Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

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Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Dummit and Foote - Abstract Algebra Third Edition
- Homework #2, Sec 10.2
- Homework #1, Sec 10.1
- Homework #4, Sec 11.1 and 11.2
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 1 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Homework #5, Sec 11.3
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- "Fuckin' Concrete Contemporary Abstract Algebra Introduction..." by Nicolas Bourbaki Junior
- Problems and Solutions to Abstract Algebra (Beachy, Blair)
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #7, Sec 12.2
- Homework #8, Sec 12.3 and 13.1
- Homework #9, Sec 13.2 and Sec 13.3
- Dummit and Foote Soln
- Part Solution of Dummit and Foote
- Herstein Abstract Algebra Student's Solution Manual
- Abstract Algebra Dummit Foote 1.7.10, 2.1.6, 2.1.7, 2.2.7, 2.2.12
- Abstract Algebra Dummit Foote Chapter 13 Field Theory Solutions
- Dummit Solutions

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1. Prove that if A and B are sets of the same cardinality, then the free modules F (A) and

F (B) are isomorphic.

Proof. Let A and B both consist of n elements, i.e.

ϕ(ai ) = bi for i = 1, . . . , n.

b = r1 b1 + · · · + rn bn .

So for a = r1 a1 + · · · + rn an ∈ F (A)

= r1 b1 + · · · + rn bn

=b

where ri , ri0 ∈ R for i = 1, . . . , n suppose that

⇒ r1 ϕ(a1 ) + · · · + rn ϕ(an ) = r10 ϕ(a1 ) + · · · + rn0 ϕ(an ).

hence ϕ is injective. Thus ϕ is an isomorphism and F (A) is isomorphic to F (B).

3. Show that the F [x]-modules in Exercises 18 and 19 of Section 1 are both cyclic.

Proof. Exercise 18. Let V = R2 be the F [x]-module, where F = R, with the linear

transformation

0 −1

T = .

1 0

Section 10.3. Homework #3 Masaya Sato

Then let a = (1, 0)T ∈ V . So for every nonzero v = (r, s)T =∈ V , where r, s ∈ R,

v = (r, s)T = r(1, 0)T + s(0, 1)T = rI(a) + sT (a) = (rI + sT )(a)

Exercise 19. Next let V = R2 be the F [x]-module, where F = R, with the linear transfor-

mation

0 0

T =

0 1

and let a = (1, 1) ∈ V . Then for every nonzero v = (r, s)T ∈ V with r, s ∈ R,

v = (r, s)T = (r, r)T + (0, s − r)T = r(1, 1)T + (s − r)(0, 1)T

= rI(a) + (s − r)T (a)

= (rI + (s − r)T )(a).

4. An R-module M is called a torsion module if for each m ∈ M there is a nonzero element

r ∈ R such that rm = 0, where r may depend on m (i.e. M = Tor(M ) in the notation of

Exercise 8 of Section 1). Prove that every finite abelian group is a torsion Z-module. Give

an example of an infinite abelian group that is a torsion Z-module.

Proof. Let G be a finite abelian group. Define a ring action Z × G → G by

k

X

k.g = kg = g

i=1

1.g = 1g = g

and rs r X

s

X X

(rs).g = (rs)g = g= g = r(sg) = r.(s.g)

i=1 i=1 j=1

for all r, s ∈ Z. Therefore for each g ∈ G there exists n ∈ Z>0 such that

ng = ng = g + · · · + g = 0

since g has finite order. Hence n.g = ng = 0 and g is a torsion element. Thus G is a torsion

Z-module.

And an example of infinite abelian group that is a torsion Z-module is Q/Z since every

element a ∈ Q/Z has finite order.

5. Let R be an integral domain. Prove that every finitely generated torsion R-module has

a nonzero annihilator i.e. there is a nonzero element r ∈ R such that rm = 0 for all m ∈ M

– here r does not depend on m (the annihilator of a module was defined in Exercise 9 of

Section 1). Give an example of a torsion R-module whose annihilator is the zero ideal.

Section 10.3. Homework #3 Masaya Sato

there exists nonzero si ∈ R such that

si mi = 0.

m = r1 m1 + · · · + rn mn

= ((s1 · · · sn )r1 )m1 + · · · + ((s1 · · · sn )rn )mn

= (s2 · · · sn r1 )(s1 m1 ) + · · · + (s1 · · · sn−1 rn )(sn mn )

= (s2 · · · sn r1 )0 + · · · + (s1 · · · sn−1 rn )0

=0

For an example of a torsion R-module, where annihilator is the zero ideal, consider a subset

M of the set C(R, R) of all continuous map with compact support. Then M is a module

over itself, where the ring action is given by the pointwise multiplication

f g(x) = f (x)g(x)

for every x ∈ R. Then for every continuous map f ∈ M there exists a nonzero continuous

map g ∈ M so that gf = 0, where g has a distinct compact support from f . However there

is no nonzero g ∈ M such that gf = 0 identically for every f ∈ M .

6. Prove that if M is a finitely generated R-module that is generated by n elements then

every quotient of M may be generated by n (or fewer elements). Deduce that quotients of

cyclic modules are cyclic.

Proof. Let an R-module M be generated by a spanning set A = {a1 , · · · , an }. Then note

that every submodule N is generated by a subset {ai1 , . . . , aik } of A, where {i1 , . . . , ik } ⊂

{1, . . . , n}. So M/N has a spanning set that consists of elements

a1 + N, . . . , an + N ∈ M/N .

However {ai1 , . . . , aik } generates N and thus aij + N = N for j = 1, . . . k. Therefore every

m + N ∈ M/N is of the form

m + N = (r1 a1 + N ) + · · · + (rn an + N ) = r1 a1 + · · · + rn an + N

Section 10.3. Homework #3 Masaya Sato

Now suppose that an R-module M is cyclic i.e. there exists an element a ∈ M such that

every m ∈ M is of the form

m = ra

for some r ∈ R. In other words, M is generated by a single element a. This deduces that

every nontrivial quotient module M/N is generated by one element. Therefore M/N is

cyclic.

7. Let N be a submodule of M . Prove that if both M/N and N are finitely generated then

so is M .

Proof. For an R-module M and its submodule N of M , suppose that M/N and N are finitely

generated. Then there exist spanning sets {a1 + N, . . . , am + N } and {b1 , . . . , bn } for M/N

and N , respectively. So for every m ∈ M m + N can be expressed as an R-linear combination

of the spanning set, i.e.

m + N = (r1 a1 + N ) + · · · + (r1 am + N ) = r1 a1 + · · · + rm am + N ,

where r1 , . . . , rm ∈ R and

m − (r1 a1 + · · · + rm am ) ∈ N .

Therefore there are r10 , . . . , rn0 ∈ R such that

m − (r1 a1 + · · · + rm am ) = r10 b1 + · · · + rn0 bn

and hence

m = r1 a1 + · · · + rm am + r10 b1 + · · · + rn0 bn .

Thus M is finitely generated since every m ∈ M can be expressed as an R-linear combination

of the spanning set

{a1 , . . . , am } ∪ {b1 , . . . , bn }.

finitely many of the ai are 0 (called the direct sum of infinitely many copies of Z). Recall

that S is a ring under componentwise addition and multiplication and S does not have a

multiplicative identity. Prove that S is not finitely generated as a module over itself.

Proof. Suppose by contradiction that S is finitely generated by n elements of S, i.e.

S = {r1 s1 + · · · + rn sn |ri ∈ Z ∀i = 1, . . . , n}.

Consider the map S 3 si 7→ ki ∈ Z that assigns to the number of nonzero entry of the

sequence si for i = 1, . . . , n. So the number of a nonzero entry s ∈ S is at most

k1 + · · · + kn ,

which is still finite. However this contradicts that S is finitely generated since (2, 2, 2, . . . )

can not be expresses as any linear combination of the generating set {s1 , . . . , sn }. Therefore

S is not finitely generated.

Section 10.3. Homework #3 Masaya Sato

of M . Show that M is irreducible if and only if M 6= 0 and M is cyclic module with any

nonzero element as generator. Determine all the irreducible Z-modules.

Proof. (⇒) Suppose first that an R-module M is irreducible. Since M 6= 0, there is a nonzero

element a ∈ M . Consider a submodule N of M generated by the single element a, i.e.

N = {ra|r ∈ R}.

However N = M since M is irreducible. Thus M is cyclic because of the single generator a.

(⇐) Suppose conversely that M is cyclic. So M has a generator a ∈ M and

M = {ra|r ∈ R}.

Note that 0 and M are both submodules of M . So suppose by contradiction that there is a

proper submodule N of M . Since N is a submodule of M , N is also generated by an element

b ∈ N ≤ M and b = sa for some s ∈ R. However b = sa ∈ M and rb ∈ M implies that

rb = r(sa) ∈ N ,

where r ∈ R. Therefore N = M and this contradicts that N is a proper submodule of M .

Hence M is irreducible.

10. Assume R is commutative. Show that an R-module M is irreducible if and only if M

is isomorphic (as a R-module) to R/I where I is a maximal ideal of R. [By the previous

exercise, if M is irreducible there is a natural map R → M defined by r 7→ rm, where m is

any fixed nonzero element of M .]

Proof. (⇒) Suppose first that M is irreducible. So there exists a generator m ∈ M so that

M = {rm|r ∈ R}.

Define a map ϕ : R → M by

ϕ(r) = rm.

Then ϕ is an R-module homomorphism since for all r, s, t ∈ R, where R is a module over

itself,

ϕ(r + ts) = (r + ts)m = rm + (ts)m = rm + t(sm) = ϕ(r) + tϕ(s).

So the submodule ϕ(R) is 0 or M because M is irreducible. But ϕ(R) 6= 0 because

ϕ(1) = 1m = m 6= 0.

Thus ϕ(R) = M and ϕ(R) is surjective. Now let I = ker ϕ. Then I is a maximal ideal or M

and therefore

R/ ker ϕ ∼= M ⇒ R/I ∼ = M.

(⇐) Conversely suppose that M is isomorphic to R/I, where I is a maximal ideal of R, via

an R-module isomorphism ψ : R/I → M . Recall that R/I is an irreducible quotient module.

Therefore M = ψ(R/I) is also irreducible.

Section 10.3. Homework #3 Masaya Sato

11. Show that M1 and M2 are irreducible R-modules, then any nonzero R-module homomor-

phism from M1 to M2 is an isomorphism. Deduce that if M is irreducible then EndR (M )is

a division ring (this result is called Schur’s Lemma). [Consider the kernel and the image.]

Proof. Let ϕ : M1 → M2 be a nonzero R-module isomorphism. Since ϕ is nonzero, im ϕ

is a nonzero submodule of M2 . But im ϕ = M2 because M2 is irreducible and thus does

not contain any proper submodules. So ϕ is surjective. Moreover ker ϕ is a submodule

of M1 . This implies that ker ϕ = M1 or ker ϕ = {0} since M1 is irreducible. So suppose

that ker ϕ = M1 . Then ϕ(M1 ) = {0}, and this is contradiction because ϕ is a nonzero

homomorphism by assumption. Therefore ker ϕ = {0} and hence ϕ is injective.

Then for every R-module homomorphism ψ : M → M , where M is an irreducible R-

module, ψ is an isomorphism by the argument above. I.e. every ψ has the inverse R-module

homomorphism ψ −1 such that

where idM is the identity R-module homomorphism. Therefore EndR (M ) is a division ring

with the identity homomorphism idM that is distinct from the zero homomorphism.

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