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.
THRESHOLDS OF SCIENCE
GENERAL FOREWORD
many men and women who, from lack of opportunity or some other reason, have grown up in ignorance of the elementary laws of science. They feel themselves continually handicapped by this ignorance. Their critical faculty is eager to submit, alike old established beliefs and revolutionary doctrines, to the test of But they lack the necessary knowledge. science. Equally serious is the fact that another generation is at this moment growing up to a similar ignorance. The child, between the ages of six and twelve, lives in a wonderland of discovery he is for ever asking questions, seeking explanations of natural phenomena. It is because many parents have resorted to sentimental evasion in their replies to these questionings, and because children are often allowed either to blunder on natural truths for themselves or to remain unenlightened, that there
There
are
;
exists the
already described. people are demanding something more concrete than theory on all sides they are turning to science for proof and guidance. To meet this double need the need of the man who would teach himself the elements of science, and the need of the child who shows himself every day eager to have them taught him is the aim of the " Thresholds of Science" series. This series consists of short, simply written monographs
body
of
men and women
;
On
all sides intelligent
—
—
by competent
science
authorities, dealing every —mathematics, zoology, chemistry and branch the
with
of
like.
They
are well illustrated,
and issued at the cheapest
first published in France they met with immediate success, showing that science
possible price.
When
they were
t
ii
GENERAL FOREWORD
is
not necessarily dull or fenced off by a barrier of Of course, specialisation in this as in technical jargon. other subjects is not for everyone, but the publication of this series of books enables any man or woman to learn,
any
safety the
child to be taught, to pass with understanding " Thresholds of Science."
and
THRESHOLDS OF SCIENCE
MATHEMATICS
by Felix Carre. by E. E. ASTRONOMY ZOOLOGY by Camille Flammarion. LONDON . MECHANICS by C. CONSTABLE & CO. Ltd. Brucker. GEOGRAPHY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS by Georges Darzens. BOTANY GEOLOGY PHYSICAL and by Charles Velain. Brucker. Guillaurne. Laisant. by E. A.THRESHOLDS OF SCIENCE MATHEMATICS by C.
v C.THRESHOLDS OF SCIENCE MATHEMATICS r. A. LAISANT ILLUSTRATED LOND( >N CONSTABLE & COMPANY LTD 1913 .
.
CONTENTS
GENERAL FOREWORD
1.
2.
3. 4.
.>.
6.
7.
STROKES one to ten matches or sticks bundles and faggots one to a hundred the addition table sums subtraction
;
'
8.
!».
thousands and millions coloured counters
.
10.
FIGURES
STICKS
.
11.
END TO END
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
lit.
THE STRAIGHT LINE SUBTRACTION WITH LITTLE STICKS WE BEGIN ALGEBRA MEASURES CALCULATIONS PROPORTIONS THE MULTIPLICATION TABLE PRODUCTS CURIOUS OPERATIONS
; ;
20. 21.
22.
23. 24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30. 31.
PRIME NUMBERS QUOTIENTS THE DIVIDED CAKE FRACTIONS WE START GEOMETRY AREAS THE ASSES' BRIDGE MATHEMATICAL MEDLEY VARIOUS PUZZLES THE CUBE IN EIGHT PIECES TRIANGULAR NUMBERS. THE FLIGHT OF THE CRANES SQUARE NUMBERS THE SUM OF CUBES THE POWERS OK 11 THE ARITHMETICAL TRIANGLE AND SQUARE
;
; . . . .
. . .
...... ........ ....... ...... .10 ......12 .17 .......19 ...... ... ...... .... ........ ...... ....... ........ .... ...... ...... .... — ...... ......
PAGE
i
1
4
5
7
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!)
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14
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.
.
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.
23 23 25 26
31
.
.
33
.'J.")
38 40 42 45 52
(50
(14
66 68
7<»
72
76
.79
80
Vlll
CONTENTS
DIFFERENT WAYS OF COUNTING BINARY NUMERATION ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSIONS GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS THE GRAINS OF CORN ON THE CHESSBOARD A VERY CHEAP HOUSE THE INVESTMENT OF A CENTIME THE CEREMONIOUS DINNER
. .
32. 33.
34. 35. 36.
....
.
37. 38.
39. 40.
41.
A HUGE
NUMBER
42. 43.
44.
4.").
46.
47.
48.
49. 50. 51.
52. 53.
.">4.
55. 56.
:»7.
THE COMPASS AND PROTRACTOR THE CIRCLE THE AREA OF THE CIRCLE CRESCENTS AND ROSES SOME VOLUMES ALGEBRA WITHOUT CALCULATIONS GRAPHS THE TWO WALKERS FROM PARIS TO MARSEILLES FROM HAVRE TO NEW YORK WHAT KIND OF WEATHER IT IS TWO CYCLISTS FOR ONE MACHINE THE CARRIAGE THAT WAS TOO SMALL THE DOG AND THE TWO TRAVELLERS THE FALLING STONE THE BALL TOSSED UP
.
..... .....
....
.
....
;
.
.
UNDERGROUND TRAINS. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY
THE THE THE THE
58. 59.
60.
PARABOLA
ELLIPSE
.
HYPERBOLA
;
.
61. 62. 63.
64.
65.
DIVIDED SEGMENT GEOMETRICAL HARMONIES DOH, ME, SOU 64 = 65 A PARADOX MAGIC SQUARES FINAL REMARKS NOTE ON THE "MALIIEM.N ICAL INITIATOR \I. J. CAMESCASSE
:
.
.
.
IN
DUX
MATHEMATICS
1.
Strokes.
Oxe
of the first faculties
which we should develop
in
the child, from the age when his cerebral activity wakens, is that of drawing. Nearly always, he has the instinctive
and we must encourage him in it, long before undertaking to teach him writing or reading. With this object, we should put a slate or a sheet of squared paper in his hands as a beginning, and place a pencil (when he is cleverer, a pen) between his little not the fingers and make him trace strokes at first
taste for
it,
;
classical sloping strokes, preparatory to sloping writing, but little lines following the direction of the lines on the
squared paper, and very regularly spaced. Drawing these lines first from top to bottom, then after some time from left to right, the pupil will thus make
vertical strokes (Fig. 1)
FlG,
and
1.
horizontal strokes (Fig. 2).
strokes.
— Vertical
FlG.
"'.
— Eorizontal
stroke?.
M.
If they cease to be a game. But all these teachings. which should only come afterwards and are outside my subject. they are indispensable for what will come but. . and then running parallel with it. that is. As to the age at which this first mathematical initiation should commence.2 MATHEMATICS Gradually we will teach him to draw long or short strokes. to keep the appearance of games. Let the child scribble on his slate and spoil some sheets of paper help him with your advice. set square. necessary to develop the spirit of initiative in him. only speak of them here freehand. starting with that of drawing. even from this point of view. These and straightness so : We in after far as. to put them between the lines of the squared paper. there is no absolute But we can say that as a rule it is rule to be laid down. to respect the child's liberty and to give him the illusion (if it is one) that he himself discovers the truths put before his eyes. should always be inspired by the same fundamental principle. which develop skill of hand of eye. rare if a child of three and a half to four years old very does not already show a taste for handling a pencil and I assert that at ten or eleven. we must insist on the fact that they should be suggested and never forced. to keep up his natural curiosity and to avoid fatigue and boredom. either with instruments (ruler. let him do something else. short strokes. Then we will make him form figures composed We will of groups of long or say something about that below. Later. compass) or exercises. applied to childhood. It would need a whole book to deal with this first teaching of drawing. which he will never fail to ask but when he has had enough. it should be easy to have . : . we will make him draAv figures or begin curves. in every possible direction. to draw new ones from them which are oblique. on which I have been obliged to say a few words others would be needed on writing and on reading. should never be left off while the educative period lasts. the object will be lost. That is a condition which is absolutely .
born at Rennea (1701 Essay on National Education. I must point out to families and teachers who are to be my readers the greatest snare to be avoided this is the abuse of in the first teaching of childhood finish : To exercise of the memory. as a means of raising Germany. and bring up generations of beings without initiative. depressed. More than one may find pleasure. we kill his natural gifts. His mind. — 1852). method served as a basis for Fichte. 3 If the earth was peopled with reasonable beings. Kindergartens. teaching words to a child and makstill ing him repeat them. perfected by further studies and ready it matter for self with these generalities and not to repeat myunnecessarily. to you. German pedagogue. we deform his brain. without curiosity and without will." Froebel. enfeebled. born at Oberweissbach (1782 Chalotais. 1 Froebel 2 and Pestalozzi. author of  French magistrate. if if you love those confided you wish them to become good and strong. and stuffed up with formulae which are not understood. If you love your children. will certainly find in useful reflection. and so pernicious. born at Zurich (1746 — 1827). at conscious reasoning." Swiss educator. if his brain is normally organised. in taking up this little book which is not meant for him now.STROKES 3 taught him all the matters explained in what follows. his Pestalozzi. and their names would be graven in letters of gold in 1 every school. La " founder of the 3 " — 1785). go back to the principles of the great minds and hearts who were named La Chalotais. By so general in actual practice. these benefactors of humanity would have their statues in every country of the world. after some years. B 54 .
ten. . six. five. nine.4 MATHEMATICS 2. one. separating from one another by spaces. . two. 3. . 3 them and Fig. pronouncing the names. One. two. — — four. One to Ten. i. . ten vertical strokes. . for Fig. ten horizontal strokes. one two three four five six seven eight nine ten 3 One. successively. Then he will make groups of strokes. seven.. and he 4) diagrams which he will read : — I will have (Figs. 4. for Fig.. three. I II two I III three I I I I I I I I I I I I I one four five I I I I I I I si x seven I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I eight I nine I I I I I I I I I ten Fig. Once the habit has begun of drawing strokes regularly and quickly enough he will learn to count them as he makes them. two. eight.
.MATCHES OR STICKS, ETC.
Then he
will
5
put
:
down groups
of
corn, of counters, to be counted
—
.
and
of beans, of grains of other things, and they are any
One, two,
.
.
ten beans, grains of corn, etc.
We
will
now suppose
that these objects are replaced
by sheep, dogs, men, etc., and after these exercises are repeated often enough and are familiar to the child, we can tell him that the expressions he uses, for instance,
three strokes, six grains concrete numbers.
five
of corn, eight sheep, are called
of five strokes, another of another of five counters, having imagined beans, another of five dogs or five trees, we will tell him that in these different cases he is always saying the same word jive; we will tell that this word, without anything else, represents what is called an abstract number, and that he can use it to denote any other group of five things
Having considered a group
;
donkeys, horses, houses, etc. It will not be long before the child can count without any hesitation from one to ten in any things at all. It will be well also to accustom him as soon as possible to grasp at a glance the number of things shown to him quickly, without having to count them one by one to do this, he must start with very small numbers and go on
:
gradually.
3.
Matches or Sticks; Bundles and Faggots.
Beyond the different things just mentioned, to help the child to understand the idea of concrete numbers, which
can be
infinitely varied, there are others
which we can
in our opinion,
hardly recommend too
indispensable.
highly, whose use
is,
These are little wooden sticks, exactly like ordinary wood matches except that they have no inllammable chemical preparation. We will sometimes call them matches, because of this resemblance, and these
6
MATHEMATICS
matches
—which do not strike— can be considered models
drawn on the slate or in the copybook. They should all be the same length. Having a heap of these sticks before him, and knowing quite well how to count up to ten, the child will put aside ten, one after the other, and will put them together in a very regular little bundle, and surround them with one
of the strokes
of those little
rubber bands which are so convenient and
so widely used.
will show him then that this bundle containing ten " " ten of sticks. can be called a Then he will make up a fair number of similar bundles. We will see that he has not made a mistake if he has we
We
sticks
:
will
will tell him that two bundles taken together, the number of sticks which we will show him by untying the bundles and tying them up again is called twenty, and that thus
make him put it right. Then showing him two bundles, we
in these
:
—
One bundle
is
ten sticks,
sticks.
Two
the
bundles are twenty
. . .
nine bundles, and doing Then taking three, four, same thing, we will show him that
Three bundles are thirty
sticks
Four
ONE TO A HUNDRED
i.
7
One to a Hundred.
of sticks
random (less than a we are going to count To do this, he must make bundles, as many as possible he will come to a point at which he will not have enough sticks left to make a bundle. Then, putting all the madeup bundles at his left, and the sticks left over at his right, we will make him say the two numbers separately then, putting them together, he will have named the number of sticks we gave him. For example, if he has made three bundles, and eight
Taking a handful
tell
at
hundred) we will them with him.
the child that
;
;
sticks
"
are left "
;
over,
thirty
a stop,
"
looking to the right,
he will say, "
looking to the
"
;
left,
eight
then, without
thirtyeight."
this exercise very often, with groups taken at chance, we will take a faggot to pieces, and propose to count the sticks successively one by one.
Having repeated
of sticks
begin by counting one, two, three, ... to Then, having a bundle, we will place it on the left (without even needing to tie it) and go on, saying
will
We
ten.
:
—

Oneten; twoten^; thirteen; fourteen; fifteen;
Sixteen
;
seventeen
;
eighteen
;
nineteen.
At last a fresh stick finishes a second bundle, which we put on the left, by the side of the first, saying twenty ; we go on in the same way to the ninth bundle, then to the ninth stick left, which we touch saying ninetynine ;
finally Ave
remove the last, finishing the tenth bundle, which we put on the left, by the side of the nine, saying
There is nothing to prevent us telling the young pupil then that we have just taught him numeration from one
1 Here we must not say " eleven, twelve." These names can be learnt without any trouble at the right moment. It is useless to load the " memory with them now. Even if the child in his logic says threeten, fourten." etc., there is no need to correct him yet.
the word hundred.
. and we will have the even numbers. and explain that all these numbers are odd numbers. starting at first from one. He will be all the more flattered to feel himself so wise since he does not yet know how to write a letter or a figure.8 to a . All these exercises are to be done first with things preferably sticks — then — mentally. . . and then to count them in our heads at once without having them before our eyes. back to it from time to time. : — One. We will then become accustomed to count by threes. to a hundred. We must do the same. he uses them to see. four. and that. for we must not fear prolonging it as long as it does not become tedious and It will be well to come as long as it interests the child. we must become accustomed to count by twos . if we begin with very simple things and go on gradually. six. MATHEMATICS hundred we can even tell him that when he says " seventythree matches or sticks. starting from two : — Two... . this manipulation of numbers. he is performing spoken numeration. by fours. b. he has eyes. or to read. ba. a. from one to a hundred. In short. This is not yet all starting from one. to ninetynine. That is the beginning of mental calculation. he is performing " numeration by figures. so important in practice and so easy to make children practise from the earliest age. So now we know how to count sticks from one to a hundred. We must accustom ourselves to count any other things in the same way. when he puts seven bundles to the left and three sticks to the right.. and begins to understand what he sees and what he is doing. three. even when he has penetrated a little further in his introduction to science. and then from any number. But he draws strokes. can be varied indefinitely.
. to right. 9 The Addition Table. one. H. made of two parts. than the others. . with a little bar to recall the presence of the rubber band. same way will contain three. two. Now the moment to come back and use our in tracing strokes. and we will also separate the first line. four.THE AUDITION TABLE 5. .. the rest of row by a horizontal new column by a vertical line from the figure. finally. from two. bers with in s t r oke s and figure Ave as explain. . to ten. starting two. A second to . all the numbers the same slanting line. It an addition table . we will make a picture of a Only. we will separate this . way copying the we are going to we will have Fig. will be of eighteen is sticks. rising from left to right. bundle by a thick stroke. let us put two and make a column. will . it. of the two. . and going on in the same way we will have nine columns the last group of the ninth column in the . are the . First. To finish nine strokes on the left . lends itself to several interesting remarks which the in maker will partly find out. Thus we have now begun stronger to know how this to write num. left Let us arrange on a table. three.. column made . Below the single stick. three. nine sticks. oneten sticks . skill in drawing and our great aptitude as it is troublesome to draw the ten strokes representing the sticks in a bundle. separating these nine groups from one another. 5. ten of the first column. at least partly. put one. is The figure we have thus obtained we will soon see why it is so called.
present any serious difficulty. suppose they are thirtyfour and twentythree. Let us take two heaps of beans (or other things) and count them both. we notice that it gives all the sums of two heaps. or from top to bottom in a column. exercise of which we have not yet spoken. that we will do it by an operation called addition. Taking numbers smaller than ten. . But would be lengthy and wearisome. if read downwards. and that the number of things in the big heap. We will explain that there is a quicker way of getting the result. 5. how many shall we have ? For this. and looking again at Fig. one by one. the numbers in the same slanting line going down from left to right. are the numbers counted one by one . all the numbers. or two by two. and we will invite the child to try and find this out. sometimes odd. we will take any two numbers chosen so that their sum is less than a hundred — and we will count them both separately. and it would be time lost. which we want to find. These are sometimes even. which will teach us to say the numbers fluently. We will do this. We will then represent them by — sticks . are the numbers counted two by two. is called the sum or total. we have only to count again the heap made by mixing the other two. If we put them all into one heap. finally. repeating these exercises as often as possible and making him count the sum itself when he does not this find it. Nothing stops us from reading all these numbers in the reverse order. 6. Sums.10 . in the direction There is still a very opposite to the natural order. Even before this addition table is completely fixed in the memory. and important which we will now begin with small numbers this will not . read from left to right in a horizontal line. MATHEMATICS same further.
we will proceed in the same way (always arranging that the total is less than a hundred). We — — This exercise should be repeated. five . . or fourteen sticks . beginning with that we have just made. have thus the place below the bundles. on the left. or seventyfour." helping himself if necessary by the addition table. or fiftyseven sticks. bundles and four sticks. . this us a bundle which we put under the bundles and gives four sticks. twenty. sticks under sticks. Then. We will then ask the child to say how many are made by four and three sticks he will answer " seven. others where there are no bundles. The total is thus seven five and two bundles. taking those where there are only bundles and no sticks. We total. we have one and four. on the right. seven. renewed with different examples. of two bundles — . So. we will take other numbers where this is not so for instance. is placed below bundles under bundles. how many do three and two bundles make ? Five bundles. eighty numbers less than ten but so that each sum of bundles or sticks is always less than ten. five We will begin again with other numbers. and he will place seven sticks a little lower down. When we have reached this point.SUMS The first 11 of three bundles sticks and four and three sticks. so that it will interest the child without boring him. the other. like sixty. . The operation is performed thus : — Four bundles Nine sticks Five sticks Two bundles have then nine and five. bundles. and we will see that thus we find . seven sticks. fortynine and twentyfive. which we will number is made up . coming to additions of several numbers. Then counting the bundles.
. first let us write the with little sticks number. counters. Subtraction. seventythree. — Eight bundles Seven little sticks. From the I shall have sticks larger number I take away five little . 1 number formed by joining know the number in each heap. beyond the addition how to add quickly a number less than ten to a number less than With for instance. sixtyeight and rive. These exercises will oblige the child to learn. . the left. twentyfive — Two bundles Five little sticks. underneath. by which subtract. a hundred a little patience this result will be obtained by practice quickly enough. the smaller one. do not pronounce in their ears the unfortunate word " study." which might frighten them. and to put the little sticks under each other and the bundles under each other. 1 table. the little taking great care to put the bundles to sticks to the right. . I have a big heap of counters. with some skill and we will see that the offenders back to their studies of sticks.12 MATHEMATICS several heaps. To eightyseven. : and.. do a subtraction How many are left ? To find that is to . 7. larger the result is the remainder or difference we put back the remainder to the number have taken it we make once more the I mean the number from which : I find the difference. etc. the when we Repeat these exercises on a crowd of examples as long If the child as they do not cause fatigue or boredom. . the punishment should carried out for several days not to consist in a threat — — go on showing him the game which he has begun to learn. eightyseven let us say I find there I count pick up or take away a few which I : are twentyfive. we notice that if from which we big heap. seems to be at all troublesome. Let this device be used it is not hard to lead by their own wishes. Only.
So from the five bundles we take one which we put to the Whether we undo it or not ri<dit with the two sticks. 13 six will remain. We among . because at present we cannot count beyond that. . do not cause them to be learnt by pupil this heart and recited. this subtimes. the big heap may count up to fiftyeasy two. : Three bundles or thirtyfour. cannot take away eight sticks from two. avc can see very well that now we have tentwo sticks to the right. Do them all the time instead . which is certainly less.SUBTRACTION two left. By multiplying these exercises many and by varying them as much as possible. We must take care always to take for the larger number one less than a hundred. I take away two bundles. and only four bundles to the left instead of Now from the tentwo little sticks at the right we five. : is much more effective. Four little sticks. Arranging them as before we less than ten). But it isn't always so For instance. We shall have four left shall there the four bundles at the left we take away one The remainder then is are three left. since ! have Five bundles Two Eight little little sticks . but which will be always less than twenty. from take away eight. Now we are able subtract (only doing it with we have taken away five numbers from seven. Two to little sticks. One bundle sticks. traction (which has to be learnt) will be remembered by the but above all. and what we wish to take away may be eighteen. and Then the remainder will be Six bundles or sixtytwo little sticks. We must know how to subtract a number less than ten from a number larger than ten. and two from eight.
Going all over this. . Let us put together ten faggots in a box. a thousand matches. and Avould not be sufficient to feed a child for a day. however. which contains one hundred little sticks. of thousands. and grouping ten bundles of those in a faggot. a million. In a bundle we have ten matches. so that it is impossible to stop there. but the number We — . It a big number if we consider the age of a person in years a man aged one hundred is very old. ten millions. But it is a very little number if we count grains of corn a heap of a hundred grains of corn is not at all big. or a hundred of millions. and with ten coaches a train. and centenarians are very rare. one thousand millions.14 MATHEMATICS 8. In a train of ten coaches. with ten baskets we will make a case. In a box of ten faggots. In a basket of ten bales. In a compartment of ten cases. be difficult. or one set of ten. A match or a stick is what we will call a simple unit. one hundred matches. one hundred thousand or one hundred of thousands. might go on as long as we liked. We have got up to one hundred by grouping the little sticks in bundles of ten. with ten such cases we will make a compartment. Up to now we know how to count up to one hundred. Thousands and Millions. ten bales can be put together in a basket. or a set of one hundred. then with ten such boxes let us form a bale. In a coach of ten compartments. ten thousand matches or one ten is . we are going to give the names of the numbers that we obtain in this manner. with ten compartments a coach. which will not. In a bale of ten boxes. In a case of ten baskets. one hundred millions. and we shall be obliged to climb still further up the ladder. In a faggot of ten bundles. or one ten of millions.
little sticks. that will not For instance. is large We should have an idea of its enough size if we placed ordinary wooden matches. them are to the left of the three little sticks we will place we will count of them. if we want to count a big heap of little sticks. sticks. We will made. . six bundles. make any Eight faggots. and we will put to the right once the bundles are the little sticks that are left over there may be three little sticks. With nothing but bundles and faggots we shall be able to count up to a thousand. and only slightly instructive. not very amusing. to the number of one thousand millions the total length would be considerably more than the circumference for ordinary use. and occupying in this counting ten hours a day. one. we would take more than seventysix years. we will make bundles of them. ten. or six thousand five hundred and eightythree little sticks. and counting our boxes we find six of them. .THOUSANDS AND MILLIONS a thousand millions 15 which we have arrived. — at of the earth. difference. tens . Five faggots to the left of the eight bundles left. or no bundles. supposing that we took a second for each. perhaps now make faggots with our bundles. Trying to count a thousand million matches one by one. number that we wish to unite there are no single little sticks. and form all the numbers up to that. three little sticks Will contain five hundred and three. one after another. suppose there remain eight bundles. and . This would perhaps be rather long. never forgetting that faggot. eight bundles. Will contain eight hundred and sixty Five faggots. making them up in . single little little stick mean respectively a If in the hundred. five faggots. put them to the left of the five faggots and we have thus our faggots in tens to make boxes we place them We the number of little sticks : six . bundle. No. three little sticks boxes.
and to have performed many additions and subtractions. Always. It is advisable to notice that numbers. : — Three coaches One basket Two compartments (no bales) Seven cases Nine boxes Four faggots will Five bundles little sticks be a number of which will express Three hundred and One hundred and nine thousand Four hundred and fifty twentyseven millions 1 . . Little stick f we often meet the same Thus : Bundle mean  Faggot [ /' one one ten one hundred one thousand one ten of thousands one hundred of thousands one million one ten of millions one hundred of millions Box Bale Basket ( Case f Compartment Coach [ A number of thousands or of millions will be reckoned then as if we were counting simple little sticks from one Thus to a thousand. the to the left the faggots hundreds to tens the left of the bundles. ten and hundred. but without insisting upon the large numbers for the moment. and so on.. and applying ourselves particularly to the bundles.16 MATHEMATICS It will be necessary to have numbers under a thousand formed like this. Strictly speaking. . exactly as it has been shown before. wc bundles — — . and faggots. — — . or tens and hundreds. J We could have some of them counted like that.. we have taken care to place the little sticks—single ones— to the right. but extending the method of procedure as far as faggots instead of keeping to bundles. going no further than the boxes at the very most. in what has gone before.
be indispensable when calculating. with little sticks. long counters instead of coaches. That does not alter our calculations nor the manner of doing them. very disagreeable to be so encumbered. The objects and the numbers correspond I in this manner : Trains. counters instead of compartments. \ coaches. and very easy to place on a table. as soon to count a thousand matches. baskets. . and of which it is a good thing to speak to settle the child's mind. To carry it still further. compartments. boxes. of trains. will find it natural convenient. Now. bundles I and matches. . or on a sheet of We are paper. by our bundles and faggots. but it is most a good thing to keep to this arrangement always. let us change our bundles for red counters they will be really more convenient to manage.COLOURED COUNTERS ought to notice that it is 17 this is unnecessary. of boxes. we must find something rather heavy. and . bales. black counters and finally. instead of baskets. and we can always replace a red by ten white ones if it is necessary. — — Coloured Counters. instead white ones. As we know already that numbers can be represented by any means. — . 9. indigo . A little later. cases. violet counters . having been accustomed to this this will be valuable. green counters. all the numbers of which we have just spoken. let us replace our matches by white counters. Matches M. . because the calculation is done in order. faggots. the child. yellow counters instead of bales. instead of faggots we will put orange counters instead It is as we want . C . To form effectively. even before making it up into coaches. as it will habit. and show the young mathematician who cannot either read or write fluently that it is perfectly easy to manage with his fingers the enormous numbers with which he has to deal. blue counters instead of cases. going to see now how we can simplify things.
green. coaches. become awkward and cumbersome. hundreds of thousands. It will be necessary. thousands. yellow. always to remember that a red counter is equal to ten white. as we go higher. units. of millions. orange. we would have to use coins each worth ten million francs. we will ! put our counters carefully in order. Money of that value is not coined. and continue like that but that would . beginning at the right. It might seem that for white counters. ( violet. and even trains and it is equally in our power. hundreds. it would be difficult to handle. then replace the red counters by pieces of ten centimes. with our little counters. tens. . to add and subtract. though. and . v Nothing hinders us then from writing all the numbers that require up to a thousand millions. of Numbers J ) tens hundreds of millions. red. we . black. fc'c o . blue. white.is MATHEMATICS Counters l Long. 1 it will be decidedly better to continue to use long white counters to represent thousands of millions. It will also be more economical Always. without being compelled to use cases. tens of thousands. Ave might put centime pieces. and so on to the end. if that will interest us. to obliged to have a nice little fortune represent thousands of millions. an orange counter to ten red. indigo. millions. and we would be because then. ! Thousands millions. and even further than that.
etc. or units. we must put in each of the places where we see the white or red counters. except perhaps the figures four and five. Here is the type to which we must keep : — 1234567 figures. starting from the right. with a single stroke.FIGURES 19 Simply by looking at each place we know what colour ought to go there according to its place. by any means wc could avoid reckoning these counters every time. so that the figures may be all the same height. counters which If is always less than ten. By this time the pupil has commenced to write a little. making use of ruled slates or ruled paper at first.. which we shall need —characters which are called "figures. owe their origin c 2 . it would be much more convenient. he will become accustomed to form them correctly without any flourishing.. which require two.. 10.a number of colours. Z°l Just for curiosity wc may notice here that all the according to some old authors. etc. This is of the highest importance for the future practice of calculations. and tens. at least would be easy to much further—with our round counters of various and the long white counters. To do that. and we can exercise him in tracing the characters which will represent the first nine numbers." three These are eight : — One two 12345G7 four five six seven nine 9 8 Whether with a pencil or with a pen. We know now how go on to write all the as far as thousands of millions —and it numbers. Figures.
and There nobody here. a servant " I who guards is the house. orange. tens. There is only the place in the row to distinguish the figures if we put nothing there it would mix . because we ought to leave a space always the same size. or counters coloured white. that we call. we don't put anything there. everything up." From now onward we can of numbers often using zero or " nought. that of a figure. bundles. I As hinder for am nothing. red. but fills up the place. especially to will notice that there is no necessity begin with. Zero is a good modest value 3 these difficulties. etc. in empty spaces. anybody from coming : who I me. hundreds. little sticks. we put. But now comes an important observation. If there are no counters at all of a certain colour. and we are not clever enough to write always so regularly. 3456789 The important point is to make the pupil change the numbers from little sticks into counters.. but this is not well authenticated. 0. if the space happened to be in the unit place. The inventor of the zero be of Hindoo origin. not taking very large numbers. etc. because the place We which they occupy tells us quite easily whether they rep resent simple units. to make our figures of different colours. 12. in. 1 teach the pupil to write is not known. or. but says to you do not count. etc. faggots. but this clever idea seems to . how could we know the meaning of the last figure to the right ? To escape all " " zero which has no round character. Besides. and from counters into figures. again." quantities If multiplication. and varying exercises of this kind..20 to I MATHEMATICS (see the figure f><] below) . there are several pupils. one might exercise them together.
leading them on. " I put down such and such number. and 2 = twoten " 8) (we write 2. and 8 = nineten. and 4 = thirtytwo " (we write 2 without saying anything) then we add. and 5 = sixten. and 4 = fiveten. and 2 = twentythree'* (we write 3). and I carry such and such a be sufficient to make oneself understood of addition example shown here : 3087 69 1 I 560 208 29 200 1 12832 Which ought to be translated then in spoken language " The figures 7 and 4 = oneten. " I carry 3. thousand. in doing addition. and 9 = twentyeight. "I carry 2. . and 3 = 4." to give the It will a figure. and 9 = " oneten. and 8 = oneten. it is a good thing to go the examples of addition and subtrachave been able to express with little sticks.FIGURES 21 rousing their emulation a little. Having arrived at back again tion that to we this stage. consists in accustoming the pupil to speak as little as possible. to read and write quickly and correctly. be various very useful observations to make which formerly would not have been of any service. and tell them at the end of the calculation that they now understand zoritten numeration. then 1 to the left of that) and we read " twoten the total. making use now of figures. ." A second remark applies to the practice of . and 6 = twentyone. and 6 = ten. for instance. One of them. But there will or counters. and 2 = eightten (we write "I carry 1. never to say. thirtytwo. eight hundred and : . more and more.
22 MATHEMATICS subtraction. Do not be afraid of going back from time to time. And we would say. a figure less than the one below. . do not make the lesson too long do not let his interest flag or fatigue to overcome . when there is in the greater number. The child will interest himself in them." saying "1 from 4. above all. or any other objects. you can. But we must not write anything else than 52 and 18 before the result of the operation. take 18. but do not try to prove anything to him." which leaves 3. noticing that to take 1 from 4 is the same thing as taking 2 from 5. him If . 1 and 1 make 2. listen to him with great attention. from this time. and there only remain four tens instead of five. take him back to his sticks or to his counters and try only to give him practice in calculation and not to make him learn words that he does not under. Many exercises in addition and subtraction ought to be carried out like this. and he them." I say "2 from 5. Let us go back to the example in section 7 from 52 we have to . " 8. so we get into the habit of carrying one each time that we have previously added a 10 to the figure from above. counters. this is the teacher's deadliest scourge. and it might very easily happen that we forget that we have taken away a ten from the top. If he seems at times puzzled. For the future we proceed in another way. tells If you of figures with collections of little sticks. 2 from 5 equals 3. from twoten. 52 18 4 1 12 8 4 34 3 What we have done with our little sticks is shown above. any observations come into his mind. I carry Then instead of 1. And. you think it convenient. equals 4. in a certain row. in order to accustom him to compare his numbers written in stand.
We prove in this manner that any number whatever can be represented by a straw of suitable length. one after the other. initiate the pupil names for the numbers 11 and 12. three heaps in which there are 5. the straws which The length of the line of represent these numbers. and that to find the sum of several numbers we have nothing to do but lay end to end. . Sticks End to End. But what is ? Wc have an idea of it by the stroke . 3 and 4 little If avc put all the little sticks one after another in sticks. Let us make use once more of the little sticks that we have already employed we will imagine that wc have. instead of three numbers we took as many as we liked. little sticks. there would be more than three straws . it will give the sum of the numbers represented by the three heaps. say. The Straight Line. the four little sticks. and if. 12. the same direction. 11. If. the length of this row will be twelve . We should arrive at the same result if we replaced the little sticks belonging to the first heap by a straw equal those from the second in length to the five little sticks one as long as the three little sticks and those heap by from the third heap by a straw measuring the length of . in The straws straight line of which wc have just been speaking the foregoing operations ought always to be placed in a a straight line immediately after each other. instead of these very little numbers wc took larger ones. The straws would be longer.STICKS though there the ordinary is END TO END 23 into no hurry about it. that is all the difference. straws thus obtained will be the desired sum. all that we have just said would repeat itself. that is to say.
2i MATHEMATICS which a very finepointed pencil makes moving along against a ruler held horizontally. length of twelve little sticks Whether we say that we add numbers. let us take a segment OA. having its length the same as that of the second straw. 6) and mark off a point and another point B. 7). segments of a straight line. of which the length equals that of the third The segment OC will be the straw. we know quite This general idea is sufficient for us well that if the ruler were longer. AB comprised between these two points is what we call a segment of a straight line. the sheet of paper wider. . let us take a straight line upon which we mark a point O. another. or by an extremely fine thread. then starting from B. we take a straight line (Fig. the portion of the straight line A. and as there is no need either to one end or to the other ever to stop. 7. no matter where starting from this point. an will FlG 6 indefinite figure. three little sticks ^ Fig. so to speak. starting from A. we unders stand that the straight . let us take a segment AB. use of any we require but this limit can be as distant as we wish. for instance. . We it never further than the limit that make . Ave would be able to draw our straight line further. which is of 1 the same length as our first r*to* If : • • t > • • — straw. or the segments end to end. the sum of 5. The straws which we made use of just now can be laid on the segments of the straight line. the addition is made by laying the straws. it is always the same thing. and the length of these straws is the same as the segments upon which they are laid. Thus (Fig. straws. . 3 and 4. : — j line is. to return to the example (section 11). BC. four little sticks. five little sticks . held between two supports. a hair.
from right to left.s. using segments instead of straws. . time to time to interest (he pupil . the opposite direction. a segment OB the length of 11 little sticks. and If it 1. let us take a segment the length of 4. These things. we take away 4 little sticks 7 little sticks remains. beginning at the end to the a row of right of this row. we must not be afraid . sticks end to end in a straight line then. It is not any more difficult to subtract than to add. saying that to add several segments we must lay them end to end in the same direction and to subtract one segment from another we must lay them end to end in the same manner. 13. 7 is the difference between 11 . Let us lay out on 'a straight line. but in . besides being easy..SUBTRACTION WITH LITTLE STICKS done. We go over this a few times. Starting from B. always in the same direction we will suppose it be invariably from left to right. 25 one after another. are perfectly understandable it suffices to vary the examples a little from . We will lay 11. but instead of supposing it traced from left to right. This operation must necessarily be if with segments. 7 we can thus go on adding as far as we like to the right of O. by the aid of little sticks. r But there is another way which we will understand at once. . . for example. on the contrary. The segment OC will represent by its length the difference 7. ° C B i'u. Suppose. would seem as though we were obliged to cut end of it equal in length to the four to off an make the difference. let us take it. In Fig. that we want to take 4 from 11. . we begin by putting a straw as long as 11 little slicks. beginning from the point O. Subtraction with Little Sticks. but never to the left.
7 minus 5 equals 2. Similarly. looking at Fig. and reproduce sticks (very simple to his exercises metic. learned to add. that Algebra is one of the easiest parts of Mathematics. when he remembers them. symbol ( — ) wc sec that 5 it denotes + 3 + 4 = 12 and that it can be written just as easily OA + AB + BC = OC Fig. the sum of 8. hinting to him.26 of MATHEMATICS making him manipulate little procure) as much as possible. on a slate or a paper. . we obtain 2 as the difference. We begin Algebra. as we have seen before. for subtraction. All operations of this nature can be worked by means of straws. and also a symbol ( = ) which expresses equal to. or segments. and 14 is 27. and second. For example. If We are now going 14. which means that in subtracting 5 from 7. giving the difference. So that in this manner the result which we have just recalled might ( equally be written 8 + 5 + 14 = 27 and would read 8 plus 5 plus 14 equals 27. repress this disjDlay of pride. Thus. 8 denotes 11  4 = 7. giving the sums. and Up to subtract. 5. 7 7 — 5 = 2. we make use of a that which expresses minus. and if we write would read. We have imagined a sign or symbol to now we have + ) which represents addition. first. to enter the regions of higher arithhe tends to be puffed up. and which expresses plus. that he does not know anything and is not learning anything now. except games which will be useful to him later.
D. 7. 5. and in expressing our working under these different forms. C. it is always possible into a single heap. understand that in the place of 8. ways expression are sometimes called But the words themselves are of little importance. 12 in the second. 8. the preceding examples we could put any other 3. What follows will show us something fresh. In the same manner A — B ence obtained in subtracting Eor instance. 2. to add. is often ^ cry convenient to show our work by signs. writing A + B + C = S. 9. It is well to accustom to replace numbers by letters. would express (10 or All of 2) — (9 2. = R shows that the B from A is equal A = 11. or of 5. B. and wc can express the addition in figures. we will always express the sum of three this sum would be 27 in the first example. Wc must also know means when we put something between brackets ( ) + ( )or( )( ) This simply means that wc should replace each bracketed term by the result which it gives. in . numbers we like if we call them A. and R = differ to R. B. F. because it will be most useful in and the future.WE BEGIN ALGEBRA We we 27 can amuse ourselves by doing this in whatever manner like. algebraical. We . for instance. E. C. numbers 4. and save what thus it much trouble. 6. When wc arc adding numbers we can go on indefinitely. 7. 14. B = 4. ourselves to this early. 8 these —3+ that to say 7. in . — 6) is + (7 — 5). are replaced by 10. 5. It in Fig. Eor instance. it is their meaning which counts. (A if  B)  (C  D) + (E  F) A. with several heaps of beans wc can always make them In other words.
in the two directions. just as we please. of seven counters. its entirety. the point C it is to the left is no longer to the right of the point O the length . if said. However. length lay right to left. to pay attention to the direction of these segments. as we have already remarked. as to subtract is 10 BC . for instance. the segment OC is directed from right to left. we shall be obliged. and we have for remainder the segment OC only. which we call by contrast positive numbers. 10 all the part to the right of point O represents  we write it Such a number is said to be negative " and it would be correct to say we call it " minus 3 3. when we wish to express comprising the straight line in numbers by straws. 9) on a straight line a segment OB to 7 matches. represents the domain of Algebra. possible and 9 demonstrates being 10.3.9. now it. it. . in segments of a straight line. the number to subtract is from B in from Fig. 8. If I have a heap It is not the same with subtraction. that the number supposing. as shown . and its length is equal to 3. domain of positive numbers (first arrow) all the part to the left (second arrow). or to the sign of the number^. . or of segments of a straight line. equal in length the contrary direca segment whose this is . — 7 10 = . in little sticks. negative numbers the . It will be necessary now. always . to subtract c B Fig. . to lay out (Fig.28 MATHEMATICS counters. . This creation of negative numbers makes all the subtractions possible which were not so with ordinary numbers. represents the domain of the and the total of the two arrows. In Fig. a point C. or segments. from which I wish to take is away 10. in straws. the thing. manifestly impossible. \vc return to what has been previously in Fig. by means of straws. then tion. . in matches. wc have made we obtain thus. that is .
So that. we will take a segment OB of the length of 11. and so on. and afterwards a segment BC the towards the length of 4 directed from right to left. the black end to the left.*. matches in a row. will will OC the number — be a positive segment. the negative numbers seem puzzling at . to add 11 and — 4. We can. we shall express the number + 3 placing two of them in a row. write 11 +( 4) 11 — 4 =7. the black end . directed from left to right. We shall be obliged to change slightly the appearance of our little It will be quite easy to blacken them sticks. the number — 2 is shown. and the direction Negative numbers . in the proper direction. 9) number 7 OB . and will be quite easy to do with sticks blackened at one end. and subtractions thus take us back to additions. itself This compels us to consider. show which is the end. slightly at one end by dipping them in Indian ink. It is easy to get accustomed to and necessary idea of the sign or the direction if Besides. the segments which express them. which of the two ends of a segment we will call the beginning. much to this simple of number. dye ' . Now Fig. a harmless the black part will then always represent the end.U Positive numb ers o of the segment will be "'• ln always that which starts from the beginning to go towards the end.WE BEGIN ALGEBRA the 29 thus (Fig. and blacken them in the same manner. When we write the segment AB. 8 is just what we have done to obtain the difference 11 — 4. for fear of making an error. that will always mean that A is the beginning and B is the end. representing be a negative segment representing also negative. For instance. We can also make straws as long as several sticks. and which the end. 3. therefore. placing three right. — = Exercises on the negative numbers can be varied as as we like. It will always be correct to add one number to another by laying end to end.
that is zero. wish to show the height above sealevel of any point. in appearance at least. By means of concrete examples. the two first rules so far. we can that he has less than nothing his fortune is negative. high and low. we can make these simple ideas sink into the mind of very young children. negative numbers. Briefly. only practised. MATHEMATICS a little reflection will find an altogether natural explanation.30 first. far from being mysterious in their character. ordinary speech we say every day that the When we registers so many degrees below zero. for everything we have said is extremely simple and easy of comprehension. in the most natural fashion. in thermometer At the first blush it seems as if there could number less than nothing. . but who owes nothing. . adapt themselves. and let it go. from their nature. only a short time since they were learning to write figures. If starting from home I want to calculate the distance that I shall go in one direction. is not rich but. future and past. of arithmetic it . and that will be more profitable for the formation of their minds than the monotonous recitation of nonunderstandable rules. it falls its plunge it into water. to all quantities. it rises weight has become negative. . if he has no fortune and has debts. it would be below zero. or of incomprehensible definitions. we understand that if this point were at the bottom of the sea. etc. A man without any fortune. I know perfectly well that I cannot use the same number to express two opposite things. and there are some which. not be any However. can be measured in two ways opposed to each other. The pupils will be interested if we continually accompany our explanations with examples carried out by means of sticks and straws. say A cork has a certain weight if we throw it in the air. and if I walk in exactly the opposite direction. credit and debit. . or to form various They have. by means is . of games. such as hot and cold. .
without which it would be impossible to make it. For instance. a tree. 1 French mathematician. would be useful in representing to us a collection of counters. MEASURES. Measures. because unity . and this single object is called This that it Number "unity. of If to determine trees.). or in short anything. a sheep. 1603). and if we find upon counting them. letters. If we have before us a heap of grains of corn. Calculations. born at FontonavleCompte (1540 — . and that it is Francois comparatively speaking modern. that there are 157. and this idea of proportion leads us on to say that a number is simply a proportion of the number to unity. a counter. length we have put sticks that are all alike one after another. counter. of matches. have seen from the beginning that what we are constantly doing is to calculate and to measure." what we term a proportion. this number. has no significance except by the comparison brings about with the single object (grain of corn. having formed bundles of sticks. 31 and now behold them plunged headlong. etc. and if we find 157 will measure this length. of sheep.CALCULATIONS. we say that it is the same length as 157 sticks. In all these various cases we should never be able to value if We anything we had not before us the idea of a grain of corn. is not always the same. It is all the more necessary to fix this firmly in the mind comparison is of the pupil. and you with them. . let us take a heap and count them Ave find there are 7 seven is Viete. as we have previously noticed. ETC. do not fail to tell them and so wonderful. 15. to whom the honour belongs of having been its Viete is that this science which J so useful is inventor. If you mention this formidable word before them. Proportions. or a stick. right in the midst of Algebra.
which is essential for the day in the future when he will pass from play to work. we three hundred. this idea of is This possible to count two beans without having this idea of the proportion of two to one nor to measure a length . and the idea of proportion will insensibly grow in his mind. be the proportion of the whole heap of sticks thirty the proportion of the same heap to a bundle three hundred the proportion to one stick. without any definition. which is unity. accustoming himself to them to measure and to count. etc. in such a manner as to make will Three to a faggot . will associate itself indissolubly with that of number. instead of being a wearisome task. the root of all calculation and all measurement. weights. them . this number will be the proportion of the collection . and we can count seventy of . At this stage it will be desirable to show the pupil. to one stick.32 MATHEMATICS the proportion of our collection of sticks to one bundle. but. Similarly. varying them indefinitely. in academical teachIt is not ing it is put at the end of arithmetic. let us scatter our sticks by it is the stick unfastening the bundles. if if we count by sticks. metres. And this work can become not only interesting but amusing. by some strange hallucination. . without any appeal to his memory. without any theoretical explanation. and let us count which now becomes unitv. proportion perfectly familiar to the pupil. We will give him exercises in making use of them. if not a torture. coins. the commonest objects of the metric system which we find ready to our hand. of three yards without comparing the length with that of one yard (proportion of three to one). litres. by bundles. Now. let us take three faggots of sticks shall find thirty bundles but . . We might give innumerable instances of such examples. and so on.
which gives the first column of Fig. . . Fl & li we can see. Greek philosopher. Then." And we Avrite in r . 27. even for its own sake. . 49 and 7. 63 7. Thus the i'oav Avhich begins Avith 3 contains. Under the form as represented below. 6. 63. the other columns. . . and the columns are all alike. We will do the same to fill . . born at Samos. 14 and 7. for the pupil who knows his addition table. . this table is generally called the table of Pythagoras. M. 35 and 7. we w ould and 7. We are now going to learn how to make a little table which will be most useful to us because of what follows.C. then 1 to 2. . which may have been 1 invented by this wonderful man. is important thing to write the results only and nothing else. 1. . . taking the first figure. For example. 11. which makes 3 and so on. for the column which begins with 7. and will be a very good exercise. 56 and 7. 21. to be able to form this table very When he has completed it. . the numbers 1 3. "7 and 7. even its reputed origin proves to us that it is not anything new. 42 and 7. 28. Ave see that the roAVS quickly. Pythagoras. . succession in the lt will 14. column beginning with be sufficient. To form the multiplication tabic we begin by writing on a sheet of squared paper the first nine numbers in the nine squares which follow each other :— 12345678 but the 1 9. D . 21 say. . which makes 2. 9.THE MULTIPLICATION TABLE 16. 6th century B. 33 The Multiplication Table. 28 and 7. like the column beginning with 3. which Ave write below. we add it to itself. although it is not by any means certain however.
by show carefully examining it.34 It is MATHEMATICS absolutely necessary to plant this table firmly in But the proper Avay to arrive at this is not it. the child rii  [ 1 must reconstruct II II 1 1 1 it —not 1 1 1 a very 1 1 1  n II 1 1 1 1 ir '1 1   1'l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  . our minds. making use of later on. If it does not come readily to the mind. to attempt to learn it. This is accomplished by making it verifying as we will it.
7 is the multiplicand. . If I take a heap of 7 sticks. So we can say equally well that to multiply 7 by 3 is to repeat 7. 3 times or to find a number of winch the proportion to 7 will be the same as that of 3 to 1. 17. do the same thing mark off the points of division by means of strong lines. and 3 the multiplicator. worthy of notice that we can make a multiplication . . on a vertical line. 11 is done by calculation. 3. The result obtained by such multiplication is the product of the two numbers ' : I If. 2.. . 7 and 3. 1. talcing the same starting point. divisions out successively. 12). . 6. . our table in Fig. The table shown in this figure is made out as far as 10. it is only to have a squared paper in sufficiently small necessary divisions (Fig. always diminish by increase the figures of the units 1. instead of heaping up the sticks. . and I form three such heaps. . 7. The explanation not be It is difficult to find.PRODUCTS figures of the units are alternately 5 (or the row) beginning with 8. Products. 12 only represents by means of a series of lines what in Fig. by 1. 1.Then. . can ask myself. .. 3. we see that (taking one heap as representing a unit) the number showing the product will be 3 or that the proportion of the product will be 3 which number also gives us the proportion of 3 to 1. 35 and . and those of the tens of this will . we leave the three heaps separate. table without using a single figure to do this.. We proceed as follows : mark 2. and we obtain large divisions and each of these divisions contains a number of little ones which will be precisely the same as is contained in our table of The explanation of this is quite simple for figures. To multiply a number (the multiplicand) by another . 10. d 2 . . on a horizontal line. and mark the points of division. in the column 9. " How many sticks will there be in all ? That is called multiplying 7 by 3. .
by 7 X 3 is often written 7. Explain at this point that the multiplication sign is x . we a X b. . it gives us the desired product by taking the column that begins the line winch begins with 3 and looking for the meeting point. are called the abed we can thus have the product factors of the product number of factors. while the latter can be easily grasped by the pupil. means of grains of corn. be formed by repeating the multiplicand as .b. b. 3 is 21 with 7. we must first notice that the table gives us the answers when the . or simply abed. instead of these two we can have any two numbers whatever represented by the letters a.36 (the multiplicator) MATHEMATICS may is to find another number (the product). . Their product can be expressed by when we write ab = p. b. which times as there are units in the multiplicator this product. It is quite certain that the child will jump immediately to the idea that. And as the table (Fig. d. then the new product by d a. of any As regards the j^ractice of multiplication. he has nothing to do but make an addition. mean that It is well to know also that we can consider products such as a X b X c x d. r .3 . to find a product. These are not formulae which the child must learn many . c. in short. for instance this means that we multiply a by b. 11) has been made in this way. or of divisions on squared paper. " and that therefore the phrase the product of 7 multiplied " is expressed thus : 7 x 3 = 21. bears the same proportion to the multiplicand which the multiplicator does to unity. that the product of 7 by 3 is 7 __ 7 j_ 7 in the same way that 3 is 1 + 1 + 1. or a. they are ideas which he must insensibly assimilate by our aid for the former present an appearance of difficulty. where we read 21. . multiplicand and the multiplicator are each less than ten. then the resulting product by c. of sticks. or simply ab a multiplied by b is p. take the trouble of expressing them by especially if we .
1. which all useful. I cannot sufficiently impress upon you the importance of giving preference to the Mohammedan method. and the 9. 100. almost as quick. approved by several are going to take the very simple instance of The multiplicand has 4 figures. 37 a will be easy afterwards to show how we can multiply number by 10.000. much easier to understand and carry and not sufficientby known in teaching although writers.PRODUCTS It. The employment of numerous examples conforming to the rules given in all the arithmetic books might be provided that it is not accompanied by any theory.347 x 258. is out. 7 We K .
n being the number of that the factors. 2 x 2 X of 5 is 2 x 2 • = 3 24 = 16 . the index The cube 5x5x5 = 5 The square 7 of 7 is = . is called a power of a . it is sufficiently As regards the justification What is of real importance is that he shall be able to calculate correctly. called the index. and the 3rd cube which all . and thus giving him a taste for calculation. 72 = 49 the index is 2. the factors are equal. There are a number of results from operations which Their great merit strike us because of their peculiarities. Curious Operations. (we shall soon see the reason for is this).. consists in arousing the child's curiosity. moment when fatigue or boreZ ^ \ \ 5 14. 2 6 Fig.38 MATHEMATICS of the Mohammedan method. 125 .. x 7 = 18. of x a. not abandon what relates to multiplication without recalling that a product will However. although at present unnecessary for the child. the index is 3. evident to everyone acquainted with the theory of multiplication. If he is of an enquiring disposition he will probably discover it for himself. that such a product is written a". . The number n is 4. and that we call it the nth power of a the second power is called square. we a x a x a x . and that he will be From the interested in doing so. dom overtakes him it is absolutely necessary to go on to something else.
For example. 428571. 98 x 9 + 6. he will find in it a paper on which you have written beforehand 1089. 714285. On the contrary. adding 099 and 990 we make 10S9. which makes it 317 next. and 123 X 9 + 4 equalling 1111. working out 9 x 9 + 7. and so on. which will be 1089. 39 be sufficient will to write a suit his Ask the child. 5. . . = 9 X 27 ( = 9 X 3) . which then reads 693 finally add these last . it own fancy. The product of 123456789 x 9 will be a number made up of l's. II. 123 X 9 + 4. At this point ask him to open two. let him choose one to . Suppose he writes 713 . the made up of the saine figure repeated. Taking the same multiplicand and number multiplying 18 ( it by 2). 3. If the child works out 12 x 9 + 3. we must put a nought in the hundreds place. number after giving of 3 figures . I. . Take successively number 142857 571428. it by 2. to 81 all (= 9 X 9). and so on. him a sealed envelope. 4. 1 same figures This difference ought always to have three figures. . 6 our products will be 285714. If there are only two. provided that the first and third figures are different. if we multiply 857142. as far as 123156789 x 9 + 10. 12 x 9 + 3 giving us as result 111. 716 and 617 will give us for difference 099. It is remarkable that any other of 3 figures would have led to the same result. each result will contain no other figure than 1 written a varying number of times. according to this rule. which gives the result 396 ! reverse this number. III. the envelope . we shall have results which will contain no figure but 8.CURIOUS OPERATIONS Subjoined are various examples which for our purpose. we shall find some curious products. IV. . subtract one from the other. It will be seen that each product contains the as the multiplicand. then write the reverse way. and so on till we reach 9876543 x 9 + 1.
are composite numbers. we have 999999. Complete these examples by showing the easy method of multiplying by 9. 19. making 142 and 857. 5. of saying whether it is prime . and others which the latter are called the prime numbers. that Running our eyes over a multiplication table. the are not . 87 = 3 x 29. This should always be done by multiplying by 10. 29. 87. 7.40 MATHEMATICS Multiplying it by 7. 2. = 2x2. a method of Still. too big this can quite soon be done mentally. 999. 100. This distincand yet. V. 91. Prime Numbers. the sum of these numbers will be 999. there are numbers which are products. or not. 91 = 7 X 13.. ever far we advance in the series of numbers we always meet these prime and composite numbers. we notice it includes certain numbers up to the limit to which In other words. 9. 71 are prime numbers . and then If the numbers are not subtracting the multiplicand. others are called composite numbers. from antiquity we have possessed the prime numbers to a limit as distant as we finding wish. We are incapable. etc. 3. but not all these numbers. has slight extent of our knowledge with the immensity of the things about which we are ignorant. This method consists in writing out the complete . The same result is obtained by cutting in two any of the five products written above. unless we give ourselves up to a groping or tentative method which requires very long and laborious calcula This shows us how very little progress science made on these questions which appear quite simple. For instance. it extends. despite the labours of our tion is fundamental most learned men. by 99. we know very little about prime numbers. 9 = 3 X 3. and if we cut it in two. 6. and how modest we ought to be when we compare the tions. if the number under consideration is rather large. because 4 How6 = 2 x 3. 1000. 4.
which is useless. 2 3 Jf 5 17 JtT 7 tT # MT  11 hf 13 A*f Jtfr +T £&. Ave find that only the following numbers remain uncancelled The first . cancelling the numbers which we find to be products of multiplication by 3. which are 4.JbT §#• W 19 &r *f a* 32" 33* 23 9* *% #tf 29 3<r 31 41 _£T #T 4 7 37 W#r~k<r «<r&r&>* if 43 07 79 ~MT~ 43~ Jrtr 4*r496i 53 #r &r j#r j*r s*r 59 £tr 4rS*Tr ^r_^>r 54 j& ^r &#* ?#• w 5T" r8* 38 8<r frT W J&eg" 89 9# ^T \$7 ?#\7 #r »r 83 93.4Mr 0T w JfHr 73 a*. that is . according to the we find the products of 2. therefore from number uncancelled after 3 is 5 starting 5. even numbers already. of 3. etc. unless they have been cancelled to say. We intend applying it here Write them.#tr 97 WWWIOI 4#T 4Hr 103 44trfWT44MT 107 408" 109 ++fr hit 4Hr4tr+w 113 434"43tfl^r 137 ±&r J&s.. to the first 150 numbers. . and moving on by 5's. they are not. : — 5 3 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 43 47 53 59 61 07 71 73 79 83 97 101 103 107 109 113 127 131 137 139 149 2 37 89 41 which gives us the list of prime numbers up to 150.PRIME NUMBERS list 41 of these numbers. numbers. . Starting from 2. prime and we cancel them at one blow as far as 150. 6. Doing the same with 7 and 11.149 4#tt jhtTjw* ±rr \&r +%r a*# jlwmmt 131 w^43^ HW \M 4^VrT S&tMrfJJrt Mt& list. we proceed in the same way. of 5. .x&c a*x ±w >Wi4r 4^8. therefore. then cancelling those which are products of 2. and going on by 2's. suppressing 1. Let us begin this time with 3 and continue by 3's. .
21. successively taking we have the numbers 49. and we see that we have needed to subtract 8 times The quotient we want is to exhaust our dividend 56. 7. is called the divisor. each containing 7. naturally. thus 8 table . being careful to count how many What we now a division. Thus. that is to say. 9.C. . to divide with ease. and one of the factors. born at Cyrene (276 — 193 B. is called the dividend the factor given. and so on.. 56. away 14. division is nothing else than a means of counting very The method much faster subtractions done all To accustom children to be able must begin by always making at once. have been formed into one large one.). because of its impracticable The classical rule that is adopted in doing length. our knowledge of the multiplication would show us this immediately. subtractions 7 from 56.. we them form into a little . until there is nothing left. table the products of the divisor by 2. 20. 35.e. 3.e. Some small heaps of counters.42 MATHEMATICS sieve of This ingenious process is known as the Eratosthenes T from the name of the inventor. Eratosthenes. 7. which contains 56. knowing the product of two factors. then the divisor from the remainder obtained. The product given. does away with the hesitation that so . we have made. are going to do to discover this is called also say that. 56. i. we wish to find the other. of successive subtractions would be with rather large numbers. Quotients. Alexandrian scholar. 28. by taking the divisor from the dividend. i. We really could find the quotient by subtraction. We can . 42. . 7. and the result we are seeking is the quotient. We want to find out how many little heaps we have used to make the large one. This hampers the beginner in 1 all his work.
2358. . contains the divisor 3 times. which contains the divisor exactly 8 times therefore. 2 thousand subtractions at once. we make We have left . by subtracting 8 times more we shall have taken everything from the dividend. so taking away 819 hundreds we have made 300 subtractions at once. given of 273 are products 1 We X 273 2 3 4 5 =273 =546 =819 = = 1092 1365 6 X 273 7 8 9 = = = = 1638 1911 2184 2457 Let us work out the problem in the ordinary way: 643734 ( 273 546 — 2358 977 819 1583 1365 2184 2184 little In the dividend there are 643 thousand as our table shows us.QUOTIENTS 43 will show him how this is done by the example The below of the division of 643731 by 273. and taking away 1365 tens. Now our remainder is 15834. in this The child should form the habit of dividing way . Finally. the total number of subtractions. . . 643 contains the divisor (273) twice therefore. containing 1583 tens 1583 contains the divisor 5 times. which contains 977 hundreds 977 97734. and the quotient will be dividend. there remains 2184. taking away 546 thousand from the . we make this time 50 subtractions.
However. one placed above_thc other. sign and the division sign (2nd method) would be well to point out that the minus sign is placed between two numbers. 56 — = 8. This number is termed the remainder of the division. can easily be turned into divisions which are possible. 4 will remain be divisible by 12. if we work on precisely the same lines. [Tn. we shall come at last to a point when the dividend will be smaller than the divisor. when we get a remainder. Theories are interesting. lay Do useful at a later They are hardly suitable for period.44 MATHEMATICS without it being necessary to explain in great detail what we have just expressed at length. or 216. As a very simple example. would 220. arc similar. the introductory jieriod. We can write 56 7 =. one following the other. much stress on this operation of from the point of view of the practice of division. so that nothing is left. We will . = j q means that the quotient of the division of a by b is 1 the number q. at random. let us suppose that we are going to divide 220 by 12. Thus 5647 56 or = expresses r the quotient of 56 7. except calculation. for when 12 has been taken 18 times from it follows that 220 — 4. but will be more not. but if we take two numbers hardly likely such division will be not be able to take away the divisor a certain number of times.] As the minus it . These impossible divisions. however. In general. it is possible. whereas the division sign is placed between two numbers. taking the divisor from the dividend as many times as we can. The above division could be done because the divisor and dividend had been picked. It is useful to know that division is shown b}* a sign  7 or — by l . and the quotient would be 18. by simply replacing the dividend by this dividend with the remainder taken from it. We shall discover this to be impossible.
FRACTIONS 21. is the  FlG 15 of numerator. which is above the the line. will be the share of each one of It will the five. into how many equal pieces we have divided the cake. indicating 5. and the tenths could be obtained by taking fifths. BOC. by taking afterwards the same number of parts the cake would be again to 1. and AOB will be represented by ^ of a cake. such as AOB. two may be absent. both exactly alike. showing pieces. are put on one side for them. These two pieces taken together are called twofifths of a cake. . entire. as AOB. but their shares are to be reserved for them. Of the five people. and not five. is the denominator. 2. and cutting each of them the cake .THE DIVIDED CAKE. This part is called a fifth of the cake. and one of these pieces. 15) by incisions starting from the middle. 2 and 5 are the two terms . All these numbers. so the parts AOB. such as =. are 5 5 called fractions. which is below. Then 2 r» = 1 ~ . and it is no harder . 45 The Divided Cake. have to be cut into five perfectly equal pieces (Fig. number  If we had taken 5 5 = of the cake. we can if see that would have been the whole cake and the cake had been divided into any number whatever of equal parts. Suppose five people wish to share a round cake equally. and they are shown by the figures 2 2 =. into two equal parts. so that the fraction is — of which the numerator and denominator are alike always equal But suppose 10 people. Fractions. wanted to divide then we should have had to divide the cake into 10 equal parts.
would be absurd. as the result would show. and them 17 each person can take a secondly. there are 17 cakes. can divide each cake into fifths. calculations adapt themselves to which are very numerous. This fundamental principle of the whole of theory of fractions is proved in this manner by a sort means of concrete objects. people want to divide all alike. and. or. to divide. are divisible. by to another need ask for no demonstration. suitable things. such as cakes. such as those which. we can give each one an equal number of cakes. divided lengths. on which it seems unnecessary to dilate longer. each of the five 2 persons will take 2 . by this means we 17 see that j = 3 It is easy by this means to initiate the child into all the ordinary fractional calculations. which of course. but not . fifth of each cake. We There are two ways equally. apples. that these new arithmetical expressions wonderfully are numbers. if. Then he will seize the idea oranges. It is to this is not more frequently In other words. . Dividing them into fifths. But we can only succeed by always using concrete objects. We ought at this stage to make it clear that these numbers can only be used in relation to those things their very nature.46 to see that MATHEMATICS two fractions are equal if we can pass from one the two terms by the same by multiplying number. for five people will be 3. etc. impossible. and that they express proportions. in all jt. well. and we intuitive evidence. Suppose now. a question . and that 5 of doing this. as 5 is contained Then we shall be left with 2 cakes in 17 three times. of persons involving the consideration of a certain number the application of fractional numbers was placed before us. be regretted that mentioned to the pupil. by we have indicated above for example.
Questions involving fractions should be varied. perhaps. calculation of fractions can also be at Amiens (1842 1891). will for the exercise of his own reflection and common without which a mere dexterity in computation useless. born — He . FRACTIONS universal. that in arithmetic there is be borne a necessity sense. in 47 And this further maxim must always mind by the child. be For instance. instead of the number . was. and instances taken from the counting of money. with insisting on the usefulness. ^ . His merit has been singularly unrecognised. and this contributed to his premature death. to the manner in which they may be Avritten. particularly mentioned by Edward Lucas. and does not give rise to confusion . Edward Lucas. and borrowed from effective concrete subjects. French mathematician. for instance. and we only need mention The properties and 1 it. from which he cuts off 2 metres each day in how many days will he have cut up the whole piece ? A want of thought. understood better than any other the science of numbers. in his day. leads to the answer 8. it is not by chance. Many good treatises on arithmetic will furnish the I content myself necessary instances in this respect. which will serve as a useful exercise on this maxim. and to the methods of calculation connected with them. It would be wise to complete them by drawing attention to decimal fractions. 7. A tailor has a piece of stuff 16 metres in length. above all. here 1 is a problem. the man who.THE DIVIDED CAKE. joined to the habit of mechanical calculation. which an exercise of common sense would indicate. not too complicated. we must notice that if the sign of division and notation of fractions are alike. expresses not only the quotient of the division of 15 by 3 but the 15 fraction —. This can be seen with concrete objects. Finally. of measures of length.
16. by making use of squared paper. each being alike. in a very simple fashion. If Ave divide the height of the rectangle into 5 equal parts. i. to teachers. 16). Again. Fig. Ave can cut it into 5 portions. diA'ide the length (Fig. lf». they will have no trouble in using the means proposed.48 MATHEMATICS shown. into 5 A'ertical bands Each of them will be a fifth of the unit (Fig. all alike. follow. 17). Ave represent a concrete unit of any kind Fig. by its nature. provided they have understood what I have said. parts. and each being a twelfth and the height into 4 such 3x4 of the unit. or little rectangles. 18) into 3 equal parts. (provided that. all alike. and each of them. if they agree with the principle of my — point of view. as briefly as is consistent with I address myself a sufficient clearness of expression. the unit can be cut by lines passing through the points of division into 12. 17). A\e can also cut it into 5 horizontal bands. our to explain them now. and. Taking any number Avhatever of these bands or rect . of course. Suppose. under whatever form seems good to them that is. also. then. it is divisible) by means of a rectangle (Figs. If Ave divide the length of tins rectangle into 5 equal parts. a fifth of the unit (Fig. Judgment can be passed upon it by the remarks which They only presented themselves to my mind I will endeavafter the publication of the second edition.
FRACTIONS 49 If the number angles. a proper fraction. consequently. sion or an improper fraction. is When we use the word " equal to 1. By means of shading. or a If greater. such a fraction. fraction " the word means.THE DIVIDED CAKE. by taking just the same number of bands or rectangles as there was in the unit. of bands or little rectangles is less than those which make up the unit we have a fraction properly so called. and an improper fraction is greater than 1. we have what is called a fraction. we can express any fraction whatever. we have a fractional expresproper fraction. leaving white those . If. as a general rule. we reform the unit. Therefore a proper fraction is less than 1.
We will take. 3 Let us take the fraction 7 that it is (Fig. either by working on the above principle.50 MATHEMATICS no way changed by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the same number. we must take 7 2 3 2 of z. rectangles its . numerator 3 have each been multiplied by 5 therefore 7 = 7 3x5  _ 15 20' fractions can be reduced graphically to the same denominator. Dividing the height AD into four . for example. and we 4 x 5 or 20 . For multiplication. the definition itself tells us that. then take the little 3 fraction . 20). the first fraction and the other by two represented by a vertical band. 7 and 1 2 5. taking for illustration these concrete expressions. I wish to show 3 15 ^^ e ^ract ^ on 4 was equal to ~q or & y 5 represented by vertical bands. Take two (Fig. 21) the fraction = represented in ABCD by vertical bands. 2 to multiply = 3 by 7. . the second into four see that our two fractions read will Addition and subtraction aR d j^' ^> then be readily explained. Two or dealing directly with the figure. horizontal Dividing the first rectangle into three horizontal bands vertical bands. I divide the height into 5 equal parts and I picture the rectangular unit cut up by horizontal lines passing through the points of division. it has not changed its denominator and . bands (Fig. ' 3x5 It is thus divided into little shall see that we have now rectangles all alike . it contains 3 x 5 or 15 . 19). we exactly similar.
we have 2 divided ^ into four equal parts take three of these. and let us darken the remainder by horizontal shading. FRACTIONS equal parts. 51 and drawing horizontal .THE DIVIDED CAKE. lines. .
Experience has shown that these methods are most efficacious from a scholastic point of view it is most desirable that their use should be it were. give us also the idea of a flat surface. without which he may be obliged to he sees these truths. but tangible realities. it 22) AB. ruled lines paper seen it plainly that the all parallel. on are never meet. it fixes in his mind the essential truths. with his . straight lines and that two parallel lints on the contrary (Fig. he makes them. ig. CD. Let us begin. or a door. the two AB. It is the most simple of all the geometrical figures. We Start Geometry. We have already seen what is a straight line. If.52 MATHEMATICS is been mentioned. and we feel that. they can be parallel. be D — by looking at the surface of prolonged as far as we like. . the plane may. of paper we can draw as On a flat On a sheet many If lines as we wish. of 22 a ceiling. as (Fig. CD. for instance. by A C B forming an idea of a plane a smooth piece of water. in thought. 23). force his memory . we draw two only. more and more extended. that of a good lookingglass. the figures . surface we can lay a ruler in any direction. We can try and extend our knowledge a little in this respect. 23. indefinitely. the work at once amusing and instruc tive. a floor. it rivets the child's attention. a sheet of paper stretched on a polished board. A slate. as own hands they are no longer for him obscure phrases repeated without any meaning attached to them. like the straight line. can On be . 22. meet at the point O.
. the lines which run from left to right are called horizontal. it is an obtuse greater A plumbline shows a straight line which is angle. we can see right angles everywhere where two lines meet. BOD.WE START GEOMETRY 53 AOC. u An FlG . . for example. is called an acute angle if than a right angle. 25) can be parallel. straight lines (Fig. in Fig. angle less than a right AOC. angle. The angles AOC. Two angles are equal when we can place one over the other. CD. which we call On a piece of horizontal. AB. 24) cut each other in such that the angles DOA. When two straight lines form right " D angles in this way we say that they are perpendicular to one another. . and the figure formed by the When two a way two lines is that of a cross. F 25 surface of smooth water would be horizontal straight hues. and tins surface is in itself a plane. the four angles round O are all equal . F. . like /\ G p ^ E — Fl( . Let us imagine that on a sheet of paper we have drawn three straight lines. ^ On squared paper. DOA. and the others vertical. 23. In the second place (Fig. because we suppose that the paper is lifted up and laid against a wall. and the third. ruled paper laid before us. A straight line perpendicular to a vertical All straight lines drawn on the line is called horizontal. These may be considered in several The three straight lines (Fig. might intersect them at E. AOC are equal. might be parallel.'. are equal it is the same with COB. EF. called vertical. BOD. we call them then right angles. ways. 26) two. COB. like COB. DOA are angles.
the triangle is termed an isosceles triangle. the three straight lines will cross each other twice at the three points A.54 This third line is MATHEMATICS called a secant. AB. If the triangle is a triangle has its three sides equal. and will limit a portion of the plane ABC. B. it is equilateral. we say then obtuse that obtuseangled. Finally (Fig. In this figure . We CA the sides. we say then that the triangle is rightIt angled. 29). Its three angles are then equal (Fig. may also Fig. One of the angles of can be a the triangle right angle . 31) have an angle . apexes. AC which are equal. which we can consider apart (Fig. Fig. B. 32 has two sides AB. 26. C are called the is called a triangle. of the that the angles A. C. 27. 27) that our three straight lines Fig. 33). 28). triangle. If a triangle like those of Fig. It might happen (Fig. B. BC. The angles B and C are then equal. . (Fig. all the the angles angles marked 1 are equal to each other marked 2 are also equal to each other and the sum of an angle 1 and of an angle 2 is equal to two right angles. 28. C marked on say the figure are the angles of the triangle. . we would say then passed through the same point that they were concurrent. if none of the preceding circumstances occur. . and the segments. and which The points A.
30. we then draw from the A a straight line perpendicular to BC. If 55 ABC BC. and which B Fig. has innumerable Fig.WE In a triangle START GEOMETRY (Fig. : At are ourselves we learning nothing at all. 31. properties the we will examine some moment we must not deceive . 32. When a part of a plane (Fig. or rather by several segments of straight The segments AB. limited That is something useful. 35) is by several straight lines. at any rate. we are simply looking at the Fig. of them later. 9 meets This BC at A'. figures and getting to know their names. is the height or altitude of the triangle. C A Fig. we can choose any side. 34). . this figure is called a polygon. simple the triangle. 29. we say that AA' figure. lines. and point call it the base.
Generally speaking. A polygon of 4 sides 6 7 8 is a quadrilateral 10 >j 12 pentagon hexagon heptagon octagon decagon dodecagon. 36 is said to have reentering B Fig. is called a diagonal. HA corners or apexes. A' Fig. . H. . they possess. are the sides. as we have already said. given to according to the number sides which To begin with. straight line like two corners of a polygon. . the number of the comers. 33. the sides. When there is no reentering angle. marked A. the . angles. joins is not a side. . as in Fig. a polygon with three sides is a triangle. and the angles are the same. we shall only deal with convex polygons. BC. . . 34.56 MATHEMATICS . the angles angles of the polygon. Special names have different been of polygons. 35). 35. H the A polygon like that of Fig. and which which A AD (Fig. . B. B. . the points A. Fig. In a polygon. the polygon is convex. 3G.
WE START GEOMETRY is 57 Tims. and so are gram. and if the sides BC. the two sides AB. a rectangle has all its sides equal. If (Fig. it is a rhombus (Fig. CD are parallel. If (Fig. Fig. and equally so the angles B. In every quadrilateral there are two diagonals every parallelogram (Figs. If. AD are also parallel. the sides BC and AD. called a square. 40) one of the angles is a rightangle. The sides AB. 41). and Fig. called trapeziums. the quadrilateral is a paralleloThen the sides AB and CD are equal. CD can be parallel (Fig. C are equal. the angles A. 38. 35 represents a convex octagon. In a quadrilateral. CD are the bases of AB. 38. 39). 37). C others are rightangles also. the two others not being so such quadrilaterals arc . If in a parallelogram the four sides are equal. 38) the sides •. OH Fig. 40. 36 a heptagon with reentering angles. Also. 41) these in two . is is a it finally (Fig. 39. and the parallelogram rectangle. the three the trapezium. D. .
we shall touch briefly upon this later on. various figures of which we have spoken. 39) the two diagonals are perpendicular to one another. D 41) the two diagonals are both It will be equal and perpendicular. with the help of a pencil. should be constructed time after time by the pupil. In a rhombus (Fig. 40. BD cut each other at a point O. or rather this segment AH. which is the middle of each of them. without the help instrument. In a square (Fig.58 MATHEMATICS diagonals AC. and others which we can imagine. is termed the height of the parallelogram. 38) the base. this straight line. Afterwards he must accustom himself to draw them For correctly of !£. have a straight AH CD (and also On squared squared lines. and the protractor . are equal. to draw it freehand afterwards in ink. by following the we can form as many The rectangles and squares as we like. line should be drawn with the greatest ruler. this purwell for We are not saying anything yet about the use of the compass. a set square. paper. two n In a rectangle (Fig. If in the we take a side CD. which we call parallelogram (Fig. 40) the ^ diagonals . and if we line perpendicular to perpendicular to AB). bus and a rectangle. Every possible care. any pose it will be him. a and a measure to measure the lengths. . after having drawn his figure in pencil with his instruments. noticed that a square is both a rhomFig.
we have a polygon. . A'. When (Fig. BB' are then parallelograms. 42) zontal plane. A' /\ The quadrilaterals AA'. DD'. the space which would be limited . B. BB. E'. . parallel outside the plane. do not let us lose sight of the fact that the must never have left off drawing since he began to trace Ms first strokes. the parallelograms are the . ABCDE. CC. D'. C the extremities. bases.WE child START GEOMETRY 59 Moreover. on a if we draw the straight D' horilines AA. EE'. all and equal to one another. by all these parallelograms and by the two polygons is called a the two polygons are the prism . for instance. C. are the corners of another polygon like the first.
That hardly answers to geometrical science such as we know it today. or the side of a division But have a We of squared paper. and have sought These pieces of land the best means of arriving at it. called an area. are made assuming all the edges to be visible (figures in little sticks). The word " geometry " signifies. to acquaint ourselves with the extent of land.60 MATHEMATICS the distance from the apex to the plane of the base. DD' (indicated by dotted lines). which would be vertical if the base was horizontal. which is unit of length. . from the needs of the human race. the measurement of the earth. little 23. DC. we must know how to measure lengths. like others. in perspective. which has arisen. or a potato. but it throws a light upon the origin of this science. we must start with a unit which is in itself an area. being pretty nearly flat on the whole and more often than not limited by straight lines. 42 and 44. by its etymology. whilst in the cube of Fig. cut them with a knife out of a carrot. which takes place if the cube is a solid body. we must determine and estimate the extent of the various polygons described in the preceding chapter. From quite early times men have recognised the need for estimating the extent of pieces of land. 43 we find three unseen edges AD. To measure length we must have a To measure a flat expanse. Notice that the Figs. With some small learn to construct sticks and bits of wire it is easy to models giving a sufficiently exact We can also idea of the figures we have just mentioned. is the height of the pyramid. or a match. Areas. for a unit a metre. it follows that. taking unit. to measure anything. no matter what.
7 = 49. and to count the number to lay out the chosen of times that laid it out. Consequently each square will be the area unit. the number which will measure its area. each containing 7 their total number then is 7 times 7. so that the length of this side has 7 for its measure. let us take a We will take squared square. It is for this reason that the square of a number is called its 2nd power. The squares contained in this figure are made up of 7 rows. number). which cannot be done. the unit of length having been chosen. that is to say. . there are very simple ways of determining their areas. 45) a square whose side will contain 7 divisions. it suffices unit end to end. will be 8 x 3 instead if. On the other hand. side this unit of length. the number which measures the area of the square is the 2nd power of the number which the side measures. each division is the unit of length. Fig. 40) a rectangle whose sides are Fig. And using a to indiof divisions cate the number . that is to say. to measure a length. or 7 X 7 = squares . of which we suppose that paper. To begin with. the area of the square would be a x a = a 2 . it is easy to understand that such a proceeding is practically impossible when dealing with an area . On this squared paper we will draw (Fig. 46. the area unit will be the area of the square having for its If.AREAS 61 Invariably. the squared unit must we have thus be laid out so that the area will be covered. 45. i i on the side of a square (whether this number be 7 or any other 8 and 3 the number of squares. . for the figures described further back. We will take now (Fig. .
by the height AH. ing the area of the triangle. BC. and take its height CH. and taking the half of this product. the two triangles CBA. the area of the rectangle will be measured by the product ab. and the latter has an area half of that of the parallelogram Making the product of the base DC. an area double that of the triangle ADC. the heights HK. we have a and b. H Fig. by a line along CH. D Fig. and its height CH. 48. 49) can be split up in the same way deduce from this that to obtain the into two triangles. If. it is necessary to multiply We the height AH by the half of the sum of its bases AB. Then the area of a parallelogram has for its measure the product of the numbers which measure its base and its height. 47) a parallelogram ABCD. 50. The triangular shaded portions LDH. for instance. we cut off. A parallelogram (Fig. number which measures its area. ADC will Then the parallelogram has lie exactly one upon the other. we shall have the number measur' . whose area will be the same as that of the parallelogram. of the sides AD. laying CB on DA. 48) being cut in two by a line along the diagonal AC. A) transform a trapezium into a It is only necessary to draw rectangle of the same area. since it is made up of the same we set down this triangle form the rectangle pieces. the triangle CHB which is shaded on the figure. and if on the left. having formed this parallelogram in cardboard. This rectangle has for its sides the base CD of the parallelogram. . 47. IJ through the centres L. MCI. we CDKH. We can also (Fig.62 MATHEMATICS of 8 and 3. A trapezium (Fig. M. Now imagine (Fig. DC.
and the side DC by a length CG. or LM. the figure AFGD of the sum of the bases is a parallelogram . K A . B). is equal to half rectangle. 50. equal to DC. equal to AB. if we prolong the side AB by a length BF. AB. which gives . and cutting  it FlG 4!) along BC we have two each of trapeziums.AREAS 63 can be laid exactly on LAK and MBJ. CD. Finally (Fig. and thus form the This shows us that HJ. which will fit over one another them is then the half of the parallelogram.
AHIB. the inch. without having up point any idea of theory. This is the opening statement of the famous asses' bridge. According to the object. and difficult to it remember. he will take for the unit of length the yard.64 MATHEMATICS To determine manner exact areas. will become later a very considerable help when he really begins his studies." undoubtedly because ordinary scholars stumble at it and have some trouble in getting over it. for their sides the formed. called " bridge. 52). CFGA. the metre. We already is know what a greatest side right angle. the area of the first will be equal to the sum of the areas of the two others. the floor or the ceiling of a window. in this of a door. much practice will be necessary. but which has been the despair of many generations of scholars. 51. because the academical demonstration that is usually given of it is hardly natural." " " the theorem of Pythagoras (although it was known " the asses' centuries before Pythagoras). lastly many . in this manner he will familiarise himself with the most Fig. . If three squares be called the hypotenuse. etc. having hypotenuse and the two other sides. BDEC. this acquisition. The Asses' Bridge. a A room. already useful in itself. tape measure will be sufficient to use for this purpose. such as those a table.. BC rectangular triangle is. There is in geometry a proposition at once celebrated and important. a playground. the foot. The that which is opposed to the (Fig. 2i. the deci metre and the centimetre to this . system he will grasp them intuitively he will have an exact idea of the employment of the various units and . . is It is known under different names the square of the hypotenuse. an(j simple applications of our weights measures and of the metric .
little Fig. either in wood or cardboard. there is a very simple method of verifying this proposition. Let us take a square (Fig. where the shaded Fig. which has for its side exactly the hypotenuse.THE ASSES' BRIDGE 65 Now. as they are shown in 53 (1). This square is then what remains when a part of the large (2) mm Warn . Arrange 3. 4. We see that they form a pattern which allows a square to be seen in the interior. a method which was invented in India in the very earliest times and can be used for a most exact — demonstration when the study geometry has been begun though as yet we have not cut (. parts represent these triangles. of G Marking a point C between A and B. triangles having for their sides them. Four will be sufficient. we will construct. 2. numbering them 1. rectangular AC and CB which contain the riedit ansjlc. 53 (1) ) whose side is AB.'red on it.
53 (1). pieces are 1st BCFE.GG MATHEMATICS Then both of them have the same area as the square of the hypotenuse in Fig. the proposition of arithmetic square of the sum of two numbers is equal to the areas of is we have " The : . by estimating all these figures. 54) ACIG then taking CF = BC. 3rd 4th EFIH. also draw BEII parallel to CI. These four AC . simple things and to make difficult anything which is easy. rectangle like the preceding one. . let let On a segment ABC (Fig. ABED. BC. the child who has practised it once or twice will never forget it in his whole life. and will never be dismayed nor confused when he approaches the asses' The greatest blunder of all is to complicate bridge. Various Puzzles . us construct a square us to draw FED parallel The large square will be cut into four parts by the lines BH and FI) this can be done by two snips of the scissors. It is just a very simple game of patience . square having for its side BC. that to say. square having for its side : DE which is equal to AB." If we have drawn the figure on squared paper. counting the divisions. 2nd EIIGD. rectangle having its sides equal to AB. Mathematical Medley. plus twice the rectangle D constructed with these two lines as sides. verified this ' We G have just theorem of geometry : The square constructed upon the sum of two lines is equal to first. 25. the square constructed upon the plus the square constructed upon the second. .
yah iocs PUZZLES 67 G .
FJ. which is ACGD the as the difference of the squares ABJH.BC identical. = BC. less twice the rectangle constructed with the two segments as sides. ACGD arc equal to BC. it will only be necessary to cut some 1 1 . And to verify so many propositions. The rectangle having as sides the sum and the difference of two segments is equal to the difference of the squares — DE Arithmetic. 26. 56) FG. —This formula . let us lay out. three lengths equal to each other. and starting from one of the corners O. . Arithmetic. — b)is — a' 1 — ABJH AB . The Cube in Eight Pieces.68 MATHEMATICS structed on these two segments. —having The product is these two segments as sides. less twice their product. concerning so many sciences. This formula will be (a + b)(a ci b b) Algebra. One more example a rectangle square. DE lab + ba square. These games of cutting up cardboard have sometimes been called brain puzzles. Therefore :— on AB and DEIH constructed Geometry. (Fig. has thus for sides AB + BC and two rectangles BCGF. on the three edges which end there. place of The rectangle . is —The square of the difference will of two numbers equal to the sum of the squares of these numbers. Let us take (Fig. after having made the figures with great care. DEIH is a be (a . FJIE are by taking away the first and putting it in the the second wc shall have ABJIED. 57) a wooden cube. because used in the manner we have just indicated they prevent on the contrary much puzzling of the brain in the future by dint of teaching by means of the eye. — — = — shapes of cardboard into pieces. Algebra. of the sum of two numbers by their difference equal to the difference of their squares. This is very unjust.
at each of the three points thus obtained. constructing thus Fig. and the length AO b. The two parts of B C DA D B/ A q C which it is composed represent what we see after the cuts along AAA. and that on the right what above. To make the A explanation easier. IN EIGHT PIECES 09 Suppose that we saw through along AAA. By this means the cube is cut into eight pieces. .THE CUBE OA. OB. BBB.". the letters (a) (b) B between is Fig. let us eall (Eig.7. 57) the length a. CCC. and BBB. when we look at the cube from above. OC. by means of looking at the object itself. 58. brackets show the thickness after the The left figure shows what is cut along CCC. iai . As well as this. underneath CCC.
of the sum of the cubes constructed two segments — upon the sum upon each segments Second. plus three times the product of the second by the square of the first. The same figure shows us that in Arithmetic the cube of the sum of two numbers is equal to the sum of the cubes of these two numbers. These arc games which.70 MATHEMATICS The edge of the cube which we have cut was a + b. having for its base a square with the side a. and neither difficult nor expensive to procure. : Finally (Algebra) this gives the formula (a + hf = a* + 3a2b + 3ab + 63 . the constructions which we have indicated may be made. . and also many more. cutting by But the it carefully with a wire instead of using a saw. With a sufficient number of little wooden cubes. having for its base a square with a side b. into eight pieces We of of the verify thus that the cube constructed : a. If necessary. This is Geometry. Edward Lucas attributes the origin of the numbers which have been called triangular to the observation of the ilijrht of certain birds. of three times a parallelopiped. and for its height b Third. of three times a parallelopiped. directed with a little method. and for its height a. This is quite analogous to what we have done for the square of a sum in the preceding section. : product of the first by the square of the second. is certainly Triangular Numbers. The Flight of the Cranes. At the head there Hies a 'n* 27. wooden cube is much to be preferred. the cutting up of the cube might be done means of a piece of soap taken from a bar. and engage his attention. plus three times the . help the child very much to sec the figures in space. b is made up First.
TR I ANGULAR NUMBERS 71 .
This And number shorter than adding. each containing 7 divisions. Take divisions (Fig. . 4''.000. however. 1+2 + 3+. we see T7 + 8 = T8 + T7 . number. we might have taken any other number n 2T„w = 2T„ + n + l tf . Square Numbers. T6 and T 2T 7 If = rT 82 = 7 . of traced lines. 2 = (n + 1) = T„ +1 + T„. of 7 On this figure. 6 s divisions. . 5.7= = 49 of 7 rows. 60) a square. or even with simple counters by placing one in each division. by looking And at the figure. as.T„ + Tm _. . which we can + ^~ n (n + 1) ' which expression will allow us to find the nth triangular call T„. in all composed 7 each. .72 MATHEMATICS 1 + 2 + is 3 + . 1. remain. require even the least calculation. we have also . which appear very learned.. 28. + that just we add below a new row we have 2 of eight divisions. do not. as. These formulae. We see. + 1. 2. instead of 1.000 = hm^m = n = 5 oo. We have therefore T„. 59 is 2 T„. in place of 7. The total number of divisions in Fig. since he can make them with his hands by means of little wooden squares.500. divisions. since he can see them. we see the successive squares. we might have any whole n. therethat the new figure is formed of the combination of the triangular numbers . by means 8 2. If we take away the last column. since the pupil can read them from figures. a square of seven lines will fore. 7.
The first uneven numbers are 1. n. 3. so that 1 + 3 .SQUARE NUMBERS 73 The first square. wc must add two from the right. AVhich means that the square of 7 is equal to the sum of the first 7 uneven numbers. Instead of 7. . 5 . square to that divisions. and one from the right below. of 1 division. let us take any whole number we like. two underneath. we see square. and by continuing in the same manner. ' ' ' i '" i 1 ' 1 1— '' ' t that FIG 60   7 2 = 1+3 + + 7+9 + 5 11 +13. . is of 2 or 4 it we notice that necessary to add 3 divi= 2sions. which makes 5. to pass to the following of 9 divisions. and the nth 1 . is represented by the To pass from this division at the top lefthand side.
4. and by laying the squares of 1.74 MATHEMATICS We thus see that there is another way by which we . 3. we are now going to solve a very much more difficult problem. Without any trouble. little wooden squares it will be easy to where we shown in Fig. that of finding the sum of the squares of By making use of 1. 2. bottom to top. for instance. make and also change these various figures. which needs . we have at once Fig. can represent square numbers it is see the squares of 1. With and 4. of 2. 62. of 3. 3. 60. 4 from Fig. 61. 2.
and so on up to the top. that is to 2 1 We thus verify that + 2 + 3.SQUARE NUMBERS The number of divisions contained we can see on the first line. z and 271 + columns. instead of 4.. in order to count the balls contained in a pile. then. total the required number of divisions then is 10. or n(n + . The saw . 61 would have n. by forming a square on the ground.+ 4. it suffices to count the number n of the balls on one side of the base . of trouble it first This determination of the sum of the squares of the n numbers had formerly an important practical application in artillery. giving themselves an infinite amount like establish and endless calculation.. The total number of its divisions would be then 1) ' n(n + 1)(2» "2 + and to have the required number we must take the third of it. .9 = 90. But if. and if we had done exactly the same thing.= 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 30. . which was made of a single ball or shell. we had taken any number whatever.. as +~1 + 4. another smaller square. This was called a "pile of balls with a square base. + n. . the rectangle of Fig. or 2. these were often arranged in arsenals. whilst we by amusing ourselves with little wooden squares those we have already seen. which shows us that 1> + V +*+'. lines. 1). above.'50. Then. Indeed.. and number will be the third of 90.+ «= "<" + 1) (»» + 1) .4 + 1=9. when spherical projectiles were in use (cannonballs or shells). 4 in 75 each row is. This is a formula which candidates at the Polytechnic School cannot always prove. 1 + 1 2+ 3 + .
it such as — etc. we can represent a single counter The cube of 1 is 1 successive cubes. The child could amuse himself by forming piles of oranges in the same way.3. made all the more readily. equals 17. the of the figure. by means of squares or cubes he who can do the most can certainly do the least. . The Sum of Cubes. The cube of 2 is 2 x 2 x 2. raised to the cube. they be . for we can dispense with the cubes. if and to apply the above formula. To 2 :i would be convenient number of little wooden cubes. as in the second part. in the first part But. 3 = represent a number 3. which would serve both to make the figures of which we have spoken above. will counter. these 8 counters may be in another manner. however. of or even It is wood or cardby a simple Later. flat board. 65) of 2 squares of 4 counters each.70 MATHEMATICS For example. therefore it will be composed (Fig.3. more simply perhaps. by using billiard from balls.2. the required n sum is 17.35 —^ o or 1785.18. Begin by seeing how. will represent it. We need not be quite so strict. and also to perform the various operations which are to follow. or. with our counters. and replace each unit by a small a 2. when we have seen how easy the constructions are. rather larger to have a large than dice.. provided that they are about the same size. square. rolling 29. by keeping the first three arranged . squares placed side by side.2. laying them on a light bed of sand to keep them and so spoiling the erection. tion that • this last supposi we shall adopt. or 8 .
Let us proceed to the cube of 3. o . 77 columns. and by placing the fourth.THE SUM OF CUBES horizontal. which is 3 X 3 X 3. which has become on top.
78 MATHEMATICS o .
1. 1. 3.THE POWERS OF 11 79 30. we take the number and wish to form the square of it. 1. The fourth power would need the multiplication as below 1331 11 1331 1331 14641 11' = 14G41 Let us fix our attention upon these figures . if we notice first that we begin and end with 1 and also that we . without putting down the multiplications. 4. the multiplication will be very easy 11 11 11 11 121 11  121. with less writing. 2. . G. 4. 1 1. 3. We would have been able to have them. 11. If The Powers of 11. To obtain the cube we shall have 121 11 121 121 1331 ll 3 = 1331. 1 . which are employed to write the powers.
place to the right of the 2 . .so MATHEMATICS have only to add two figures which follow each other to get a figure of the following power. This figure is called. because 1+2 = 3. 3 And so on as 1. far as we like. we get 1331. however little he may study mathematics. 3 + 3 = 6. on top. where the have to deal with them later. which we like 1 . The first rows of the figure give us the numbers that we have already found to be the powers of 11. Suppose that at the right of the first one. the arithmetical triangle of Pascals . 2 + 1=3. . because 1+3 = 4. 69) the figure 1 as many times as we each under the other. as going to see in the following section. inventor. 1331 we get 14641. . 1 and 2. 121 + 1=4. similarly. We form the second line adding 1 and 0. which makes 1. there are noughts. These remarks have led to a means of obtaining these figures (and many other numbers) very easily. because 1+1=2. The Arithmetical Triangle and Square. starting from the 3rd line we form the 4th. we are It it is all the more useful because the numbers of which treats are of great pupil will importance in algebra. Thus from From From 3 11 we get 121. 3 2 and 1 and 0. Let us write (Fig. 1. which it is not necessary to write. which we write then 1 and 0. 31. from the name of its illustrious . Let us pass on to the third line we read in the second. 1. 1 and 1 making 2.and writing this 1 to the right of that which is already put down.
. Here the figures 1. 1 . 70). Afterwards all the sions of a I other divisions arc filled successively by putting in each the sum of the number which can be read above and the tlie one which can be read at left.ARITHMETICAL TRIANGLE AND SQUARE The same numbers appear in 81 way ment different to the preceding (Fig.1. first The figure 1 is a figure which is in no one excepl by its arrangewritten in each of the divi row and in those of the first column of a piece of squared paper. 1> 2.
of course. we have so far made which is universal. is called the decimal system. For example. take 374. eleven figures. and so on. and two others to represent 10 and 11. 8 bundles a faggot. We will try to write it in the decimal system. the 9 of the decimal numeration. 5. then bundles. 4. 3. the nought have to be added. another. Supposing that 12 were taken as the base of a system. written in the system with a know how numeration when to put invariably written as 10. 12 bundles to make a faggot. and so on. without counting the — nought. faggots. 2. The result would have been that the figures necessary to write any number (Section 10) would have only been would 1. and it would take 12 little sticks to make a bundle. excluding the nought. indicated would have 8 for The one which we have just its base.. and might be called the octesimal system. When a numeration system has for its base a number B. etc.82 MATHEMATICS 32. it always requires B 1 figures. Different Ways of Counting. it would be called the duodecimal system. . 7. we could equally well take any When we began number than 10 little sticks to make a bundle. we might have arranged that 8 little sticks would make a bundle. down a figure in one base 8. There would have to be then. which leads to numeration. means other (Section 3) to make numbers by of little sticks. and the number chosen is called the base of this system. to which. For instance. that is to say. 6. and has for its base 10. Thus the system of which use. and the number It is B is useful to system of it is given to you written in and really it is perfectly easy. Such a method of writing number's is what is called a system of numeration.
. 9.. . . . for remainder. . 6 number of bundles of 8. 252. 2 2 is the 2nd figure. and the remainder So we divide 598 by will be the last figure to the right. . and take the remainder. makes : . . and we wish to have it expressed in the system with 8 for base. which. : have the number and 598 I 8 . which is 74 dividing by 8 we . see that the number 4 in question contains 4 little sticks . . plus 7 bundles. . . . If. on the contrary. there will be nothing easier than to take away 8 as many times as we can. 56 192 252 In practice we would arrive at the same result more 3 faggots quickly by starting from the left and saying 31 bundles of 8 bundles. . 7 bundles of 8 little sticks 3 faggots of 8 x 8 little sticks. bundles Dividing 9 by 8 we see that we have for remainder 1 bundle (1 is the 3rd finally figure) and that we have 1 box (1 is the 4th figure). with 4 added. the number 598 is written in the decimal system.DIFFERENT WAYS OF COUNTING If 83 we think of our little sticks we can . gives 31 bundles of 8 little sticks makes 248. This will be expressed thus of faggots. this operation gives us the 8.
84 MATHEMATICS We have just seen that 374 (system 8) is expressed as 252 (decimal system). This fact is rendered more interesting when we learn that it can be put to practical use in certain questions relative to hydraulic lifts. . . . . practice. 10 11 . . but by groups of B. + 1. . the numbers reduce themselves then to 0. . — 1. We go from one system to another at will. 7 8 . up to 12. . . . . in a previous French edition. was placed at the of the book. and employing negative figures. under the title Note on a question of weighing. . . . . Given these conditions. 1101001 33220 13000 4341 2626 1750 1331 1000 82(10) 12 . . Marcel Dcprez (membre de ITnstitut). 5. 6(11)4 It is worthy of notice that. the pupil can calculate in any system whatever. if B is the base this naturally calls for some . . B = 3 4 5 . . . M. the problem pro1 1 . . has been good enough to tell rac of a curious way of weighing by means of a balance^ Let us suppose that we place weights in both scales. . . . using the numeration system with base 3. . . With use. 9 . .. I end This application. . bases 3. . . .. We give below the number tion.. 1000 in the decimal numerawritten in the numeration systems with various . using the decimal system as an intermediary.. In the system base 12 it would be written 190. only the essential point is this. to whom we owe the transport of energy by electricity. . 4. . never to let him forget that carrying is no longer done by tens. . .
since 2 = 3 — 1. . 81. we can weigh up to 7 weights. let us say.3. 9 grammes. QH _1 grammes. Godard (the school. In general. we can weigh from 1 up to 1093 grammes. 2. 1. the balance will be in equilibrium. 243. to It is add here some observations now no longer used except for the purpose of watches or clocks. marking the hours on the dials of The child will be able also to decipher it. It on may be interesting Roman numeration. 59 59 = 81  is 27 f 9  written in this system 11111. of summary must content myself with only a the observations which M. 1 in the opposite scale adding to this last a body weighing 59 grammes. so that the actual mathematical interest but that of a very is moderate kind. taking the 3 weights.] 1  For instance. . 3. 1 • grammes. leads back 1o the writing of successive numbers in the system of base by utilising negative figures. . 1 :» .. 3. . grammes. 2. as we might note. Then. weight ought to be placed in the second pan of the balance. is another way of writing — 1. We see that with the 2 weights 1 gramme and 3 grammes we can weigh up to 4 grammes. we will put the weights 81 and 9 in a scale. 3 grammes up to a determined limit. the dates on old inscriptions if he understands is all.DIFFERENT WAYS OF COUNTING of 85 posed is to determine a system of weights (a single weight each kind) starting from 1 gramme. in such a manner that it will be possible to balance bodies weighing 1. if we have taken the n weights 1. 3. for 3 To weigh 59 grammes 1. and 27. we can weigh grammes. with the 27. By to 13 up 3" 1. we use 1.. instead of the figures and 1 shows that the corresponding 1. This question. 9.. "Fcole then director of the Monge) brought to my notice many years ago. 729 For instance. point of It I is quite different from the teaching view. and . 4 = 3+1.
without any warning. Only the to notice that the consecutive repetition of the more than four times is to be avoided. . the thumb stretched away from the four fingers. IIII. III. useful the other symbols L. same sign To obtain the numbers between five and ten the neces sary units follow the sign Similarly. the idea was carried out of showing sub numbers above . three. however. or four. We are inclined to ask if it has not originated from the physiological fact that wc have just pointed out. the answer will be given immediately if the group contains two. Ten can be shown by the joining of two hands. three. ten. II. It is probable that as a later. The numbers one. and its symbols of expression from the anatomical disposition of the human hand. so that the answer would no longer be the result of visual impression. C. a mental decomposition of the number. VII. V. we have XI. XIII. . four would be represented by one. M. four fingers raised : I. . and we refrain from any comment on It is. can make a tolerably good imitation of the shape V by means of the whole hand held up. two.86 MATHEMATICS If sticks arc laid in order on a black tabic. XII. for five which is verified On the other hand. two. We X. there would have to be a preliminary rapid operation of the mind. This is a wellassured fact. for V : VI. taking care to space them equally. number five plays an important part in Roman numeration. which gives the of the letter letter first principles of Roman numeration have been mentioned. one upwards. the other downwards. the by many experiments. for instance. and we suddenly ask anyone. three. but still very early improvement. and upwards. beyond that. VIII. how many sticks there are in a certain group. \.
or forty. or nine fifty less ten. . ten less one. only one figures. 1 is said that the Chinese For ordinary use in calculations this system would be inconvenient because of the length of its expressions. seems We to belong to Leibnitz. . figure will be required. The idea of this numeration. Thus the expressions IV. in which all numbers are written by means of only two characters. Thus the number 1. give us five less one. is lacking. sign remarkable to notice here. in the last section.000 in the decimal numeration would be represented in the binary system by the figures But in certain scientific appli1111101000. that if B is the base of a system of numeration. ten in all. 1 and 0. These observations seemed to me sufficiently curious to deserve mention. is form. and. . IX. They seem to result in the idea that Roman numeration was one with a base 5. without the nought. . such as Leibnitz. — — the nought. the figure 1. cations the employment of the binary system is at once useful and interesting. XL. although it made use of it in ancient times. this system requires B — 1 If 2 is the base. It . Binary Numeration. or four .BINARY NUMERATION traction 87 by placing the unit (or other symbol) to the left of a fixed sign. since in it different symbols were not used to indicate the first four numbers. but incomplete. while transferred to the right the same figure would signify addition. 33. born at Leipzig well as this. in however embryonic a this first attempt at graphic translation of the by the sense. above all. we find in it (1646—1716). have seen. because that central pivot of all rational numeration that nothing which is everything in arithmetic that invaluable resource. there arc others of a similar kind. German philosopher and mathematician. As the 1 " the ring explanation of various games.
suppose that we have written the 31 first numbers in binary enumeration : 1 .88 puzzle MATHEMATICS " and Hanoi Tower. and also a little drawingroom which depends upon the use of binary numeration." To make this clear. game and of which Edward Lucas gives us a description in " his Ariihmetique amusante" under the nome of "The Mysterious Fan.
B. is in . in order to find the number selected. using 6 slips instead of 5. then the same (cardboard binary numeration D. and even if the performer does not gain a reputation as a sorcerer. Suppose the slips you will we take '25 as the number chosen receive will be A. starting from the right. without both quickness and accuracy. 32. and with 127 also (this latter requiring 7 slips). and ask him to think of a number thereon. Arithmetical Progressions. beginning with the figures 1. D. remembering that the various slips begin with It is names. 4. Naturally. we write down also numbers whose 2nd figure.7 = 13 . 16 I — : . 1 + 8 + 16 = 25. 1. 2. : . E. and to hand you the slips on which his number is written. It is quite easy to verify that.10 = 3. secutive ones is always the same 7 _ 4 = io . If you give these five slips to anyone. 34. the aforesaid reputation can never be maintained. and 5th figures. 8. at least there will be the solid satisfaction of having plenty of practice in rapid and accurate mental addition. 64. Take a for series of numbers. Anyone can make this group of slips of cardboard. 8. 4 7 10 13 such that the difference between two conexample.ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSIONS On the 89 a second piece of cardboard. 16. The game may be played with the number 63 instead of 31. E) for the 3rd. Theapparent divination maybe rendered still more mysterious by the use only necessary to of proper giving a number to each name. make a list. and writing the names on the slips. a slips C. but only those that will tell you the numbers which enable it to be written in binary numeration. we have only to add the first numbers written on each slip. as far as 7 for instance. 4th.
common 1. 2. 3 in this example. an arithmetical progression with and the series of the odd numbers 3.90 MATHEMATICS Such a series is called a progression by difference or an arithmetical progression. 72) the progression 4. Here we have only written four. . being constant. difference . . forms an arithmetical progression with the common difference 2. 7. The numbers 4. . 10. 7. The difference. try and represent graphically (Fig. On squared paper. 13. forms 1. 3 5 . 10. . is common difference of the progression. counting 4 divisions on the first line will We • . 13 are the terms of the progression. but we could have as many as we liked. the example mentioned above. It may be pointed out that the series of integral numbers called the 1.
Notice the analogy which exists between the formula ~  above.000. If Geometric Progressions. The constant quotient is the common ratio of the pro for instance. It may be said that. the same quotient results. the terms go on increasing . a series of numbers 2 6 18 54 162 is such that. 10. gression. already met with above. ratio 10. then We thus find the results and we have ri1 .GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS n is 91 the number of the terms. on dividing each of them by the preceding one. these numbers form a geometric progression or progression by quotient. the first term is 2. 1. the ratio is 3. . If r is common a difference of an arithmetic progres sion. then b = n. The numbers 1.. a + (n — !)>'• 35.. as well as a whole number. the relation of one term to the preceding one is constant. and that of the area of the a' trapezium. in the decimal and system. . and if the common difference is 1. this (a sum is expressed by + 2 b)n * If a = 1. 100. and the number of terms is 5. If it is greater than 1. n(n + 1) b 1 and if the common difference is 2. The common ratio can be a fraction. above. form a geometric progression with common The same numbers written in a numeration system with the base R form a geometric progression whose common ratio is R. In the example given is called the common ratio. this progression can always be represented by a + r a + 2r . in a geometric progression. and we have If a = = 2n — 1. .
. b (q — 1) = c — b. 162(3 — 1) 54 (3 =. since all the other shall have then numbers cancel . Adding s (3 all — these. then we shall have the difference of by two consecutive terms 2 (3 . without cud If the ratio is less the progression is then called increasing. we shall have a (q — 1) = b — k and If . k. 18 (3  1) = 18. Even if the common ratio is not much greater than 1. kq. . of which we wish / a term further = . common we take a.92 MATHEMATICS . 6 (3  1)  18  6. : common is ratio 3. sum of the terms of a geometric progression. 2 In general. progression is a decreasing one. we multiply any term by following term. Let us go back to the one. ratio it q. if 1) — so that * = 486 486 o — the sum is we  2. k the progression with to find the sum s if . than 1. these .486 1) = 162  54.1) = 54 6  2. 162. gressions lead to numbers of an enormous size . the progression is a decreasing terms go on diminishing more and more. is — 1 when a b = c 242. q 1 the . the number of the terms becomes rather high. h calculation if progressions play an important part in they have numerous applications. s (a 1 — 1) = I (q—l) = l— a: s = — r. s. the pro Geometric . and its It is interesting to be able to find the example given above 2 If 6 18 54 the If it 162. we have 1 — q which comes to the same thing. we have the 3 — multiplied 1 or 2.
. 2 . There arc twenty figures in this. Let your Highness simply deign. and he gave orders that the request should be satisfied without delay. quote several instances in the following sections. and invited him to fix for himself the reward Enchanted by the new which he desired. according to this legend. as we see." responded the man to order your servants to give me a grain of corn. always supposing that the whole of the of his soil kingdom had been sown with seed.THE GRAINS OF CORN results 93 amaze We It will is us to begin with unless we are forewarned. In order to have produced the necessary quantity of corn the product of eight harvests would have had to be gathered. and n the number progression may be written thus a aq aq 1 . of the game of chess is not exactly known but there exists on this subject an old Hindoo legend which deserves to be remembered.. so we are told. But he was still more amazed when later he was made aware of the absolute impossibility of fulfilling his commands. "' ' . . the common ratio. to be 2 on the placed in the first division of my chessboard 4 on the 3rd. q the the terms. The number of the grains of corn required terms of the progression 1 is the sum of the 2 23 . . caused the inventor to be brought before him. if useful to notice a is the lirst term of a geometric of progression. . . which gives 2 lU — 1. the decimal system : Here is the number written in 1844674 1073709551615.. The inventor diversion. to 2nd. the monarch.." The modesty of such a request struck the monarch with astonishment. the 64th division. and continue thus. always doubling. The Grains of Corn on the Chessboard. n aq ~\ 36. We will .
620 5s. there are 2G steps in all. I will not expect the 5s. beside himself with joy at such a stroke of good luck. so that he would have no need to " " go up further. 21 pennies. It is reallv nothing. you owe me £279.. 37. as it was in good and had a very pleasant aspect. the wouldbe possessor. A 7 steps led to the ground floor. the first few steps of the staircase presented no . doubling thus on every step till the end of the staircase is reached. had a little twostoried house built for him. I shall be pleased to meet you that far. 2 on the 2nd." cried Jones. The words which we would utter would not convey much meaning to our mind." Poor Jones' face lengthened remarkably at this . 4 on the 3rd. My dear Jones. I really wish to sell suppose I offer you the house if you will put a penny on the first of the small flight of steps. And the next day Jones. moreover. i. but soon his purse emptied much insuperable difficulty more quickly than he had imagined it possible. The vendor very obligingly offered to tell Jones the total amount of his debt. of our friends. having first entertained Smith to a sumptuous meal. probably knowing the chessboard One story. — Up and to the top of the first flight of steps all went well. but from an old friend like you.94 MATHEMATICS not attempt to read it." only I .. and the staircase which led to the first floor had 19 steps." he cried. At the end of several years he decided it was time to flight of on the market. 3d.e. A very Cheap House. However we shall presently find others much larger. >l. 3d. To the first wouldbe purchaser Smith made the following proput his little place order. and. position ' : not at all unreasonable. am '' Done ! there's my hand upon it. set out for the house to count out the required coins on the 26 steps.
One If of The Investment of a Centime.. this would value of 100 million your credit.THE INVESTMENT OF A CENTIME of his children should be taught 95 announcement. We may say. ' Suppose. we put out 100 pounds 5 them to the 100. in passing. its nature. we join at interest for a year. instead of touching absolutely startling. at 5 per pounds. at 5 per have grown today pounds. is of progressions cent. onetenth of a penny. roughly. that such a result shows us the impossibility of an absolute application of comThe enormousness of the pound interest in practice. If. . so that if one of our ancestors. it that which concerns in compound interest. be far better to put a question of this kind of time must a pound be put out at comat the rate of 5 per cent. in the time of Henry VIII. had conceived the It will : what length pound interest for brilliant idea of placing 1 pound to cent.. A worth.] . at the rate of only 1 per cent. so that the acquired value may be a hundred million pounds ? The answer is 378 years. the most important practical applications 38. compound the to the If in the year 59 of our era. the same result would 1 enormous same thing had been done centime is interest. When the number of years becomes considerable. that makes 105 which we can put out during a second year. amount forbids any exact idea of such a sum. [Tr. that at the beginning of the Christian era a centime had been put at compound interest at the rate of 5 per cent. and so on. for example. the growth of capital by this operation of compound interest is brings the 5 pounds. He but himself his is perfectly acquainted with knowledge was rather expensive. it is calculated that toward the end of the 19th century its acquired value would be more than a thousand millions of spheres of pure gold as big as our earth. about 1527. and ever since he has insisted that each what a progression means.
wc ourselves should all have died of hunger. Accordingly this was done for some few . taking no more than just one second to move from one seat to another ? and. taking no notice of leap . 39. ourselves at random that will be quickest. The Ceremonious Dinner. he went on to say. as each kept silence. By all means let us be ceremonious if wc wish. Happily. there was one. weariness. but they became so mixed up that it did not seem to hold out any satisfactory prospect. the pound thus placed would today be worth 100 million pounds (always supposing no accidents occurred in the interval !). taking up " the subject once more. ' You see that the meat would have dried up and years. among the guests. and a courteous discussion of going to table which.96 MATHEMATICS have been obtained in 1907. and loss of sleep. who was a mathematician. My good " the soup is going cold. Do you know." said the " how long it would have taken us to try all professor." said he. the precise number of ." This was absolutely correct . One evening twelve people had arranged to dine Each of them attached great importance to together. did not lead to any result. a professor at the college " in the town. but not to excess. we should have been 15 years and 2 months. Let us seat friends. of etiquette now the seating of the party had not points . proposed that all the possible ways of attacking the problem should be tried there would be nothing to do then but choose the one which seemed the best. " Continuing this little game. At dessert. without stopping a single moment. day and night. Some one. that is to say. the possible ways of seating ourselves round this table. as a means of solving the difficulty. however. moment minutes." This wise counsel was followed and the repast Avas brought to a close amid the greatest cordiality. been arranged arose at the in advance.
c. H .4. a. c by writing to . and generally.600 more than 479 millions. When several different objects are in question.3. the number of permutations of 5 letters would be 2. a b a c b a c b c a c b c b and If this gives cab 2x3 = a we take any one of instance. as you see. . the number 3 4 = 24. 4. To form the permutations of three objects. we d shall have abed ab dc a db c ab c and each permutation be 6 x . If is a permutation of places. b and with two different two permutations possible are a b and b a. is just 479. The enormous numbers we have just mentioned are due to permutations. halfaminute. and add on to then 4 permutations 6 permutations. This result is amazing when we reflect that for 2 diners 2 seconds of time only would have been needed and even for 4 the trials might have been made in less than at a table laid with 12 covers . 4 letters. between a and b. a b c for it a 4th letter. or 2 of 3 letters thus furnishing 4 of of permutations of 4 letters will Continuing thus. we can take the permutation a b and join c to it at three different places it can come after b. which can be arranged in various ways indicated beforehand. or before a.5. b. any particular arrangement adopted these objects. and the deduction is easy to make.THE CEREMONIOUS DINNER different 97 ways in which 12 people can take their places . b. . these permutations. that of the m.001. the only we deal with two objects a. The permutation b a will also give three by joining c it so that we shall have the table of permutations of a.
98
MATHEMATICS
.
permutations of n letters will be 2
is
3
.
4
.
.
.
n.
This
often represented
by n
!
or \n
l
.
how rapidly these n Avhen n increases. permutations grow
can see below
We
!
numbers
of
n
THE CEREMONIOUS DINNER
To make
this easy to
99
of permutations same order.
understand we give below the table which corresponds to the figure, in the
100
MATHEMATICS
If we consider any one of the squares of Fig. 73 as a chessboard, the shaded divisions represent the positions of castles which cannot be taken by one another, and It follows, then, that applies to all analogous squares.
that on an ordinary chessboard of 64 divisions we can castles so that place, in 40,320 (8 !) different ways, eight cannot take one another. On a board of 100 divisions, they ten castles could be placed, under the same conditions, We can consult the in 3,628,800 (10 !) different ways.
table given on page 98 for these numbers. Questions of this kind are not easy to answer without the help of
permutations.
simple.
With
their aid the solutions are perfectly
You
we can
can also ask yourself in
how many
different
;
ways
the answer is place the cards in a game of piquet 32 !, or those in a game of whist, which will be 52 !, but I do not advise you to try and write these numbers in the
decimal system. Try rather to find the time it will take to carry out all these changes, taking a second to do each This is a pleasure I am leaving to my readers, one. But let them not try to write or rather to their pupils. these numbers, even counting them in centuries, for such an effort would hardly tend to the education of one's
mind.
40.
A Huge Number.
We are raising ourselves, by progressions on the one hand, and permutations on the other, to great heights on the ladder of numbers. In the hope of returning to more reasonable limits, and thus escaping a feeling of giddiness, ask some one
to write
9's.
down the largest number possible by using three Generally the answer will be
999,
quite a modest number, indeed, which does one's brain whirl in the slightest.
not
make
for you know. This last easily found few minutes. 1. thanks to the pupil's answer.693. in a very interesting article in the Revue Guurale des Sciences (30th (Jet.166 miles. Ch. but their number rather inspires hesitation. 8 inches. which is nearly and Liverpool. I cannot encourage you to undertake the I will only tell you task. This means that we must is raise 9 to a power marked by in a number Your pupil the hesitation It is if 9' . six times the distance between London in10 we would conditions. lUOU).489. will you certainly give it to you without any do not care about working it yourself. and this result is very interesting. to write 10 . so that it can be repeated to the pupil. by a slight the position of the 9's. These are very simple. 387.. Decidedly.100 figures.inch.A HUGE NUMBER But if 101 by chance you have happened upon a conscienan absolutely change in tious mathematician. having only 9 as multiplicator. supposing that . Guillaume.420. To write it on a each figure occupied a space of strip would need to be single strip of paper.420. the length of the 1. if written in decimal numeration would have 369.488 multiplications. 1 foot.690 yards. Ed. who can verify it later that the number — — y 9 9' . that all you have to do to obtain the required number in the decimal system is to make 387. . 1 1 Under the same This remark was made by M. need a strip of paper long enough to encircle the earth. you will read. anxious to give you correct answer.
The Compass and Protractor. Sundays and holidays. I hope you will agree with me that the title I have chosen for this section.625. circles or fragments of such may have occurred which were drawn almost freehand. This last interpretation It is the only reasonable one fori «') a would be illogical be to employ the expression 9 /»\ signify a to represent the '' more simple one a '. and that a number of 13 figures. several readers have confused 3 . and working ten hours per day. and that the last find. 1 worth noticing that 3' is 1 is simply that 2" 2 2 =16. However. 7.098 figures to Perhaps you may think this but a paltry assistance. . a 9. To add to your information. which can be read .693. This arises . 1 In spite of the explanations given. So 9° can only 9y J and 3 means 3" and not 27 . 1.102 MATHEMATICS in writing The time that we should spend ft ( down the 9' taking a second for each figure. drawing exercises. In the various which the pupil ought never to have been allowed to discontinue. from a false interpretation of the symbol a' . first I figure of the is number we are seeking can assure you that the is a 4. and not a numher of 13 figures. " A Huge Number.! 41.484.! and several have written to me saying that they the signification of 3 made the result 19683." It is is thoroughly i justified. working continuously without stopping for number . would be approximately 28 years and 48 days. (a) or a == ('' ) .597. and I am of the same opinion.987. That leaves us just 369.
This method of measuring angles was instituted at the same time as the metric system. and is of rather similar service in the diverse forms it assumes semi. minutes.THE COMPASS AND PROTRACTOR For drawings in 103 which we need a certain amount of precision. etc. to how to draw perpendiculars to straight various other figures. that is to say. of the pupil. therefore. however. etc. preference must be given to that in grades. which is as simple in its use as the compass. and to show them the half of a right angle under the name of 50 grades (rather than 45 degrees). and should be very Indeed. He must practise by tracing arcs of circles first. remembering. where the right angle is divided into 100 grades. following the He mode pointed out in all the classical treatises. made of metal. and These constructions. . that it to make him execute the same construction is important of by means conceive thus the notion of figures having the same shape but different size. The child will perceive very quickly that the scale 1 Grades are not used much [Tr. lines. make able. time. the time has come to accustom the pupil to the use of the compass. when they are required to be exact. ought besides to admit of the use of the 'protractor. circular or rectangular. they may often be left to the initiative simple. and with good reason. These constructions are to be made. and the grade then into tenths and hundredths. and in ink afterwards. we are returning to the grade method.] in England. to use of this division into grades. then whole circles. quite familiar 1 to the pupils. in pencil to begin with. It is most advismake it. from the outset. Then it was abandoned system of degrees. As to the method of division of the protractor. Degrees are far more usual. will be shown. horn. He will similar figures. different scales. etc. even in various official lists and several important public offices constantly for the old At the present . etc. construct angles. without being taught any definition.
whose proof will be so much the more easily assimilated later. of many truths. The point O which is fixed is the centre . without making any geometrical study as far as the present is concerned. There are certain other properties useful to know. inscribed in the this angle is the half of segment the angle AOB. all the corresponding lengths will become doubled or trebled. These form the subject of the following sections. and names useful to retain in the memory. and whose corner is at M on the circle. the angle AOB is called an angle at The angle AMB. the length of the segment MM' is double that of the radius. (Fig. passing through the a diameter. B on a circle. In short. that portion of the circle limited to A and B. and give you credit. whose sides pass through AB. the straight line OC is perpendicular to the chord AB. but on the contrary. When we join the centre to the middle C of the arc AB. is called an arc of the circle. the distance from the centre to any point M of the circle is called the radius. When we take the two points A. whether on one side or the other.104 chosen to MATHEMATICS make a construction will cause no change in the angles . is an angle the centre. The straight line AB is a chord which subtends the two arcs AB. A. born of experience. certain $2. is is the diameter. . AMB . Twice straight centre. The space between the chord and the arc is called a segment When the point O is joined to two points of a circle. any MM'. if a double or treble scale be adopted. B of the circle. the radius line. he will acquire a knowledge. for which the pupil must provisionally take your word. which is cut in half at I). one of the points remaining fixed. The Circle. 71) The circle is the round figure that is traced with a compass.
The point common to the tangent and to the circle the point of contact. : may (D. This ratio of the circumference to the diameter. .) outside the may at two points . less . cated by the Greek letter w.. .. is sufficientlv near. called its circumference.. and 3*1416 will be found exact . In any circle whatever there is the idea of length this . this said to be a secant :1 or. the consider any two circles. O.. .) is be (D. 76) ratio of the circumferences is equal to the ratio of the This means that the ratio of the length of diameters. . touch the circle point only.. .. a secant. a or AB ANB is equal to two right angles. a tangent.. which cannot be exactly expressed by any fractions whatever. from the centre to the straight line is greater than the radius for an exterior straight line. The tangent is perpendicular to the radius which is drawn to the point of contact. finally. ha which we have just spoken is . Although this general idea would be that of lacks precision. it presents a picture. equal to is . the circumference to that of the diameter is the same in each of the two circles. . below the chord on the sum two angles AMB.THE CIRCLE If 105 we take a point figure. circle 75) and a straight cut it line. When we consider (Fig. we . For many ordinary purposes 314. and therefore in all circles. it is indiis greater than 314. in which case (D ) may at it one is a ""  FlG The distance tangent to the circle. this last circle. and conveys an impression to the mind it will take definite shape The length of the circle of later.. Fig. an extremely fine thread which would surround the entire ring. O If (Fig. the N on the of the circle.. but less than 31416.
And. or again that S of = j D 2 . when. the ratio j^ then This This practice. means that C = ttD = 2ttR. of the trunk of a tree. If is ir. or of a column. a knowledge of the circumference of the circle. by intuition. and Direct the children's attention as far as possible to the do advisability of doing these exercises on real objects not neglect the opportunity of making them check the approximate value of ir which they have used. C = 314 x D = 628 x R. at one and the same time. when the circumference can be measured with a narrow tape or in any other way. when we know the radius also how to find the diameter. when greater precision if is C the length of the circumference. it follows that the area S = ttR. of a round tower. It happens thus that the areas two circles have between them a relation which is the same as that of the squares of the radii or of the diameters. for us easily the circumference of any circular or the diameter. this area can be obtained by multiplying the length of the circumference by half the radius. as we have seen that C = 27rR. Here again. 43. will serve as subjects for exercises on these questions of circular masses of stone in a garden. practical examples. In ordinary tells instance. the floor of a riding school which is to be covered . fountains areas : in parks. an area It is found that which we should be able to measure. the circumference and the diameter . Just as we acquire.106 MATHEMATICS in almost every case is enough needed. and D = 2R is the diameter. can be measured. so also we feel that the portion of space inside the line has a certain breadth. The Area of the Circle. object. R C being the radius. as varied as possible.
etc. then we draw semicircles above the line . and we take a point A anywhere on this line.CRESCENTS AND ROSES with sand. the picture of a round table or halos by the difference between two $$. If circle if we draw (Fig. models of figures made up of circular elementary forms are frequently formed which can be traced with the help compass and make interesting exercises. Crescents and Roses. AE. of a circle into five equal 1 the crescents of Hippocrates. us describe two other semicircles We shall thus have two kinds of crescents (shaded on the figure). 78. on AB. and on AC as diameters. AF by the points C. Greek geometrician. right angle. What makes this figure interesting is that the sum of the areas of the two crescents is exactly equal to the area of the triangle ABC. etc. Now. we shall show here a small number only of these figures. of which some are of the very well known. the time of the Grecian era. 77) a semi having for diameter BC. . AD. and the construction that we have has become indicated just classical under the name of is that shown in Fig. 77. Merely as specimens. In the greater number of the treatises on drawing. 5th century B. This property was known at Fig. Hippocrates of Ohio. Another interesting construction Let us divide the diameter parts as diameters AB On AC. D. the angle ABC is always A being a let Fig. the triangle rightangled. F. E.. 107 measuring rings circles. 78.C .
centres. si. D. DB. 82) with the same construction the six arcs of the circle with the centres A. CE. CD. . CA. area of this rose 1*14 is (tt DB. it falls once more on the point A after the Cth operation. and marking out this length (Fig. six leaves. By divided into five parts which have the same area. B. CD. The x R 2 . F as . Having formed the square OBEC. 80) we again take two . the circle on CB. a rose with pass three leaves will be produced. 81) we shall find that successively on the circle at B. AB. 79) let us take two diameters perpendicular to one another AB. . It would be sufficient to divide the diameter n equal parts. EA. — R 2 sented by R. . AD. EB. Opening the compass to a length equal to the radius. any other number n could be semicircles is taken. BD and the whole (the shaded part) forms a sort of star with four points. The area of this star is (4 — tt) R2 or nearly 2 086 x R If (P'ig. AD. C. means of these below. . and if we draw the semicircles having for diameters BC. E. Instead of five. By tracing (Fig. tracing at the same time three diameters perpendicular to one another. which all through the centre.108 MATHEMATICS FB we draw circular lines. C. let us trace from B to C a into AB other quarter circles CA. we obtain a rose with four leaves. with the radius R. If. In a circle (Fig. we describe the arcs of the circles AC. D. or nearly the radius being always repre2) . quarter of the circle of which E is the centre. with B. . F we obtain a rose with Fig.
just as necessary. and for areas a unit of we area. In the three others of is which we are now going to speak this no longer the case.CPxESCENTS AND HOSES 109 given ourselves simply to these few illustrations. the volumes a certain number of bodies of regular shapes are found by very simple means. in practice. and point out three others which are frequently to be encountered in ordinary practice. 82. . for will limit We as soon as ever he becomes at all familiar with the use of the compass and other elementary drawing instruments. We intend summarising these now. we must have a unit of volume. also a parallelopiped. This will follow as a matter of course. just as for determining lengths length. certain ordinary solving First of all. We have seen what a cube is. it is important to determine the areas of surfaces. and a pyramid. require a unit of This unit of its volume is always the volume of a cube having for side the unit of length. we call them polyhedra. should be constantly varied. we only see straight lines and planes generally . 83. In all these bodies. to ascertain the volumes To do this. they and we should impel the child to use his own imagination to form fresh figures. a prism. of bodies. he will take a pride in forming various figures. and will bestow his time and attention on it. minds the Fig. If it is Some Volumes. In only by way of example. in such a manner that there will then be no difficulty in questions. of Starting from that point. Fig. practice. 45. let us recall to our bodies also that we have already defined.
is called the apex.110 MATHEMATICS (Fig. and let this triangle revolve on SO this will form a body which is called an upright cone. height are given. and the radius of the circle is the radius of the sphere. which has not moved. we have the volume :— . 00'. ) Finally. The centre of the circle is the centre of the sphere. which has not moved. in which O is a right angle. O'A' describe two circles of equal radius OA = O A'. which are called the bases of the cylinder. the same for a is defined when we know its shall That being established. a funnel. 84) a rectangular triangle AOS. Let there be (Fig. the body which this makes is Fig. It is well to notice that a cylinder is defined when the this circle is called radius of its base and its cone. is the height of the cone. a carrot will give a good idea of a cone. and the segment limited by these two points is a diameter. The two sides OA. . if a circle turns round on its diameter. Any straight line which passes through the centre cuts the sphere in two points equally distant from the centre. which has the same radius as itself . the distance of S from the plane of the base. a the inside of a pint pot (sometimes). of which the length is double that of the radius. will lampglass. The form of the sphere is that of a Let us imagine its 83) it turns round side 00' . show the general form of a cylinder. called a sphere. . The length SO. A hat or muff box. Si. ball. The point S. represents the distance apart of the planes of the two bases this is the height of the cylinder. Any plane which passes through the centre cuts the sphere in a circle. and that a sphere radius. a great circle. The S side OA describes a circle which is called the base of the cone. that a rectangle AOO'A' thus makes a body which is called a rectangular cylinder. A sugar loaf.
V . by the height abh . of its side. n . V= — o . by taking a third of the product of this determination the area of the base by the height of the volume of the pyramid was given for the first time . if we d the diameter. it follows that the formula is V = tt r h. by taking the third of the product of the base by the height 4 the „ of o tt : : formula. — 212 . As the base is a circle.SOME VOLUMES of a cube. born at Syracuse (287 B. of which the parallelopij3ed is only a particular case. if the 2 height is h. 1 They are only Archimedes. V = 4 —— o 5 . . We Finally. V o It is also established that the area of a sphere is equal to four times that of a great circle or 4 r2 can therefore say that the volume of a sphere is equal to its area multiplied by the third of the radius. the volume of a sphere can also be determined its by the formula call V= ^ tt d\ and area 2 by nd . if a is a side of the parallelogram of the base whose height is b. V = Hh = of a prism.). the product abh is formed on multiplying . with radius r. All these results will be obtained later. 111 itself by multiplying twice by If : . by multiplying the cube =^rrr r of the radius by formula. of a cone.C. that gives us 3 a x a x a or a 3 formula. an illustrious geometrician. : formula. V = a of a parallelopiped. by Archimedes' of a cylinder. by multiplying the area of the base by the height the area B of the base being itself a product ab. of a pyramid. of a sphere. TD7. of the parallelopiped : formula. by multiplying the area of the base by = BA the height : formula. by multiplying the area of the base by the height. the length a measures this length.
and that it is the only practical way of work. Graphs . If by constant use they should become fixed in his mind. temperature.112 MATHEMATICS actually communicated to the pupil in order to make certain practical exercises possible. Put them afresh before his eyes every time that he needs them. make a graph which would give us the length of the thread When we compress a gas its if we know the weight. Algebra without Calculations. when a weight is hung on an indiarubber It will be possible to thread. of the reviews or journals of todajr Ave find graphs. or those of the For the most market of time. the graphs that we are discussing variations of meteorological observations. pay no heed to it. give us the pressure if we know the temperature. For example. But do not ask him to overload his memory with all these formulae. over a certain length We must also remember that graphs are useful the representation of the moverailway ment of trains. in keeping count of them. so much the better. the steam from water its pressure increases a graph will . volume diminishes a graph will tell us what is the volume When we heat of the gas when we know the pressure. figures of which we can make great use for the first mathematical education of children. part. But it is above all necessary to notice that by the same means we can represent the variation of any kind of magnitude which is dependent on another magnitude. in price on the Stock Exchange. whether this is time or anything else. 46. . for represent instance barometric height. and induce them afterwards to construct similar ones for themselves. . must In many We make them understand the signification of these figures. this thread grows longer. Otherwise.
which cut each other at OX Y . . We will take on squared paper (Fig. . period. parallel to OX. on the time that has elapsed since a certain These were functions of time. . the distance traversed by a train. etc. that perature. quite and a child will easily grasp it if care is exercised of presentment. parallel to OY. a point this point represents at once the two corresponding values x. dependent on the tempressure . which may be measured by the same number To the value x as x. a function of the temperature. 85) two perpendicular lines OX. The aim graph is to bring these functions before the pupil's eyes by means of figures whose construcLet us go into tion is always on the same principle. To show a particular value x of the variable quantity X. and when they are both measurable. depended on the period. . When a magnitude Y depends upon a magnitude X. as many as Ave like. and QM. OY. this by OQ on OY. the first is a function of the of the second. y. fixed simple. we draw the straight lines PM. . M like M. many employing as mode by ? examples as possible. in its This idea of function is in itself quite natural. taking whatever unit of length we wish that done. and joining them by means I of M. is is. we will lay out on a length OP. by taking a certain unit of length. By thus constructing points.GRAPHS 113 In these various examples the length of the thread we say depends upon the weight that is suspended it is a function of this weight the volume of gas it is a function of the depends on the pressure the pressure of steam. we represent there corresponds a certain value y of . this matter. In the preceding examples the height of the barometer..
There are many questions exact. will be to the left on OX. there is. It is in this sense that we can see that graphs allow us to work by algebra without calculations. We ought to add that all the results thus obtained are not rigorously if However.114 a continuous the function line. the two numbers xXi x2 which it was required to find. If the points which Ave obtain are not very close we can join them by segments of straight together. this approximate result will be all that is necessary. M. the point P. of X. (Z). these lines would cut each other at the points M Ma by taking MiP. will be below. represent both at is always one point and no more. for this reason. algebraical functions . is MATHEMATICS Y the graph showing the variation of obtained. in practice. that once the two points P. Z were traced. and x be one of If the quantity them. Z. give a general manner in which this function varies. the graphs are carefully made. in a great number of cases. if the two graphs (Y). become equal to one another.. such that two functions Y. and which are called. we do not even try to picture by a curve the lines but the points which show this outline in function Y X M M . l5 2 with the unit adopted to measure the lengths on OX. . 2. the lengths OP OP will then give. and even more than that. all the same. on OY. since it has been possible to establish graphs for functions which are not algebraical. instead of being to the right of O. segments of straight idea of the lines will. — — 1? . and y be one of these. In algebra as we shall see later we do very little but study the functions which can be determined by calculation. We see (Fig. Q. 85) that. the point Q. of the functions Y. has negative values. instead of being above O. and the fundamental problem of algebra consists in finding values of X. If the quantity Y has negative values. . For any two values whatever which correspond. as far as OX.P parallel to OY.
from a given place. 47. following the same route. The Two Walkers. Here we give. and mark lm. speed. 86. a second. on a piece of mark the time) and (on which we shall mark the distances). lh. If a man starts at halfpast two.. and others of the must see how the graph of a pedestrian same kind.. valuable aid to the teacher. to begin with. starts out in the same direction. Again on OY. we do is made. and mark shall .THE TWO WALKERS to solve .. 3m. with a speed of 3 miles an hour. 2m. . a representation before the pupil. it will be seen. they speak to the mind through the tage intermediary of the eyes. under one of its most simple forms.. 86) let us take our two perpendicular straight lines OT (on which we this. that the then that at graph will contain the point A on OT . 2h. The point O corresponds to midday. thus we shall especially work with these in various forms. an example to show what the travelling problem is. in itself. let a division represent a mile.. for instance let 2 divisions mark an hour. 115 which these outlines may be applied with advan besides. at a certain Some time afterspeed. In the following sections some examples will still serve further to enlighten the child's mind as to the conTheir most struction and the employment of graphs. A pedestrian starts at a given hour. natural application seems to be in solving the type of problem known under the name of travelling problems . OY along OT.. known When at will he overtake the first. and h 2h A 3h 4h T what distance from his point Fig. and absolutely place a living This is. l 2 . To squared paper (Fig. going at a greater wards. of departure ? To solve this problem. 3h. starting from O.
The carriage starts half it anhour after the child. more will come back now to our question. The meeting will then take place at 6 miles from the point of departure. going before the two travellers but in the opposite direction. which gives the point B . This straight line cuts OBjatthe point B. and 3 hours after the start of the child.11G MATHEMATICS halfpast three he will have gone 3~miles. and at what time ? A B is the graph of the carriage. At a place 7 miles from the starting point a carriage is sent out. with A. AB over a given distance. and 2} miles as the . lines These cut each other at M.. meeting place and at rather more than 2 miles. The problem can now be completed by complicating a little. corresponding to 3 hours and 6 miles. Where will it meet each of the two.miles from his AB line and that the simple outline of the straight shows us at what distance the man finds himself at a predetermined hour. and A 2 B 2 is the graph x of the man. at the rate of 4 miles an hour. finally. regularly. Taking (Fig. the straight line see that at four o'clock he will be 4 J. and at what hour he has gone starting point. 87) the same We 7m units as just now. and make it precise by saying that a child starts with a speed of 2 miles an hour.. and counting the time of starting from the departure of the child. Treating this question by ordinary calculation we would :l 2 J arrive at 1 hour 43 minutes as the time. as the man goes on at 3 miles an hour We will be the required graph. showing 1^ hours and 3 miles.B is at about 1 hours (rather less). then the straight line OB is the graph of the child. that The gives the time and place of meeting with the child. and that a man starts 1 hour after him at a speed of 3 miles an hour.
88. 10 from Marseilles to Paris (both day trains) to make the same figure (Fig. we have. 88) show graphs of them. easy to see. from In the tabic of trains between Paris and Marseilles. The horizontal lines at odd distances repre . It is 117 almost practice.FROM PARIS TO MARSEILLES distance. ? i 4 S S 7 8 9 10 H Fig. chosen to Marseilles the express train No. the distance (in kilometres) vertically. From Paris to Marseilles. SojosK) tl 1 and Midnight. of Fig. The time is marked horizontally. 4*8. the beginning of the year 1905. 1 from Paris Midday. No. despite the small dimensions that it places results before our eyes exactly correct and perfectly satisfactory in 87.
1. — . this despite the limited tells We — Train No. The two graphs cut at a point arrival and of departure. 16. Train No. below the tables showing the hours at which give the different stations on the two journeys are reached. in order that a comparison may be made between the and variations of the journey and the absolute facts dimensions of the figure. which us when the two trains meet.118 MATHEMATICS sent various places at various (vertical) distances from On these lines are marked both the time of either end.
There is opportunity to notice also how one train going at a greater speed than another is able to pass it. to show the crossing of trains which are running in opposite directions. gether. . 1 2 3 4 b 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 C Fig.FROM HAVRE TO NEW YORK at least is 110 by name. 89. At the end of the meal Edward Lucas suddenly announced that he was going to lay before them a most difficult problem. long time ago. a number wellknown mathematicians of various nationalities some being of worldwide reputation were dining toof A — — Havre 12 rt 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 New York . and observation of 49. the slower one shunting into a station. during a scientific congress. From Havre to New York. Singlegauge lines afford matter for most interesting remarks on the outline of graphs. where it remains to give the quicker train sufficient time to run in front. They will then prove very useful exercises. There really can be no indication of the thousand interesting details which the construction these graphs suggest to us. Little time will be lost if squared paper used and the outlines done in freehand.
" formulated thus: " A snail begins to climb up a tree one Sunday morning at six o'clock during the day. in either direction. and that at the same time " he. This anecdote. At the same time. the question asked by Lucas shows us the extreme with. a similar boat. and would not have hesitated. To begin ought to be with those take in things which are entirely strange to them. Really. It is certain that any boat of which the graph is AB will meet at sea 13 other boats of the fleet. To Lucas also wc owe the problem to be found in his " The Ballad Arithmetique Amusante under the name of of the Slipping Snail. again. only thought of the ships about to start. leaves for Havre. they. up to six o'clock in the . on the contrary. plus the one entering Havre at the moment of departure. with perfect clearness on Fig. how patient and lenient we children who cannot immediately usefulness of graphs as the best method of solving similar problems. belonging to the same company.120 " MATHEMATICS Suppose. 89. The crossing is made in exactly seven days. — . Fig. How many of the boats New York of the meet " same company going in the opposite direction will the packet boat starting from Havre today at midday " ? Some of his distinguished hearers foolishly answered seven. the graph shows the time of meeting to be midday and midnight of each day. The greater number kept silence. as it arranged itself in his brain were. and forgot those on the way reasoning but not seeing." said is (it unfortunately only a supposition) that each day. 89 would have he would have seen it. with his mind's eye. appearing Not one gave the exact solution which appears true. at midday." surprised. maticians . a packet boat starts from Havre to New York. if the most ordinary of the mathe had had this idea. which is absolutely in instructs us two ways. plus the one But — leaving New York at the moment of arrival 15 in all. Then.
I leave to my readers and their pupils the pleasure of discovering the answer by " scramble of the slipping snail. for simplicity's sake. " Wednesday is morning. which. The line which indicates the variations of the barometer drawn heavily. the other relating to temperaWe are ture. clearness. the right. and have largely contributed to spread a knowledge of this science. about which we have nothing to go upon but experience. It also seems interesting to indicate how two different functions can be shown at once on one figure with perfect Here. although only in its infancy." tracing the graph of the 50. during the last week of the year 1881. These graphs have rendered the greatest service in Meteorology. is A again a travelling problem (slow travelling this bewildered child will answer. IT IS 121 but during the night. 90) two graphs at once. are suitably shown by the graph method. What kind of Weather it is. he gets up 5 yards falls back 2 yards. he evening. Here we give (Fig. while the figures to show variations of the is thermometer (in degrees Centigrade) are to be found on is possible at all. To read the barometric pressures. while the thermometer variations are shown by a dotted line. is progressing by leaps and bounds.WHAT KIND OF WEATHER . No confusion . At what time will he have climbed up " 9 yards ? This time !)." which wrong. borrowing these from a journal (" La Nature "). but taking away. so useful even now. we only wish to show how variations of functions. one dealing with barometric pressure. several of the other things shown therein. look to the left of the figure.
1 1 oo —— MATHEMATICS Temperature. 00 OiOO'OO "~>0'/)OC00 «— OJ «— "~ tM M sf ^ ir ' (»1 to c3 CsJ a m >> 03 u c3 CO OS T3 P^ 03 03 3 H 03 03 a 0J o3 to 03 O P .
Two of cyclists having arranged a certain journey. a certain point the cyclist should deposit his machine arranged it : . 91 two travellers. arrival at the spot agreed upon. As each has to go the same distance on foot. 10 miles from the starting point. The programme as arranged was duly carried out. Two Cyclists for One Machine. in a ditch at the side of the road and continue his journey His companion. 7 miles an hour. the speed of each is 2J an hour. the first gives us the graphs of the journeys of the shown by a continuous line. the other on foot that at together. each traveller goes cycling. However. should then mount the machine. miles ?0 and rejoin the other. and the them with last day found When 20 miles yet to go. To make the explanation easier. on on foot. the last change. they decided not to delay their journey. one them unfortunately found himself obliged to wait until some necessary repairs could be done to his cycle. when walking. the second by a dotted one. Fig. when the same thing would be repeated. At what point ought the bicycle to be put on one side by the first traveller (no more changing taking place) so that both may arrive at their journey's end at the same time ? The answer is evident. in order to arrive at their destination at the same time. so they in the following way that they should start one on the cycle. as also by cycle. should take place halfway.TWO CYCLISTS FOR ONE MACHINE 123 51. . that is.
His friend. In short. will him to the end of his journey at 20 minutes past 5. leaving his companion walking. . or the people of exceptional honesty). 91 we have indicated this variation supposing that the machine is abandoned at 5 miles. . On Fig. and ObbM would be that of the other. setting out on foot. these circumstances. We can see that this mode of locomotion adds sensibly to the speed of a pedestrian it may be worth something as a hint to bring . two young men who may have just enough money to buy one machine and can share the advantage of it in this manner. the country through which the journey was made was either very deserted. To make this arrangement workable in practice. of course. then at 15 from the point of departure OaerM would be the graph of one of the travellers. which averages 3f miles an hour. but which require a knowledge of Mathematics. The cyclist arrives halfway at 20 minutes past 1 there he leaves the machine and goes forward on foot .124 MATHEMATICS we will suppose that the departure takes place at midday. then he mounts the cycle. but the cyclist would go on. does his first 10 miles by 4 o'clock. possessing the or cyclists. and also arrives at 20 minutes past 5. so that the cycle would not be left long without a rider (unless. Graphs take into account all . which wc do not suppose the children possess even in the smallest possible degree. the changes would have to be made pretty frequently. he finishes his 10 miles. They would apply equally to two travellers not same average speed. which. whether as pedestrians We can thus work problems which lend themselves to calculation without any great difficulty. at 2J miles an hour. they have 5 hours and 20 minutes to do 20 miles. Here the friends would join halfway.
miles distant. and Mrs. but unfortunately the only motor would only two people and the Its speed was chauffeur. 15 miles an hour. Mrs. along a going to miles The infordelightful road. Y quickly take them to their hotel. Fig. but no more. They had been told that they would be able to hire a motor on arrival which would Four . go back to pick up the W.intending to go for the day to village about 31!.. The Carriage that was too Small. None picture of the four prided themselves on their powers as pedestrians they were old and liked to do their modest 2 miles per hour. and Wilkins) arrived one morning at the station of a little . set out on foot. However. mation proved to be correct.'s. at the At a certain distance the same time. . . available hold My readers can the situation.. it was settled that the Tompkins should start in the motor and that the Wilkins should. or wherever they were dine. of them would arrive at the same time.THE CARRIAGE THAT WAS TOO SMALL 125 52. and carry them to How would this be managed so that their destination. travellers (Mr. and how long all would it take to make the journey ? These questions are not very puzzling. X . which they proposed reaching in time for dinner. . 92. Tompkins and Mr. motor would put down the TVs. but it is a good thing to be able to solve them. . who would proceed on foot. .
shows the journey of the T. 92. 91 the diagonal of this (Fig. which comes to the same thing and and con sequently. from Q to Y by motor.'s. Y are the Tompkins go from X to P arranged in this order the Wilkins go from by motor.'s. the graph of the journey of the T. joining . which corresponds to a distance of 31 A miles. but the If is slightly motor has more complicated. the cycle remaining at rest in the ditch. Taking then a point C„ anywhere on XC (suppose we say the one which agrees with 1 hour and 15 miles). here it will be totally different. has been given at some competitive examinations. which is quite simple. as just now. parallelogram was parallel to the axis on which time measured. and Mrs. will . It bears a certain analogy to that of the last section. except for insignificant changes in the data. that of the W. and is a parallelogram. To begin with. and that of the W. The diagonal CD will be no other than the graph of the motor journey when it comes back part way for the W's. is XCM XDM XCMD These remarks furnish the means whereby the figure can very easily be constructed. by Q the point where it takes up the Wilkins.. So that they : . Q. it is sufficient to draw the two straight lines XC and XD. since we have the speed of the motor (15 miles an hour) and that of the pedestrians (2 miles an hour). from P to Y on foot X to Q on foot.126 MATHEMATICS This problem.'s will form a parallelogram But whilst in Fig. : X and 0„ the straight line XO„ produced to the point M. and. 92). PY. owing to the fact that to come back to pick up Mr. the four points X. On Fig. Let us take the middle Oi of CJD.'s. Wilkins. we draw CJ) U which represents the graph of the return of the motor if it comes back again to start from Cj this straight line cuts at D the straight line XD. we show by P the place on the route where the Tompkins leave the vehicle. P. may all XQ = arrive together it follows that XP = QY .
naturally. C to about If hours corresponds M of the two graphs draw MD parallel to XC the parallelogram drawn.'s at a distance of 25 miles at about 1. 19 backward. Therefore the motor ought to put down the T. the travellers ought to travel 25^ miles by motor and 6 on foot. A. be completely Then we see on the figure that D of the motor. it would have run in all 70J miles. 31 miles. running immediately of of the travellers has a . The average speed is about 6*7 miles an hour. M T.'s and the W. finding them at 3 o'clock. and the entire journey is effected in 4 hours 42 minutes. 53. will serve as a — — . but this. The travellers both the T. walks 4 miles travellers One at the exact moment at a speed of greyhound. The Two direction. is walks 3 miles an hour .45 then come back to pick up the W. and. who.'s walking 3 hours.'s.THE DOG AND THE TWO TRAVELLERS give 127 us the extremity MC will parallel to XD. as follows 25 onward. and again forward for 25 1 more. and XCDM will represent the : . and the remainder by motor as for the motor. An exact calculation would make the is arrival 4.'s at 4.42 instead of 4. treated thus in detail. the second. and bring them on to meet the . : theme for numerous similar exercises. would have done 6 miles. This example. runs to the other 11 J miles an hour. which we speak.45. are going along a road in the same miles in front of the other. and an hour.45. 6 miles from the starting point. first. to 3 hours and 6 miles. of very slight importance. miles. in practice. meaning that they arrive at their destination at the same time as if all the journey had been made in a motor with a speed of G"7 miles an hour. The Dog and the Two Travellers. graph and 25 to 4§ hours. B. making use of different data. Summing up the problem.
12S MATHEMATICS back to his master. his graph is Qaa a line taking a . . In is Fig. carriages. his graph is 6bb a line of the same nature . the result will be the same. whether we deal with pedestrians. If. which represents the meeting. he will consequently have covered a distance of 45 miles. the animal is the property of the man in front. The graphs of the two travellers are dog OM and 6M. . advancing till they meet. the dog has never any case. 93 the time is counted from the moment the let loose.. Whichever hypothesis we take. and as he goes at a speed of ll£ miles. zigzag course between the journeys of the two men. we might suppose that the men subject We make . according to which of the men is the dog's owner. have taken exceptionally simple instances. and the point M. but In different from the first. corresponds to 18 miles and 4 hours of walking. In the travelling graphs that we have seen up to the present time. What is wanted is the distance the dog will have travelled up to the moment of meeting. Having rejoined him. zigzagging from one to the other. The Falling Stone. . ceased running for 4 hours. and continues this until the men meet. start in opposite directions. to the explanations very easy. If the dog belongs to the traveller who is at the back. It will be useful to vary them in the exercises which may be given on this for instance. he starts off to do the same thing again. . on the contrary. .. It appears that the question can be put in two ways. 5*.
provided that. always supposing that we do not take into account the resistance of the air. at the end of a second. it Thus we see that it falls quicker travelled 1. have fallen 64 feet. K . In 10 seconds it will have in as accelerated. that. the distance passed over in a given in a second. has fallen 16 feet. and no longer that of a This curve will straight line.600 feet. Writing the formula y we have the distance = y its travelled fall by the stone it in has fallen during " M /.THE FALLING STONE time.  . 94) will take the form of a curve. we take the second as the unit then the number y which will be obtained will be a ' when a certain time ' . fall from a height of 900 feet would take a about 7\ seconds. of feet. at the end of a and. if Ave do not take into account the resistance of the air. y^th of a second the stone only falls we have just said. in measuring the time. Experience teaches us. and at the end of the third 144 feet. It is not at all the same for a stone that is thrown to a certain height and then is allowed to drop. or dogs. 16J. fragment of a line about which we shall speak further in a called a little while. 129 railways. or that the movement was uniform. and quicker in other words. number 2 inches. be pretty nearly the one inIt is a dicated by the figure. and it That is followed that the graph was a straight line. explained by saying that the speed was constant. For example. say. In To stone M. its movement becomes . the stone will have At the end of 2 seconds it will fallen nearly 16 feet. and is parabola. second. This shows us that the graph of this movement (Fig. was always the same.
that the greater the speed at which the ball is launched the more it will rise. the motion becomes quicker. but when great heights are in question. Instead of using the hand. employ a gun. we must know : to make . It is interesting to find out various details about especially. how long it will take to get to this height . accelerated. To comprehend its meaning. and which is known as the initial velocity. 2. The Ball Tossed Up. it is not difficult with to prove that the movement becomes slower and slower during the ascent. to what height the ball will rise . When we know the speed a at which the ball has been thrown. let us suppose that we . a certain then fall down. and when necessary. use of it 1. That the height y is measured That the initial velocity a .130 MATHEMATICS ing practice this is only very little when we are considerit becomes very appreciable little distances. that the ball is thrown in if nothing caused a slackening of . it will rise to a Following the object amount of attention. and it is a mistake to think that our graph will then be a correct representation. all the answers to these questions are given by the formula y = at  I6t. in the second it is period If we toss a leaden ball into the air certain height. to know. how long it will take in its descent. 55. and the more time will elapse before it falls to earth. while during the descent. in feet is that is per second such a manner that measured in feet to say. the movement. on the In the first contrary. the movement is slackened. the barrel of which is placed vertically the same effect would be noticed only we must remember .
but below OA (Fig. and that it will take 2 seconds to come down. there is a very simple means of going back to Fig. at — 16/. k 2 . The line obtained has again the form of a parabola. It has been constructed on the supposition that a — k <> that it to say. it . we shall see. Here. for big initial speeds. using any of these.THE BALL TOSSED UP speed. which would be the graph of this uniform movement of 64 feet a second. 3 seconds. as in the preceding section. to . which. however. That the time is measured in seconds. By In a general way it is found that the time taken up by the descent will be always the same as that of the ascent. in both going up and coming down. etc. would have a sensible effect. 131 would go on t indefinitely travelling a feet each second 3. we can follow the movement more easily by means of a graph (Fig. Another method is to make of the formula above. If we construct the straight OA. that the ball will rise for 2 seconds. we set obtaining what we wish out exactly the same heights for 1 second. 95). 94. in order to have use each value of y. and that the height to which the ball will reach is always — ' expressed in feet. 95) instead of being below OT (Fig. that the ball is thrown in such a way that would travel 64 feet per second if nothing happened is line oppose its movement. that it will reach a height of 64 feet. it is quite understood that no account is taken of the resistance of the air. However simple the calculations may be to which this formula leads. on the hypothesis that a = 64. 94).. 2 seconds.
a speed through the entire journey of 36. Our readers might say that this holds for railway trains. and also of the corresponding graph. or tube. is shown in Fig. that. on leaving one stopping Y 400 place. latter is done by means of brakes. 96. . made necessary by the needs of travelling service in a big city. then. Underground. which is . ing from practical exactitude. Under such conditions a good part for the journey of the time needed from one station to another is employed. the trains follow each other at short intervals. This journey these which To draw this graph we have supposed two stations distant 400 yards one from the other. without departfor very little in the whole. for if the train were brought to a standstill suddenly. all but as the distances partly true between two stations are sufficiently long. because of is.132 56. the in quickening on then. the stations are very close together often only some hundred yards lie between them. an accident might happen. peculiarities. Besides . we can represent by a straight line the graph showing the journey of a train between two stations. approaching in slackening it off this . MATHEMATICS Underground Trains.000 yards (about 20 miles) an . so that the stop at each station has to take as little time as possible. speed the next. the periods of setting the train in motion and applying the brake count This is why. interesting. railway systems show special working conditions. To begin with.
20 . With these data to hand. and thus goes 200 yards then the brakes are applied. OY. halt. . and applied under various forms in the pages following. the period . at 10 yards a second for 20 seconds. . . It consists. corresponding to the working of the journeys we see that a train starting to the next station moves at a rising speed. and stops. after tracing two perpendicular straight lines OX. and it has travelled the distance in 1 minute. starting . 96) takes all these circumstances into to A is the period of getting up speed account. the period of (100 yards full speed (200 yards in 20 seconds) and from B to the period of slackening speed until finally the train is brought to a halt (100 yards in 20 seconds). It is sufficient to look at the figure to realise the importance of the increasing and the slackening of speed over such small distances. Analytical Geometry. and determining a point M by drawing through P and Q the parallels to OY and OX which cut each other in this point M. in setting out on OX a length x = OP. 57. the speed is slackened. like a ball which falls faster and faster it runs over 100 yards in 20 seconds it rolls along then at full speed. If two stations were distant from each other 200 yards instead of 400 yards. . from the and equally. from in 20 seconds) from A to B. as we may remember. or 60 seconds. of course. and it would take 40 seconds for the train to travel 200 yards. . M of full speed would completely disappear.ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY hour. It has then arrived at the next station. 133 it must be to get up full speed seconds to slacken off before the next stopping place. on OY a length y = OQ. which means 10 yards a second finally admitted that it takes 20 seconds. The graph (Fig. The general idea which underlies the construction of graphs has been shown in section 46. the train goes 100 yards in 20 seconds.
negative set abscissa would in y . or the axis of the ordinates. but are linked by an algebraical relation.. given. 1 man of letters. or the axis of the abscissa. OY M j OP = x and of OQ = the y are the point coordinates M . its in the angle its YOX a point.. By means find in of some new illustrations. as seen on the x and its y are positive . OP X' is the abscissa of M. tant which we owe to the genius of Descartes. out in the direction Q_ OX'. the line obtained the value of a function of x which we wish to by joining all the points M that have been constructed will represent the variations of the function y. in Touraine (1596— 1G50). its y is positive. a negative the direction ordinate . If the that one of the coordinates being known the other may be deduced from it by a series of perfectly definite calcuRene Descartes. OY (Fig. . born . the axis of the y's. x and positive. we then know its two coordinates. If a point is marked on the plane of the figure. y are not simply any numbers. The two straight lines OX. its y are negative YOX. its x is y negative. its x is negative. . we them everything which is at the base 1 are going to of an impor and very useful science. analytical geometry. that is to say. a celebrated philosopher and at la Haye.134 If MATHEMATICS y is represent. if it is is from this that if in the angle XOY. OX is the axis of the a?'s. If any two coordinates are XOY'. OY It results figure. two coordinates x. And it is as well to add that without analytical geometry we never could have imagined graphs. 97) are called the coordinate axes . its wc know the position of the corresponding point. and P X OQ A be its ordinate. .
when it has been defined in a precise manner by any means. analytical properties. thanks to the fresh resources which this science has brought to bear upon them. so that the pupil may have an idea of the pleasure and profit he will have when. The mind is amazed when we consider what power of intellect.ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY 135 will lie ou a line. absolutely by the help of Geometry alone. Our readers need not be ambitious to learn what But in constructing our analytical geometry really is. various graphs we have done a little of this branch of geometry without even knowing the name of the science so it was desirable to profit by the occasion given us to salute in passing the memory of one of the greatest geniuses of whom the world has reason to be proud. had been studied in antiquity by Greek geometri. the positions of braical relation in question is the equation of the line. For this reason wc have resolved to say something about them in the sections which follow. Three of these curved lines. To construct a its and find out its knowing equation 2. what prodigious efforts of the brain have been necessary for these learned men. To find the equation of a line. however (and some others also). The three lines of which we are going to speak are cians today in continual use. : — . . It is since the invention of Analytical Geometry that the study of curved lines has made immense progress. not to study them. problems with which line. to arrive at the discoveries by which we are now profiting. of perhaps more than twenty centuries ago. even in practice. The algelations. later on. be it understood. he will begin to take them seriously. but simply to know what they are. M The great general geometry deals arc 1.
a perpendicular line is on the straight the Fig.  line lowered (D) called this py g foe axis straight line of the curve. this shadow may an ellipse. and ours in turn round the sun. so that is MF curve then takes the form shown if from F. which is figure called the focus of the parabola. portion of the graph of the underground trains. The Ellipse. graphs of the and in a precise definition of the parabola its that each of points M is (Fig. The point A is the apex of the parabola. directrix. The Parabola. and When a carrot is the shadow thrown on a piece also be of white paper. and in so doing describe particular. 98. this curve. The ellipse is determined by this peculiar quality. somewhat regularly. AY AX 59. by the . . and a for the axis of the abscissae. If a flat round object such as a coin is held up against a lamp. which has the same form on each side of this axis. the equation perpendicular of the parabola would be y = kx. Astronomy teaches us that ellipses. Many of the arches of a bridge take the form of a half cut obliquely with a knife ellipse. 9S) in equidistant from a given point F and from a given straight line = MP. the section is an ellipse. in the We The have already met falling stone.136 MATHEMATICS 58. of the ball tossed up in the air. If be taken for the axis of the ordinates. all the planets. The (D). The axis cuts the curve at A. halfway between the focus F and the directrix.
then the ellipse would become a circle. easy to see that the constant this length equal to AA. If the two points F. on a sandy soil. to a. B. the middle centre. It is MF + MF' is . becomes equal a. in O. the gardeners' mark. from constant F. The equation of the circle. in the The major axis cuts the curve two points A. F' and attaching thereto a cord (of which the length this cord is held out by has been given) by its two ends if this means of an iron spike . F' M . the equation of the ellipse would be. O a of FF' is the to FF' is the perpendicular the minor axis . to right and left of the minor axis." We see (Fig. »9. 99) that the ellipse is a closed curve the straight line AA' is called the focal or major axis of " . This can be done by fixing two pegs at F. x a1 ^ y* bif _ b 1. Taking OA and OB for axes of the x's and the y's. BB the curve has form exactly similar above and below the major axis. A'. or twice OA is called the length of the major axis the length of the minor axis is BB'. having OA = OB. or twice OB. is x 2 + y* = . A' the . two given points F. always keeping the cord stretched out tightly. this method is known by the name it will trace the ellipse . F' are the foci of Let us suppose Ave wish to trace an ellipse the ellipse. F' were to become one alone. calling a the length OA and b the length OB. B' of the ellipse. spike is carried over the ground. minor in B.THE ELLIPSE that the 137 of its points sum of the distances of is any . Fig. the 4 points are the apexes . . . B A.
100) dicular OY raised and the perpenupon the is middle of FF' are the axes of the curve. 100. of its points to foci. We must note the existence of two straight lines OC. F. by prolonging them. without ever quite running into . which are called the asymptotes. The segment A A . it is not quite so easy to pick out ordinary examples of it as in the case of the two preceding ones. indefinitely. The Hyperbola. if we look at the shadow which is cast on a vertical wall by the lower edge of the lampshade. we shall see a fragment of a hyperbola. is constant. is made up may say. . is Although this curve also very important. the What we find new here is that the curve. The hyperbola can be determined by the following peculiar quality that the difference of the distances from circular is : any one two fixed which are called points F. As we have seen the ellipse. FF'. of two branches as one we like. just now for line the straight FF' (Fig.138 MATHEMATICS 60. to right and left of OY. The axis FF' cuts the curve in two points A. we shall see the curve and the straight line approach each other. and then placed in such a way that the light is below. This of the same above and below Via. if a lampshade is arranged on a lamp. completely separated one from the other. beside being capable of being extended as far as of two parts. However. FF' is called a transverse axis which are the apexes the axis OY does not meet the curve. form both has a length equal to the constant difference of distances from a point of the curve to F and to F'. OC. A'. and are such that. and also prolonging the curve.
If the point is placed. the ratio is infinite it .— asupposing that AB = b. of AB the ratio y is equal to 1 . . 101) and posed that be a moveable point on the straight line AB. knowing that the point C is such that CA is perpendicular to FF == == and that OC == OF. successively or alternatively. and it is the ratio Let AB be a segment of a straight line M M y It = to study. We can easily construct the asymptotes. let it be supthat it is produced in two directions (Fig. for example. ^Tp of these two segments that we wish varies evidently according to the position of M.= c.THE DIVIDED SEGMENT one. said that and it is when M it is arrives at B. it divides AB into two segments AM. For this purpose the pupil should be encouraged to use. squared paper. y has values which become greater and greater. or in other words. M at A . will place. OA * a t b __! What we must specially retain in our minds about these very condensed remarks on the three very important curves about which we have just been speaking is that by their aid many and various constructions may be made. and also that they contribute to the acquisition of that manual dexterity which is so necessary in tracing all sorts of geometrical curves. since B. OC e. it follows that . the usual drawing apparatus. between A and B. MB. OY for axes of the #'s and the ?/'s. 139 AC. The Divided Segment. 61. If a. MA to begin with. the ratio becomes greater . so enormously large that cannot be expressed in figures. and also outlines in freehand. . the equation of the hyperbola would be . . the ratio is M moved from A toward when M is in the middle when M is brought closer is to B. and taking OA. AM We if is nothing nothing.
to 1 in proportion as M approaches becomes Representing. that is to say. will be negative ^rn. remaining always greater than ing more and more nearly to 1. for each position of the point M. this curve BY. M small y. M . we make it move towards negative . the curve seen on Fig.140 If. the size . 101 . AM and very large the ratio the further will M is removed from remain negative) the more B its (although size will M' Fig. in the negative The shape of the figure shows that there are not marked by the two points M for which the ratios AM ttt. MATHEMATICS B. 101. beginning with the point . passes a little beyond the point will be always positive. but approach now. and OX. If 1. parallel to AB. AM . MB negative. we obtain. at a is distance unit. is the ratio less AM 1. . the value of the ratio y by an ordinate drawn perpendicular to the straight line AB. a hyperbola. . . can be the same. however. as a graph showing the variations of this ratio. v»^ becomes once more its than and it more and more nearly distant from A. that is to say. and below. • left. and very then . direction. of which the asymptotes are perpendicular to AB. diminish. at A.
GEOMETRICAL HARMONIES of this ratio of 141 As soon as the value y sign. b. But a point it. then. position M is is given.. The word may appear strange. me.p . M being given. A. we say that they form it a harmonic division. — = M'B. they may exist thus. let us call the m. Geometrical Harmonies. b _ (1 I \a t 1\ ) b) n =2. are proportional to ' 5' 3* . m ^M four points = AM . MA b = AM **^ m. m + a b — m .DOH. when we begin the study of sound. we can find another M' from ratios and only one. m a 1=1 — m » t. such that the two size. MM. segments a. ' 1  a 2 1 — +T =m b On avc the other hand. Then becomes a AM a = m— . and the relation m— . soh . with its determined on the 62. Before explaining we are going to write the proportion . B are such that. SOU the . precise straight line AB. M. the signs arc contrary. 101) that there such different points M that the ratio AM ?m is the same. which make the perfect major chord. soh. learn that the lengths of a vibrating chord giving the three notes doh. cannot exist two We have said (Fig. Doh. rather differently a. ME.. AM AM' ^o> ^ may have the same MA we have When Since. MB — MA. on a straight line. me.
M. our three lengths of chords a. by any straight line PA. four straight lines PM'. 102) be a harmonic division if we join the four points which compose it to any point P. comply with the relation ! a written above. Fig.PM. and.142 MATHEMATICS inverse lengths are proportional to 5 3 1' Then the 4' 2' 5. following : — Let M'AMB (Fig. m. M'. PB whatever. . The system of 4 straight lines PM'. or 4.. M'jAlMjB].A. and if we cut the . PB is called a harmonic sheaf of lines.B 2 are harmonic divisions. + ! b m It is this comparison which has led to the name harmonic division. PM. 6 . the result 111 a b c thus obtained is called a harmonic progression. Thus on the figure. One of the most remarkable properties of harmonic and one which plays an important part in geometry. . when we have an arithmetic progression of any kind whatever. and 1 is divided by each of the terms. . is the division. " a b c . we shall still have a harmonic division. 102. as 4 b will + 6 = 2 x 5. PA." More generally.
With this last. and they are only indicated. it is wise to adopt prudent reserve in this matter in elementary instruction on the subject. Any paradox unexplained is dangerous. take (Fig. and the pupil just touches them. because it throws the pupil's mind into a state of doubt and confusion. When a paradox is instructive. sometimes it is a construction too loosely made. the lines marked on the figure should be traced. because it shows the illusions of explained. we obtain results which we think we have worked out correctly. as it were. however. It is this which has decided me to refrain up to now from presenting any question of this kind. have thus their place in the teaching of Geometry. and which one may be the victim. and it will be best to come to without allowing him to become dispirited. of divisions for base. properly explained. of course. arrived almost at the end. Having. however. done. it is draws attention to a snare. This we might leave the pupil to seek himself. I see nothing unwise. indeed rather the contrary.A PARADOX 63. with the tip of his ringer. there is no question of going deeply into things. 103) a square of 64 divisions on a This piece of squared paper and gum this on cardboard. in making just one exception which is very well known at the present time. and will heights of 5 and 3 sides then the large rectangle . on the contrary. It is hardly likely he will hit upon the best way. incorrect reasoning. it is But if paradoxes. is In mathematics we often meet with paradoxes. that to say. and the square will be found to be split up into two his assistance We will rectangles having 8 sides . which are. obviously wrong. 64 = 65 U3 A Paradox : 64 = 65. which leads to a flagrant Sometimes absurdity.
144 MATHEMATICS .
which would fill Taking the numbers 0. t y_. 1. Magic Squares. but the constant would . M. . in a column. so that practically the agreement would be 64. 5 + 1=2 + we take 1 7 + . . we would apparently have. which then reads sum if away 3 2 8 4 1 6 5 7 there would still be a magic square. a square of 25 divisions we would find a magic square of the constant would be 60. L .. If we took a square of 21 x 21 = 441 divisions.. but really it is not quite perfect. very thin and very much drawn out. be 12 instead of 15. . 15 is the constant magic sum from each figure. 8 Such a the figure what called a magic square of 3 . 2. by a similar construction. on adding the numbers contained in a line. If the numbers 1 to 9 are written in the divisions of a square in the following manner... In that case the two fractions whose equality would be necessary to make a perfect match would be ^j and 5 . g 1 they would differ only by perfect. 24. or in either of the two diagonals. 5 . which corresponds to the area of the added division. 4 + 9 + 2 = 3 + 5 + the result is always the same we can prove — 7 6 = = 8 4 + + 1+6 5 = is + 6 = 4+3 2 + 5 + + is 8=9 + = 15.MAGIC SQUARES 145 quadrilateral. dividing the side into 13 and 8. 441 = 442. 4 3 8 9 5 2 7 16 : that. The union seems exact.
146 MATHEMATICS is The following be proved that properly all : fulfilled — an example by means of which it can the requisite conditions have been .
it has been amusement. as it were. have been sufficient to begin to make you see the close bond which unites the science of numbers " to that of space. you have been led to the idea of Other large numbers appeared enormous numbers. and to do several simple problems. and of the calculations which belong By progressions. this instruction will be more or less of an extended nature but. purely a voluntary one on your part. and of not only considering the figures which translate them. You have not any other study. at least. within certain limits. at the door of analytical geometry. be necessary for each one of you. perceived the form of the l2 . When it has been employ figures. nothing has been required from you. it will . you have a fair grasp to it. the practice of calculation has become more easy for you. nothing from your memory. and become quite familiar with it. particularly. then somewhat more generalised. found out. " With some practical notions of geometry and drawing same time you have succeeded in grasping the construction and the use of graphs. Some notions of geometry. you possible to have very early arrived at the idea of negative numbers. you have been make up numbers with the aid of various objects. before your eyes when you saw what a permutation meant. by way of If you have made any effort. but not demonstrated. Thanks to the custom of carrying you back to the objects themselves.FINAL REMARKS 147 according to the direction which you will be called upon to follow later in life. you have. able to "Before knowing how to read or write. and. at the " have thus arrived. made a study of fractions more than but you know what a fraction is. " Up to the present you have studied nothing. first in simple form. and applying your You knowledge especially to questions of movement. but you have learnt a certain number of useful things.
you will augment the extent of your knowledge. knowing it to be useful by little it will become a necessity of your life it will not only be easy. . certain habits of mind which are now going to prove of the utmost value to you. henceforward you are going to make the most of what you will exercise your reason. however. besides. that it is necessary to surmount them in order to arrive at interesting and useful results. you are certain to have retained something. You have at the same time acquired. you will have teachers who but do not ask anything more from will be guides to you them. but knowfuture old . know. without any doubt. and your sary courage. " Henceforward you have not to do with play but with work. Personal. ing that they are only in the nature of things. You ought to subject yourself to intellectual perhaps also to some efforts of memory. will not prove to be a burden little will find a pleasure in it.148 MATHEMATICS three principal curves that analytical geometry permits us to study more deeply. you will find that you possess the necesIn play you have acquired ideas. untrammelled effort can alone give good You have unconsciously acquired the habit in results. that of forcing them to retain words in their minds without understanding anything about them. Do not think. and you know many more things than other children of your age who have been subjected to a sort of torture. In your work studies in future will thereby be facilitated. " In case of doubt. that you will never meet any difficulties you will find them. . " In the majority of the objects of your studies in the will you will find things cropping up that you knew of any trouble which novelty brings to you will be soon wiped out. you ! . '• Whether of all these ideas much or little remains in your memory. efforts. . But this work. even if it You is no longer play. They be the less formidable because up to now your forces have been husbanded. . but which the ancients already knew. but necessary.
without any distinction or reserve. ought to be process. from carried out in the home. for. evcryday . if necessary. according to the decision of the father It is and mother. even if. specially any reason whatever. the whole destiny of . they themselves have been unable to fill brain. the determination that " mind. whether for good or evil. but you must explain it. the patience. any portion that is with.FINAL REMARKS the 149 for games all of your childhood. personal or social. or of sex . we all agree on one point that an introduction to the science of mathematics is indispensable To begin — any child. from any cause. on the eve of undertaking his studies. of social position. at least. but I also maintain that. mathematical instruction is equally to indispensable. it Now it is you to make know the most of ledge by bringing ! to the task of acquiring you have held in reserve Such is about the substance of what ought to be said to the child at the end of these introductory occupations. And as. without distinction of fortune. their child may be influenced. the post. — my opinion. once the introductory stage passed. the energy. To make him grasp these ideas you must not deliver a lecture. my attention for the moment. this cannot be. that of instruction begins. in ten or twenty talks. The teacher will have to draw from them the material to light the pupil along the new path that he is called upon to follow. Women have need of it just as much as men . the duty of the parents becomes more important still (if that is possible) their responsibility is heavy. to But even when. the The introductory my father and mother ought to remember that their first duty is to associate themselves with the evolution of the child's and to be at any rate a help to the teacher. to these that I turn in to give a few words of advice good advice— of which each can take likely to be useful.
can assimilate as he can learn to read and write correctly. MATHEMATICS domestic economy. . If he has an inborn taste for mathematics. did you think child reading and he was intended to become a great painter ? No one doubts the necessity that exists for each man and woman to learn how to express his or her ideas correctly in the and when that is achieved. But when you taught the same writing. whether gifted or not in any the whole of this knowledge. instruction of make learned men . is is con elementary mathematics. The whole of this knowledge on various subjects can be acquired. which is necessary at the same time easy for everybody to acquire whose brain is not in any way defective. Here an objection presents itself which I have refuted a hundred times already. did you ask yourself whether he had any gift for these branches of study ? When you inculcated the first principles of drawing. into a mathematician. no arts less than the manufactures whose applications have to do with our existence. there is no question making them but there exists in everything a general and groundwork of useful knowledge." This is all very well. in much less time than is given up to it in the ordinary course of teaching. Any child. thanks to the preliminary introduction. If he is not so child any gift for mathematical study ? to direct his studies in gifted. as far as our subject cerned. This literary knowledge. of size require from us all a knowledge of the science and space. . if not pretty nearly represented by just elegantly. special manner.150 life. No more in mathematics than in other subjects does . but will discuss once more and Has my Parents say to me. is it not losing his time channel ? We do not intend to make him that particular with my ' readers. surely we mother tongue that each of them is destined to become do not imagine a Shakespeare or a Milton.
position." Translate Up to now our secondary teaching has had : : for its mission the stupefying of youth. Your child ought to acquire the fundamental notions of mathe matics necessary for everybody. the same problems crop. Then let there be no hesitation on this point. this role had been played young mind. whilst the sciences were subjects for examinaby the arts. he will write. am moment or ought to have. tion especially. As regards secondary teaching. devoted to their task. And when we reflect that the professors of secondary teaching are men of high attainments. conscientious to the limit of their power. xvhilst in the future. devoid of all educative character. you parents unfortunately. probably quite rightly " What is proposed to be done by augmenting the importance of sciences in secondary teaching is to acknowledge the large part they play in the formation of the Up to now. its aim should be the preparation of men's minds. Our primary teaching is passable the higher primary teaching is the least mischievous of all. But according to your and your turn of mind. .FINAL REMARKS . your tastes. I will content myself with quoting a very short passage from a study by M. . for on this one point. I will have to choose. we shudder . if many families " " liberal or were not hypnotised by the attraction of a an official career. up everywhere. there is a secondary a higher primary class completes this Out of all class divided into many and various parts. where and ? how I is the child to receive this instruction just at the With speaking some exceptions. There is the primary teaching. this. for its object the introductory process. of which a large part has. it will be the same thing. never made learned men or artists. can offer you no useful counsel. . Ascoli the most subtle irony can be read into it. 151 he will continue his studies in that direction if he is Teaching has literary by temperament. of France.
they would speak out plainly. as if by enchantment. do not abandon for one instant the educational control of your child.152 MATHEMATICS at the thought of the ravages which the spirit of routine can produce. in time. If fathers and mothers took the utmost care of the intellectual future of their children. the methods followed. I hope. and much obstinate opposition would is disappear. they would exact what they have a perfect right to exact. it at once your right and your duty to make enquiries about the spirit of the teaching. Before entering him or her at any school whatever. Avhatever they may call him. who will pretend that you are meddling with what does not concern you. or headmaster. And above all. do not let yourself be intimidated by the director." I am content to leave you under this impression. the conditions of work. That : will come. which has no power but for evil. without there being any need to be a mathematician yourself. aided by a monstrous administration. Emile Borel " A mathematical education at once theoretical and practical can exercise the happiest influence over the formation of the mind. . principal. Whatever may be the decision arrived at. We should always bear in mind the apt and suggestive remark of M.
. which can be heaped together. 31. 28.be very useful. and has given us." a game of little cubes of wood. Camescasse. to realise. J. This game is a thing from which it will be possible to It is . little sticks. 21. one centimetre in area. and of exercises in ornamental drawing. for which the "Initiator" of M. and that without any effort. construction. 25. some white. or of will quote particularly sections 1G. will probable that its application to other questions be revealed gradually. and also to the employment of squared paper. as you have seen. essentially concrete. and thus lend themselves to the formation of the most varied combinations. matical Initiator. under the name of . 33. 29. dealt with above. there are a great number of questions. It is better to vary these as much as possible. of counters. Rut I have always thought that a material appropriate to the methods that I recommend would. exempt from difficulties M. The question was not principally in class teaching. of beans. It really allows the child. 34. 32. Camescasse has succeeded in surmounting them practically in a most ingenious " Mathemanner. Resides the formation of numbers in decimal numeration. as containing questions to which We " the Mathematical Initiator " may be applied most happily. The educative means that I have attempted to show in book arc. in a concrete manner. 2G. Initiator " of M. the figures which will definitely imprint on his brain the properties of numbers. and to have this recourse to the use of etc. by means of his fingers. Camescasse can be of great assistance.FINAL REMARKS Note ox the " 153 Mathematical. of the study of measures of area and volume in the metric system. and others red. 27. which can find their place in the mothers' teaching by means of this game.
and teaching it while amusing it.154 MATHEMATICS extract great benefit. but in families. mind. It gives me great pleasure. The two aims are really identical no one learns anything well. unless it has given pleasure in its acquirement. not only in schools. . This is peculiar to people of all ages. but most positively so to the very young. . for the reasons I have named. nor is it perfectly retained in the . of children at especially when speaking to a number once will for then the time necessary for making the figures be appreciably shortened. to mention an attempt which has for its object amusing the child while teaching it.
82 Binary numeration.INDEX Abscissae. 57. 106 Arithmetical progressions. 80 Arnoux. 45. 134 Axis of ellipse. 110 Convex. 21 Centre of circle. 95 triangles and squares. 40 Archimedes. 1<»4 137 81. 93. 136 Concrete numbers. 137 hyperbola. 104. etc. 59 of hyperbola. 59. 51 Algebra. 26 Altitude. 56 Decimal Base. 58. 134 Abstract numbers. 84 Descartes. Addition. 38. 110 Circumference. 89 1 1 Compound interest. 90 ratio. 5 Concurrent. 136 Arc. 27 Bundles. 91 parabola. 53. 54 Cone. 152 Brackets. 21. 82 Cube. 145 . 105 Coloured counters. 55 Analytical geometry. 56. 7. 82 Degree. 1 Area. 87 Borel. 54. 56 Coordinates. 49 Deprez. 55. 153 Carrying. 104 Compass. 110 Decagon. 68 Cylinder. 5 Acceleration. 138 parabola. 100 of fractions. 104 Diabolical squares. 138 Axes. ellipse. 53 Camescasse. 134 Counting. 47 of numeration. 129 Acute angle. 17 Common difference. 102 Composite numbers. 60. 56. 138 Chord. 104 Circle. 24 Chessboard problems. 146 Asymptote. 9. coordinate. 103 Denominator. 54 Apex. fraction. 6 system. 133 Angles. 106.
42 Divisor. 95 Investment. 85 Grade. 54 Faggots. 38 fraction. 136 Fractions. 49 Frcebel. 113 Matches. 53 Edge. 91 Mathematics. 56. 56 Hanoi tower puzzle. Graphs. 42 Division. etc. 52 progression. 133 Godard. 51 ' analytical. 42 Dodecagon. 137 Focus. 98 Initial velocity. 31 128. 42 Factorial. 136 INDEX Great circle. 26 Equation. 5 Falling stone. 145 Major axis. 105 Equilateral triangle. 104 Difference. 130 Inscribed angle. 103 teaching 151 of. 59 Ellipse. importance 1 of. 64 Improper Index. 49 Even number." 153 Geometrical Geometry. 107 Horizontal. 8 Face. 19 La Chalotais. 82 Height. Magic squares. 90 Directrix. 95 Isosceles triangle. 45. 56 Diameter. 141 sheaf of lines. 138 Hypotenuse. 2 Duodecimal system. 129 Fermat. 7 Equal. 3 Lucas. 135. 142 Drawing. 81 Figures. 87 Focal axis. 112 — Measures. 58 Heptagon. 56 Hexagon. 36. 137 Function. 5 " Mathematical Initiator. Mental calculation.156 Diagonal. 47. 136 Hundred. 8 . 88 Harmonic division. 110 Guillaume. 54 Eratotosthenes. 3 etc. 101 Dividend. Leibnitz. 12. 42 Hyperbola. 104 Interest. 56 Hippocrates. 59 Factor. 55.
40 37 Minus. 3 — 63 Rectangle. 32 Millions. 57 Right angle. 57. 45. 101 of eleven. 48. 89 decreasing. 40 Progressions. 105 Segment. 85 Rose. 92 28. 8 Proper fraction. 53 Rightangled triangle. 53 Quadrilateral. 120 Sphere. 42. 88. 52 Plus. of) Pascal. 54 Polygon. 51 Multiplicator. 104 Semicircle. 57 Parallelopiped. 104 Ratio. 53 Pestalozzi. 79 Minor axis. 28 Sign. Multiplicand. 82 Pyramid. 54 Ring puzzle. 14 157 Powers. 44 Snail problem. 89 arithmetical. 142 increasing. 91 Obtuseangled triangle. Parallel. 54. 87 Numbers. 20. Ordinate. 26 Secant. 56 Quotient. 35. 52 129. 51 Protractor. 33 Numerator. 56 Odd numbers. 136 Paradox. 107 Pictured permutations. 143 Parallelogram. 31. 30 Negative numbers. 44 Rhombus. 91 harmonic. 35 Prism.INDEX Metric system. 56 Remainder. 33. 59 Pythagoras. 98 Pile. 5 Numeration. 110 . 139 Parabola. systems of. 35 Multiplication. etc. 134 8 Radius. 59 Product. 4it Obtuse angle. 35 of fractions. 54 Octagon. 26. 109 Positive numbers. 49 Proportion. 102 Puzzles. 75 Plane. 38. 92 geometric. 137 Prime numbers. 88 Roman numeration. 28 Mohammedan method. 24 of circle. 28. 56 Permutations. Nought. 63 Reentering angle. 97 Perpendicular. 12. 55—63 Polyhedra. 107 Side. 80 Pentagon.
92 squares. 128. 48. 61 Transverse axis. 57. PRINTERS. 104 Subtraction. 70 Sum. LD.. Sticks. etc. 31 Volume. 61 Unity. 72 Squared paper.158 Square. 54. 10 of arithmetical progression. 132 cubes. 91 Travelling problems. 57. 75 Systems of numeration. 63 arithmetical. LONDON AND TONBRIDOE . 138 Trapezium. 23. 12. 105 Ten. 6 45. 53 Viete. 61. AGNEW. 121 Weighing. 10 numbers. 52 Strokes. 84 Term. 5 1. 1 Subtend. 76 geometrical progression. 109 Weather Tangent. 63 arithmetical. 20 BRADBURY. 63. 33. 80 INDEX Thousand. Zero. 31 trains. 38. 115 — Straight line. 22. 14 Total. & CO. 80 Triangular numbers. 25 of fractions. 90 graphs. 90 Underground Unit. 82 Vertical. 51 Triangle.
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