Factors Associated with Helmet Use among Motorcycle Users in Karachi, Pakistan

1) The problem statement Road traffic accidents account for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide, the great majority of which (up to 85%) occur in the middle and low country. Trauma to the head and neck is the primary cause of death and severe disability in motorcycle-related accident. Then, the reason why this research is being conducted is to study the factors for that lead to non-compliance with helmet use among motorcyclists. 2) Research Objectives The main objectives of this research are to estimate the frequency of helmet use, to determine reasons for non compliance with helmet use among motorcyclists and to create awareness about the important of helmet use, to minimize the risk of preventable trauma among motorcyclists. 3) Theoretical framework In this research, the independent variables and dependent variable are identified. The independent variables that can be identified are need for improved helmet design, public understanding, intense public education, and rigorous law enforcement. Then dependent variable for this research is raising compliance with helmet use.

whose members are more or less equal on some characteristics. Study sample Three parking lots were randomly selected from a list of high-volume. then the risk of preventable trauma among motorcyclists can be reducing. . H2: If the helmet design is improved. b) Research Design: Causal research o Is conducted to identify cause and effect relationships among variables when the research problem has already narrowly defined. 6. public-access parking spaces in Karachi which are located several miles from each other and represented different localities of the city. o It means that. 5. public-access parking spaces in Karachi and represented different localities of the city. the researcher select three parking lots from a list of high-volume. H3: There is relationship between public understanding and non-compliance of helmet usage. or strata.4) Hypothesis Generated H1: There is relationship between improving public education and greater compliance with helmets and other safety. Methodology a) Sample Design: Stratified Sampling o The reason for using stratified sampling because the researcher divides the population into subgroups.

Types of research The type of research that has been used is basic research. These limitations reflect our intention that this is a pilot study. whose results will be used to develop a more comprehensive initiative. OR 1.0 to 2.6. the statistical tools that are used is P= 0.o For instance.where information and data are gathered through face to face 7. non-compliance with helmet use leads to risks of head injury to motorcyclists. 8. c) Data Collection: o Personal interview. . 95% CI= 1. Findings Refer all table in the journal 9. Statistical Tool o According to this research. This type of research is been use because to generate a body of knowledge by trying to comprehensive how certain problems that occur in organization can be solved.057. 10. o Analysis to be done: Chi square test or independent sample t-test.6 and the effect disappeared in multivariate analysis. The limitations of the study The major limitations of this work are the restricted sample size and the self-reported nature of the study.

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