INTRODUCTION Generally when most people think about electronics, they may initially think of products such as cell

phones, radios, laptop computers, etc. others, having some engineering background, may think of resistors, capacitors, etc. which are the basic components necessary for electronics to function. Such basic components are fairly limited in number and each having their own characteristic function. Memristor theory was formulated and named by Leon Chua in a 1971 paper. Chua strongly believed that a fourth device existed to provide conceptual symmetry with the resistor, inductor, and capacitor. This symmetry follows from the description of basic passive circuit elements as defined by a relation between two of the four fundamental circuit variables. A device linking charge and flux (themselves defined as time integrals of current and voltage), which would be the memristor, was still hypothetical at the time. However, it would not be until thirty-seven years later, on April 30, 2008, that a team at HP Labs led by the scientist R. Stanley Williams would announce the discovery of a switching memristor. Based on a thin film of titanium dioxide, it has been presented as an approximately ideal device. The reason that the memristor is radically different from the other fundamental circuit elements is that, unlike them, it carries a memory of its past. When you turn off the voltage to the circuit, the memristor still remembers how much was applied before and for how long. That's an effect that can't be duplicated by any circuit combination of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, which is why the memristor qualifies as a fundamental circuit element. The arrangement of these few fundamental circuit components form the basis of almost all of the electronic devices we use in our everyday life. Thus the discovery of a brand new fundamental circuit element is something not to be taken lightly and has the potential to open the door to a brand new type of electronics. HP already has plans to implement memristors in a new type of non-volatile memory which could eventually replace flash and other memory systems. HISTORY The transistor was invented in 1925 but lay dormant until finding a corporate champion in BellLabs during the 1950s. Now another groundbreaking electronic circuit may be poised for the same kind of success after laying dormant as an academic curiosity for more than three decades. Hewlett-Packard Labs is trying to bring the memristor, the fourth passive circuit element after the resistor, and the capacitor the inductor into the electronics mainstream. Postulated in 1971, the memory resistor represents a potential revolution in electronic circuit theory similar to the invention of transistor. The history of the memristor can be traced back to nearly four decades ago when in 1971, Leon Chua, a University of California, Berkeley, engineer predicted that there should be a fourth passive circuit element in addition to the other three known passive elements namely the resistor, the capacitor and the inductor. He called this fourth element a memory resistor or a memristor. Examining the relationship between charge, current, voltage and flux in resistors, capacitors, and inductors in a 1971 paper, Chua postulated the existence of memristor. Such a device, he figured, would provide a similar

The known three fundamental circuit elements as resistor. the flow of water through the pipe is faster if the pipe is shorter and/or it has a larger diameter. Fig3. voltage. and inductor.' since a real device may also have a small amount of some other property. Fig2. Memristance is becoming more relevant and necessary as we approach smaller circuits. and the rate of flow of the water through the pipe is like electrical current. However. An ideal memristor is a passive two-terminal electronic device that is built to express only the property of memristance (just as a resistor expresses resistance and an inductor expresses inductance). An analogy for a memristor is an interesting kind of pipe that expands or shrinks when water . that would mean it acted like a resistor whose value could vary according to the current passing through it and which would remember that value even after the current disappeared. Showing Memristor as Fourth Chuaâ„¢s Circuit Basic Element NEED FOR MEMRISTOR A memristor is one of four basic electrical circuit components. we would have to take memristance into account in our circuit models to simulate and design electronic circuits properly. such as capacitance (just as any real inductor also has resistance). Realization of Four Element Fig3. The Simplest Chuaâ„¢s Circuit. The memristor. Fig1. It was then that Williams realized that their molecular devices were really memristors. HP senior fellow Stanley Williams and his group were working on molecular electronics when they started to notice strange behavior in their devices. which Chua believed would balance the functions of the other three types of circuit elements. short for memory resistor was first theorized by student Leon Chua in the early 1970s. The Simplest Chuaâ„¢s Circuit Fig2. the pressure at the input of the pipe is similar to voltage. capacitor and inductor relates four fundamental circuit variables as electric current. Memristance (Memory + Resistance) is a property of an Electrical Component that describes the variation in Resistance of a component with the flow of charge. in practice it may be difficult to build a 'pure memristor. But the hypothetical device was mostly written off as a mathematical dalliance.relationship between magnetic flux and charge that a resistor gives between voltage and current. The water itself is analogous to electrical charge. joining the resistor. Thirty years after Chuaâ„¢s Proposal of this mysterious device. Showing Memristor as Fourth Basic Element. In that we were missing one to relate charge to magnetic flux. Any two terminal electrical component that exhibits Memristance is known as a Memristor. and at some point when we scale into nano electronics. capacitor.A common analogy for a resistor is a pipe that carries water. Fig1. In practice. Williams spent several years reading and rereading Chua's papers. One of his HP collaborators. Just as with an electrical resistor. However. charge and magnetic flux. NR is Chua Diode. Greg Snider. it took more than three decades for the memristor to be discovered and come to life. This element has been named as memristor. Realization of Four Element Chuaâ„¢s Circuit. He developed mathematical equations to represent the memristor. That is where the need for the fourth fundamental element comes in. then rediscovered Chua's work from 1971.

Another interesting application is analog computation where a memristor will be able to deal with analog values of data and not just binary 1s and 0s. the oxygen vacancies drift. MEMRISTOR THEORY AND ITS PROPERTIES: Definition of Memristor The memristor is formally defined as a two-terminal element in which the magnetic flux Φm between the terminals is a function of the amount of electric charge q that has passed through the device. Thus the resistance of the film as a whole is dependent on how much charge has been passed through it in a particular direction. If water flows through the pipe in one direction. a device that can retain memory information even after being switched off. The oxygen vacancies act as charge carriers and this implies that the depleted layer has a much lower resistance than the no depleted layer. there are two layers to the titanium dioxide film. the pipe does not store water like a bucket (or a capacitor) “ it remembers how much water flowed through it. thus slowing down the flow of water. Figure 4. which is reversible by Changing the direction of current. unlike conventional DRAM which erases itself when it is switched off. Types of Memristors: ¢ Spintronic Memristor ¢ Spin Torque Transfer Magneto resistance ¢ Titanium dioxide memristor ¢ Polymeric memristor ¢ Spin memristive systems ¢ Magnetite memristive systems ¢ Resonant tunneling diode memristor Titanium Dioxide Memristor It is a solid state device that uses nano scale thin-ilms to produce a Memristor. the diameter of the pipe decreases. Thus. one of which has a slight depletion of oxygen atoms. Figure 5. the diameter of the pipe increases. Chua defined the element as a resistor whose resistance level was based on the amount of charge that had passed through the memristor Memristance Memristance is a property of an electronic component to retain its resistance level even . Symbol of Memristor. changing the boundary between the high-resistance and lowresistance layers. Possible applications of a Memristor include Nonvolatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM). the pipe will retain it most recent diameter until the water is turned back on. Fundamental circuit Elements and Variables. If the water pressure is turned off.flows through it. The device consists of a thin titanium dioxide film (50nm) in between two electrodes (5nm) one Titanium and the other latinum. Initially. If water flows through the pipe in the opposite direction. thus enabling the water to flow faster. When an electric field is applied.

Thus for voltages within a threshold region (-VL2<V<VL1 in Fig. . 6 illustrates an idealized resistance behavior demonstrated in accordance with Fig. . In ordinary resistors there is a linear relationship between current and voltage so that a graph comparing current and voltage results in a straight line.after power had been shut down or lets it remember (or recall) the last resistance it had before being shut off. These two straight line curves may be interpreted as two distinct resistance states with the remainder of the curve as transition regions between these two states. Theory Each memristor is characterized by its memristance function describing the chargedependent rate of change of flux with charge. However. we may write the more convenient form It can be inferred from this that memristance is simply charge-dependent resistance. 3 that two straight line segments are formed within the curve. 4) either a high or low resistance exists for the memristor. However. Figure-6. Alternating current.e. Voltage characteristics This new circuit element shares many of the properties of resistors and shares the same unit of measurement (ohms). for memristors a similar graph is a little more complicated as shown in Fig. i. however. Idealized hysteresis model of resistance vs. memristance may be programmed or switched to different resistance states based on the history of the voltage applied to the memristance material. In contrast to the straight line expected from most resistors the behavior of a memristor appear closer to that found in hysteresis curves associated with magnetic materials. V(t) = M(q(t))*I(t) 3 This equation reveals that memristance defines a linear relationship between current and voltage. For a voltage above threshold VL1 the resistance . Current vs. Current vs. 3 illustrates the current vs. and charge is the time integral of current. in contrast to ordinary resistors. Figure 7. Noting from Faraday's law of induction that magnetic flux is simply the time integral of voltage. It is notable from Fig.7 wherein the linear regions correspond to a relatively high resistance (RH) and lowresistance (RL) and the transition regions are represented by straight lines. Fig. voltage behavior of memristance. Voltage curve demonstrating hysteretic effects of memristance. nonzero current implies instantaneously varying charge. may reveal the linear dependence in circuit operation by inducing a measurable voltage without net charge movement as long as the maximum change in q does not cause much change in M. voltage for memristance switch. as long as charge does not vary. This phenomena can be understood graphically in terms of the relationship between the current flowing through a memristor and the voltage applied across the memristor. in which the resistance is permanently fixed. Of course.

e. It was shown that the electronic circuit subjected to a train of periodic pulses learns and anticipates the next pulse to come. Recently.the current i. Some patents related to memristors appear to include applications in programmable logic. which would allow greater data density than hard drives with access times potentially similar to DRAM. Initially. neural networks. and control systems. in pattern recognition. taking up a much smaller area. there are two layers to the film. the oxygen vacancies drift changing the boundary between the high-resistance and low-resistance layers. They can also be fashioned into non-volatile solid-state memory. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Figure8(b). which could replace transistors in future computers. WORKING OF MEMRISTOR Figure 8(a). and the flux-linkage cp. namely.g. The devices' resistance would be read with alternating current so that they do not affect the stored value. five have led to well-known relationships .Out of the six possible combinations of these four variables. a simple electronic circuit consisting of an LC contour and a memristor was used to model experiments on adaptive behavior of unicellular organisms. it is considered a nanoionic device . Two of these relationships are already given by 9 Q(t) = ò ˆž . the charge q. which is reversible by changing the direction of current. The oxygen vacancies act as charge carriers. the three basic two-terminal circuit elements are defined in terms of a relationship between two of the four fundamental circuit variables. replacing both components..switches from a high to a low level and for a voltage of opposite polarity above threshold VL2 the resistance switches back to a high resistance. the voltage v. HP prototyped a crossbar latch memory using the devices that can fit 100 gigabits in a square centimeter. one of which has a slight depletion of oxygen atoms.Figure 5(b) shows the final memristor component Williams' solid-state memristors can be combined into devices called crossbar latches.showing 17 memristors in a row Thus the resistance of the film as a whole is dependent on how much charge has been passed through it in a particular direction. signal processing. Such a learning circuit may find applications. similarly to the behavior of slime molds Physarum polycephalum subjected to periodic changes of environment. meaning that the depleted layer has a much lower resistance than the nondepleted layer. Since the memristor displays fast ion conduction at nanoscale. MEMRISTOR-THE FOURTH BASICCIRCUIT ELEMENT From the circuit-theoretic point of view. HP has reported that its version of the memristor is about one-tenth the speed of DRAM. Al/TiO2 or TiOX /Al Sandwich The memristor is composed of a thin (5 nm) titanium dioxide film between two electrodes as shown in figure 5(a) above. When an electric field is applied.

q)=O of a memristor. unlike them. Three other relationships are given.VR)=O into the corresponding o-q curve f(o. or capacitor across port 2 of an M-R mutated.10 t (a) Memristor and its o-q curve. a type-l M-R mutated would transform the VR -IR< curve of the nonlinear resistor f(VR.iL) or (iL. The proposed symbol of a memristor and a hypothetical o-q curve are shown in Fig. which is why the memristor qualifies as a fundamental circuit element. and the capacitor defined by a relationship between q and v). oL) [(vC. © Memristor basic realization 2: M-L mutated terminated by nonlinear inductor L (d) Memristor basic realization M-C mutated terminated by nonlinear capacitor C FEATURES The reason that the memristor is radically different from the other fundamental circuit elements is that. the resistor (defined by a relationship between v and i). inductor. namely. and (d). . Only one relationship remains undefined. a memristor with any prescribed o-q curve can be realized by connecting an appropriate nonlinear resistor. vC)] curve of a nonlinear inductor (capacitor). as will be shown later. From the logical as well as axiomatic points of view. l(b). an M-L mutated. That's an effect that can't be duplicated by any circuit combination of resistors. The memristor (short for "memory resistor") is unique because of its ability to. are defined and characterized in Table I. This element will henceforth be called the memristor because. qC) or (qC. Memristor basic realization 1: M-R mutated terminated by nonlinear Resistor R.I (t) dt and O (t) = ò ˆž v(t) dt. IR)=O into the corresponding o-q curve f(o. it behaves somewhat like a nonlinear resistor with memory. and inductors. the memristor still remembers how much was applied before and for how long. ©. respectively. Researchers at HP Labs have discovered a fourth fundamental circuit element that can't be replicated by a11 combination of the other three. capacitor. it is necessary for the sake of completeness to postulate the existence of a fourth basic two-terminal circuit element which is characterized by a o-q curve. the inductor (defined by a relationship between cp and i). and an M-C mutated." HP says the discovery of the memristor paves the way for anything from instant on computers to systems that can "remember and associate series of events in a manner similar to the way a human brain recognizes patterns. of which there are two types of each. New 'Memristor' Could Make Computers Work like Human Brains After the resistor. capacitors. An analogous transformation is realized with an M-L mutated (M-C mutated) with respect to the ((oL. respectively. it carries a memory of its past. "[retain] a history of the information it has acquired. (b). and they could be used to make appliances that "learn from experience.VR curve of the nonlinear resistor f(IR. as shown in Fig. the relationship between o and q.mutated ." Such brain-like systems would allow for vastly improved facial or biometric recognition. a type-2 M-R mutated would transform the IR. and inductor comes the memristor." .3 Hence. by the axiomatic definition of the three classical circuit elements. l(a).q) = 0 of a memristor. When you turn off the voltage to the circuit. in HP's words. Using a . In contrast to this. These mutators.

HP says memristor-based RAM could one day replace DRAM altogether. In digital mode. more energy-efficient alternative to flash storage. But this trend could begin to slow down as the components used in electronic circuits are shrunk to the size of just a few atoms. smaller. making them a promising way to increase computer power. "We're not trying to crowd more transistors onto a chip or into a particular circuit. You could leave all your Word files and spreadsheets open. But instead. it would create digital cameras with no delay between photos or computers that save power by turning off when not needed and then turning back on instantly when needed. you turn on your computer and everything is instantly on the screen exactly the way you left it. . When you come back. and go get a cup of coffee or go on vacation for two weeks. every year. Memristors could also prove to be a faster. These unusual properties make them interesting from both a scientific and an engineering point of view. Entire industries and research fields are devoted to ensuring that. With memristorbased system RAM. "Hybrid memristor-transistor chips really have the promise for delivering a lot more performance. No Need of Rebooting The memristor's memory has consequences:The reason computers have to be rebooted every time they are turned on is that their logic circuits are incapable of holding their bits after the power is shut off. says Williams."12 A memristor acts a lot like a resistor but with one big difference: it can change resistance depending on the amount and direction of the voltage applied and can remember its resistance even when the voltage is turned off. A single memristor can perform the same logic functions as multiple transistors. HP foresees memristors being used to make new types of system memory that can store information even after they lose power. which would save time and power especially since users could simply switch off systems instead of leaving them in a "sleep" mode Memristors Make Chips Cheaper The first hybrid memristor-transistor chip could be cheaper and more energy efficient. are betting that a new fundamental electronic component--the memristor-will keep computer power increasing at this rate for years to come. Eventually.that keeps memory powered.computers continue getting faster. unlike today's DRAM.Researchers at HP Labs in Palo Alto. CA. Memristor as Digital and Analog A memristive device can function in both digital and analog forms." Williams says. it could substitute conventional solid-state memories (Flash) with high-speed and less steeply priced nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM). turn off your computer. both having very diverse applications. They are nanoscale devices with unique properties: a variable resistance and the ability to remember the resistance even when the power is off. But because a memristor can remember voltages. PCs would no longer need to go through a boot process to load data from the hard drive into the memory.Increasing performance has usually meant shrinking components so that more can be packed onto a circuit.In PCs. Williams's team removes some transistors and replaces them with a smaller number of memristors. a memristordriven computer would arguably never need a reboot.

According to Williams. however. which includes HP researcher Qiangfei Xia. Memristors made to replace flash memory (at a lower cost and lower 14 power consumption) will likely appear first. engineers generally abandon FPGAs for leaner "application-specific integrated circuits." says Williams. memrisrors are so significant that it would be mandatory to re-write the existing electronics engineering textbooks. CONCLUSION By redesigning certain types of circuits to include memristors. "What we're looking at is essentially pulling out all of the configuration bits and all of the transistor switches.Engineers commonly use FPGAs to test prototype chip designs because they can be reconfigured to perform a wide variety of different tasks. Still. And now Williams's team has demonstrated a working memristor-transistor hybrid chip." Williams says. memristors will likely replace both DRAM and hard disks in the 2014-to-2016 time frame. HP Labs is working on a handful of practical memristor projects." His team. In order to be so flexible. "it turns out to be very easy to integrate them with . Beyond that. it can be hoped to combine memristors with traditional circuit-design elements to produce a device that does computation. As for memristor-based analog computers.FUTURE OF MEMRISTOR Although memristor research is still in its infancy. this type of FPGA will completely change the balance. making the circuit itself less expensive and significantly decreasing its power consumption. it is possible to obtain the same function with fewer components. that step may take 20-plus years." says Williams.Stanley Williams (originators of memristor). these tasks are performed by memristors. you actually flip a bunch of switches and configuration bits in the circuit. Reference: http://www. using memristors in FPGAs could help significantly lower costs. built a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) using a new design that includes memristors made of the semiconductor titanium dioxide and far fewer transistors than normal." he says." "When you decide what logic operation you want to do. FPGAs are large and expensive. But it's up to the business side to push products through to commercial reality. Right now. "If our ideas work out. "the biggest impediment to getting memristors in the marketplace is having [so few] people who can actually design circuits [using memristors]. he predicts that memristors will arrive in commercial circuits within the next three years. the next few years could be very important for memristor research. HP's goal is to offer them by 2012. In the new chip. Ultimately. In fact. As rightly said by Leon Chua and R." he says. And once the design is done. The Hewlett-Packard (HP) group is looking at developing a memristorbased nonvolatile memory that could be 1000 times faster than magnetic disks and use much less power.seminarprojects. "Because memristors are made of the same materials used in normal integrated circuits. When is it coming? Researchers say that no real barrier prevents implementing the memristor in circuitry immediately.

and a memristive . the capacitor. memristance as a property of a known material was nearly nonexistant. contended in his 1971 paper Transactions on Circuit Theory. its important to understand the difference between a memristor. access to a “history” of applied voltage. Thus. At the nanoscale. a memristors resistance varies according to a devices memristance function. that exhibit their unique properties primarily at the nanoscale. The material implementation of memristive effects can be determined in part by the presence of hysteresis (an accelerating rate of change as an object moves from one state to another) which. a concatenation of “memory resistors”. turns out to be less an anomaly than a fundamental property of passive circuitry. But beyond the physics of electrical engineering. and the inductor. but there are quite a few other types of memristors with vectors of inquiry. are a type of passive circuit elements that maintain a relationship between the time integrals of current and voltage across a two terminal element. What Leon Chua. or flux. Theoretically. Chua has stated: “The situation is analogous to what is called “Aristotle’s Law of Motion. which was wrong. Newton said that force is proportional to acceleration–the change in velocity. and charge.” As memristors develop. joining the resistor. or flux. because he said that force must be proportional to velocity. HRL. when HP Labs under Stanley Williams developed the first stable prototype. but between changes-in-voltage. its going to come down to. such properties have even been observed in action prior to the HP Lab prototypes. The material implementation of a memristor is important to how they behave in a memristive system. allowing. Until recently. a UC Berkeley Professor. Currently IBM. TYPES There are quite a few vectors of inquiry researching various types of memristors. Memristors. The memristance effect at non-nanoscale distances is dwarfed by other electronic and field effects. What they should have been teaching is the relationship between changes in voltage. is that the fundamental relationship in passive circuitry was not between voltage and charge as assumed. Samsung and many other research labs seem to be hovering around the titanium dioxide memristor. That misled people for 2000 years until Newton came along and pointed out that Aristotle was using the wrong variables. and charge. Hewlett Packard. who can come up with the best material implementation. in part. via tiny read charges. This is exactly the situation with electronic circuit theory today. All electronic textbooks have been teaching using the wrong variables– voltage and charge–explaining away inaccuracies as anomalies. until scales and materials that are nanometers in size are utilized. like many other non-linear “anomalies” in contemporary circuit theory. they are a reconceptualizing of passive electronic circuit theory first proposed in 1971 by the nonlinear circuit theorist Leon Chua.MEMRISTOR What is a memristor? Memristors are basically a fourth class of electrical circuit.

and they can be used in a memristive system for different applications of scale or purpose. is an indicator of memristive properties. There are currently no memristor datasheets available. which is why its used in oxygen sensors. changing the resistance. and maintaining the state. the cationic or anionic. but the list of different memristor types below shows there are a wide variety of systems that exhibit memristive behavior. 1. The terms polymeric and ionic are often used somewhat loosely and generically. though. a single passive layer between an electrode and an active thin film attempt to exaggerate the extraction of ions from the electrode. Its interesting to note that Stan Williams at HP came to the material property of titanium dioxide memristive effects in part through his interests in the miniaturization of sensor technology for distributed sensing. is free to move throughout the structure as a charge carrier. for any material. as much of the material implementations are experimental and in development. so that a charge can be passed through.) The motion of atoms in the films are tied to the movement of electrons in the material. c. Polymeric (ionic) memristors Utilizing the properties of various solid-state ionics. and more are being discovered as industries begin to build out their research. prototyping. a). and the top film layer acts as a conductor via oxygen vacancies in the titanium dioxide. In general. Titanium dioxide memristors The Titanium Dioxide memristor first developed at HP Labs is based on a two-layer thin “sandwich” of titanium dioxide films. one component of the material structure. The oxygen vacancies in the top layer are moved to the bottom layer. b. (Titanium dioxide changes its resistance in the presence of oxygen.system. Polymeric memristors explore dynamic doping of polymer and inorganic dielectric-type material to attempt and provoke hysterisis type behaviors. which allows a state change in the atomic structure of the memristor. The bottom layer acts as an insulator. To access the memristive properties. Currently Hewlett Packard’s version of the Titanium Dioxide susbtrate memristor is the most generally pursued type of memristor. Manganite memristive systems . an accelerating rate of change of a property as objects move from one state to another. Molecular and Ionic Thin Film Memristive Systems These type of memristors primarily rely on different material properties of thin film atomic lattices that exhibit hysterisis under the application of charge. Hysterisis. Usually. composed of symmetrical lattices of titanium and oxygen atoms. and manufacturing infrastructures. crossbars of nanowires are placed above and below the top and bottom layers. because the specific type of memristor can highlight different strengths and weaknesses.

a). 3. rely on the property of degree of freedom in electron spin. and is dependent on the difference in spin orientation between the two sides of the junction. of Intel fame) is a single layer neural network based on the McCulloch-Pitts neuron. memristive properties. b). The conductance was described as being controlled by the time integral of current. The configuration known as a spin valve. Depending on the material used to construct some MRAM bits. d. Interesting to note here is the research was part of a larger research project into the mathematics of early neural network modeling. electron spin polarization is altered.A substrate of bilayer oxide films based on manganite. controlled by magnetization. 3-terminal memistors As an early outlier from the 1960s. is called a spintronic memristor. and are sometimes referred to as “second-order memristive systems”. three terminal memristor by Bernard Widrow at Stanford. in certain cases. Spin Based and Magnetic memristive systems Spin-based memristive systems. In these types of system. these spin torque constructions can exhibit both ionic and magnetic properties. . the advanced technology of Electroplating. was used to demonstrate the viability of a non solid state. Two sections of different electron spin directions are kept separate based on a moving “wall”. as opposed to molecular and ionic nanostructure based systems. the simplest structure for a MRAM bit. The Adaptive Linear Element of Widrow (and his then-student Ted Hoff. Resonant-tunneling diode memristors Certain types of quantum-well diodes with special doping designs of the spacer layers between the source and drain regions have been shown to exhibit memristive properties. and shows that even in the early days. as opposed to titanium dioxide. allowing for hysteresis like behaviors to occur. the development of MRAM has shown. were exhibited as describing memristive properties at the University of Houston in 2001. the modeling of memristive systems was closely related to neuronal learning algorithms. and the relation of the wall dividing the electron spins is what controls the devices overall resistance state. 2. Spintronic Memristors A type of magnetic memristor under development by several labs. notably Seagate. The resistance in a memristive effective spin-torque transfer is controlled by a spin torque induced by a current flowing through a magnetic junction. usually through the movement of a magnetic “domain” wall separating polarities. In same way that the titanium dixoide memristor changes state by altering oxygen vacanccies between two seperate layers. changing a spintronic memristors resistance state uses magnetization to alter the spin direction of electrons in two different sections of a device. Spin Torque Transfer (STT) MRAM Since the 1990s. allows for state change.

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