeam organized a series for various in Aug. the fields and materials of art-making. Those behind of Openness have Mapping Contemporary all Capitalism. Ind . radio waves te communicate are anether amounts between ac spaGe.

oaloe' she "n". ro". 11..t to ~ke the CiU. 5LlIdy~ngat I .mty Q.nstttute's main bUilding.nded.. as they are passed tlmet. and that will never be in the traditional experiments or research . 3tlli1 L1li.b. the territory'.1.D. 24 hour access and ssrulily. ifuY"1 1~1l'y'4IHoJ'\l -hipl uig . the kind of to 'the map precedes Brian Holmes.uld . the from hand to hand."i l Al_lttiGll 'hiUI I!. 16m:IJ PDT Los MIele! CA J resist as they are utilized in common • ("quilt' gql ~t"!l! - this sense it is the very closure of their intellectual rigour of their conceptual territory effort to depict a totally administered rtymm\ SbipPIJ:I.440 J\oI'"1IUS OfFomeA'IOiJoble Now O~ 1999 A tomplex nod to W. track lighting..rkl rhUij(l~.J Art< . dem0C'3ty and commodification. F.in terms ways: These alternative are artworks positioned univer51ti on a kino and represented' of borderline dRllCubJ"..olIy Qumoty i"lqlL~r!""lubtl BiddinG. P~n"'nnJ Ch.'~ t~ ~ ~ f! ~_. distributing specialized information publications.. DESCRIPTION: Enormous gallery 5pace IorlfllmediB16 blddingl Mare than 300 feel I'll wall space avaIJable fer exhib~lon at prestigious art InstlMe from Decembe~ l1-December 161999 Whtte walls.t --.~ to COUrt.n.fore b.l_!J and cartography data processing." {58 AKSHUN (.seen as a convergence particular institutions sophisticated possible.. 011lI'II0' aD rorpalUlblhly [or .. that can and phenomena... near central enlJyway .rtI . H~)''''' ..rosu' group). ry lime on . since.au.00 52a. b.ncy ~ US dolhlr Cll UnI .n . ill :grcl1Jpof artists.E-1u tLJP tn b ~a 'oI)IIIJLz.Kc" . enormous AT PAE511SaUS ARr~ ~!)' ~ace "9_~*(f I • John D.2001 <''":::'7. but Am. In discipline.. rnpliOTl ftn d(luIi: world that makes them mops (or the outsid«.. signs pointing to a that cannot yet be fully signified.n_ Jt>/>O<. c.m 'Noflh . cl I. AllMy li[e . be cognltive tools..g M. $5."'" ""y and tactical media.~Lb. qu.J: C'll1ud rtJ'r llW irem. A dl" Ident 8rc"P r".u~~ 1011_. . a trajecmry of several factors: an Interest in engaging (lIf as a focus..r 1'. Oth. the development away from the Internet to data-processing tools that make these engagements medium create representati0ns towards tactics. energy potentials.. I~m 13POT 10Il_.IWlSC neted t ..yer. St.u""onO<! '" ~IIOtted pl'... hoped to Win the bldd ing.. deepening subjective shocks.amOlliUl nOlron5 of fame. SSliS.5.. LacallQO ~~~nPTlrl level they are meant to act as informing the protestOr alone.!loy.toidons Curr.between self-education S.'''''' ~I Rl\. 9Hoollenl cond~ion Located .A. writes that the maps of Bureau d'Etudes 'asplra to as broadly as possible confined that was formerly technical C""..riuJJ!"'" uem You ... and a desire shape and Visualize emergent as Jean Baudrillard suggested.d 'ofbu1.ut. Yet on another performances the resolve to collectivities and territories. ~t -.. ZPtlrdiu i.n crade law rorbi!ld~ ill P'aJUactfon and the nud~(S: ~o~c na.d En~. Po" b.. of genre .

lJ't!:lil~OOO\:."i!'" jtl(Tedlbl.:rg.Shop Mandiberg (2000-1) [159] by Michael Mandiberg.".mUtJc. Ir.are deliberate allusions to the all-inclusive properties of the online marketplace..lH~ IlH'iIII~flrs .t.Uer docs not recoRUllend that tins Blackness be used wlule ..~.t people iIJldlor lauglllllg al black lniIllorcomCortably (OpIlOn#.. used to augment the blackness of'those alr.(Laruted bme offer May alr~~dy b.lUI\tCQ) CwfIil'tt '*"!tW!"lf..elllng 'serious' ru1: 4 The Seller ~oos not recommend thatllus Blackness be Used whd.com (2003) .] elasns I) The Seller does not recommend that Ilils Blackness be used whtl.) W~. ."Yb... Elackne!5 has ~een used pnmaniy III the Uruted tate~ .r do es not recommend Iha' lin.W "I~l ~I:~pment WnltJ'lt~"eI Dr...operty. . liIIiJII~l1l.irloQ!P il. ~TOt1etl'td.·JsP! 'rha ba:flod ~I 0UI1If ~ n<lh .. ofal..U'ltF~. Keith !III rntl:f 1* ~ 1\itM:f ~ .The S. Sttrl9lU'ntltrlltr 10011 [160]. cspecu..w.or f!QII"I~r UWIt . ke. POI:~''_ Up. These projects. organizations. l1ichaell1andlb. the nickname for electronic commerce.o'f1lU1.... or the Bureau of Inverse Technology.rCl'a&Wlrnbi. Ullltcd State~ l'Jonda 7 The S. vOllng IIllh.sses$loll of tile seller for twenty-eIght: yew Mr ObadJke'.1~..rIllico!.. _M'''''~ .WIthout foar of pubbc scrulmy 6 Tlus Blackness 1n.lmINPr:odlK. like purchasing products with digital cash.II UJmilntio!u~CIM Obadike put his blackness up for sale." 1I(":"Nt. th~t lckne5s be used by WIllies looking for a wild weekend ClKel~l Townsend Obadike 1#1# :... not d re.111c '~QI"IJII CIOOu n.". as a spare (UI case YOIU'on~a1Blackn es~ u wbuppcd Qffyou.. ac ess may e us.rg. namely buying and selling. UI~d ~aQcen for l~ exc~~lve.p abeut e olherblaw 3. b df .f"""'f/"""'p Tbr ~~Il.u 001 artists also sought to unsettle the processes of more rradlnonal ccnsurnption..~r boo~ C...... Michael Daines's The Body of Michael Daines (2000) and Darnall Ayo's rent-o-negro.ference to black people (Be sure to have c. Bladmm may b. with their arresting titles .. Blaclw. . 1._ BI kn .." boo".n been III tbQ po.ck per~on .ttl"JllIojl{IIlts. The previous section surveyed practices using the net to contest dimensions QfphysiGalpr.. "~(9CIII* of"" ..~ l'Q~iIIl. ptln.AJl ~l'liI:Il'J .cOW" a ceru6cate of au the nil CIty Banefits and W<II1IIIJgsBene6ts 1 Tlus Blackne b BllYef ' .'I.b. Shop M •• dib.d for c.(Iid oS Sol'lf ir.. as in the work of®TMark andetoy.l. rer WIlting cnbclll ssays or scholarsb.r . includes modes of conducting business online.'I~ .«fI~ JlbaVl ]0 -¢ rrtJ4!"1 to"\.ryOo"!e1.li1uo Wfuwlhlllr ""1Io..~ n~k . . 2000-1 .n~... In!! rUljrr emerging artist.. or ruga m . Freyer. land and airwaves.U'J!ao. promblled III some area s. 'E·commer·ce'. : """"'Ck:&bia~. COI\liI...lhou' 10 This Blackness may be used by black. TI»s Blackness may be used for Ul'lIlling rear 9 Th.tllHt'lt'll' ..ghborboods 7 TIusBlackness may be used for 'e~unng Ilwn&btto us. IM~ .~u. Blaclmess be used dllM!! legal proceedu!&' of any sort .'b.. bretha'. For sale on eBay for less than a week before being removed by the management as a violation of vending policy. mmd that tW BI~Q".. fClt ctlJ?lll!"lliil~ CD pl . through auction platforms such as eBay and via electronic data interchanges. Wol. shOPPIng or wnbn& a pGrSonal check.~dy block.) 5 TIllS BlaclOle55mllY be used for dalm! a ~I. records and old slave tags offered by 185 IS.."!! epuon 7) E. Concurrent with these corporate actiVities.. may e us.D.. Mil .'1If1ll1 h..E-commerce In the course of this book we have encountered different artistic:: practices addressing and intervening in the commerCializatIon and cQmmodifkation of internet space.and lis fiu\cbonality outSIde of the U cannot be gIIl1Ianteed wille. IU'ttOl'l'l Ii. 1:1I~B pt. drawing attention to widescale ethnlcity-based marketing and valuations. ~tJ_""IIhAi:M.n~"'ty on hand when US....'fIo o~nrr..s~ may be used for makmSJok es "bout blac!. .hd"t ~iI!ll&I'IetIU'l -. P1..hMIlIIoIllUol'. '1'1..... SO"" C'IO Many works in this gen re imply that identities are structured in relation to the ways tney can be objectified or commodified.." ~1'1II:I'5 . 'IJw. Blackness be used III d..tIICI~ ]old.n. Mandiberg is one among thousands to sell his old socks on the internet: his presentation of his possessions as a boutique is aimed at developing brand recognition beyond his own status as an '~1'il-fiI . All My U(e (or Sole (200 I) [157J by John D. Keith Obadike's BladwfSS for Sale (200 I) S[. ~ OC AQf!i. the lenns ~sta..r.> may 01l6rlap WIth opbon#:) 4 TIus Blackness may be used for aCCeSsUlg fome ol6nnative aenon beneSts.e process of nlilkmg or ..Uer does nOI recommend that tIuJi Blackness be used wrale demandulg faane ss 8 11' docs not recommend that tIus Blackness be used while demandlllg 9 The SeUer oe. legal status or 'official' business interfaces. One strategy involved the adoption of corporate structures. "N. COI'IIpUI...r"t".tlly for purpeses of pl"J'I'18 blacker-t!um. . Engaging race and commodification.."ktn!! <piployment 3 The Sell.~f.UINJoI!ICJi((lo'l(lr.. " . S The ScU4:r does not recommend that tlus Blackness be used wlule m"king IlIIlD.uess be used III Hollywood 10 The Seller does nol recommend ihl.. I The ScHer docs not recommend that !Iu.I~ 1 1~ - JIIiH'f."'_ .re'lID8 black art • . Obadike's blackness was set in the Collectibles/Culture/Black Americana section amidst various figurines....

: •••• .om .c.tUI '4odt:1o. or more generally the shopping public.ltl I "ff:ClIW UK £7.al' and claim black (riends and colleagues are on the cutting edge or sodal and OUf political trends. why not bring some new flavor office .5..~j """" CUt~1 NIk1 .rtists ob"". Com in 200.li(e can advance business and social reputation. "high risk" neighbourhoods' and 'accessing some affirmative action benefits' (the latter with the qualifier..rJVE! r~i... I~ I ". This adds currency to your image and events.i "~03 II.rdl. on "'..d web .IQn "'Ith rrl POf! t.": YG~ .E1 1111 dramatization of stereotypes brought to bear on African- YOU .rh era p. 2. 1990'. called 'Warnir"lgs'.0'" O~ III ~· rlO\l~ •• (_'ULO I.American artist Damali Ayo (b.. in which racially objectified and stereotyped roles are offered as services. cvcuc other vendors.lltlc and comm.. as both address their audience as expert consumers of goods and services. Al ony gathering service con bring 0 freshness and tension Chat will keep Ulings lively.3. Similarly. these works invoke the codes of marketing language as subsets of ths common vernacular.lwl'!.. .l41... Obadlke's work explores the subjugation of African-American identity by historic and social conventions that themselves seem the basis for forms of econQmic exchange.. Th!> . The presence of black people in your 186 [161] Thomson & Craighead develop a ""gnead.. The Seller does not recommend that this Blackness be used du ring legal proceedings of any sort. We a/I go OUI for ethnic food every once in a while. as in Obadike's Blackness for Sale.. Mayalready be prohibited in some areas'). COd."jng .uri. you have to keep up.~t:'I)o.Obadike cautioned: ' I.99 Caogik SC. _ LIN ~ ••• gt"' ANa ¥IIUWC. It is 13k-en frem So...-:.1D . If'oI~bI.. The project's FAQ explains: As we all know.. rent-a-negro offers you !he chance to capitalize on your connectiOn with a black person.a~ rn. ' WELCOME TO DOT-STORE "~I~. Indeed."I"1~ o~.50 IB7 . luo.:I"'mld[I~~ 'L fIII'- It' I IoU lIitl-li)M 10'1:1111:(. stereotypes and economic containers are deployed against a backdrop of artistic agency. the two projects also function to foreground a dominant contemporary activity facilitated by the web: shopping.. I<EO ~ "tHE . th e s pedflollonJ of <CInd.. Ni... In the eBay field.... IIljmli~It'd.. 'Umited time offer.d •• nil. Prol"'" in which .99 ~OIDbQv md. The Seller does not recommend that chis Blackness be used while seekjng employment..rocess of making or selling"serious" art. 1973) catalogues himselfln the roots of African-American history and inventories the aspects of his blackness tbac mayor may not have value in the marketplace: 'This Blackness may be used for creating "black art".$tlllt. TtI ..delf-h!lP· 2002. tL"" UK £29.' Identifyingand comm0difying these racialized aspects into both active concepts and sterilized commodities.a I.. 3.own."'lI< American lives and.." I~ Nr foyptjllli\ tJrUon al"lGm.. range or ready-to-sell objects that drive a wedge between histone marketing or the web and its emotional and social content. gaining access (Q exclusive. Tea ~~ _ -..!tv""or '9ICN11r 'PIof~r~ v-. prolifernlfon of web adveilis@me:nts for phaimaceunaIs. 4.<lvert . til") la.. In Dot-Store (2002) 6l Thomll lr.ndor<~' [am es Joyoe~ Fr•• eg"n~Wof<e. The Seller does not recommend that this Blackness be used while shopping or writing a personal check.n .These days those Who 161Hi III. (or all your (r ien do and colleogu e s 10 enjoy! to your home or :a.(I) e. UK £1. As our country strives to incorporate the (oct's DrAfricon Americans. the purchase of African Americans was outlawed many years ago.thl'!e.. ~ftI~IJ:k' UK £2.99 I'IESS 1'1 5 fh""ilt:'P:' tg. Rather than escheWing the art marketplace. ~ IM'W9t I tu Oill.ng an d crosspoUination .IIlongcomm~rc.. ~.As times have changed !he need for black people in your life has changed but not diminished.u In" tdi~ I&:'\'ITW 'os C:Ddlllll .rosdt lines_ In chis work. 1972) launched renta-negro.!o. &Yt DOl DU.Q enc:our."tJIIIIIIIrltl4. The liberatory potential of these works resides in the oa U.::ItI" m.where vendors can describe the condition of their wares.of :a.mon rs In orde:.ilJ:. The Seller does not recommend that this Blackness be used in the p. the freedom to sell.14. Obadike (b. crw. It. ~rl.E! crldc-al readin~ .10 FINNeGAN's WAK£l IT'..r (.

Theodor W. prefaced his grouping of artworks by noting: 'In a networked environment it is not so much individuality and expression that count but increasingly 'new ways of creating. 201)2 In a recent curatorial selection of web sites for online platform low-fi. Georges Bataille (1897-1962).uk German critic Armin Med0sch. proleces previously discussed. Typically. as crltic David joselic describes it. In contrast. including Ufe_Sharing. Through Note thar the use and distribution of warez sofrware is illegal.uetger (b. a collection of mobile phone ringtones. the pirate has figured out a way to de-activate the copy-proeeerlon or registration scheme used by the software. . The coiontzarlon of natural spaces by new technologies is emblematized in CDs designed to be played near domestic or wild birds: on them.org.. McKenzie Wark and the Critical An Ensemble. freeware and underground projects have innovated their engineering and legal structures in order to preserve 189 .com (2002) [16J]. Adorno (1903-69) and more technology-orientated authors such as Geen Lovink. The warez on this site invokes a broad and progressive intellectual history. the 'dotcom' or 'nerheadIlfestyle is alluded to in items like [he Lenticularbadges derived frnrn common cursor anirnariens. positioning itself as an analogue of software tools. Our week beats [hew year. Sharing and collaborating means learning from each other: Many internet artworks Frequency Clock and some of the wireless-related from a Google search for the phrase 'help me'. Luetgerr writes in an Intrcductton to the site: 'There was a time when COntent was king. emblazoned with the diverse and highly personal results collective action the field progresses as a whole. has led to increased assaults on peer-to-peer networks and file-sharing applications by entertainment associations defending 'proprietary intellectual property'. 1969). here they are reinscribed with some of their radical potential by being positioned as critical software. censtruce a complicated and psychological identification between conSUmers and the things they buy. the adoption of a wholesale identity'. Curated by German artlst and activist Sebastian l. the preference for and the capacity to buy certain products .."i"" Luetgert.. of Sharing 161 Seb. Telepolis. collecting scripts and viruses. The adoption of a lifestyle. an t open arch iveof sometimes closed works of authorship. as executables . writing programs and bets [computer programs that run automatically]. Ever since we have been moving from content to disconrent... While [he details of what constitutes fair use online remain murky. Forms take sharing as [heir premise. These exist in dialogue with a slew of filesharing or 'p2p' (peer to peel") applications rhar enable creative activity as well as the proliferation of media files such as music in MP) format. shareware and freeware may be freely copied and distributed. which have given rise to fiercely contested debates about what constitutes property and which activities require permission within the channels of the net.: A riff on this paradigm is rexrz. which has been blamed for a drop in record sales over the past few years. Iextz:com. rhe texts in the database include works by Charles Baudelaire (1821-67).something that is able to change your life: If texts like Baudelaire's Les (leurs du mal can take on [he character of artefacts or inert objects siaing on bookshelves. me founder of .toweis.. is a 'mode of positioning oneself socioeconomically. The net vernacular term 'warez'ls defined by the online resource Webopedia as follows: 'Commercial sof[Ware that has been pirated and made available to the public via a BBSor the internet. sharing. Here. dealing with rextz (IS warez. . disseminating and scheduling digital work. but we have seen his head rolling. Music sharing.

1975). Author Wayne Bremser argued. but not as any endorsement of piracy as a business model'.AIIltSllurtII. f!l. 20021212161 autonomous spaces for unrestricted activities that do not require participants to seek permission from media companies.Molin.. according to its curators.&vI . 'artistic acts of "piracy" as a strategy for intellectual discourse and poetic intervention.. carries implications for the role of AflerSherrieLevine. Created by Shu Lea Cheang. {1U11d 10.200l tongue-in-cheek manner.. The lively. that while 'painters have created canvases with game characters . tom . level design and ABOUf use of landscape as narrative establishes a strorlger connection video games than [previous] other works'.com . repetition. ane Roger Sennen..mages IIOOS conlaQI AflerWBI~erEvuns. a work developed in response to the ami-pi racy laws in Asia and the abundance of copy-and-burn facilities in Bangkok. The active contestation of ownership and the establishment of open systems of exchange.graphic browser-based upload and download/sharing space encodes MP3 files in assorted colours according to user selections. The essay lays out parallels involving the way 'Barney and game designers look for [0 190 191 . sometimes become illegal modes of critique Within [he internet context of software and functional applICations.com ----- the artist working with new tech nologies. the next page invites the viewer to assemble and colour code music playllsts. Video and Filmic Discourses A 2003 feature for the magazine Game Girl Advance compared the properties Cremaster of the video game Donkey Kong to Marthew Barney's 3. sometimes in a y. IPNIC's Injunction Gener<:!tor automates the lssue of legal injunctions that can freeze ISP services.'Kingdom of Piracy'. Burn has a decorative and appealing interface that suggests a creatively defiant relationship between piracy and mixing:on one page the user sees images of officials destroying CDs. ppi eyeah Design 16<1Shu Lea Ch"""g. A sample of these works was assembled for the 'Kingdom of Piracy' exhibition (2001-3). which exhibits. Cremaster 3 lacks the obvious cultural references..m. Shu Lea Cheang and Yukiko Shlkata. pursuits that have countless complements in art of recent decades. but its absurdity. Defence mechanisms protecting the digital commons are elaborate and varied. Burn (2003) [1M]. the latter offers an overview of China's shift in policy towards pirating based on its entry into the World Trade Organization. consists of an installation and web site. curated by Armin Medesch. Many artists who are deeply opposed to stringent forms of digital property control have responded accordingly. British design company yippieyeah and programmer Reger Sennarr (b.

while aspects of the sea. a cernmon email function that send a message to a reclplent in the message name or email address appearing header. have been more project contemporary The tide refers to the without his or her acronym for 'blank carbon copy'. and Gregor Stehle remove standard using bots. dynamic and graphically arresting. virtual-reality The inrerner is home cinematic conversions many works that diversify and innovate and televisual of cinema in 1999 as emotionally Each da rkly humorous example.n.uk of webcarns. and a larger number the nat. filmmaking called Unmovie. accuracy and structuralist In the artist's signature palette of red. black and white. referring figuratively to the artist's favourite 1920s and 19305 and Russian avant-garde historical some of its formal conventions content is remarkably enables users to abstraction expressing Her more titles often refer to cheir duration.org. art while negotiating observations painterly ocher artists experiments with naroral topics like gravity and brumal they give the impression on delineating with colour and organic forms. Ike New York City that appear in the Cremaster cycle . works presented software. Krajewska's in their intimacy. which uses database fields to organize Storsky and Hutch episodes categories such as 'Every Establishing in this regard. By early timeof users had like Flash and After 2003.strong visual landscapes compared that are ripe for a character's Museum or Chrysler running. The psychological 192 Philip Pocock procedures altogether. of 'bee' usage (it is commonly the four narratives features invoked to hide their email wrought. is to create as 'resembling executed films and microscopes '. recent artworks algorithms. and interactive 'Future Cinema'. &. list's terms deportment portrays technological Rather them pinhole scary is in part technically email list moderator. buildings in with jumping.~ 160l'Iotoml'hi Nakamu (OPT). Nakamu New York-based fa &c (200 I) [166] by Japanese-born one example of this genre. smashing and climbing'. and Donkey to the Guggenheim Kong's setting is '" --rbon 181. video and film in dialogue with digital aesthetics Photoshop. all four works feature a deliberate flatness. Overall. similarities berween considered 3. ASCII Art Ensemble's separated by an adjudicative classics like Psycho and Blow Up into ASCII compositions replace filmic surfaces with alphanumeric to low-speed based artwork internet of usage verbally and in sign language. web users. and uses and films. 3 . 1973) 1997 video tribute to Photos hop. It consists artist Mowmlchi of four animations. bodily limits and ascension.'s internal 47 Seconds (2002) [168J. 'Every Red' or 'Every In the 2002-3 exhibition installation. ones more conducive netiquerte (3 play on 'etiquette'). scored. Making Out With Myself. Dutch graphiC design of the posters. Sue de Beer's (b. A short satire on the word describes but Nakamura's social opportunities and manner's perhaps. (b. delicate and intricate access and bandwidth constraints. However may be. 1967) Every Shot Every Episode.and DVD-based technologies methods. Jon Haddock's computer game draWings. therned: for who recites the internet execution colonized also by a couple holding hands only to be For example. and social factors recipients addresses) to Shaw and Peter Weibel at the ZKM in Karlsruhe.redolent themes of hubris. more compact methods high-speed access dynamic projects. use languages such as 54:06 (2003) and of medieval or Renaissance of a relationship recent works historical aesthetics .rich. new conditions from one another imroduces one animation and to avoid circulating of narrative and 'image languages' using GPS. than sschewtng the often foggy resolution artistElka works Krajewska described on low-fl. 1967) modifies Effects allowed filmic experirneruarlon !lower into lush. artists Axel Heide.Japanese mango (comic). and Jennifer and Kevin McCoy's (b. Applications [Q aesthetics. Mosc email focused of eriline cinema.S While the proposed may not hold such have succeSSfully Donkey Kong and Barney's works with many viewers (or players). grey. with rninimalism in colour. games and databases. Stunt' are exemplary into three hundred Shot'. In the ongoing onesandzeroes. curated by Jeffrey Germany. found clients include two fields labelled 'cc' and 'bee'. to for creating and exhibiting existed. 2001 ra.

'<ill Irom 611"'" 169 Adria" Miles. Liu."..nt U) b. -e 1001 1&7 Victor Delrer h es betw •• mCVIe'. I••• fng behind gho'dy tra ces of what: was neve:rme:d._ tram es 01 MPEG ex.2001 Kraj'ew<ka.vi. Be"'"" Sky.." aJng and ren1leritlg only int:er·fnme motion the movti!!"s central nurative features arc leffuc-ed.or:s. DeJ. By UU5 'II'!!:a. 2002_ sofrware i!5:olat@swnat " th.JbuI'<' 168 Elka I] So<I>I!I1I."al~d_ 194 195 .