Modern Language Association MLA Citation & Reference Guide

Published by the

Office of Student Services

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………… Section One: Citations in Text 1. Single Author Named in Text………………………………………………………………… 2. Single Author Not Named in Text ……………………………………………………………. 3. Book by Two Authors………………………………………………………………………… 4. Work with More than Three Authors ...….…………………………………………………… 5. Citing an Entire Text …………………………………...……………………………………. 6. Citing Part of an Article or Book ...…………………………………………………………. 7. Citing Volumes in a Multi-Volume Work………………………………………………… … 8. Citing a Work by a Corporate Author ………………………………………………………… 9. Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author or Authors ………………………………… 10. Citing Indirect Sources………………………………………………………………………… 11. Citing More than One Work in a Single Parenthetical Reference …………………………….. 12. Citing an Electronic Publication with a known author ………………………………………… 13. Citing an Electronic Source without a known author or sponsor Section Two: The Reference List Guidelines for the Reference List ………………………………………………………………….. A) Books in the Reference List………………………………………………………………….. B) Periodicals in the Reference List ……………………………………………………………... C) Internet Resources in the Reference List ……………………………………………………… D) Miscellaneous Sources in the Reference List ...………………………………………………. Sample “Works Cited” Page ………………………………………………………………………. 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4

5 6-7 7-8 9-10 11-12 13

Section Three: Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes and Endnotes Guidelines….……………… …………………………………………….. 14-15 Sample Footnotes page ……………………………………………………………………………. 16 Works Cited ………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Index ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18-19

2

Student Services Guide to MLA Citation Style
Citation is the acknowledgement of a source from which you borrowed words, facts or ideas for your own paper or report. Failure to cite results in plagiarism, i.e., taking someone else's knowledge and claiming it as your own. Plagiarism is a very serious offense. To avoid plagiarism, be sure to credit every source by using the appropriate citation format. The generally accepted style guide is the Modern Language Association of America
Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA). This MLA style of documentation consists of: 1)

citing from references (in text), and 2) the reference list or "works cited," (including books, periodicals, on-line and miscellaneous). A citation in text means that within the paper you are writing, there is a brief identification that includes the author's name and the page number from which the material was borrowed. The citation in text refers the reader to the full source of information called the reference list. The reference list, located at the end of the research paper, is an alphabetical listing of all the works cited during the paper. This list has all the details that are lacking from the citation in text. The three most common ways of expressing an author’s ideas are through paraphrasing, quoting, and summarizing. Paraphrasing is when you rewrite an author’s particular idea in your own words. Quoting is when you take the words of the author directly without any change. Summarizing is when you write a condensed version of several ideas presented by the source and put it into your own words.
These are the methods the student uses to identify which passage they used for their ideas. These citations may appear throughout the research paper. Parenthetical references (…) ALWAYS appear at the end of the sentence before the period. The author's name must always appear, if not in the sentence, then in the parenthetical reference at the end.

3

SECTION I: CITATIONS IN TEXT
1) A SINGLE AUTHOR NAMED IN TEXT
a) When the author is named in the text as part of the sentence, you only need to note the page numbers in parentheses at the end of the sentence. e.g. Brown has argued this point (178-85). b) Direct quotations require quotation marks and the page numbers in parentheses after the quotes, but still within the sentence, i.e., before the period. e.g. David later contends that, "boards of directors are composed mainly of outsiders who are becoming more involved in organizations' strategic management" (199). c) If a quote exceeds four lines, it needs to be set off from the text without quotation marks. Usually the sentence leading up to the quote ends with a colon(:). The quote remains double- spaced, but must be indented one inch (usually 10 spaces or 2 tabs). Type a space after the concluding punctuation mark of the quotation and insert the parenthetical reference. David suggests that we must be culturally aware to understand business today: U.S. managers are much more action-oriented than their counterparts around the world; they rush to appointments, conferences and meetings, and then feel the day has been productive. But for foreign managers, resting, listening, meditating, and thinking is considered productive. Sitting through a conference without talking is unproductive in the United States, but it is viewed as positive in Japan if one's silence helps preserve unity. (306)

2. A SINGLE AUTHOR NOT NAMED IN TEXT
a) Since the author has not yet been mentioned, the name and the page number are in parentheses (without the comma). One researcher found that men and women differed in their perceptions of moral dilemmas (Gilligan 105). b) If it is an exact quote, quotation marks must be used along with the name and page number(s). e.g. Women often view “moral dilemmas in terms of conflicting responsibilities” (Gilligan 105).

3. A BOOK BY TWO AUTHORS
a) If the sentence mentions the authors’ names, the page numbers appear in parentheses immediately after the sentence. e.g. McConnell and Brue hold the opposite point of view (210-15). b) When the authors are not mentioned, the authors appear at the end of the sentence followed by the page numbers. e.g. There are others who hold an opposite point of view (McConnell and Brue 210-15).

4

4. WORK WITH MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS
When more than three authors are referred to, use the first author’s name, followed by et al. The names may either appear in the text or at the end of the sentence as above. e.g. It has been asserted that, “Media managers…must become familiar with groups and how they influence the organization’s morale, well-being and development” (Sohn et al. 65).

5. CITING AN ENTIRE TEXT It is preferable to always mention the author’s name in the sentence when citing an entire text. Remember that books, magazines, and movie titles need to be underlined and article titles need “quotes.”
e.g. McRae’s The Literature of Science includes many examples of this trend. e.g. Amy Wu explores the surprising vehicle of change in China, the bagel, in her article entitled, “In the Industrial Back Alleys of Beijing, a Little Bit of Gotham.” 6. CITING PART OF AN ARTICLE OR OF A BOOK a) If you use a specific passage in a book or article, regardless or whether it is quoted or paraphrased, give the relevant page number or numbers. e.g. Brian Taves suggests some interesting conclusions about the politics of adventure films (153-54, 171). b) If there are no page numbers, but there are paragraph numbers, include a comma after the name and then the abbreviation, par. (for a single paragraph) or pars. (for two or more paragraphs). e.g. Hypertext, as one theorist puts it, is “all about connection, linkage and affiliation” (Moulthrop, par. 19). 7. CITING VOLUMES IN A MULTI-VOLUME WORK a)To identify a volume number, place the number and a colon before the page number in the parentheses at the end of the sentence. If you integrate such a reference into the sentence, spell out volume: “In volume 4, Schlesinger…” otherwise, it is as follows: e.g. The anthology by Lauter et. al contains important works by Stowe (1: 2425-33) and Gilman (2: 800-12). b) If you are referring to one ENTIRE volume, use the author’s name and the abbreviation vol. e.g. Between the years 1945 and 1972, the political-party system in the United States underwent profound changes (Schlesinger, vol.4). 8. CITING A WORK BY A CORPORATE AUTHOR Instead of an author, the entire organization or company is mentioned. It may appear either: a) in parentheses at the end of the sentence e.g. "Strategy" can be defined as an adaptation or complex of adaptations that serves an important function in achieving evolutionary success (Merriam-Webster 1165). b) or within the sentence itself (It is often better to use this method if the organization’s name is long) e.g. In 1963, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa predicted that Africa would evolve into an advanced industrial economy within fifty years (I -4).

5

9. CITING TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR OR AUTHORS a) When using parentheses, put a comma after the author’s last name and add the title of the work (if brief) or a shortened version of the title and page number. Shakespeare’s King Lear has been called a “comedy of the grotesque” (Frye, Anatomy 237). b) If you include the author’s name in the text, give just the title and page reference in parentheses. For Northrop Frye, one’s death is not a unique experience, for “every moment we have lived through we have also died out of into another order” (Double Vision 85). c) If you include the author’s name and title in the text, give just the page number in parentheses. In The Age of Voltaire, the Durants portray eighteenth century England as a minor force in art and music (214-48). 10. CITING INDIRECT SOURCES It is always best to try and use the original source; however, if you need to cite from a secondhand one, e.g. someone’s published account of another person’s speech, then use qtd. in before the indirect source. Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450). 11. CITING MORE THAN ONE WORK IN A SINGLE PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE If you find that two or more works are both making the same point, then you need to include the names separated by a semicolon and the respective page numbers. University students can benefit from increased peer affiliation (Karu 42; McNab 101-33).

12. CITING AN ELECTRONIC PUBLICATION WITH A KNOWN AUTHOR
Since electronic documents usually have no page numbers, you should incorporate the author’s name and title of article into the text itself instead of using the format of the author and page number in parentheses. William J. Mitchell’s City of Bits discusses architecture and urban life in the context of the digital telecommunications revolution. 13. CITING AN ELECTRONIC SOURCE WITHOUT A KNOWN AUTHOR OR SPONSOR Use direct references to the name of the web site within the body of the text. More companies today are using data mining to unlock hidden value in their data. The data mining program “Clementine,” described at the SPSS Web site, helps organizations predict market share and detect possible fraud.

6

SECTION II: THE REFERENCE LIST
The list at the end of the paper can be referred to by a number of names, including Reference List, Works Cited, References, or Bibliography. The following should be considered when formatting your Reference Page: • The title “Reference List” or “Works Cited” etc. should be centered on the first line. • The entire page is double-spaced. • If an entry takes more than one line, the second line should be indented a 1/2 inch (usually 5 spaces or one tab). • Alphabetize the entire list by the author's last name. If there is more than one author with the same last name, alphabetize by the first name. If the author is not available or does not appear first according to the MLA style below, use the first letter in the reference (usually publisher or company). • All titles must be capitalized according to the standard, i.e., the first word in the title and all significant words should be capitalized (not a, an, the, for, etc.). Books, plays, newspapers, magazines, journals, films, radio and television programs, compact discs and CD-ROM information databases must be underlined. Articles, essays, short stories, chapters, individual television episodes, songs, lectures and speeches should be in "quotes". • Include the city where the book was published (if there is more than one, just write the first city) followed by a colon and the publisher's name. DO NOT include "Co." or "Inc." Separate the company from the year of publication by a comma. The publisher's name needs to be abbreviated (shortened) as per the following guidelines. Omit articles (a, the) and descriptive words (Books, House, Press, Publishers, etc.). University Press should be abbreviated UP. Omit surnames (first names), i.e., John Wiley would simply be Wiley. If the publisher's name is common knowledge, an acronym may be used (e.g. MLA).

7 A) BOOKS IN THE REFERENCE LIST
1. A BOOK BY ONE AUTHOR

Author’s name. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
e.g. Cooley, Michael. The Inventive Writer. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath , 1993. 2. TWO OR MORE BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR Give the name in the first entry. Thereafter, in place of the name, type three hyphens, followed by a period and the title. Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton UP, 1957. ---, The Double Vision: Language and Meaning in Religion. Toronto: U. of Toronto P, 1991. 3. A BOOK BY TWO OR MORE AUTHORS Give their names in the same order as on the title page and not necessarily in alphabetical order. Reverse only the name of the first author, add a comma, and give the other name or names in normal form. Jakobson, Roman, and Linda R. Waugh. The Sound Shape of Language. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1979. Marquart, James W., Sheldon Ekland Olson, and Jonathan R. Sorensen. The Rope, the Chair, and the Needle: Capital Punishment in Texas, 1923-1990. Austin: U. of Texas P, 1994.

4. AN ANTHOLOGY OR COMPILATION Use the word ed. or comp. after the name. Lopate, Phillip, ed. The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1994. 5. A WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY When citing an essay, story, poem or another work within an anthology, put the title of the piece in quotation marks, any translator’s name, and the title of then the title of the anthology. Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth.” Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83-88. 6. A BOOK BY A CORPORATE AUTHOR A corporate author is a commission, an association, a committee, or any group that does not have particular individuals identified as the author. American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. New York: Random, 1989.

8
7. AN ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK
a)If the article is signed, give the author first; b) if it is unsigned, give the title first. a) Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987. b) “Mandarin.” The Encyclopedia Americana. 1993 ed. 8. AN ANONYMOUS BOOK If a book has no author’s or editor’s name on the title page, begin the entry with the title. Do not use either Anonymous or Anon. Alphabetize the entry by the title, ignoring any initial A, An, or The. Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993. A Guide to Our Federal Lands. Washington: Natl. Geographic Soc., 1984. 9. A BOOK WITH AN EDITOR Begin with the author and use Ed. (“Edited by”) before the editor’s name. Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War. 1895. Ed. Fredson Bowers. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1975. 10. A TRANSLATION Use Trans. (“Translated by”) before the translator’s name and after the title. If the book has an editor and translator, give the appropriate abbreviations in the order that they appear on the title page. Dostoevsky, Feodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Jessie Coulson. Ed. George Gibian. New York: Norton, 1964. 11. A MULTIVOLUME WORK When using two or more volumes of a multivolume works, cite the total number of volumes in the work (“5 vols.”). This information follows the title. Blanco, Richard L., ed. The American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Hamden: Garland, 1993.

B) PERIODICALS
1. AN ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL Most journals use continuous pagination, meaning all issues in a single year continue the same page numbers from the issue before. For example, if the first issue ends with page 125, then the next issue would begin with 126. In these cases, the volume number appears after the title journal without punctuation. The page numbers follow at the end of the entry. Craner, Paul M. "New Tool for Ancient Art: the Computer and Music." Computers and the Humanities 25 (1991): 303-13.

9
2. AN ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL THAT PAGES EACH ISSUE SEPARATELY Sometimes, journals start every issue with Page One rather than as a continuation of a series that spans the whole year. In such a case, use the following format. After the title, write the number of the VOLUME, then a period, and then the issue number. Barthelme, Frederick. "Architecture." Kansas Quarterly. 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80. 3. AN ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER a) Give the name as it appears on the masthead, but do not include "The" in the title if it appears at the beginning of the newspaper name, e.g. use New York Times , not The New York Times. Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. "What's in a Movie Soundtrack? Catchy Tunes and Big Business." Wall Street Journal 1 Apr. 1994, eastern ed.: B1. b) Newspaper articles are often not printed on consecutive pages (e.g., an article might start on page1 but then continue on page 16). For such articles, write only the first page number with the section and a plus sign (without a space between the number and the plus sign). Feder, Barnaby J. “For Job Seekers, a Toll-Free Gift of Expert Advice.” New York Times 30 Dec. 1993, late ed.: D1+. c) If the city of publication is not included in the name of locally published newspaper, add the city in square brackets, not underlined, after the name, e.g. "Star-Ledger [Newark]." Taylor, Paul. "Keyboard Grief: Coping with Computer-Caused Injuries." Globe and Mail [Toronto] 27 Dec. 1993: A1+ 4. AN ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE For a magazine published every week or every two weeks, give the complete date (use the day and abbreviate the month, colon, and inclusive page numbers--if the pages are not consecutive, use the plus sign). Do not use the volume and issue numbers even if they are listed. Armstrong, Larry, Dori Jones Yang, and Alice Cuneo. "The Learning Revolution: Technology is Reshaping Education--at Home and at School." Business Week 28 Feb. 1994: 80-88. Frank, Michael. "The Wild, Wild West." Architectural Digest June 1993: 180+. 5. AN ANONYMOUS ARTICLE If no author's name is given for the article, begin the entry with the title ignoring any initial A, An, or The when you alphabetize the entry. "The Decade of the Spy." Newsweek 7 Mar. 1994: 26-27.

10 C) INTERNET RESOURCES
1. A WEB SITE, PROFESSIONAL SITE Format: Author(s). Name of Page. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site. Date of Access <electronic address>. Gesterland, Richard. WorldBiz.com Page. Retrieved 1 May 2000 < http://www.worldbiz.com/>. 2. AN ARTICLE ON A WEB SITE (SECONDARY PAGE) Format: Author(s). "Article Title." Name of web site. Date of posting/revision. Name of institution/organization affiliated with site. Date of access <electronic address Poland, Dave. "The Hot Button." Roughcut. 26 Oct. 1998. Turner Network Television 28 Oct. 1998 < http://www.roughcut.com>. 3. BOOK, ONLINE Format: Author. “Chapter.” Book Title. Publication information for printed source (if available). Date of electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting, if given. Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site. Access date <URL>. Strunk, William, Jr. “Elementary Rules of Usage.” The Elements of Style. Project Bartleby Archive, Columbia University. Retrieved 20 Aug. 1999 http://www.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/strunk.html#11. 4. ONLINE MAGAZINE ARTICLE Format: Author's name (if given). "Title of Article." Name of Magazine Date of Publication. Date of Access <URL network address>. Bremner, Brian. "Japan Takes the First Step to Recovery. " Business Week 10 Oct. 2000. 6 Nov. 2000 <http:// www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflsh/oct2000/nf20001010_917.htm>.

5. ONLINE NEWSPAPER ARTICLE Format: Author's name (if given). "Title of Article." Name of newspaper Date of publication. Date of access <URL network address>. Rosenbaum, David. "As Final Senate Vote Looms, G.O.P. Unites Behind Tax Cut." New York Times 22 May 2001. 01 June 2001 http://nytimes.com/2001/05/22/politics/22TAX.html.

6. ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE, ONLINE Format: Author (if given). “Title of Material Accessed.” Date of material (if given). Title of Encyclopedia. Publication information for any print version of the source if available. Date of electronic Publication, of the latest update, or of posting (if known). [search term if necessary for Retrieval]. Access date <URL>. “Stock Market Crash of 1929.” Britannica Online. Vers. 98.2. April, 1998. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 August 1999 <http://www.eb.com: 180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/567/22.html.

11
7. PERSONAL E-MAIL Format: Sender's Name. "Title." (from Subject line) E-mail to author. Date Doe, Jane. "Re: Gaskell’s Mary Barton." E-mail to Terry Craig. 13 Sept. 1998. 8. ELECTRONIC JOURNALS a) Format: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): Page/Paragraphs. Date of Access <electronic address>. Koehn, Daryl. “The Ethics of Handwriting Analysis in Pre-Employment Screening.” The Online Journal of Ethics 1.1. (1995). Retrieved 2 June 1996 http://condor/depaul.edu/ethics/hand.html. b) If there is no page number, use n. pag. ("no pagination") then publication medium (Online); name of the computer network; and date of access. Lindsay, Robert K. "Electronic Journals of Proposed Research." EJournal 1.1 (1991): n. pag. Online. Internet. 10 Apr. 1991.

9. ELECTRONIC DATABASE ON CD-ROM Format: Author. "Title of Article." Relevant information for the database. Date of access <electronic address for retrieval>. i. Article in a reference database on CD-ROM

"World War II." Encarta. CD-ROM. Seattle: Microsoft, 1999. ii. Article from a periodically published database on CD-ROM

Reed, William. "White and the Entertainment Industry." Tennessee Tribune 25 Dec. 1996: 28. Ethnic NewsWatch. CD-ROM. Data Technologies. Feb. 1997. 10. ON-LINE POSTING Format: Author (if given). “Title of document” (as given in subject line). Online posting. Date. Name of forum (if known). Access date <URL>. Manning, Kelly Bert. “E-Business and Privacy Leadership.” Online posting. 7 Apr. 2000. Society Privacy Forum. Retrieved 26 Apr. 2000 <alt.comp.society.privacy>.

12 D) MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES
1. A TELEVISION OR RADIO PROGRAM Include the title of the episode (in quotation marks), the title of the program (underlined), the title of the series, the name of the network, call letters and city of the local station, and broadcast date. "Frankenstein: The Making of the Monster." Great Books. Narr. Donald Sutherland. Writ. Eugenie Vink. Dir. Jonathan Ward. Learning channel. Manhattan. 8 Sept. 1993. 2. A SOUND RECORDING a) Whether the composer, conductor, or performer is listed first depends on what you want to emphasize. List the title of the recording, the artist(s), the manufacturer, and the year of issue (if the year is unknown, use n.d.). You usually underline the titles of recordings but do not underline or use quotation marks for the musical compositions. Bartoli, Cecilia. If You Love Me: Eighteenth-Century Italian Songs. London, 1992. b) If you are not using a compact disc, indicate the medium, e.g. Audiocassette or LP. Ellington, Duke, cond. Duke Ellington Orchestra. First Carnegie Hall Concert. Rec. 23 Jan. 1943. LP. Prestige, 1977. 3. AN INTERVIEW a) Begin with the name of the person being interviewed. If the interview is part of a publication, recording, or program, use quotation marks around the title of the interview. If the interview has no title, use the label Interview. Blackmun, Harry. Interview with Ted Koppel and Nina Totenberg. Nightline. ABC. WABC, New York. 5 Apr. 1994. b) For an interview you conducted, give the name of the person interviewed and the kind of interview (e.g. personal, telephone, etc.), and the date. Pei, I. M. Personal interview. 22 July 1993. 4. A LECTURE, A SPEECH, OR AN ADDRESS For an oral presentation, give the speaker's name, the title of the presentation (in quotation marks), the meeting and sponsoring organization if there is one, the location, and the date. If there is no title, use a suitable descriptive label (e.g. Address, Lecture, Keynote speech, Reading) Atwood, Margaret. "Silencing the Scream." Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Convention. Royal York Hotel, Toronto. 29 Dec. 1993. 5. A LEGAL SOURCE a) For an act, state the name of the act, its Public Law number, the date of enactment, and its Statutes at large cataloguing number. Pesticide Monitoring Improvements Act of 1988. Pub. L. 100-148. 23 Aug. 1988. Stat. 102.1412. b) For a legal case, include the names of the first plaintiff and the first defendant, the volume, name (not underlined) and page of the law report cited. Stevens v. National Broadcasting Co. 148 USPQ 755. CA. Super. Ct. 1966.

13
6. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATION In general, if you do not know the writer of the document, the government agency that issued is used as the author. New York State. Commission on the Adirondacks in the Twenty-First Century. The Adirondack Park in the Twenty-First Century. Albany: State of New York, 1990. 7. PAMPHLET Treat a pamphlet as you would a book. Sugar, Bert Randolph, ed. Mecca 1911 Double-Folder Baseball Cards. Mineola: Dover, 1991.

14
WORKS CITED
Angier, Natalie. “Chemists Learn Why Vegetables are Good for You.” New York Times 13 Apr. 1993, late ed.: C1. New York Times Ondisc. CD-ROM. Oct. 1993. Armstrong, Larry, Dori Jones Yang, and Alice Cuneo. “The Learning Revolution: Technology Is Reshaping Education—at Home and at School.” Business Week 28 Feb. 1994: 80-88. Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War. 1895. Ed. Fredson Bowers. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1975. David, Fred R. Strategic Management. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997. Etzinoi, Amitai. The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society. New York: Basic Books, 1996. ---, Rights and the Common Good: The Communitarian Perspective. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995. Fitzgerald, John. “The Misconceived Revolution: State and Society in China’s Nationalist Revolution, 1923-26. Journal of Asian Studies 49 (1990): 323-43. Gesterland, Richard. WorldBiz.com Page. Retrieved 1 May 2000 < http://www.worldbiz.com/>. Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the NineteenthCentury Literary Imagination. New Haven: Yale UP, 1979. A Guide to Our Federal Lands. Washington: Natl. Geographic Soc., 1984. Lauter, Paul, et al., eds. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Lexington: Heath, 1994. Manning, Anita. “Curriculum Battles from Left and Right.” USA Today 2 Mar. 1994: 5D. Melville, Herman. “Bartleby the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street.” Managerial Insights from Literature. Ed. Lyman W. Porter. Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing, 1991. 107-36 Porter, Lyman W. ed. Managerial Insights from Literature. Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing, 1991. Public Agenda Foundation. The Health Care Crisis: Containing Costs, Expanding Coverage. New York: McGraw, 1992. Strunk, William, Jr. “Elementary Rules of Usage.” The Elements of Style. Project Bartleby Archive, Columbia University. Retrieved 20 Aug. 1999 http://www.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/strunk.html#11.

___________________________________________________________________________________ Legend for this sample page: The above is a sample “works cited” page. The sample entries are arranged alphabetically (except in instances in which initial articles such as A, An, or The in anonymous works are ignored)
1) CD-Rom: Angier , 2) Magazine article: Armstrong, Larry, 3) Edited book: Crane , 4) Book with one author: David Fred; 5) Two or More Books by the Same Author: Etzinoi, Amitai and three hyphens in the next entry; 6) Journal article: Fitzgerald 7) Professional website: Gesterland, 8) Book by two or more authors: Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar, 9) Anonymous book: Guide to …, 10) Multivolume work: Lauter, 11) Newspaper article: Manning, 12) Single Work in an Anthology: Melville with Lyman as editor, 13) Anthology or compilation: Porter, 14) Corporate author: Public Agenda, 15) Book online: Strunk; Magazine article.

15
SECTION III: FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES

Sometimes, you may be required to use footnotes or endnotes instead of a standard reference page. In such cases, the format for references is almost the same as above. There is no need for parenthetical references of any kind as all the information appears at the bottom of the page. The little note or number to the upper right of a word signifies that a corresponding note can be found at the bottom of the page. Notes should begin with the arabic number 1 and continue consecutively throughout the whole paper. Each page should not begin with a renumbering of footnotes. Neither should symbols such as * be used. The sample page on page 16 uses a series of footnotes, and has sample notes from a variety of sources. Generally speaking, footnotes can be characterized in the following way: • • • • • The author’s name is written first name first and family name second. A comma replaces all of the periods, except for the final one. The publishing information (city, publisher, year of publication) should be in parentheses, except for periodicals, which appear as stated in those sections. The page number that you are quoting from should be the last number listed before the period. If using the same work as a reference again, the author’s name and pages are all that are necessary for citation. If you are using more than one book by the same author, include an abbreviated form of the title. • Endnotes share exactly the same format as footnotes, except they appear on a separate sheet at the end of the paper.

16
i. Footnotes Since long explanatory notes may distract the reader from the main text, most citation styles recommend the use of footnotes/endnotes. There are two kinds of notes: 1) content notes and 2) bibliographic notes. Content notes give further comment, explanation or information that the text cannot reasonably contain. Bibliographic notes contain several sources or have evaluative comments on the sources. A. CONTENT NOTE If you use an indirect source rather the original source, you may also want to provide a reason for doing so to your reader by way of a content note. Within the text, it would have the superscript arabic number 1. The commentary of the sixteenth-century literary scholars Bernardo Segni and Lionardo Salviati shows them to be less than faithful followers of Aristotle.1 The footnote would look like this:
1

Examples are conveniently available in Weinberg. See Segni, Rettorica et poetica d'Aristotile (Fierenze, 1549) 281, qtd. in Weinberg 1: 405, and Salviati, Poetica d'Aritotile parafrasata e commentata, ms. 2.2.11, Biblioteca Naionale Centrale, Firenze, 140v. qtd. in Weinberg 1: 616-17 2) BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES Use notes for evaluative comments on sources and for references with numerous citations. The text would look like this: Many observers conclude that health care in the United States is inadequate.1 Technological advancements have brought advantages and joys as well as unexpected problems. 1 The footnotes would look like this. For strong points of view on different aspects of the issue, see Public Agenda Foundation 1 -10 and Sakala 151 - 88. For a sampling of materials that reflect the full spectrum of experiences made possible by recent technological changes, see Taylor A1; Moulthrop, pars. 39-53; Armstrong, Yang, and Cuneo 80-82; Craner 308 11; Kaku 42; Fran; and Alston 1-5. ii. Endnotes In research papers, endnotes are usually used rather than footnotes. Endnotes would have the same format as the footnotes except that rather than having the note on the bottom of each page, there is only one page at the end of the text that contains all of the notes. NOTES For strong points of view on different aspects of the issue, see Public Agenda Foundation 1 -10 and Sakala 151 - 88. For a sampling of materials that reflect the full spectrum of experiences made possible by recent technological changes, see Taylor A1; Moulthrop, pars. 39-53; Armstrong, Yang, and Cuneo 80-82; Craner 308 11; Kaku 42; Fran; and Alston 1-5.
2 1 2 1

17
The following essay is a sample to illustrate the use of footnotes in a paper. The essay itself continues to make finer points about footnote usage, but may be simply used as a guideline. Note that ENDNOTES are not illustrated because the format is exactly the same except the notes appear at the end of the paper on a separate page, instead of at the bottom of the same page. Suppose you’re writing a paper on the effect of capitalism on society today. There are many sources that you may consider using. In studying capitalism, you will probably go right into the theories of macroeconomics that rule Wall Street today. The best way to start off would be to mention the definition of capitalism from a well-reputed text. You might well describe how capitalism is “…an economic system based upon private property and the market, which in principle, individuals decide how, what and for whom to produce. Under capitalism, individuals are encouraged to follow their own self-interest…”1 Notice that the footnote at the bottom of the page meets all the criteria stated on page 14 of this guide. At this point, it might be a good idea to consider the history of capitalism. One of the early forerunners of capitalism is Machiavelli. Machiavelli claimed that a prince: …ought to encourage his citizens peaceably to pursue their affairs, whether in trade, in agriculture or in any other human activity, so that no one will hesitate to improve his possessions in fear that they will be taken from him, and no one will hesitate to open a new avenue of trade for fear of taxes.2 If there is a second reference to one of the works that has already been mentioned in the essay, it is not necessary to repeat the whole citation in the second or subsequent references. Instead, simply give the author’s name and the page number(s). For example, Fred David wrote a book called Strategic Management which contained information on capitalism.3 He stated that “a strong military heritage underlies the study of strategic management.”4 If you use another source written by the same author, you should show the difference by using a shortened version of the title in the subsequent references. For example, if David had written a second book called Strategic Management Techniques for a Modern Workforce, then you would cite it in the footnote with the full description in the first citation and then the shortened version in the subsequent reference.5 David provided some useful suggestions for helping managers to accommodate changes in the workforce with regard to technological changes.6

1 2

David C. Colander, Macroeconomics 3rd ed., (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1967) 32. Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. Daniel Donno (New York: Bantam Books, 1981) 79. 3 Fred R. David, Strategic Management (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997) 4 David 21. 5 Fred R. David, Strategic Management Techniques for the Modern Workforce (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999) 6 David, Strategic Management Techniques 65-79.

18 WORKS CITED
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1995. Guffey, Mary Ellen. MLA Style Electronic Formats . (Last updated 28 February 2001) Retrieved 10 May 2001 <http://www.meguffey.com/mla.html.

19
INDEX
Anonymous article …………………………………………………………………………………………. Anthology or compilation ...……………………………………………………………………………….. Article on a Web Site …………………………………………………………………………………….. Article in a Reference Book ………………………………………………………………………………. Article in a Scholarly Journal ……………………………………………………………………………… Article in a Scholarly Journal that pages each issue separately …………………………………....……… Book: anonymous ……………..………………………………………………………………………………...…. by Two Authors -citation in text ………………………………….………………………………………. -in the reference list………………………………………………………………… translation ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. with an Editor ………………………………………………………………………………………………. Corporate Author -citation in text ………………………………………………………………………… -in the reference list ……………………………………………………………………. 8 6 9 7 7 8 7 2 6 7 7 3 6

Electronic Database on CD Rom …..………………………………………………………………………... 10 Electronic Journal …………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 Electronic Publication with a Known Author ………………………………………………………………. 4

Electronic Source without a Known Author or Sponsor ……………………………………………………. 4 Endnotes …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14-15 Entire Text -citation in text…………………………………………………………………………………. 3

Footnotes …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14-16 Government Publication ……………………………………………………………………………………. Indirect Sources -citation in text ………………………………………………………………………….. Lecture, speech, or an address ……………………………………………………………………………… Legal source ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Magazine article ……...…………………………………………………………………………………….. Newspaper article ……...……………………………………………………………………………………. More than One Work in a Single Parenthetical Reference………………………………………………….. Online Encyclopedia Article ……………………………………………………………………………….. Online Newspaper Article ………………………………………………………………………………….. Online Posting ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Pamphlet ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 4 11 11 8 8 4 9 9 10 12

20
INDEX
Part of an Article or Book …………………………………………………………………..………………. Personal E-mail …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 10

Single Author (Citation in Text) -Direct quotations …………….……………………………………………………………………………… 2 -Named in Text …………...………………………………………………………………………………… 2 -Not Named in Text ………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 -Quotations that exceed four lines (40 words) ………………………………………………………………. 2 Sound Recording ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Television or Radio Program ……………………………………………………………………………….. Two or More Works by the Same Author -citation in text …………………………………………………. - reference list ………………………………………………….. 11 11 4 6

Multivolume work: Citing Volumes in a Multi-volume work--citation in text ………………………………. 3 --in the reference list …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Web site, Professional site ……………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Work in an Anthology ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Work with More than Three Authors - citation in text ……..……………………………………………….. 3

Compiled and Produced by: Luice Kim; Contributions from: Alex Posecznick Proofread by: Shai Ortner, Simone Senhouse, Damaris Brewington, and Jessica Costosa

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful