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faculty member: Mr. Anshu Class: B.Tech Term: II Section:C2801 Batch: 2009 Max. Marks: 25 DOA: 20-01-11 DOS: 31-01-11 Part A Que1: Why a pair of modems is required to transmit a digital signal over a PSTN . With the aid of Diagram, show the location of the two modems when two digital devices communicate over a PSTN and the types of signal analog or digital- that are used over each part of the access circuit? Ans:A device for transmitting usually digital data over telephone wires by modulatin g the data into an audio signal to send it and demodulating an audio signal into data to receive it. A circuit for providing an interface between a telephone set and a modem having voice processing capabilities that allows digitization of the voice to occur and provides an improved capability for the detection of a signal indicating a tran sfer from voice mode to data mode. A typical telephone interface consists of a ` 2 wire system` on which both the incoming and outgoing signals are carried simul taneously. These two signals need to be separated in order to digitize the outgo ing signal. This is done using a hybrid transformer network that attempts to sub tract the incoming signal from the outgoing signal. To switch from voice mode to data mode, it is necessary to `listen` for the data tones while a voice call is in progress. These tones are sent by a remote modem as a signal for the local m odem to switch into data mode. These tones may be received at a very low level w hich can prevent the tone detection circuitry from properly functioning. To addr ess this situation, according to the invention, the local outgoing signal is ext racted from the received tones by the use of a Data Access Arrangement (DAA) whi ch includes a hybrid transformer. The modem now uses this received signal to det ect the tones during a voice conversation. Que2: With the aid of the diagram, describe how the following gain access to the internet: a) User at home or in small business. Ans:Some of your business's most valuable assets are its fans--the brand evangelists who sing the praises of your products and services--with or without you knowing about it. On Facebook, you have access to a choir of more than 350 million pote ntial fans. Enlist a tiny percentage of the most vocal members to be your loyal Facebook Fans, and you can quickly spark a word-of-mouth wildfire. The potential is tremendous, while the startup costs are next to nothing--only a small amount of your time to create a Fan Page and two to three hours per week maintaining i t. b) Distributed community of users around a single site or campus. Ans:c) Distributed set of users all attached to the same enterprise-wide private net work. Why the latter is sometimes called an intranet. Ans:Que3: Why most data networks operate in a packet mode. Hence explain why service s involving audio and video are supported? Part B

Que4: Define the meaning of the term â channel bandwidthâ in relation to a transmission hannel. Hence with the aid of diagram, explain the meaning of the term â bandlimiting channelâ . Que5: Define the aspect ratio of a display screen. Give two examples for current widely used screen sizes? Que6: Derive the bit rate that results from the digitization of a 525-line and a 625-line system using the 4:2:0 digitization format and interlaced scanning. He nce derive the amount of memory required to store a 2-hour movie/video. Que7: The following character string is to be transmitted using Huffman coding: ABACADABACADABACABAB 1) Derive the Huffman code tree. 2) Determine the savings in transmission bandwidth over normal ASCII and binary coding.

PART-A Que1:Explain why a pair of modems is required to transmit a digital signal over a PSTN. With the aid of Diagram, show the location of the two modems when two digital devices communicate over a PSTN and the types of signal analog or digital- that are used over each part of the access circuit? Ans1: The term Modem is a composite word that refers to the two functional entities that make up the device.: a signal modulator and a signal demodulator. A modulator converts a digital signal into an analog signal using ASK,FSK,PSK, or QAM. A demodulator converts an analog signal into a digital signal. While a demodulator resembles an analog to digital convertor, it is not in fact a convertor of any kind. It merely reverses the process of modulation. Modems are required to transmit a digital signal over a Public Switched Telephone Network(PSTN) lines because data travels in the form of electric signals over the PSTN lines whereas in computer digital signals are being transferred . so there is a need to convert this digital signal into its analog counterpart before it travels through the PSTN network. This is what modem does. The figure shows that how two systems communicate over the network of PSTN lines. It shows two systems , System A and System B. Both the systems are communicating with each other through PSTN network. The use of modems is clearly shown in the figure. They are modulating the data at the sender end and again demodulating at the receiver side. System A MODULATO R DEMODULA TOR SWITCHING STATION