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Motor Drives

• Motor drive systems

• DC motor drives

• AC motor drives

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Motor: Review of

general principles

FORCE

MAGNETIC FIELD

CURRENT

• Thumb ⇒ Force (F)

• Pointing Finger ⇒ Magnetic Field (Flux) (Φ )

• Middle Finger ⇒ Current (I)

φ

Flux Density : B =

A

Force : F = B ⋅ Il

Power Electronics and 2

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Flux in C-core

iron

- +

- +

- +

- +

- +

- +

Leakage flux - + air-gap

- +

- +

- +

- Current out of the the paper

NOTE: Use right hand "Screw Rule" to determine the direction of flux

EMF

Current =

Resistance

V

I=

R

MMF

Flux =

Reluctance

NI

φ=

Λ

Power Electronics and 3

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Air-gap flux densities

MMF=NI

g

Area A

g

Λ ==

µo A

Then,

MMF NIAµ o

φ= =

Λ g

φ NIµ o

B= =

A g

Note that air - gap flux density can be calculated by

only knowing the MMF of the coil (NI) and the length

of the gap.

The flux density is limited by the saturation of the iron

(1.6 - 1.8T)

Power Electronics and 4

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Evolution of motor geometry

- +

- +

- +

- +

- + - +

- + - +

- +

- +

- +

- +

- +

- +

- + -

- + +

- +

- +

- +

- +

- +

Simple motor

geometry

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Torque Production

current out of the paper

.

Force ++

+ +++

+

+ +

+

+

. .

. .

.

.

.

.

Force

.

.

.

TORQUE PRODUCTION

"SLOTTING"

Power Electronics and 6

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Electric Motor Drives

• DEFINITION: Electric drives for motor is

used to draw electrical energy from the

mains and supply the electrical energy to

the motor at whatever voltage, current and

frequency necessary to achieve the desired

mechanical output.

drive.

Power Source

Electronics Load

Converter

Process

Control

Computer

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Examples of drive systems

Power Source

Variable speed drive

Input Command

Controller Power Motor Load sensor

Electronics

Converter

Servo system

Variable speed drive

humidity

Electronics conditioner Cooling

Converter

Desired

temperature Indoor temperature

System and humidity Indoor

Controller sensors

Desired

humidity Air-conditioning system

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

DC Motor Drives

• Advantages of DC motor

– Ease of control

– Deliver high starting torque

– Near-linear performance

• Disadvantages:

– High maintenance

– Large and expensive (compared to

induction motor)

– Not suitable for high-speed operation

due to commutator and brushes

– Not suitable in explosive or very clean

environment

• DC motor drives:

– The drive is relatively simple and cheap

(compared to induction motor drives.

But DC motor itself is more expensive

– Due to the numerous disadvantages of

DC motor, it is getting less popular

Power Electronics and 9

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Separately Excited DC Motor

ia, I a if, I f

+

La Lf

+

vf , I f

va, Va

Ra Rf −

−

+ J

Eg

− ω TL

Td

B

field flux.

via brush and commutator for the

mechanical work.

current in the rotor produces torque.

Power Electronics and 10

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Operation

by a field current of if and an armature

current of ia flows in the circuit, the motor

develops a back emf and a torque to

balance the load torque at a particular

speed.

windings are supplied separately. Any

change in the armature current has no

effect on the field current.

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Field and armature equations

Instantaneous field current :

di f

vf = Rf if + Lf

dt

where R f and L f are the field resistor

and inductor, respectively

Instantaneous armature current :

di

va = Ra ia + La a + eg

dt

where R f and L f are the armature resistor

and inductor, respectively.

known as speed voltage, is expressed as :

eg = K vωi f

ω is the motor speed in rad/sec.

Power Electronics and 12

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Basic torque equation

Td = K t i f ia

Sometimes it is written as :

Td = K tφia

must be equal to the load torque plus the friction

and inertia, i.e. :

dω

Td = J + Bω + TL

dt

where

B : viscous friction constant, N.m/rad/s

TL : load torque, N.m

J : inertia of the motor

Power Electronics and 13

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Steady-state operations

Ia

If

Ra

+ Rf +

Va

Va La

Lf −

− +

Eg

−

is zero. Assuming the motor is not saturated.

For field circuit,

Vf = I f Rf

E g = K vωI f

Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K vωI f

Power Electronics and 14

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Steady-state torque and speed

The motor speed can be easily derived :

Va − I a Ra

ω=

Kv I f

the motor is lightly loaded, i.e. I a is small,

Va

ω=

Kv I f

motor speed depends only on the supply voltage.

Td = K t I f I a = Bω + TL

Pd = Td ω

Power Electronics and 15

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Torque and speed control

• From the derivation, several important

facts can be deduced for steady-state

operation of DC motor.

torque demand can be satisfied by varying

the armature current (Ia).

– controlling Va (voltage control)

– controlling Vf (field control)

application of variable DC voltage to

control the speed and torque of DC motor.

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Example

• Consider a 500V, 10kW , 20A rated- DC motor

with armature resistance of 1 ohm. When supplied

at 500V, the UNLOADED motor runs at 1040

rev/min, drawing a current of 0.8A (ideally current

is zero at no-load).

– Estimate the full load speed at rated values

– Estimate the no-load speed at 250V.

Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K vωI f

V −I R 500 − 0.8(1)

Kv I f = a a a = = 0.48

ω 1040

At full load and rated value,

V −I R 500 − 20(1)

ω fl = a a a = = 1000 rev/min

Kv I f 0.48

At no - load and voltage at 250V,

Va = I a Ra + K vωI f

Va − I a Ra 250 − 0.8(1)

ω= = = 519 rev/min

Kv I f 0.48

(Note : in reality, this equation strictly rad/sec)

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Variable speed operation

for a range of armature voltage can be

drawn as above.

by applying the correct voltage.

full load (rated) can be quite small. It

depends on the armature resistance.

Power Electronics and 18

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Base Speed and Field-

weakening

Torque

Power

ωbase ω

• Base speed:ωbase

– the speed which correspond to the rated Va,

rated Ia and rated If.

• Constant Torque region (ω > ωbase, )

– Ia and If are maintained constant to met torque

demand. Va is varied to control the speed.

Power increases with speed

• Constant Power region (ω > ωbase, )

– Va is maintained at the rated value and if is

reduced to increase speed . However, the

power developed by the motor (= torque x

speed) remains constant. Known as field

weakening.

Power Electronics and 19

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Four quadrant operation

FOUR QUADRAN OPERATION

I

Eg Vd TORQUE (+) Eg Va

FORWARD

D A MOTORING

4 1

SPEED (+)

3 2

REVERSE

MOTORING C B

I I

Eg Vc Eg Vb

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Quadrant 1: Forward

Motoring

• operating point at A

• applied voltage is greater than back emf

• positive current flows into the armature

• the power drawn from the supply (Va.Ia) is

positive

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Quadrant 2: Forward Braking

supply voltage is suddenly reduced to Vb

(which is below the back emf value), the

current will reverse direction.Operating

point is shifted to B.

• Since current is negative, power is

negative.

• Power is supplied from machine to the

supply. Behave like a generator.

• The combined effect of load torque and

negative machine torque will cause the

speed to fall.

• Back emf again falls below the applied

voltage, Vb.

• The current becomes positive again. Motor

settles back to Quadrant 1 but at lower

speed corresponding to the lower supply

voltage.

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Regenerative Braking

• During the deceleration phase, kinetic energy

fromthe motor and load inertia is returned to

the supply.

occurs naturally every time we reduce the

voltage to reduce the speed.

position B, the machine have to be driven by

mechanical source.

so that the generated emf will be greater than

Va.

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Quadrant 3 and 4

– Operating point C.

– Speed and torque is negative

– In practice, only need to change the

polarity of the armature supply

– Operating point D

– Same explanation as quadrant-2, but

with negative speed.

– Note that torque is positive

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

DC Drive types

• For low cost, low power applications (up to about

10kW) a single phase rectifiers can be used.Low-

power, economical drives can also be constructed

using single phase half-wave rectifier with free-

wheeling diodes.

three-phase supply with three-phase rectifier is

normally employed.

(such as battery), a chopper (DC-DC converter) is

used.

(especially locomotives), choppers are used in

conjunction with uncontrolled bridge rectifiers.

They are normally rated at medium power (100s

of kW)

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Drive types

• Using Switched-mode:

– Full bridge dc-dc converter: 4 quadrant

operation

– Half bridge: 2 quadrant

– Simple single-quadrant converter

(buck): 1 quadrant

Rectifier:

– Normally in high power drives

– Using SCR and changing firing angle

– The line current is unidirectional, but

the output voltage can reverse polarity.

Hence two quadrant operation is

possible.

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Thyristor/SCR drives

Control

and M

Speed SCR

reference firing

Current

Current sensor T Tachometer

Speed

obtained from SCR (controlled) rectifiers.

ratings than the armature rectifier. It is

only used to establish the flux.

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Continuous/Discontinuous

current

• The key reason for successful DC drive operation is

due to the large armature inductance La.

current (with small ripple) due to “current filtering

effect of L”. (Refer to notes on Rectifier).

significant effect on the torque.

lightly loaded, or if supply is single phase (half-

wave), discontinuous current may occur.

rectifier rises; motor speed goes higher. In open-

loop operation the speed is poorly regulated.

the armature inductance.

Power Electronics and 28

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Basic single-phase drive

Ia If

Ta1 Ra Tf1

Ta3 Lf Tf3

+ +

+ +

vs Vf vs

Va La

_ _

Lf

− + −

Ta4 Ta2 Eg Tf2 Tf4

−

ARMATURE FIELD

2Vm

Va = cos α a

π

Armature (DC) current is :

Va − E g

Ia = ; E g is the back emf

Ra

Field voltage :

2Vm

Vf = cos α f

π

Power Electronics and 29

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Basic three-phase drive

Ia If

Ta1

_ van +

Ta3 +

+

Ra Lf

_ vbn +

Ta5

n Vf

_ vcn + La

Ta2 Va Lf

−

+

Ta6

Eg

Ta4 − −

ARMATURE FIELD

Armature voltage :

3Vm, L − L

Va = cos α a

π

Armature (DC) current is :

Va − VE

Ia = ; VE is the back emf

Ra

If single phase is used for field :

2V

V f = m cos α f

π

Power Electronics and 30

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Example

A saperately excited DC motor has a constsnt torque load

of 60 Nm. The motor is driven by s full - wave converter

connected to a 240V ac supply. The field constant of the

motor KI f = 2.5 and the armature resistance is 2 ohm. Calculate

the triggering angle for the motor to opearte at 200 rpm.

Assume the current is continuous.

2V

Va = m cos α a

π

And

Va = I a Ra + VE

VE = KI f ω = 2.5ω

and

T = KI f I a

2Vm T

⇒ cos α a = R + KI f ω

π KI f a

−1 π

T

α a = cos Ra + KI f ω

2Vm KI f

π 60 200

= cos −1 2.5 2 + 2. 5 2 × π ×

2 2 × 240V 60

= 62.32 o

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Example

A rectifier-DC motor drive is supplied by a three-phase, full

controlled SCR bridge 240Vrms/50Hz per-phase. The field is

supplied by a single-phase 240V rms/50Hz, with uncontrolled

diode bridge rectifier. The field current is set as maximum as

possible.

The separately excited DC motor characteristics is given as

follows:

Armature resistance:Ra = 0.3 ohm

Field resistance: Rf =175 ohm

Motor constant: KV =1.5 V/A-rad/s

Assume the inductance of the armature and field circuit is large

enough to ensure continuous and ripple-free currents. If the

delay angle of the armature converter (αa) is 45 degrees and the

required armature current is 30A,

• a) Calculate the developed torque, Td.

• b) Speed of the motor, ω (rad/s)

• c) If the polarity of the field current is reversed, the motor

back emf will reverse. For the same armature current of 30A,

determine the required delay angle of the armature converter.

2V 2 2 × 240

(a ) V f = m cos α f = cos 0 = 216V

π π

Vf 216V

⇒If = = = 1.235 A

Rf 175

Td = K v I f I a = 1.5 × 1.235 × 30 = 55.58 Nm

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Example (cont)

(b) Motor speed

Eg

ω=

Kv I f

E g = Va − I a Ra

The armature is supplied by three - phase with α a = 45o ,

3Vm, L − L 3 × 3 × 2 × 240

Va = cos α a = cos 45o = 396.3V

π π

E g = Va − I a Ra = 396.3 − 30 × 0.3 = 387.3V

387.3V

⇒ω = = 209.06 rad / sec

1.5 × 1.235

(c) Now the polarity of field is reversed, then

E g = −387.3V

and

Va = E g + I a Ra = −387.3 + 30 × 0.3 = −378.3V

Also,

3Vm, L − L

Va = cos α a

π

−1 π × Va −1 π × ( −378.5)

α a = cos = cos

3Vm, L − L 3 3 × 2 × 240

= 132.4 o

Power Electronics and 33

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Reversal

• DC motor in inherently bi-directional.

Hence no-problem to reverse the direction.

It can be a motor or generator.

the thyristors are unidirectional devices.

it can be operated to become negative DC

voltage, by making firing angle greater

than 90 degrees,

– armature reversal using contactors (2 quadrant)

– field reversal using contactors (2 quadrant)

– double converter (full 4 quadrants)

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Drive reversing using

armature or field contactors

DRIVE REVERSING USING ARMATURE OR FIELD CONTACTORS

CONTACTOR

2

Vs FIELD

1

SIDE (SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM)

Va Eg Va Eg Va Eg

POSITION 1 POSITION 2 POSITION 2

(MOTORING) (BRAKING/ (RESERVE)

GENERATION)

Power Electronics and 35

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

Drive reversing using double

converters

converter 1 converter 2

Principle of reversal

Vs

FIELD

Practical circuit

Power Electronics and 36

Drives (Version 2):

Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

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