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Delivering Estate Solutions to Defence
Design & Maintenance Guide 20
The heating of large spaces
Consultant Authors: Ove Arup & Partners DEFENCE ESTATES LONDON: THE STATIONERY OFFICE
Heating of Large Spaces
© Crown Copyright 1999
Published with the permission of the Ministry of Defence on behalf of the Controller of Her
Majesty's Stationery Office.
Application for reproduction should be made in writing to the Copyright Unit, Her Majesty's
Stationery Office, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich, NR3 1BQ.
ISBN O 1 1 772922 1
Heating of Large Spaces
This Design & Maintenance Guide is one of a series prepared by Defence Estates (DE) and covers the selection of heating systems for large spaces. It has been designed to provide assistance to Project Sponsors, Property Managers, specifiers, designers and operators of large buildings, primarily within the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) Estate.
Property Managers have a responsibility for the efficient use of MOD resources. The National Audit Office report - Management of Utilities within the MOD, identified the use of more efficient heating systems as an area for potential savings.
The selection of the appropriate heating system can significantly influence energy performance, user satisfaction, capital cost, operating and maintenance cost, and may assist MOD in achieving overall targets for reduction in energy use.
The guide is intended for use in preparing a statement of requirements for large military buildings. It may be applied to both new buildings, and to the refurbishment of existing buildings. It does not cover the selection of heating systems for more onerous situations, such as arenas and places of public assembly.
It has been compiled for the use of the Crown and its contractors in execution of contracts for the Crown. Whilst this guide has been produced by DE, for the MOD Estate, it is acknowledged that it could be applied outside the estate. The Crown hereby excludes all liability (other than liability for death or personal injury) whatsoever and howsoever arising (including, but without limitation, negligence on the part of the Crown, its servants or agents) for loss or damage howsoever caused where the document is used for any other purpose.
CONTACT FOR QUERIES
Specialist Services DE Blakemore Drive Sutton Coldfield
Heating of Large Spaces
DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces List of Abbreviations .
DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces .
5 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THIS GUIDE THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE ASSOCIATED MOD PUBLICATIONS OUTLINE OF THE GUIDE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2 2.3 1.3 4.1 3.2 5.3 FACTORS AFFECTING THE HEATING OF LARGE SPACES INSULATION INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION RATES 10 10 11 Ventilation Infiltration Reducing infiltration through doors Door Air Curtains REDUCING STRATIFICATION IN TALL SPACES 14 5 5.4 2.2.1 4.3 SUMMARY OF HEATING EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS 16 17 High level unit heaters Floor standing unit heaters High temperature high velocity induction warm air heating systems .1.2.4 4.2.3 2.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces Contents FOREWORD LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF FIGURES iii ix 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1.1 2.1 5.1 4.2.2 4.1 1.2 1.1.1 5.2 2.5 THE PRINCIPLE FORMS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENERGY BALANCE FOR HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE AND COMFORT CONVECTIVE HEATING RADIANT HEATING TYPES OF HEATING SYSTEMS 4 4 5 5 6 7 3 3.2 THE PURPOSE OF SPACE HEATING HEATING FOR HEALTH AND COMFORT HEATING FOR BUILDING AND CONTENTS PROTECTION 8 8 9 4 4.2 4.4 1.1.
1 5.2.6 6.4 5.4 6.12 6.2.3 5.1.2 6.2.1 6.2 5.1 6.15 SELECTING THE HEAT SOURCE AND EQUIPMENT SELECTING THE HEAT ENERGY SOURCE CENTRALISED PLANT AND SITE DISTRIBUTION MAINS DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT FUEL BURNING TEMPERATURE RECOVERY CONTROL STABILITY 28 30 30 30 32 32 32 33 LOCALISED HEATING HEALTH AND SAFETY Health Fire Risk Noise AIR MOVEMENT ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 OCCUPANT INTERACTION SPACE USAGE SUITABILITY TO BUILDING REFURBISHMENT WORK FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY CAPITAL COST RUNNING COSTS ANNEX A .2.9 6.3 6.10 6.7.3 5.7.2 Ducted warm air system RADIANT SYSTEMS 21 Gas fired overhead radiant tube heaters Overhead radiant tubes/panels served by hot water/steam Gas-fired radiant plaque heaters Electric plaque heaters Hot-air radiant tubes COMBINATION SYSTEMS 26 Underfloor heating Panel convectors 6 6.SITE SURVEYS 38 42 REFERENCES viii .DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 5.5 5.1 5.8 6.2 5.4 5.3.7 6.2 6.5 6.14 6.3 188.8.131.52 6.7.13 6.
Table 5 Extract from CIBSE table A4.12 Loading bay partitioning/air lock Rapid rise and close doors Plastic strip curtains Crossflow infiltration Effect of destratification High level unit heater Advantages and disadvantages of high level unit heaters Floor standing unit heater Advantages and disadvantages of floor standing unit heaters Induction nozzle Advantages and disadvantages of high temperature high velocity jets Ducted warm air system Advantages and disadvantages of ducted warm air systems Gas fired radiant tube Advantages and disadvantages of gas fired radiant tubes Radiant tubes served by hot water/steam Advantages and disadvantages of hot water/steam radiant tubes Gas fired radiant plaque Advantages and disadvantages of gas fired radiant plaques Electric plaque heater Advantages and disadvantages of electric plaques Hot air radiant tubes Advantages and disadvantages of hot air radiant tubes Underfloor heating Advantages and disadvantages of underfloor heating Panel convectors Advantages and disadvantages of panel convectors Heating system selection chart Direct vs.3 Extract from Approved document L (1991) . indirect fuel burning Advantages and disadvantages of fuel burning methods Cost comparison for various heating systems utilising a central heat source Cost comparison for various heating systems utilising an independent heat source 4 6 6 7 8 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 29 30 31 36 37 .DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces List of figures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Typical heat rejection from the human body Convective heating Radiant heating Radiant proportion Extract from CIBSE table A1.
DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces .
a change in use. A summary of the survey findings is included at Annex A. These sites are listed in the acknowledgements section of this guide. such as places of entertainment. It is. It is not intended to cover buildings that require air conditioning (including comfort cooling). The potential savings represented by the selection of appropriate plant may assist MOD in achieving overall targets for reductions in energy use. essential that any changes to the heating installations are considered properly. Many of the existing buildings are subject to refurbishment. from unheated stores to concert halls. therefore. The term 'large spaces' covers a wide range of buildings. Experience within MOD Estate has demonstrated that the selection of the most appropriate heating system will influence a buildings performance in terms of both energy consumption and user satisfaction. maintenance buildings and buildings used for 'industrial' purposes. taking all relevant factors into consideration. due to the diverse range of considerations that need to be taken into account when selecting a heating system. They vary in terms of size. and by reference to other texts on related subjects. The primary aim is to cover military stores. MOD uses a considerable amount of energy to heat large buildings.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 1 Introduction 1. From analysis of the information gathered during the site visits. in terms of capital cost. 1. examine the principal considerations that should be taken into account. The guide does.1 Background to this guide The MOD Estate contains a diverse range of buildings. it may be applied with caution to other types of building. Inappropriate systems result in poor value for money. This may arise due to the age of the building. . As part of the study a number of sites were visited to collect feedback on the actual performance of different heating systems. and may fail to satisfy the needs of the building user or occupier. DE commissioned a study to look into the range of heating options available for large buildings. however. or as a result of energy conversion programmes. This guide is not intended to cover the entire range of 'large buildings'. age and the use to which they are put. Design and Maintenance Guide 20 The heating of large spaces was developed. However. It is not possible to be prescriptive in the guidance it offers.2 THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE The purpose of this guide is to set out the criteria to be considered when selecting a heating installation for new and existing large buildings. or cost in use (including energy). nor buildings that are required to meet other standards.
Summarises the advantages and disadvantages of specific heating equipment. in particular:Design and Maintenance Guide (DMG) 07 .Justifying the provision of air conditioning. 1.Space requirements for plant access.Heating. it has been written with a wide readership in mind. Describes the factors which affect the heating of large spaces. Spec 037.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces Introduction To maximise the value of the guide. DMG 17 . together with the building procurer and users. . This should assist in making an informed decision on what heating scheme best suits a given building.5 Acknowledgements This guide has been compiled by consulting engineers Ove Arup and Partners.3 ASSOCIATED MOD PUBLICATIONS Work on MOD heating systems. or user. This should enable these individuals to compare the characteristics of any proposed heating scheme against the operational and functional requirements of the building. air cooling and mechanical ventilation for buildings. operation and maintenance.Design Energy Targets.Air Conditioning. and considers the basic design principals that need to be considered when selecting a heating system for a building. with a varied knowledge of heating of large spaces. Annex A Site Survey Results 1. Defence Estates Publications are listed in Defence Estates Technical Publications Index. Fire Standard F3 . Section 1 Section 2 Considers the purpose of space heating and guides the designer to select appropriate temperatures. of the building.4 OUTLINE OF THE GUIDE Introduces the guide. Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Outlines the specific selection of the heat energy source and equipment. DMG 08 . hot and cold water. Outlines basic heat transfer theory. Specification (Spec) 036 . 1. should be carried out in accordance with Defence Estates Technical Publications. It has been designed to provide guidance to the procurer. steam and gas installations for buildings. The guide will assist the heating system designer. available from The Stationery Office. The guide may also be used as an 'aide mémoire' by the professional heating engineer.Oil fired heating installations.
DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces Introduction The authors would like to record their gratitude to the staff at the following six existing sites within the MOD Estate for their time and co-operation in assisting with the research undertaken in preparing the guide: Eaglescliffe Portsmouth Donnington Shawbury St Athan Old Dalby .
the human body may be likened to a heat engine. The harder we exercise. too little and we feel hot. a heating system regulates the way in which our bodies lose heat due to radiation. . 2. therefore. If our bodies reject too much heat we feel cold. it is important to understand how the human body copes with variations in temperature and other factors that make up the environment. This heat must be rejected if our body temperature is to remain in balance. convection and evaporation. converting fuel (food) into work and heat. The type of heating system installed can.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 2. The Principle Forms of heat transfer 2 The principle forms of heat transfer Before assessing the benefits of different heating systems.1 ENERGY BALANCE FOR HUMAN COMFORT In engineering terms. affect the way our bodies reject heat and the effect this may have on occupant comfort. the more heat we produce. Figure 1 Typical heat rejection from the human body 20% evaporative 45% radiant 35% convective Rather than heat our bodies. Our bodies reject heat through: breathing evaporation (of perspiration) conduction (through contact with colder surfaces) radiation (to surrounding cooler objects) convection (to air passing over the skin).
it warms the surrounding walls. due to the position of the person within the room.2 TEMPERATURE AND COMFORT To feel comfortable.25m/s) this could lead to complaints of draughts. the MRT and the dry resultant temperature. but again this factor should not be ignored. This is best achieved by considering an everyday situation.1 m/s). As the heated air circulates within the space. the space may feel stale. Although these surfaces are warmed by the air. windows. on a cold winter's day when the air temperature is low. Whilst the term air temperature is commonly understood. The rate at which we lose heat will vary due to the temperature of our surroundings. clothing and the level of physical activity. It quantifies the potential radiant heat loss from the occupant to the surfaces. but internal air movement can affect comfort conditions. but the effect that extremes in humidity levels have on comfort should not be ignored. There are other factors that affect comfort. is related to the surface temperature of all walls.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 2. floor. in the room are usually lower than the air temperature. ceilings etc. humidity. Therefore. as expressed by the formula: The MRT in turn. but the energy radiating from the sun has increased the radiant temperature and thus increased the comfort level. such as wind speed. Under these conditions. ceiling and other surfaces. The Principle Forms of heat transfer 2. 2. in winter months. In external conditions wind speed can have a significant effect on comfort. 'Windchill factor' is not a term commonly referred to when describing internal conditions. the air temperature and the radiant temperature. For example. For 'still' indoor air speeds (below 0. If the heating. . or ventilation systems installed in a building produce a high air velocity. In its simplest form dry resultant temperature is the average of the addition of air temperature and mean radiant temperature (MRT). This temperature is made up of two components. The combination of both the air temperature and radiant temperature gives rise to a parameter termed the dry resultant temperature (tres). (typically above 0. Outside. radiant temperature may need further explanation. we lose heat at a rate commensurate with comfort conditions.3 CONVECTIVE HEATING Convective heating systems work by heating the air directly. we must maintain our inner-body temperature at about 37oC. It is the dry resultant temperature that provides the best measure of comfort conditions. The designer of heating systems is unlikely to have any control over the clothing level of the occupants. Controlling the humidity level is outside the scope of this report. The extent to which this may affect comfort depends upon the building construction. an instant feeling of warmth is felt when the sun emerges. they generally remain at a lower temperature than the air except in hot summer conditions. Clearly. the air temperature could not have risen in that instant. and our skin temperature at about 33oC. weather forecasts often warn of cold windy conditions in terms of the 'Windchill factor'.
DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 2. the surface temperature of the walls and windows will be significantly lower than that of the inside air. Therefore. Figure 3 Radiant Heating Air temperature 18°C Mean radiant temperature 26°C Dry resultant temperature 22°C As radiant heating operates at a lower air temperature than convective systems. and hence the dry resultant temperature. the air temperature must be maintained at a higher level. The heat is transmitted from the heat source in the form of electromagnetic rays (mainly infra-red). to surrounding cooler objects such as walls. radiant heating systems may use less energy than convective systems. the air is heated by contact with the surrounding surfaces. The ability to direct the heat also allows 'spot heating' within a building. are. floors and people. Radiant heat transfer also takes place from people to colder objects. less heat is lost when air escapes from the building (eg. thereby reducing the heat loss through the roof. The MRT in the room.4 RADIANT HEATING Radiant heating systems heat the air indirectly. where a small area may be heated in isolation. This . which have been heated by the radiant source. Instead. The Principle Forms of heat transfer In winter. Figure 2 Convective Heating Air temperature 26 °C Mean radiant temperature 18°C Dry resultant temperature 22 °C 2. higher than the air temperature. through an open door). For example. In such circumstances. inside poorly insulated buildings. Compared with a convective system. where the infiltration rate is high. As the electromagnetic rays pass through the surrounding air almost no heat is absorbed. a floor can be heated by an overhead radiant system. therefore. Radiant heating also has the advantage of being directional. to achieve a comfortable dry resultant temperature. This will often give rise to complaints from occupants sitting close to a large window. the temperature at roof level will be lower. directed at the floor.
The traditional radiator. Figure 4 illustrates the relative 'radiant-proportion' for the equipment. actually produces most of its output in the form of convective heat transfer. or wholly convective. whereas a high temperature plaque heater emits heat by radiation. .5 TYPES OF HEATING SYSTEMS Few heat emitters can be categorised as wholly radiant. The Principle Forms of heat transfer 2. Each type of heat emitter is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 5. Figure 4 Radiant proportion Figure 4 shows that the majority of the heat from a unit heater is in the form of convective heat. Most systems offer a combination of both forms of heating.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 2. despite what the name implies.
The purpose of Space Heating 3 The purpose of Space Heating There are three basic reasons why space heating may be required in a building: • • • for the health and comfort of the occupants to protect the building fabric to protect the contents.3 Type of Building Factories: Sedentary work Light work Heavy work Offices: General Warehouses: Working and packaging spaces Storage spaces 20 19 Dry Resultant Temperature oC 16 13 16 13 . The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) provides more detailed guidance and recommendations for thermal comfort standards in different circumstances.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 3. illustrates the recommended temperatures for various buildings and activities. Figure 5 Extract from CIBSE table A1. extracted from the CIBSE design guide. in a workplace. the Workplace (Health. shall be reasonable. 3. unless much of the work involves severe physical effort in which case the temperature should be at least 13 °C.1 HEATING FOR HEALTH AND COMFORT Most buildings usually require heating in order to provide a comfortable. The following table. when hard physical work takes place. In terms of statutory requirements. Safety and Welfare) Regulations recommends that the temperature in workrooms should normally be at least 16°C. The CIBSE guide recommends that the dry resultant temperature can be 3 to 5°C below that normally recommended. Safety and Welfare) Regulations require that during working hours the temperature inside buildings. The Approved Code of Practice to the Workplace (Health. healthy environment for occupants in winter.
or by other means. 3. should be referred to for more detailed explanations of these options. To protect normal UK buildings. with the associated danger of bursting pipes and flooding the regular occurrence of moisture condensation onto surfaces. CIBSE recommend dry resultant temperatures in excess of 19°C for offices. may carry a risk of damage to the stored items. the Fuel and Electricity (Heating) (Control) (Amendment) Order 1980. In some applications. leading to water damage high humidity levels. and reduce the likelihood of condensation. Firstly. When heating only to protect the building and its contents. however. In particular. This may be achieved by heating. A heating system will reduce the relative humidity of a space.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 3. and the sensitivity of the building materials to moisture. To determine the most appropriate temperature level for a specific building. be appropriate for all buildings. DMG19. . The Design and Maintenance guide for 'Controlled Humidity Environments'. Secondly. Although not specified. The temperature need only be raised to a level. To comply with the Order in this case. prohibits the use of fuel or electricity to heat premises above 19°C. It may be more appropriate in some instances to control the humidity level. humidity levels. which is sufficient to adequately reduce the relative humidity. the designer must consider ventilation and infiltration rates. rather than the temperature within the building. it must be assumed that the temperature referred to is a dry resultant temperature. when convective heating systems are used. the Building Services Research and Information Association (BSRIA) recommend heating to 8°C. A heating system can protect both the building and its contents against decay and degradation due to: freezing of water services. it is difficult to satisfy the requirements of both the Heating Control Order and the recommendations of CIBSE. This level may not. unheated long-term storage buildings.2 HEATING FOR BUILDING AND CONTENTS PROTECTION Cold buildings carry with them a risk of condensation and high humidity levels. accelerating mould growth and corrosion of metals. it is generally accepted that this refers to air temperature rather than dry resultant temperature. leading to accelerated decay and degradation of the building or its contents. air temperatures in excess of 19°C may be necessary to achieve the desired dry resultant temperature. Guidance on space heating scales for the provision of accommodation for the Regular British Armed Forces is provided in Joint Services Publication (JSP) 315 Services Accommodation Code. The purpose of Space Heating Somewhat contradictory to this requirement. such as military warehouses. the temperature level is usually lower than that required to provide comfort for occupants.
The composition of an element determines its U-value. 10 . Other options are based upon comparing the results with this method to ensure the overall U-value is achieved. by providing insulation and sealing against infiltration. To overcome this effect. 4.Table 5 The above table is one of the solutions referred to in the Approved Document LI. therefore. Clearly. floor and windows. The following table is an extract from the document. Low surface temperatures reduce the MRT within the space and. have an adverse effect on comfort. heated buildings should be designed to limit their heat loss. Factors affecting the heating of large spaces 4 Factors affecting the heating of large spaces The design and selection of a heating system is influenced by the building construction. An element with a high U-value has a low resistance to heat flow. while an element with a low U-value has a high resistance to heat flow.5 while the U-value for block and brick construction would typically be 1.1 INSULATION When a building is heated. it loses heat through the building walls.5 Poorly insulated buildings suffer from high energy consumption and low surface temperatures. which illustrates the standard U-values for buildings other than dwellings: Figure 6 Extract from Approved document L1 (1991) .DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 4.4 or less. roof. The Building Regulations Approved Document LI specifies the minimum U-value for various fabric elements for buildings. in order to minimise the energy consumption of buildings. The overall thermal transmittance value (U-value) quantifies the insulation's resistance to heat flow. thereby consuming more energy. The rate of heat loss is determined by the insulation level of the building fabric and the temperature difference between inside and outside. By comparison uninsulated asbestos sheet aircraft hangers typically have a U-value of 6. the air temperature must be increased further. A well insulated structure could have a U-value of 0.
2. for heat loss calculations. Similarly. temperature. unlined 300 to 3000m3 3000 to 10000m3 Over 10000m3 Warehouses: Working and packaging spaces Storage space Offices 1. brick or concrete construction: Lower and intermediate floors Top floor with sheeted roof. site exposure and wind speeds.25 1. consideration should be given to installing controls that turn off the heating system if doors are left open. as outdoor air enters most buildings through openings and cracks. Factors affecting the heating of large spaces 4. It is notoriously difficult to predict with any degree of accuracy and. Buildings subject to high heat gains may also require mechanical ventilation to limit overheating during summer.5 1. Clearly. Recommended minimum ventilation rates for occupants are set down in the CIBSE guides and the Building Regulations Approved Document F.25 1.2 INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION RATES 4. the empirical values in the following table are often used.75 0. To maintain the space air temperature in winter. Infiltration is influenced by the standard of construction. one air change per hour means that the quantity of outdoor air which enters a space in one hour is equivalent to the total volume of that space. For example.2 Infiltration Infiltration rate is the term used to describe the amount of outdoor air which leaks into a building. excessive infiltration can have a significant effect on the building's performance and energy efficiency. therefore.0 In older buildings the infiltration rate could be significantly higher. Figure 7 Extract from CIBSE Table A4. The infiltration rate is expressed in terms of the number of air changes per hour (ac/h).0 1. 11 .5 1. Where high ventilation rates are required. lined Top floor with sheeted roof. it may be economical to provide a heating system which is capable of ventilating as well as heating the space. In practice a fully airtight building is difficult to achieve. If there is any concern over the magnitude of the infiltration rate the building should be tested for air leakage. Considerable energy savings may be made by sealing leaky buildings.2. unlined Sheet construction.12 Building Type/Construction Infiltration Rate (ac/h) Multi-storey. The purpose of this may be to replace contaminated air or simply to provide fresh air to occupants. infiltration air must be heated.0 0.5 0. This relates the quantity of outside air entering a space per hour relative to the volume of the space.1 Ventilation Most buildings require a supply of ventilation air.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 4. 4. building volume.
In most instances a suitably positioned switch may be more effective than automatic detection devices.3 Reducing infiltration through doors In addition to infiltration which occurs through cracks in the construction of a typical building. due to low temperatures and draughts and high energy consumption. A number of solutions are listed below: *It should be noted that it is a requirement of the 1995 Edition of Approved Document LI. Failure to do so can result in occupant complaints. when used for low traffic flows. The idea is to create an air lock between the space and the outside. Factors affecting the heating of large spaces 4. They are designed to rise and close rapidly on detection of traffic to reduce the time that the doors are open to a minimum. that vehicle access doors should have a U-value no greater than Figure 8 Loading bay partitioning/air lock The creation of a separate loading bay area outside the main building is the most effective way of reducing infiltration. a further source of air infiltration is through door openings. stores and workshops) and it may be necessary to implement measures which reduce the infiltration rate. This can be very significant when doors are installed in two opposing sides of a building. 12 .DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 4. In many buildings. A number of mechanisms may be used to reduce infiltration through busy loading bay doors. It is important to ensure the depth and area of the air lock is sufficient to allow loading/ unloading without the need to have both doors open simultaneously. They can be very effective. doors are in constant use (eg.2. Figure 9 Rapid rise and close doors These doors are used as access doors for through traffic. Careful consideration of vehicle detection devices is required.
however.4 Door air curtains Air curtains jet a stream of heated air across a door opening. such that the permanent access doors were rarely closed. Door air curtain in themselves will not meet the requirements of the 1995 Edition of Approved Document LI (see * para 4.3). A DE study observed that in some cases occupants relied heavily on thge strip curtains. The curtains may. be displaced with high windspeeds. However. which contains access doors in opposing walls. Air curtains can consume large amounts of energy. Such inefficent operation may have caused an increase in energy consumption. thereby reducing cold draughts within the building.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 4. they can lead to inefficent practices. Consideration must be given to safety implications due to the reduced visibility from wear. especially if there are leeward openings in the building. complaints of warm draughts and noise are commonplace and often lead to the units being isolated. and injury from flapping strips during excessively windy conditions. Figure 11 Crossflow infiltration Section through a building. Plastic strip curtains in themselves will not meet the requirements of the 1995 Edition of approved Document L1 (see * para 4. The section below illustrates the infiltration of outdoor air due to wind pressure. Air curtains are widely used. but they can be effective in heating the air which passes into the building through the doorway.2. Although strip curtains are generally effective at reducing infiltration of outdoor air. Relatively little is known regarding their effectiveness as a barrier against infiltration. Door air curtains have limited effect in reducing infiltration into a building where there are a number of openings. Factors affecting the heating of large spaces Figure 10 Plastic strip curtains These curtains are permanently fixed over access doorways.2. as they are very effective at heating the infiltration air immediately. or the building is excessively leaky. during a prevailing wind with the operation of door air curtains 13 .2. and are designed to reduce the area of the opening required to a minimum.3) 4.
the average temperature of the space must be raised. due to the increased air movement which they produce being perceived as draughts. significant temperature differences may arise between the air at lower and upper levels. some convective systems may be used to destratify the air. The diagram below illustrates the effect of stratification with. To maintain comfortable conditions at floor level. Stratification may be more pronounced in convective systems than in radiant systems which are aimed at heating the floor. the operation of destratification equipment: Figure 12 Effect of destratification 14 . or because they draw contaminated air from high level down to the occupied level.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 4. This is referred to as stratification. heat it and introduce it at high level. many destratification systems meet with only limited success. However. consuming additional energy increased infiltration due to thermal buoyancy causing internal air movement. For example. • It is possible to minimise such effects with the installation of destratification equipment but considerable care is required in their selection and operation. air-turnover systems draw air from low level. Factors affecting the heating of large spaces 4.3 REDUCING STRATIFICATION IN TALL SPACES Warm air rises due to its relative buoyancy. These force warm stratified air from high-level down to the occupied zone at low level. However. thereby destratifying the air. Successful destratification systems typically improve comfort conditions at floor level and return energy savings of up to 10%. and without. The warm highlevel air moves down to replace the cold air which has been removed. In a tall space. Stratification has the following negative effects: • • high heat losses may be experienced through the roof due to the elevated air temperature at this level the temperature at floor level will be lower than the average temperature of the space.
Factors affecting the heating of large spaces 15 .DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 4.
The main function of the section is to provide a means by which the building procurer. or user.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. prompt a discussion that leads to a better understanding. on the validity of the proposed system. The guidance given in this section is not intended to provide the background for a technical review of a proposed heating design. by the heating system designer. may compare the characteristics of any given heating system against the operational needs of the building. of the intended use of the building. It is sub-divided into convective. It may. radiant and combined systems. 16 . however. This comparison might then be used to stimulate further discussion. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5 Summary of heating equipment characteristics The following section describes several types of heating systems which could be considered for the heating of large spaces. between the heating system designer and the procurer.
1 CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS 5. such as filter replacement and burner servicing. gas or oil fired heaters or with heater batteries served by hot water/steam. Thus increasing the heat loss through the roof and hence higher energy costs. Direct fired units may not be appropriate in spaces which have a high fire risk.1. The units are generally not suitable for summer ventilation. The circulation of room air and the associated air movement can mix dust/smoke particles within the space. Heat output can be controlled to match the required load. A fan in the heater forces the warm air to low level. Units do not occupy floor space. Disadvantages Large vertical air temperature gradients may be expected.1 High level unit heaters These units discharge warm recirculated/fresh air from high level into the space. particularly with the modulating burner type. Air velocity throughout the space can be uneven and may give rise to complaint of draughts in areas adjacent to the units. Good control achievable as units can be controlled individually or in groups to suit internal layout and local heat gains. Figure 13 High level unit heater Warm air Figure 14 Advantages and disadvantages of high level unit heaters Advantages Suitable for intermittent operation due to fast response time. Units are available in a wide range of outputs therefore a number of smaller units can be selected so as to evenly distribute the heat. The units can be used to introduce ventilation air. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. The units may be provided with electric. Access for maintenance may be inconvenient and lengthy due to mounting height and number of serviceable units. Risk of mechanical damage is limited due to mounting height. Each unit has maintenance requirements. Units can be mounted at heights up to 5 metres. These units can create noise problems.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. access to the units due to their mounting height may be inconvenient. 17 . The units are generally suspended from the roof structure but they can also be wall mounted.
Disadvantages Large vertical air temperature gradients may be expected. The circulation of room air and the associated air movement can mix dust/smoke particles within the space. Can be used to create air movement during the summer and may be able to provide summer ventilation.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. Capable of inputting large quantities of heat into an area thus achieving a warm air curtain effect. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. These units can create noise problems 18 . High levels of air movement adjacent to the unit may be required to distribute the heated air. hence fewer units are required. Risk of mechanical damage due to location. Heat output can be controlled to match the required load. adjacent to access doors etc.1. The units can be used to introduce ventilation air. The units are free standing and are often positioned in high heat loss areas eg. Thus increasing the heat loss through the roof and hence energy costs. Large heat outputs are available requiring fewer units. Units occupy floor space. Access for maintenance is convenient due to the location of heaters. Figure 15 Floor standing unit heater Figure 16 Advantages and disadvantages of floor standing heaters Advantages Suitable for intermittent operation due to fast response time. adjacent to external doors. Direct fired units may not be appropriate in spaces which have a high fire risk.2 Floor standing unit heaters These units are similar to high level unit heaters. This may cause local discomfort due to draughts and local overheating. The heated air is generally discharged horizontally into the space or via a ductwork system to outlet terminals where required. particularly with the modulating burner type. They are generally larger than the high level type and provide greater heat outputs.
3 High temperature high velocity induction warm air heating system These systems comprise an air handling plant and a network of well insulated distribution ductwork. The air handling plant incorporates all of the moving components for the system.1. The system is capable of delivering varying proportions of fresh air from 0 to 100% and is suitable for use in buildings up to 25 metres in height. The distribution ductwork is generally located within the roof depth and may be suspended from the roof structure or from the walls.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. gas or oil fired heaters or with heater batteries served by hot water/steam. Figure 17 Induction nozzle shown with and without additional mixing box Figure 18 Advantages and disadvantages of high temperature high velocity jets 19 . Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. The high velocity of the discharge air induces and mixes with the surrounding air. Air is discharged downwards from the distribution ductwork through special air jet nozzles. These units may be supplied with electric.
Heat output is generally fully modulating enabling the required load to be met efficiently. Large vertical air temperature gradients may be experienced in tall spaces. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. Figure 19 Ducted warm air system Figure 20 Advantages and disadvantages of ducted warm air systems Advantages Suitable for intermittent operation due to fast response time. The space required for the ductwork is high due to the low air velocity. Air is supplied to the space at a low temeperature and velocity by outlet terminals. Fire dampers may be required if the ductwork passes through fire compartmentation lines. The risk of physical damage to the distribution side of the system is low. Access to the space served need not necessarily be required.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. No provision for the supply of combustion air to the space is required. The system can be used for summer ventilation and can be adapted to provide mechanical cooling. The system does not occupy floor space. A plant room may be required for the air handling unit. Access for maintenance is limited to the air handling plant only. except for the air handling unit.4 Ducted warm air system These systems are similar to the high temperature high velocity systems.1. The fire risk is reduced to a minimum as the combustion components may be located external to the served space. with the flexibility to accommodate future changes in building use/layout. Disadvantages The circulation of room air and the associated air movement can mix dust/smoke particles within the space. The system can be used to introduce ventilation air. Low noise levels can be achieved within the space. The system comprises an air handling plant and distribution ductwork. thus increasing the heat loss through the roof and hence energy costs. Good control is achievable. 20 .
due to mounting height and number of serviceable units. Figure 21 Gas fired radiant tube Figure 22 Advantages and disadvantages of gas fired radiant tubes Advantages Short preheat times are required for comfort Disadvantages High level working may be hindered due to the close proximity to the high intensity radiant heat source. no mixing of dust/smoke. The tubes then emit radiant heat which is directed downwards by a reflector into the space.. ie. The system is not capable of providing ventilation air. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. Risk of mechanical damage limited due to mounting height.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. The radiant intensity of this type of heater is generally quite high. Suitable for use in buildings with high infiltration rates. thus making them appropriate for direct local heating of occupants. These units may not be appropriate in spaces which have a high fire risk. Suitable for use in poorly insulated buildings. Access for maintenance may be inconvenient due to mounting height and number of serviceable units. Access for maintenance may be inconvenient due to mounting height and number of serviceable units.1 Gas fired overhead radiant tube heaters These heaters are intended for mounting heights above three metres and are suspended from the roof structure or wall. Gas is burnt directly inside the tubes. This may result in overheating during part load conditions and hence increased energy consumption. Asymmetric conditions may be experienced by occupants dependent upon the direction of the radiation. 21 .2.2 RADIANT SYSTEMS 5. Modulation of heat output is limited to either on/off or 50%. Access for maintenance may be inconvenient and lengthy. May be used to provide local occupant heating without heating the whole space. Offers rapid recovery of comfort conditions after the opening of a door. High intensity radiant heat can cause discolouration of heating applications. ie one side of the body may feel warm whilst the other remains cool. Virtually no air movement is created within the space. materials. Vertical air temperature gradients within the space are minimised due to the lower air temperatures required for comfort.
The lower radiant intensity output makes the system less appropriate for local occupant heating. Hot water/steam is passed through the tubes resulting in the emission of medium/low intensity radiant heat. A statutory inspection of the installation is required for high/medium temperature hot water and steam systems. Particularly well suited for well insulated buildings.2 Overhead radiant tubes/panels served by hot water/steam These heaters may be suspended from the roof structure or be wall mounted. The overall efficiency of the system is dependant upon the heat generating plant from which the heaters are served. Disadvantages High level working may be hindered due to the close proximity to the high intensity radiant heat source. reducing the overall efficiency of the system. 22 . Can offer rapid recovery of comfort conditions following the opening of a door. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. The distribution system will incur heat losses. ie. Risk of mechanical damage limited due to mounting height. Quiet in operation. The system is not capable of providing ventilation air. Virtually no air movement is created within the space. Shading of radiation by objects is less significant as radiant heat is evenly distributed within space. No mixing of dust/smoke.2. Minimal service requirements within the space. Figure 23 Radiant tubes served by hot water/steam Figure 24 Advantages and disadvantages of hot water/steam radiant tubes Advantages An even distribution of heat output can be achieved providing good comfort levels throughout the space.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. Heat output can be modulated giving good control of space temperature. Relatively large preheat periods are required due to response time of distribution system. Vertical air temperature gradients within the space are minimised due to the low air temperatures required for comfort.
Only direct fired type available. An uneven distribution of heat can occur resulting in local hot and cold spots. well sealed buildings.3 Gas-fired radiant plaque heaters These units comprise an array of ceramic plaques which are mounted in polished reflectors. they are particularly suitable for high bay operation. Units are physically smaller than the tube type heaters of the same output and can therefore be positioned in smaller areas above crane gantries etc.2. one side of the body may feel warm whilst the other remains cool.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. no mixing of dust/smoke. therefore not suitable for Suitable for use in buildings with high infiltration rates. These units may not be appropriate in spaces which have a high fire risk. This may result in overheating during part load conditions and hence reduced efficiency. High intensity radiant heat can cause discolouration of materials. Vertical air temperature gradients within the space are minimised due to the low air temperatures required for comfort. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. The system is not capable of providing ventilation air. Mechanical protection is required to avoid damage to the plaque or reduce fire risk. The products of combustion are discharged directly into the space. Virtually no air movement is created within the space. Modulation of heat output is limited to either on/off or 50%. Asymmetric conditions may be experienced by occupants dependent upon the direction of the radiation. ie. Figure 25 Gas fired radiant plaque Figure 26 Advantages and disadvantages of gas fired radiant plaques Advantages Heat output is almost instantaneous therefore short preheat times are required for comfort heating applications. Risk of mechanical damage limited due to mounting height. Therefore. 23 . Can provide local occupant heating without heating the whole space. Access for maintenance may be inconvenient and lengthy due to mounting height and number of serviceable units. Disadvantages High level working may be hindered due to the close proximity to the high intensity radiant heat source. ie. Suitable for use in poorly insulated buildings. An air/gas mixture is supplied and burnt adjacent to the plaques heating them to around 1000-C. Offers rapid recovery after door openings. The irradiance levels emitted from these units are very intense. Objects could shade occupants from emitter leading to loss of comfort in local heating applications when the surrounding air temperatures are low. The radiant heat produced is directed downwards by the reflectors.
Disadvantages High level working may be hindered due to the close proximity to the high intensity radiant heat source.4 Electric plaque heaters These heaters comprise an array of quartz lamps which are surrounded by a reflector. Offers rapid recovery after door openings. Expensive to operate in comparison with gas fired unit. Virtually no air movement is created within the space. The heaters are normally compact and are wall mounted. no mixing of dust/smoke. Suitable for use in buildings with high infiltration rates. Can provide local occupant heating without heating the whole space. The lamps emit high intensity radiant heat. Figure 27 Electric plaque heater Figure 28 Advantages and disadvantages of gas fired radiant plaques Advantages Heat output is almost instantaneous therefore short preheat times are required for comfort heating applications.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. The system is not capable of providing ventilation air. Objects could shade occupants from emitter leading to loss of comfort in local heating applications when the surrounding air temperatures are low. ie. Mechanical protection is required to avoid damage to the plaque or reduce fire risk. and their output is instantaneous. Risk of mechanical damage limited due to mounting height.2. An uneven distribution of heat can occur resulting in local hot and cold spots. 24 . ie one side of the body may feel warm whilst the other remains cool. Units are physically smaller than the tube type heaters of the same output and can therefore be positioned in smaller areas above crane gantries etc. Vertical air temperature gradients within the space are minimised due to the low air temperatures required for comfort. Access for maintenance may be inconvenient and lengthy due to mounting height and number of serviceable units. These units may not be appropriate in spaces which have a high fire risk. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. High intensity radiant heat can cause discolouration of materials. Asymmetric conditions may be experienced by occupants dependent upon the direction of the radiation. Suitable for use in poorly insulated buildings.
DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. Suitable for use in poorly insulated buildings. Figure 29 Hot air radiant tubes Figure 30 Advantages and disadvantages of hot air radiant tubes Advantages An even distribution of heat output can be achieved providing good comfort levels throughout the space. access to the space served is rarely required. Vertical air temperature gradients within the space are minimised due to the lower air temperatures required for comfort. ie. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. The system is not capable of providing ventilation air Control of the system is usually in relatively large areas. The system comprises a duct network mounted at high level and a remote air handling unit which contains the fan and burner assembly. reducing ventilation heat load. The lower radiant intensity output makes the system less appropriate for local occupant heating. Risk of mechanical damage is limited due to mounting height. Heat output can be modulated giving good control of space temperature. but is contained within the ductwork. The heated air does not enter the space. The heated duct surfaces radiate heat into the space. Offers rapid recovery after door openings. no mixing of dust/smoke.2. therefore local heat gains cannot be so easily accommodated. Virtually no air movement is created within the space. Shading of radiation by objects is less significant as radiant heat is evenly distributed within space. The plant is usually housed outside the space it serves. Air is heated in the burner section and then re-circulated by a fan through the high level ductwork at a mean temperature of around 150°C.5 Hot-air radiant tubes Hot-air radiant tubes have been used for many years to heat large aircraft hangers. Access for maintenance is limited to the air handling plant only. 25 . Difficult to install if the ductwork passes through different fire compartments. Can be fitted with dual fuel burners offering fuel source flexibility. Disadvantages Relatively long preheat periods are required due to response time of distribution system. Fire risk is virtually eliminated as the combustion components may be located external to the space served. The supply of combustion air to the space is not required.
Logistics for the installation are complex due to the co-ordination implications etc.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. ie. reducing ventilation heat load. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. The floor is heated by an array of low pressure hot water pipework circuits. Not suited to areas where heating is required for short periods. Disadvantages Relatively large preheat periods are required due to response time of the system. (or electrical heaters) which are embedded in the floor structure. The supply of combustion air to the space is not required. The system cannot provide ventilation. Risk of damage if floor skin is penetrated. no mixing of dust/smoke.3. The output from the system can be modulated to suit the load by controlling the water temperature in accordance with ambient and or internal conditions. The heat output from the system can be modulated.3 COMBINATION SYSTEMS 5. Does not occupy floor space. Fire risk is virtually eliminated as the combustion components are located external to the served space. Deep floor construction is required. Access for maintenance is limited to the main distribution system. Virtually no air movement is created within the space.1 Underfloor heating This system uses a large part of the floor area as a heat emitter. 26 . An even split of convective and radiant heat is delivered to the space creating a comfortable environment. Figure 31 Underfloor heating Figure 32 Advantages and disadvantages of underfloor heating Advantages An even distribution of heat output can be achieved providing good comfort levels throughout the space. Local heat gains cannot easily be accommodated and over heating may occur due to slow response time of system.
unlimited zoning achievable therefore can accommodate local heat gains. 27 . Standard maintenance requirements. May provide useful radiant output to offset low temperature surfaces such as windows.2 Panel convectors These emitters are traditionally referred to as radiators. May readily accommodate future change of building use/layout. Distribution system losses. Summary of heating equipment characteristics 5. They are generally heated by hot water which is distributed via a pipe network system. opening of a door. Units occupy wall space. Single and double panel radiators are available in varying lengths and heights to suit the heat output required.3.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 5. No fire risk within the served space. although electric panel radiators are available. Slow response time imposes a recovery period before comfort conditions are regained after the understand. Good control. Figure 33 Panel convectors Figure 34 Advantages and disadvantages of panel convectors Advantages It is a system that most people are familiar with and Disadvantages Slow response times. although their output is mainly convective. therefore large pre-heat periods are required. Risk of mechanical damage due to location in industrial situations.
essential that the end user takes a full part in the selection of a heating system. therefore. 28 . and many of these factors need prioritisation by the ultimate user. Selecting the heat source and equipment 6 Selecting the heat source and equipment There are many factors that need to be considered in determining the optimum solution to heating any building. therefore. One of the primary aims of this guide is to provide sufficient information to the 'non heating engineer' such that they may evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of any proposed heating solution against their own priorities. It is.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 6. The following selection chart is intended to aid this process. Sound engineering decisions have to be based upon a thorough analysis of all relevant factors. but may serve as a useful aide mémoire. not possible to produce a process capable of analysing all the relevant factors culminating in the selection of a given system. It is. It is not intended as a selection tool for the professional heating engineer.
29 . Selecting the heat source and equipment Figure 35 Heating system selection chart This above chart should be used with CAUTION. * Process Ventilation ie. Other factors are discusses at the relevant sections in this Guide. It is intended as a simplified guide and is not intended always to produce a definitive result. Ventilation provided as local extraction ventilation. It is also probable a number of systems would provide the optimum solution.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 6.
Selecting the heat source and equipment 6. Indirect fired equipment results in the products of combustion being discharged to outside via a flue arrangement. direct-fired equipment discharges its combustion products into the space.3 DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT FUEL BURNING Two types of fuel burning equipment. including coal. and is only appropriate for relatively clean burning fuels such as natural gas.1 SELECTING THE HEAT ENERGY SOURCE Electricity is widely available. 6. direct fired and indirect fired are available. to reach the desired conditions from start up. A recent survey of MOD district heating systems revealed losses in the distribution mains of up to 50% of the heat generated throughout the year.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 6. is that the distribution systems are inefficient in delivering heat around the site. 6.2 CENTRALISED PLANT AND SITE DISTRIBUTION MAINS The majority of the facilities visited during a recent survey of MOD sites were served from a central boiler plant via a network of distribution mains. The general perception of such systems. particularly for poorly insulated buildings or those at the end of the distribution line. Inefficient balancing and high distribution losses were thought to be contributory factors. This results in poor response times for the heating systems. oil and gas. but usually costs more than fossil fuels. usually require more expensive equipment than electric heating equipment. indirect fuel burning 30 . Figure 36 Direct vs. Fossil fuels on the other hand. the advantages and disadvantages of which are listed in the table on the following page. Generally. which are now around 30 years old. or longer. for each unit of energy. In some cases it was reported that buildings could take a day.
thus increasing the heating load.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 6. The units can be repositioned relatively easily as there is no flue to accommodate The units are generally cheaper than an indirect fired equivalent The burner section is subjected to less corrosion The units are generally more expensive than a direct fired equivalent than direct fired burners Can be used in well sealed buildings 31 . the provision for fabric penetrations is reduced. The provision of ventilation air for combustion purposes may liminate the need for additional ventilation for other purposes. There is a fire risk due to the presence of naked flames Higher levels of corrosion in the burner section can be experienced in certain environments Moisture from the products of combustion may give rise to condensation problems within the space In some applications recirculation of the air within the space is not permitted. Therefore the space has to be heated with outdoor air only. Selecting the heat source and equipment Figure 37 Advantages and disadvantages of fuel burning methods Fuel Burning Method Direct fired Advantages Efficiencies in excess of 90% can be achieved Disadvantages A minimum quantity of ventilation air must be provided to dilute the products of combustion. Typically 75-90% The number of roof penetrations are increased to accommodate the number of flues The units cannot be so easily repositioned because of the flue implications As there are no flues from the burners. therefore ventilation requirements are reduced The concentration of combustion gases is lower than for a direct fired system The efficiency of the burners is less than direct fired. This could result in higher energy cost than an indirectly fired system The concentration levels of combustion gases within the space will be higher than those for an indirectly fired system Indirectly fired Minimal fire risk All combustion products are discharged to outside.
Convective systems. Spaces which are continuously occupied will generally require less plant capacity than those which are intermittently occupied. the systems must be selected accordingly. These are usually easy to calibrate. Local zone control may improve occupant satisfaction if they are allowed to regulate the temperature of their own environment. would be an energy efficient alternative.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 6.6 LOCALISED HEATING Localised heating has both advantages and disadvantages. are able to modulate their heat output over a wide range. The occupancy pattern of the space should be taken into account when determining the type. 6. Secondly. as conventional air temperature sensors or thermostats can be used. On the other hand.4 TEMPERATURE RECOVERY The recent survey of MOD buildings found that radiant heating systems generally recover the space comfort conditions more quickly than convective systems after a temporary opening of access doors. which utilise heat produced by a central boiler system. in particular. The control of convective systems is generally easier than for radiant systems. many existing systems are inappropriately controlled by air temperature thermostats. 32 . the MRT is virtually unaffected. or dehumidification.5 CONTROL STABILITY Radiant systems may be prone to over-heating during mild weather conditions. Selecting the heat source and equipment 6. if an even distribution of heat is required throughout the space. In such an application a convective heating system controlled by humidity. size and the mode of operation of a heating system. Radiant heaters. In large spaces with few occupants. The systems were controlled to a fixed air temperature even though they were generally unoccupied. 6. can cause discomfort to people in close proximity to them due to assymetric radiation. This is due to the additional output required from the system to achieve acceptable pre-heat periods in intermittently occupied spaces. rather than by sensing the dry-resultant temperature. The air temperature may be significantly different from the dry-resultant temperature. Local overheating may cause problems in the vicinity of the heaters. and the accuracy of control may be compromised. An example of an inappropriate type of heating and control was often observed in storage facilities where radiant heating was employed to control humidity. most radiant systems do not have the ability to modulate the heat output for part load conditions. Although the temporary ingress of outside air reduces the air temperature within the space. and are inexpensive to install. The main reason for this is that the MRT is more robust against infiltration. localised ëtaskí heating may be sufficient to provide comfort conditions at a particular work-station. while the remainder of the space is colder. Firstly. if the control system is not carefully specified.
Particularly draughty conditions are likely to occur beneath door air curtains and adjacent to convective heaters. 6. If the air movement is pronounced. An example of poor siting was in a joiner's workshop heated by high level heaters. and should be minimised in occupied buildings. it may be perceived as draughts. excessive air movement can entrain dust and fumes. If smoke or fumes are generated within the space they tend to rise to high level.2 Fire risk The risk of fire must be assessed.7. however. Selecting the heat source and equipment 6.7. gas fired radiant heating systems can have a very low environmental impact.8 AIR MOVEMENT Convective systems rely on air movement to heat the space. the air temperature can typically be kept 2-4°C lower. 6. refer to the fire standards listed in the DE Technical Publications Index and Crown Fire Standards. In rooms equipped with a radiant heating system. as heating systems are often the source of fires. Typical noise sources from heating systems include: • rapid air movement.1 Health Air quality can be affected by the choice of heating equipment. 6. 6.PIMP " " . may have a higher environmental impact due to the production of pollutants during the process of electricity production. Where these units were positioned above areas which produced sawdust they were unusable due to the associated fire risk. _ Heating of Large Spaces 6. De-stratification equipment and high velocity ducted systems can also increase air movement.9 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Well designed radiant heating systems are generally more efficient than convective heating systems. Consequently.7 HEALTH AND SAFETY 6. noise can be a source of annoyance for occupants.3 Noise Clearly. Apart from affecting comfort.7. Direct fired equipment discharges the products of combustion directly into the room. such as that from a high velocity ducted system • • fan noise from convective systems fuel burning noise. A high level re-circulation or de-stratification installation is likely to redirect any contaminants back down to the occupied zone. Electric radiant heating systems. raising the level of pollution in the space.. For further guidance on fire standards for particular applications. thus minimising the amount of heat required. thus reducing air quality. 33 .
11 SPACE USAGE The use of space must be considered. may take valuable space.10 OCCUPANT INTERACTION One particular variable. In this case the radiation cannot heat low level areas due to the shading effects of the racks high infiltration rates due to frequently opening doors impair the performance of convective systems in particular high temperature radiant systems have been known to cause discolouration to sensitive goods if ventilation is required. such as floor standing unit heaters or panel convectors. a ducted convective system may be simultaneously used to distribute the air within the space flues from indirect fired unitary systems such as gas fired radiant heaters result in numerous roof penetrations and potential water-proofing problems. 34 . and the activity within the space may preclude certain heating systems: low level heating systems.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 6. 6. Different heating systems require different amounts of space. which is difficult to quantify. High level systems are less likely to conflict with operator's space requirements. Good systems should be easy to operate and should be robust against damage. Occupant interactions which can preclude successful operation include tampering with heating controls and leaving doors open. Selecting the heat source and equipment 6. is the requirement for operator input and interaction with the users. but require more complex access systems for maintenance low level systems may be prone to damage stores with high level racking systems may preclude the use of radiant systems.
when steps are taken to reduce this. consideration should be given to the minimum ventilation which must be provided. Often.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 6.12 SUITABILITY TO BUILDING REFURBISHMENT WORK A recent DE study highlighted the following problems which can occur when an existing building is refurbished: • the majority of the buildings visited suffered from high heat loss. the heating systems are generally not modified to accommodate such changes. or similar sheeting and contained single glazed north lights. 35 . even though the temperature required in each area may differ. During mild weather conditions the buildings are prone to over heating as the heating systems. or inappropriate control. the improvements have brought rise to a further problem. This may result in inadequate. which often involved the installation of insulated roofs and well sealed doors. an adequate level of heating was achieved in all conditions. Often the doors in the spaces were of a large surface area and poorly sealed giving rise to a high infiltration of outdoor air. As a result. One of the workshop buildings visited had been sub-divided to create a large storage area. The heating system had not been modified to accommodate the division. after areas are sub-divided. However. the control for the heating system remains in only one of the served areas. This is particularly important in the case of buildings which are fitted with direct fired heating equipment.13 The study mentioned above found that the use of many buildings differs from their original intended purpose. Selecting the heat source and equipment 6. were not modified to suit the reduced heating load. These buildings were prone to under heating during periods of extreme weather • a number of similar buildings had been refurbished. This resulted in the store being maintained at the same temperature as the workshop area. windows are often opened to release the build-up of heat and some of the energy saving benefits are lost it is also important to note that in many buildings infiltration is the only form of ventilation. or their controls. Following refurbishment work. The roofs were generally constructed from asbestos. Therefore. This resulted in high roof heat losses. FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTIBILITY • 6. However.
the least capital cost option would generally be to utilise this heat source to serve the new heating installation. eg. influencing which system is the best value for money.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 6. gas fired unit heaters as opposed to the installation of a central boiler plant. An Investment/Financial Appraisal should be carried out when assessing the 'Magnitude of Cost' for a particular system (on a Net Present Value NPV basis). the following must be considered in determining whether this is a viable option: • • has the existing distribution system capacity to serve the new load? what is the anticipated life of the central plant? If it is less than that of the new installation then provision will have to be made for the replacement heat source in the future • how efficient is the distribution system at delivering heat around the site? The table below indicates the typical order of cost for the various heating systems. Selecting the heat source and equipment 6. which have been discussed in this paper. The 'life expectancy' of the system may well be the deciding factor. particularly if there is no gas/oil infrastructure around the site.14 CAPITAL COST The heat source selected as the basis of a new heating system will clearly influence the capital cost and running cost of the installation. When an existing hot water/steam distribution system is available. However. 36 . or its future is uncertain. when they are served from a central heat source: Figure 38 Cost comparison for various heating systems utilising a central heat source System Category Convective System Type Magnitude of Cost least expensive Floor standing unit heaters High level unit heaters Ducted warm air High temperature high velocity Radiant Combination High level tubes/panels (hot water/steam) Hot air tubes Panel convectors most expensive least expensive most expensive least expensive most expensive Under floor heating Where no existing heat source is readily available. it is likely that the most cost effective option would be to provide self contained heating equipment.
there is likely to be no economic differences between systems in applications which do not require comfort control but do require humidity control. 37 . The above points are intended to indicate the system most likely to prove to be the most economically viable. However. on a general basis. a convective system is likely to prove economical the life expectancy of plant should also be considered. which come complete with an independent heat source: Figure 39 Cost comparison for various heating systems utilising an independent heat source System Category Convective System Type Magnitude of Cost least expensive Floor standing unit heaters High level unit heaters Ducted warm air High temperature high velocity most expensive Radiant Gas plaque heaters least expensive most expensive Gas tubes Hot air tubes Combination Panel convectors least expensive most expensive Under floor heating 6. in terms of energy usage.DMG20 Heating of Large Spaces 6. or large quantities of ventilation air. which have been discussed in this paper. a high intensity radiant system is likely to prove economical for comfort heating applications in a well insulated building or in buildings where occupancy is constant.15 RUNNING COSTS Due to the number of variables which influence the energy consumption of a heating system it is virtually impossible to comment on the likely performance of each system. Selecting the heat source and equipment The table below indicates the typical order of cost for the various heating systems. the following points can be made: for comfort heating applications in poorly insulated buildings and anybuilding which is intermittently or sparsely occupied.
The heating systems installed at the facilities visited included both radiant and convective types. 38 . The purpose of these visits was to: gain an insight into the particular heating requirements for a range of large spaces within the facilities establish what heating systems were employed gain feedback on the performance of the heating systems.Site Surveys A1 INTRODUCTION As part of this study visits were made to existing MOD facilities. The particular systems for each site are summarised below: Eaglescliff Floor standing unit heaters High level unit heaters Ducted warm air system All the above were served from a hot water boiler installation Portsmouth High level radiant tubes and panels High level unit heaters Over door heaters All the above were served from a central steam installation Donnington High level radiant tubes and panels All the above were served from a hot water boiler installation Old Dolby High level unit heaters served from a hot water boiler installation Shawbury High level radiant tubes heated by air High level unit heaters served from a hot water boiler installation St Athan High level high velocity jet warm air heating system.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces References Annex A .
although the ingress of outside air will reduce the air temperature within the space.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces Annex A . The method and efficiency of the control system is most likely to be the main contributory factor in this case. particularly for poorly insulated buildings or those at the end of the distribution line. or when buildings are upgraded. The root of this problem was not investigated. inefficient balancing and high distribution losses were thought to be a contributory factors. This is not the most appropriate method of control for radiant systems as the air temperature measured by the thermostat may not reflect the mean MRT within the space. In some cases it was reported that buildings could take a day. The recommended dry resultant temperature for workshops is in the range of 13-16oC. or longer. Therefore. The main reason for this is that the most dominant temperature for comfort with a radiant system is the MRT. This results in poor response times for the heating systems.Site Surveys A2 HEATING SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE A2. to reach the desired conditions from start up. However. The most common perception noted was that radiant systems were able to recover temperature quickly after the opening of an access door. therefore comfort or efficiency may be comprised. is that such factors must be considered when new heating systems are added to an existing system.5m above the floor. The heating systems inspected were controlled by an air temperature thermostat. The general perception of such systems. The implication of this. A2.1 Centralised Plant and Site Distribution Mains The majority of the facilities visited were served from a central boiler plant via a network of distribution mains. dependant upon the activity level. It was noted that some of the buildings were prone to over heating during mild weather conditions. comfort conditions return quickly once the door is closed. which are now around 30 years old. The buildings which did not perform as well under such circumstances were often poorly insulated leaky buildings.2 Radiant Heating Systems The general perception of the radiant heating systems employed at the facilities was that they performed well. is that the distribution system is inefficient in delivering heat around the site. and were able to achieve the desired comfort conditions in all but the most extreme weather conditions. These ranged from 16-20oC at 1. The internal air temperatures were measured in each of the spaces. the MRT will be virtually unaffected. 39 .
therefore. high noise levels comfort conditions were lost as soon as access doors were opened. consideration should be given to its installation in tall spaces. The higher air temperatures recorded confirmed that higher air temperatures are required for comfort with convective systems due to the comparatively low resulting mean radiant temperature. These units were not used. In many of these buildings de-stratification equipment had been installed with only limited success.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces Annex A-Site Surveys A2.4 Air Temperature Destratification Equipment Air temperature stratification was observed in most of the buildings visited.5 Over Door Air Curtains Over door air curtains were found at a facility in Portsmouth. Therefore. Some of the reasons established for this were: • the design and specification of such equipment was poor • • increased air movements within the space was perceived as draughts by the occupants. However. the systems drew contaminated air from high level within the space and re-introduced them at occupancy level. The reasons given for this were: • • • • they were not effective at preventing the infiltration of cold air they consumed excessive amounts of energy occupants complained of draughts caused by the units the units were noisy.these were generally perceived as draughts. the system needs careful design. A2. 40 . it is worth noting that a successful destratification system can potentially improve comfort conditions within the space and return energy savings up to 10%. however. the systems were not used.3 Convective Heating Systems The general perceptions of the convective heating systems were: • long pre-heat periods were required • • • • • dust/smoke was circulated within the space localised hot areas are created in the vicinity of the heaters high air velocities were experienced adjacent to the heaters . A2. The internal air temperatures measured within the spaces ranged from 18-24oC.
DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces Annex A-Site It is worth noting that the building in which they were installed had two large access doors in opposing walls. it was noted that since the installation of the curtains. It was also reported that personnel were concerned over safety due to restricted visibility through the curtains when they became marked in use. 41 . the air stream created by the door curtains was inadequate at preventing the through flow of high velocity wind. However. the access doors were rarely closed by the occupants. Therefore.6 PLASTIC DOOR STRIPS The installation of plastic strips was noted at some of the facilities visited. Therefore. A2. These were generally considered to be effective in terms of reducing infiltration of outdoor air. these energy-saving devices may well cause an increase in energy consumption due to the doors being left open.
Good Practice Case Study 188. June 1989 42 . " Destratification of air in industrial buildings". ISBN 1 86081 011X "Sonnaire high radiant tube heating systems" The Sonning Heating Company Mayflower Close Chandlers Ford Industrial Estate EASTLEIGH Hampshire SO53 4AR Tel 01703 262826 3) "Energy efficiency in advance factory units" Occupiers Manual BRECSU Best Practice Programme. Energy Consumption Guide 18. 1995 BRESCU Garston WATFORD WD2 7JR 6) "Energy saving heating equipment' Ambi-Rad Ltd Fens Pool Avenue Wallows Industrial Estate BRIERLEY HILL West Midlands DY5 1QA Tel 01384 489700 7} "Introduction to energy efficiency in factories & warehouses" Department of the Environment. 1993 BRESCU Garston WATFORD WD2 7JR Tel 01923 664258 4) efficiency in advance factory units" BRECSU Best Practice Programme. Good Practice Guide 62. "Energy efficient factories: design & performance". Garston. 1993 BRESCU Garston Watford WD2 7JR 9) Hughes D.DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces References References 1) 2) Iles PJ. Department of The Environment. Department Of the Environment. BRE Information Paper IP 13/89. 1993 BRESCU Garston WATFORD WD2 7JR 5) "Energy efficiency in refurbishment of industrial buildings" BRECSU Best Practice Programme. Garston. BRE Information Paper IP 9/95. May 1995. Transport and the Regions Energy Efficiency Office Eland House Bressenden Place LONDON SW1E 5DU Tel 0171 890 3000 8) "Energy efficiency in industrial buildings and sites" BRECSU Best Practice Programme. Good Practice Case Study 141.
pp 39 Cuell M. Application Guide AG 3/96. 1995 BRESCU Garston WATFORD WD2 7JR 13) "Energy efficiency in refurbishment of industrial buildings" BRECSU Best Practice Programme. "Radiant heating". pp 36 "Draught free air distribution" Hoval Ltd. ISBN 0 900953 29 2 CIBSE Guide . Building Services Journal.Volume C. March 1996. "Reference data". 1998. "Space heating emissions". "Comfort heating in modern low energy factories". The Institute of Gas Engineers 17 Grosvenor Crescent LONDON SW1X 7ES 21) 22) 23) 24) Brown R. "Installation & equipment data". LONDON. Building Services Journal. Building Services Journal. 1993 BRESCU Garston WATFORD WD2 7JR 11) "Energy efficiency in advance factory units" Design Manual BRECSU Best Practice Programme. Building Services Journal.Volume B. Good Practice Guide 61. ISBN 0 900953 31 4 43 . September 1990. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. "Design data". pp 45 Ashley R.The Ambi-Rad way" Ambi-Rad Ltd Fens Pool Avenue Wallows Industrial Estate BRIERLEY HILL West Midlands DY5 1QA 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Brown R. LONDON. ISBN 0 900953 30 6 CIBSE Guide . March 1995. Good Practice Case Study 271. October 1993. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. ISBN 0 86022 426 0 CIBSE Guide . Preceding paper presented at the 56th autumn meeting & Gas 90 exhibition. 1995 BRESCU Garston WATFORD WD2 7JR 14) "Radiant heating systems" Ambi-Rad Ltd Fens Pool Avenue Wallows Industrial Estate BRIERLEY HILL West Midlands DY5 1QA 15) "Warming up Britannia .DMG 20 Heating of Large Spaces 10) "Energy efficiency in advance factory units" Design Manual BRECSU Best Practice Programme. Good Practice Case Study 152. "The space race". 1995 BRESCU Garston WATFORD WD2 7JR 12) "Energy efficiency in advance factory units" Design Manual BRECSU Best Practice Programme. Good Practice Case Study 139.Volume A. "Beware factory overheating". 1997. pp 18 Jones P J. LONDON. 1998. BSRIA. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. November 1993.
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