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www.answering-christianity.

com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
Intro:

This booklet is a response to a christian booklet called “women in islam part 3 “ , written by the christian
missionary Sham Shamoun. The text of the christian missionary in this booklet is coloured blue, my islamic
response is coloured in black. May Allah help us in defending our religion and beloved Prophet Muhammad,
peace and blessings be upon him. May Allah bless all my brothers and sisters and everyone who is dear to me,
this one is written for you. Ameen.

Contents:

Part A:

Does islam really condone adultery, rape and pedophilia ?

Part B:

Discussion on the age of marriage in islam

Part C:

Age of marriage in islam, when is a girl allowed to consummate her marriage ?

Part D:

What are the rights of female slaves in islam, a response to the false claims

Part E:

Miscellany

Part F:

A woman’s awrah, plus a response to the hadith quoted from Imam Ghazali’s Ihya’ ‘Ulum-Ud-Din

Part G:

Hijab or niqab ? is the face veil really obligatory ?

Part H:

A response to the sermons quoted from Nahjul Balagha - Peak of Eloquence

Part I:

A response to the hadith quoted from Imam Ghazali’s Ihya’ ‘Ulum-Ud-Din


Part J:

The meaning of Soerah 4:34

Part K:

Can women hold leadership-positions in islam, an analyse of Abu Bakrah’s hadith

Part L:

Are women defficient in intelligence and religion ? A response to misinterpretations and false claims

Part M:

Political rights of women in islam

Part N:

Is the witness of a woman half worth the witness of a man ? Meaning of the word qawwamin explained

Part O:

Polygamy and a wifes permission to marry a second wife, plus explaining women’s rights for divorce

Part P:

Intellectual skills and differences between men and women, a scientific analyse which refutes the myths spread
by some muslims

Part Q:

A response to the conclusion of the christian missionary & an analyse of his claim
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

Islam Condones Adultery, Rape and Pedophilia. Islam not only condoned a form of prostitution in the guise of
marriage, it also permits other perverted sexual acts such as sex with minors and the rape of prisoners of war. We
begin with the Quran’s teaching regarding marrying and divorcing prepubescent girls:

Response:

Part three is already full of lies and insults to gods true religion in the first sentences. The reader will find out
that the bible condones rape and pedophilia, not Islam.

He wrote:

O Prophet, when you divorce women, divorce them when they have reached their period. Count the period, and
fear God your Lord. Do not expel them from their houses, nor let them go forth, except when they commit a
flagrant indecency. Those are God's bounds; whosoever trespasses the bounds of God has done wrong to
himself. Thou knowest not, perchance after that God will bring something new to pass… As for your women
who have despaired of further menstruating, if you are in doubt, their period shall be three months; and those
who have not menstruated as yet. And those who are with child, their term is when they bring forth their burden.
Whoso fears God, God will appoint for him, of His command, easiness. S. 65:1, 4 Arberry

The waiting period for the divorcing of women who haven’t even menstruated is three months. This means that
these women aren’t even women (they haven’t attained womanhood) but are in fact young girls who haven’t
even attained puberty! Now a woman can only be divorced if she was first married, so it is clear that this
injunction assumes that young girls can be married and divorced and remarry before they reach puberty. Even
more, the purpose of this waiting period is to ensure that the wife who is about to be divorced is not pregnant, or
if she is to make sure that the true father is known, i.e. that the child is from the current husband, and not a next
husband that she may marry afterwards. Thus, this verse presupposes that the Muslim men who are married to
prepubescent girls have sexual intercourse with them.

Response:

Additionally a girl can be married prior to puberty, but consummation and her moving into his home can only
occur at the onset of puberty. So sexual relations before puberty is not possible in islam, since Nikkah can only
be consummated when a girls reaches puberty. The prophet, peace be upon him, consummated Nikkah with
Aicha when she started to menstruate, or in other words reached puberty .

Historically, the age at which a girl was considered ready to be married has been puberty. This was the case in
Biblical times, as we will discuss below, and is still used to determine the age of marriage in what the culturally
arrogant West calls ‘primitive societies’ throughout the world. As the ahadith about Aishah's age show, her
betrothal took place at least three years before the consummation of the marriage. The reason for this was that
they were waiting for her to come of age, i.e. to have her first menstrual period. Puberty is a biological sign
which shows that a women is capable of bearing children. Can anyone logically deny this ? Part of the wisdom
behind the Prophet's Muhammad's marriage to Aishah just after she reached puberty is to firmly establish this as
a point of Islamic Law, even though it was already cultural norm in all Semitic societies, including the one Jesus
grew up in. K
k
Another author, Karen Armstrong, has this to add:

Tabari says that she was so young that she stayed in her parents home and the marriage was consummated there
later when she had reached puberty.

( Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Harper San Francisco, 1992, page 157 )
k

This further establishes that the marriage took place at puberty and that, as such, no eyebrows were raised. The
large majority of Islamic jurists say that the earliest time which a marriage can be consummated is at the onset of
sexual maturity, meaning puberty. Since this was the norm of all Semitic cultures and it still is the norm of many
cultures today, it is certainly not something that Islam invented. However, widespread opposition to such a
Divinely revealed and accepted historical norm is certainly something that is relatively new !

It is upon reaching the age of puberty that a person, man or woman, becomes legally responsible under Islamic
Law. At this point, they are allowed to make their own decisions and are held accountable for their actions. It
should also be mentioned that in Islam, it is unlawful to force someone to marry someone that they do not want
to marry. The evidence shows that Aishah's marriage to the Prophet Muhammad was one which both parties and
their families agreed upon. Based on the culture at that time, no one saw anything wrong with it. On the contrary,
they were all happy about it.

Another contemporary reference relating marriage age to puberty is an article on Central Africa, which says:

1
". . . women marry soon after puberty"

The previous quotations, and plenty of others which were not used, should prove to any intelligent person what
anthropologists and historians already know: in centuries past, people were considered ready for marriage when
they reached puberty.

The age limit for puberty varies with countries and races due to the climate, hereditary, physical and social
conditions. Those who live in cold regions attain puberty at a much later age as compared with those living in
hot regions where both male and female attain it at a quite early age.

The well-known authors of the book Woman say:

The average temperature of the country or province, is considered the chief factor here, not only with regard to
menstruation but as regards the whole of sexual development at puberty 2
k
Raciborski, Jaubert, Routh and many others have collected and collated statistics on the subject to which readers
are referred. Marie Espino has summarised some of these data as follows:

A:

The limit of age for the first appearance of menstruation is between nine and twenty-four in the temperate-zone;

B:

The average age varies widely and it ay be accepted as established that the nearer the Equator, the earlier the
average age for menstruation. 3
k

:
Since the age of the first appearance of menstruation can be between nine and twenty-four years, it could happen
sometimes that certain women would menstruate very late, for example at an age of fifteen or sixteen years.
However girls back then and in biblical times were certainly considered as young women / adults and legal for
Nikkah at the age of fourteen or fifteen etc. So it could happen that a women married and consummated her
marriage for example at the age of fourteen or sixteen but hadn’t menstruate yet. In case of divorce the verses
quoted by sham shamoun apply to her. Her husband could still only divorce her after the waiting period of three
months, this is a general rule.

Most quotations were taken from: http://www.muslim-answers.org/aishah.htm

Sources:

1:

"Central Africa", The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition (1987), Volume 15, page 646. See also
"Aboriginal Australia", The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition (1987), Volume 14, page 425. For
additional references to the marriage customs in Biblical times, see Israel: Its Life and Culture, by Johannes
Pedersen, Volume 1, page 60ff.

2:

Herman H. Ploss, Max Bartels and Paul Bartels, Woman, Volume I, Lord & Bransby, 1988, page 563.

3:

English-translation of Sahih Muslim, Volume 2, International Islamic Publishing House, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
page 715.
He wrote:

The renowned Muslim commentator Abu-Ala’ Maududi, in his six volume commentary on the Quran, confirms
this by stating the following regarding this passage:

Therefore, making mention of the waiting-period for girls who have not yet menstruated, clearly proves that it is
not only permissible to give away the girl at this age but it is permissible for the husband to consummate
marriage with her. Now, obviously no Muslim has the right to forbid a thing which the Qur’an has held as
permissible (Maududi, volume 5, p. 620, note 13, emphasis added)

Response:

A girl can be married prior to puberty, but consummation and her moving into his home occurs at the onset of
puberty. The prophet, peace be upon him, didn’t consummate his marriage with Aicha when she was six. He
consummated his marriage with her three years later. The reason for this was that they were waiting for her to
come of age, i.e. to have her first menstrual period. Puberty is a biological sign which shows that a women is
capable of bearing children. Now if a marriage could be consummated at any age with a girl, then certainly the
prophet, peace be upon him, would have consummated his marriage with Aicha when she was six, however he
never did this for a reason, he waited untill she reached puberty.

Since the age of the first appearance of menstruation can be between nine and twenty-four years, it could happen
sometimes that certain women would menstruate very late. For example at an age of sixteen or seventeen years.
However girls back then and also in biblical times were certainly considered as young women / adults and legal
for nikkah at the age of twelve, thirteen, fourteen or sixteen etc. So it could happen sometimes that a women
married and consummated her marriage for example at the age of fourteen or sixteen, but hadn’t menstruate yet.
The commentary above, quoted by the christian missionary sham shamoun applies to her. In other words the
commentary refers to those girls who haven’t menstruate yet, but already are considered as young adults due to
the fact that they have already reached the general considered age of puberty or already had other signs of
womanhood like breasts and public hair etc.

The quran confirms this fact, by stating that girls can be married at the general age of puberty, which back then
was like fourteen years. However it was still possible that the girl hadn’t menstruate yet at this age. However due
the fact that she had reached the general age of marriage or already had breasts and public hair etc, she could
consummate her marriage. Public hair and wet dreams are also signs that a girl has reached puberty.

Qu’ran An-nisa 6:

Waibtaloo alyatama hatta itha balaghoo alnnikaha fa-in anastum minhum rushdan faidfaAAoo ilayhim
amwalahum wala ta/kulooha israfan wabidaran an yakbaroo waman kana ghaniyyan falyastaAAfif waman kana
faqeeran falya/kul bialmaAAroofi fa-itha dafaAAtum ilayhim amwalahum faashhidoo AAalayhim wakafa
biAllahi haseeban

Prove orphans till they reach the marriageable age; then, if ye find them of sound judgment, deliver over unto
them their fortune; and devour it not by squandering and in haste lest they should grow up Whoso (of the
guardians) is rich, let him abstain generously (from taking of the property of orphans); and whoso is poor let
him take thereof in reason (for his guardianship). And when ye deliver up their fortune unto orphans, have (the
transaction) witnessed in their presence. Allah sufficeth as a Reckoner.
k
What does the arabic word balaghoo in the beginning of this verse mean ?

Baligh:

Originally balagha, to reach, mature, ripen. Here it is the person who has reached the state of puberty. At this
age the person is responsible for his or her acts. The state is known also as bulugh.

Bulugh:

The state of puberty. It's synonym is Hulum, meaning the age of dreams, and tamyeez, the age of discretion.
k

Prove orphans till they reach the marriageable age ,…It means the age of marriage, the age of their maturity in
the Legislation.

Ibn Kathir in his tafsir comments:

The age of puberty, according to Mujahid. The age of puberty according to the majority of scholars comes when
the child has a wet dream. In his Sunan, Abu Dawud recorded that `Ali said, "I memorized these words from the
Messenger of Allah , “There is no orphan after the age of puberty nor vowing to be silent throughout the day to
the night” .

In another Hadith, `A'ishah and other Companions said that the Prophet said, “The pen does not record the
deeds of three persons: the child until the age of puberty, the sleeping person “until waking up, and the senile
until sane” k

Or, the age of fifteen is considered the age of adolescence. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Umar said,
I was presented in front of the Prophet on the eve of the battle of Uhud, while I was fourteen years of age, and he
did not allow me to take part in “that battle. But I was presented in front of him on the eve of the battle of Al-
Khandaq (The Trench) when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed “me (to join that battle).

Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz commented when this Hadith reached him, “ This is the difference between a child and
an adult.” There is a difference of opinion over whether pubic hair is considered a sign of adulthood, and the
correct opinion is that it is. The Sunnah supports this view, according to a Hadith collected by Imam Ahmad
from `Atiyah Al-Qurazi who said, We were presented to the Prophet on the day of Qurizah, whoever had pubic
hair was killed, whoever did not was left free to go, I was one of those who did not, so I was left free.'' The Four
Sunan compilers also recorded similar to it. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' Allah's statement, 1
k
Maulana Muhammad Ali in his commentary of the qu’ran comments:

These words, moreover, show that marriage should be performed at the age when a person has attained majority,
for the age of marriage is spoken of as being the age of attaining majority. 2
k

We now clearly see and have enough proof to state that consummation of marriage in islam can only occur when
a girl has reached puberty. Puberty in islam can be reached by: menstruation, having wet dreams, public hair &
breasts, and the age of 15. These facts can be found in Ibn Kathirs famous tafsir and the hadith. So a girl who has
not yet menstruated can only consummate her marriage when she has reached puberty/ majority trough other
ways / signs. The verses quoted by sham shamoun apply to a girl in this condition (she has reached majority for
example by having public hair and wet dreams, while she had not yet menstruated). This exposes the cheap lie of
the christian missionary Sham Shamoun that Islam condones pedophilia, which we have proven is not true.
Notice also how the qu’ran in soerah 65:1-4 only speaks about ‘those have no courses yet’, nowhere does the
verse say ‘those who have not reached majority’, the soerah doesn’t say this ! On the next pages we shall discuss
the attitude of the bible concerning this issue.

Now let’s take a look on how things are in the bible, and what it teaches us. Keep in mind how much problems
the christian missionary had with marriage on the onset of puberty.

Numbers 31:17-18

Now kill all the boys [ innocent kids ]. And kill every woman who has slept with a man, but save for yourselves
every girl who has never slept with a man.
k

k k K

One can only guess how the Israelites determined who the virgins were. Most probably, they did it based on age
and maturity, assuming that all of the female "children" who had not reached puberty were virgins. Keep in
mind that this was done, according to the Bible, on God's command to "Avenge the Israelites on the Midianites"
Later, God gives Moses instructions on how to divide up the booty, "whether persons, oxen, donkeys, sheeps or
goats" Based on this command, “thirty-two thousand persons in all, women who had not known a man by lying
with him” were divided up. This was done so that the Israelite soldiers could have these young girls "for
themselves". I do not suspect that anyone reading this is either so naive or ignorant of King James English to not
know what this means ! Let’s take a look on how classic bible commentaries of learned men explained this
verse:

Kuhn 1959, §157, footnote 86, 653.

According to the Tannaïte Rabbis, Moses therefore had ordered the Israelites to kill: “all women older than three
years and a day, because they were "suitable for having sexual relations."
k
J. Neusner, The Talmud of Babylonia, vol.XXIII.B, Tractate Sanhedrin 1984, 150.

Said Rabbi Joseph: Come and take note: “A girl three years and one day old is betrothed by intercourse.” And if
a Levir has had intercourse with her, he has acquired her. And one can be liable on her account because of the
law prohibiting intercourse with a married woman. And she imparts uncleanness to him who has intercourse with
her when she is menstruating, to convey uncleanness to the lower as to the upper layer [of what lies beneath]. If
she was married to a priest, she may eat food in the status of priestly rations. If one of those who are unfit for
marriage with her had intercourse with her, he has rendered her unfit to marry into the priesthood. If any of those
who are forbidden in the Torah to have intercourse with her had intercourse with her, he is put to death on her
account, but she is free of responsibility [M.Nid. 5:4]. Sanhedrin 7/55B
k

J. Neusner, The Talmud of Babylonia., Part IV. The Division of Holy Things. B. Number 37. 1995, 704

The basis for these rulings is the following Mishnaic passage of Tractate Niddah: A girl three years and one day
old is betrothed by intercourse. "A girl three years old may be betrothed through an act of sexual intercourse,"
the words of R. Meir.“And sages say, "Three years and one day old." And if a Levir has had intercourse with her,
he has acquired her. And they are liable on her account because of the law prohibiting intercourse with a married
woman. And she imparts uncleanness to him who has intercourse with her when she is menstruating to convey
uncleanness to the lower as to the upper layer. If she was married to a priest, she eats heave offering. If one of
those who are unfit for marriage has intercourse with her, he has rendered her unfit to marry into the priesthood.
If one of all those who are forbidden in the Torah to have intercourse with her did so, they are put to death on her
account. But she is free of responsibility. If she is younger than that age, intercourse with her is like putting a
finger in the eye. Mishnah Niddah 5:4
k

Kuhn 1959, §157, 652 f.

While it is reassuring to see there was at least some limit as to what the sages would declare holy and moral, this
ruling had severe implications on the interpretation of other topics as well. The Tannaïtic Midrash Sifre to
Numbers in §157 comments on the above quoted commandment of Moses to kill the Midianite women as well as
the male children: "Now therefore, kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that has known a
man by sleeping with him.” (Num 31:17).

This refers to her who has slept with a man as well as her who is suitable for intercourse, even when she has not
slept with a man... But all the young girls who have not known a man by sleeping with him, keep alive for
yourselves. From here R. Shimon b. Yohai used to say: “a Proselyte girl who became a proselyte in the age of
less than three years and one day, is rendered fit to marry into the priesthood."
k
Most quotations here were taken from the “The Talmud of Babylonia” . Many christians who are ashamed of
the truth present in these classic bible commentaries who represent the true meaning of the bible, try to discredit
the Talmud. One wonders do christians have the right to discredit the Talmud ? Is the Talmud like the christians
claim indeed some written down work many years after the revelations and prophets ? Next i will present the
reader some quotations of jewish scholars who refute these weak desperate christian claims.

Rabbi Michael Rodkinson:

Is the literature that Jesus was familiar with in his early years yet in existence in the world ? Is it possible for us
to get at it ? Can we ourselves review the ideas, the statements, the modes of reasoning and thinking, on moral
and religious subjects, which were current in his time, and must have been [resolved] by him during those silent
thirty years when he was pondering his future mission? To such inquiries the learned class of Jewish rabbis
answer by holding up the Talmud. Here, say they, is the source from whence Jesus of Nazareth drew the
teaching which enabled him to revolutionize the world; and the question becomes, therefore, an interesting one
to every Christian, What is the Talmud ?

The Talmud, then, is the written form of that which, in the time of Jesus, was called the Traditions of the Elders,
and to which he makes frequent allusions. 3
K k

The Talmud is the classic oral law of the Torah written down:

In past installments we discussed the fact that at Mount Sinai the Jewish people received the Written Torah and
the Oral Torah. The Oral Torah was the oral explanation of how the written laws should be executed and
followed.

The Oral Torah passed from generation to generation and was never written down. Why ? Because the Oral
Torah was meant to be fluid. 4
k

The Rabbis tell us that the authority of the Talmud , is derived from God Himself.

The progression goes like this: God gave the Oral Tradition ( the basis for the Talmud ), to Moses; 'Moses
passed it on to Joshua. Joshua gave it to the Elders. The Elders gave it to the Prophets, and the Prophets gave it
to the Men of the Great Assembly' (in Ezra and Nehemiah's day). 5
k

Rabbi Adin Even Israel Steinsaltz is the founder of the Israel Institute for Talmudic Publications, and has
enjoyed the backing of Israeli presidents and prime ministers; he is a recipient of Israel's highest civilian honor,
the Israel Prize. He is currently translating the Talmud into English, French, and Russian. In 1976, he writes:
Rabbi Steinsaltz

If the Bible is the cornerstone of Judaism, then the Talmud is the central pillar, soaring up from the foundations
and supporting the entire spiritual and intellectual edifice. In many ways the Talmud is the most important book
in Jewish culture, the backbone of creativity and of national life. No other work has had a comparable influence
on the theory and practice of Jewish life, shaping spiritual content and serving as a guide to conduct 6
k

These quotations proof that the talmud is the most ancient traditional classic interpretation of the old testament,
and not some later written down paper like some christians try to argue. The talmud is based on the most ancient
jewish oral laws / explenations of the old testament that passed from generation to generation. So girls three
years old of age were considered “ready for sexual intercourse” in the most traditional renowned classic bible
commentaries of the old testament, which is clearly supported in the bible self, notice:

Numbers 31:17-18

Now kill all the boys [ innocent kids ]. And kill every woman who has slept with a man, but save for yourselves
every girl who has never slept with a man
k

The verse says ‘every girl’ so age doesn’t matter that much, which includes girls three years old of age. The
Israelite soldiers could have these young girls ‘for themselves’. Notice also that the verse explicit mentions that
these girls / children the soldiers could save for themselves had to be virgins, otherwise they would be killed.
Now why did female captives need to be virgin for escaping death punishment ? I do not suspect that anyone
reading this is either so naive or ignorant of King James English to not know what this means. It’s now clear
which religion condones pedophilia .
Sources:

1:

http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=10463

2:

The Holy Qu’ran by Muhammad Maulana Ali , commentary soerah 4:6

3:

The History of the Talmud, Vol. II, page 70

4:

http://www.simpletoremember.com/vitals/Talmud_History.htm

5:

Ariel & Devorah Berkowitz, Torah Rediscovered (Lakewood, CO: First Fruits of Zion, 1996), p.81. This is from
the Mishna, tractate Pirke Avot 1:1.

6:

The Essential Talmud, page 3


www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

The collector of the so-called sound narrations, Imam al-Bukahri narrated:

Narrated Sahl bin Sad: While we were sitting in the company of the Prophet a woman came to him and presented
herself for marriage to him. The Prophet looked at her, lowering his eyes and raising them, but did not give a
reply. One of his companions said, " Marry her to me O Allah’s Apostle " The Prophet asked him, "Have you got
anything ? " He said, " I have got nothing." The Prophet said, " Not even an iron ring ? " He said, " Not even an
iron ring, but I will tear my garment into two halves and give her one half and keep the other half. " The Prophet;
said, " No. Do you know some of the Quran (by heart) ? " He said, " Yes." The Prophet said, " Go, I have agreed
to marry her to you with what you know of the Qur'an (as her Mahr)." 'And for those who have no courses (i.e.
they are still immature). (65.4) And the 'Iddat for the girl BEFORE PUBERTYis three months (in the above
Verse). (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 63; emphasis ours)

Response:

The christian missionary relies his opinion on an english translation of the heading of a chapter. The Sahl bin
Sa'd ahadith ends at: "Go, I have agreed to marry her to you with what you know of the Qur'an". What is
mentioned next , the fat quoted text by sham shamoun, is not a hadeeth but part of the title of the next chapter in
sahih al-bukhari:

‫دلو لجرلا حاكنإ باب‬L ‫لوقل راغصلا‬L ‫تدع لعجف } نضحي مل يئاللاو { ىلاعت‬L‫شأ ةثالث ا‬L‫غولبلا لبق ر‬

something like:

“Chapter on ( the permissibility of ) a man marrying off his underage daughter (which would be) in
accordance with the saying of Allah "And for –“those who do not menstruate" so the `iddah was set to
three months prior to buloogh."

In the context of this verse prior to ‘buloogh’ refers only to ‘prior to menstruation’, since the verse speaks about
those who have no courses yet. When a girl has her first menstrual period, she is general considered as having
reached ‘buloogh’ / puberty. Therefor the writer here in his chapter uses the words ‘underage’ and ‘prior to
buloogh’ as a reference to ‘prior to menstruation’. This can be clearly seen without doubt at the rest of the text
and it’s context in connection to the quranic ayah. A lot of writers used the term ‘buloogh’ only as a reference to
menstruation, since menstruation is the well known sign which shows that a girl has reached ‘buloogh’. Therefor
most writers use the the term ‘prior to buloogh’ and ‘underage’ as a synonym for ‘prior to menstruation’. This
can be confusing sometimes, since one could think that girls could consummate marriage before puberty, which
is actually not allowed in islam. Like we mentioned before there are also other things which are a sign of having
reached ‘majority’ in islam. These things are: wet dreams, breasts, public hair and the age of 15 years. Therefor a
girl can only consummate marriage prior to menstruation (which is general considered as buloogh for girls)
when she has already public hair, breasts or reached the age of 15 years or had a wet dream, which are also signs
that a girl has reached puberty in islam. So keep in mind that the heading of this chapter only refers to girls who
had not yet menstruated which can be clearly seen at the rest of the text and it’s connection to the quranic ayah.
k
Proof that girls can only consummate marriage on the onset of puberty can be found in the sunnah of our
prophet. The Prophet, peace be upon him, didn’t consummate his marriage with Aicha when she was six. He
consummated his marriage with her three years later. The reason for this was that they were waiting for her to
come of age, or in other words reached puberty.

Another author, Karen Armstrong, has this to add:

Tabari says that she was so young that she stayed in her parents home and the marriage was consummated there
later when she had reached puberty.

( Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Harper San Francisco, 1992, page 157 )
k

Now if a marriage could be consummated at any age with a girl or prior to puberty, then certainly the prophet,
peace be upon him, would have consummated his marriage with Aicha when she was six. However he never did
this for a reason, he waited untill she reached puberty. From this we can already see, that girls priot to puberty
are not allowed to consummate marriage. But what about the ayah which says ‘and the waiting period for those
who have no courses yet is three months’ ? Like we have seen in the heading of the chapter of sahih bukhari is
that girls prior to menstruation can marry, which is by some writers described as ‘prior to buloogh’ or ‘underage’
since menstruation is general considered as having reached buloogh. However this does not mean that girls can
consummate marriage before pubery, which some people think. This confusion occurs because some writers
used the terms ‘prior to buloogh’ or ‘underage’ as a reference or synonym for ‘prior to menstruation’ since
menstruation is the well known aspect which shows that a girl has reached puberty / majority. However in islam
a girl has also reached puberty / majority when she had her first wet dream, or has already public hair, breasts or
reached the age of 15 years. These facts can be found in Ibn Kathirs famous tafsir on soerah 4:6

kkk

Qu’ran An-nisa 6:

Waibtaloo alyatama hatta itha balaghoo alnnikaha fa-in anastum minhum rushdan faidfaAAoo ilayhim
amwalahum wala ta/kulooha israfan wabidaran an yakbaroo waman kana ghaniyyan falyastaAAfif waman kana
faqeeran falya/kul bialmaAAroofi fa-itha dafaAAtum ilayhim amwalahum faashhidoo AAalayhim wakafa
biAllahi haseeban

Prove orphans till they reach the marriageable age; then, if ye find them of sound judgment, deliver over unto
them their fortune; and devour it not by squandering and in haste lest they should grow up Whoso (of the
guardians) is rich, let him abstain generously (from taking of the property of orphans); and whoso is poor let
him take thereof in reason (for his guardianship). And when ye deliver up their fortune unto orphans, have (the
transaction) witnessed in their presence. Allah sufficeth as a Reckoner.
k
Ibn Kathir in his tafsir comments:

The age of puberty, according to Mujahid. The age of puberty according to the majority of scholars comes when
the child has a wet dream. In his Sunan, Abu Dawud recorded that `Ali said, "I memorized these words from the
Messenger of Allah , “There is no orphan after the age of puberty nor vowing to be silent throughout the day to
the night” .

In another Hadith, `A'ishah and other Companions said that the Prophet said, “The pen does not record the
deeds of three persons: the child until the age of puberty, the sleeping person “until waking up, and the senile
until sane”

Or, the age of fifteen is considered the age of adolescence. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Umar said,
I was presented in front of the Prophet on the eve of the battle of Uhud, while I was fourteen years of age, and he
did not allow me to take part in “that battle. But I was presented in front of him on the eve of the battle of Al-
Khandaq (The Trench) when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed “me (to join that battle).

Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz commented when this Hadith reached him, “ This is the difference between a child and
an adult.” There is a difference of opinion over whether pubic hair is considered a sign of adulthood, and the
correct opinion is that it is. The Sunnah supports this view, according to a Hadith collected by Imam Ahmad
from `Atiyah Al-Qurazi who said, We were presented to the Prophet on the day of Qurizah, whoever had pubic
hair was killed, whoever did not was left free to go, I was one of those who did not, so I was left free.'' The Four
Sunan compilers also recorded similar to it. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' Allah's statement, 1
k

kkk

We now clearly see and have enough proof to state that consummation of marriage in islam can only occur when
a girl has reached puberty. Therefor a girl who has not yet had her first menstrual period, can only consummate
marriage prior to menstruation when she has reached majority / puberty trough other ways. These others ways
are: having a wet dream, having already public hair, breasts or reaching the age of 15 years. These facts can be
found in Ibn Kathirs tafsir and the hadith.
Kkkkkkk

The Prophet, peace be upon him, never said that girls could consummate marriage prior to puberty. The christian
missionary based his attack on islam on the heading of a chapter in the hadith collection of bukhari, therefor the
christian missionary could not provide any hadith or quranic ayah to support his claim. On the contrary the
hadith and quran refute his false claims. Moreover i showed and pointed out that ‘prior to buloogh’ by some
writers is used as a synonym for ‘prior to menstruation’ , which was clearly the case with the heading of the
chapter in sahih bukhari, since the quranic ayah about menstruation was mentioned. Moreover Maulana
Muhammad Ali’s commentary on soerah 4:6 is enough proof to silent the lie of the christian missionary.
kkkkkk
kkkkk
kkkkkk

Maulana Muhammad Ali in his commentary of the qu’ran comments:

These words, moreover, show that marriage should be performed at the age when a person has attained majority,
for the age of marriage is spoken of as being the age of attaining majority. 2
k
The christian missionary moreover fails to realize that it was a normal custom for young people to marry at the
onset of their puberty or some years later, since the prophet, peace be upon him, recommended those who had
the means for it to marry. The christian missionary obvious only fantasizes that older men married with younger
girls, he obvious never realizes that young boys just married young girls back then, and only consummated
marriage with them when they had reached puberty. In those times and biblical times it was the custom of the
society, which nowadays many people fail to realize. Also puberty and adulthood in those societies back then
were reached at an earlier age then today. Also it’s important to know that in islam girls have free will to choose
a husband they want / like. They have the right to refuse a proposel from someone they don’t want to marry or
just don’t like. So a marriage can only happen in islam if both parties agree with each other, and are happy with
it. This can be found in the next hadith:

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 67

The Prophet said: “A matron should not be given in marriage except after consulting her; and a virgin should not
be given in marriage except after her permission “
kkkkk

K
k
Also the option that a girl can (not must) consummate marriage at the onset of her puberty, does not mean that
girls have to marry at this age. It’s only an option. Secondly even if she has reached the onset of puberty or
general age of puberty in islam, then she can only marry if she is able to. If she is not able / capable / or ready
to marry or consummate marriage, then she cannot and should not marry. This rule can be found in the next
hadith:

Sahih Bukhari , Volume 7, Book 62, Number 3

The prophet said: “ O young people ! Whoever among you is able to marry, should marry, and whoever is not
able to marry, is recommended to fast, as fasting diminishes his sexual power. “
k

Thirdly she can only consummate her marriage at the onset of puberty, if she and her parents are sure that
there would be no harm in it for her to marry and consummate her marriage, since the prophet said:
kkkkk K
K

Related by Al-Daraqutni, Ibn Majah and Ahmad.

The Prophet said: “There shall be no infliction of harm on oneself or others" k


k k
So if a girl on the onset of puberty by herself is not mentally or emotional ready for marriage, then she herself
and her parents should conclude and agree that it’s not the right time yet for her to marry and / or consummate
marriage. If they would do the opposite, then: k

A:

If the parents give their daughter permission to consummate her marriage, or letting her marry while they know
that their daughter is mentally and emotionally not ready for it, then they would harm their daughter. This would
be a violoation of the hadith which states ‘not to harm others’.

B:

If the girl herself at the onset of puberty agrees and or insists to consummate her marriage or to marry (and
forces her parents to give her permission, because for example she’s in love), while she herself is actualy not
ready for marriage, mentally and emotionally, then in this case she would harm herself. This would also be a
violation of the hadith ‘not to harm oneself’.
k k

In today’s society many girls would not be ready ( except some ) to marry on the onset of puberty or general
considered age of puberty in islam ( fifteen years old ). Most of them would certainly not have the means for it,
due to lack of education or qualifications for a job which are required nowadays to survive and live a good life.
We should also remember that back then in early islamic times and biblical times, females like Aicha were raised
in a society where womanhood was reached at a much earlier age than it is in many societies today. Therefor my
advise to young men and women is to marry at an age when they have finished their schools and are both are
sure that they have the means for marriage. This would mean that they are 100% sure that one is emotional and
mentally ready for marriage and consummation of marriage.

Men should be 100% sure that they can support and carry the burdens to support and protect their wifes and
family from any harm or / and danger. Also both men and women have to be sure that they are willing and open
to spend as much time as possible with their partner in marriage, in romance and happiness, since marriage in
islam has to be based on love, peace and rest (see soerah 30:21). If one fails or harms the other partner in
marriage all the time, one commits a major sin. Marriage in islam is something important and half one’s faith,
which means husband and wife must work together and offer themselves for each other to make their marriage
succesfull. Also man's treatment of his wife is a measure of the perfection of his faith as in the hadith where the
prophet, peace be upon him, said: k
K

Riyad as-Salihin, Chapter 34, Nr. 278

The Prophet said: “The most perfect of the believers in their belief are those with the best manners, and the best
of you are those who are best with their wives.”
k
Sources:

1:

http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=10463

2:

The Holy Qu’ran by Muhammad Maulana Ali , commentary soerah 4:6


www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

It is important to note that the Quran teaches that there is no waiting period for marriages that have not been
consummated:

O you who believe: When you marry believing women and then divorce them before you have touched them, no
period of idda (waiting) have you to count in respect of them: so give them a present and set them free in a
graceful manner. S. 33:49

What this shows is that the waiting period only applies in the case of a prepubescent if her husband has actually
slept with her. In other words, Islam is allowing men to have sex with minors, legally sanctioning pedophilia!

Response:

Additionally, a girl can be married prior to puberty, but consummation and her moving into his home may only
occur at the onset of puberty or later. So sexual relations before puberty is not possible in islam, since nikkah can
only be consummated when a girl reaches puberty or the general age of puberty. As the hadith about Aishah's
age show, her betrothal took place at least three years before the consummation of the marriage. The reason for
this was that they were waiting for her to come of age, i.e. to have her first menstrual period. Puberty is a
biological sign which shows that a women is capable of bearing children. The prophet, peace be upon him,
consummated marriage / nikkah with Aicha when she started to menstruate, or in others words when she reached
puberty and entered womanhood. Had islam allowed men to consummate marriage with a girl prior to puberty,
then certainly the prophet, peace be upon him, wouldn’t have wait for three years to consummate his marriage
with Aicha, which proofs that islam doesn’t allow sexual intercourse with children like sham shamoun tries to
suggest. This is a lie, since Aicha had reached puberty and womanhood when the prophet consummated
marriage with her. Also remember that womanhood was reached at a much earlier age back then than it is in
many societies today.

Some female authors agree:

Rites of Passage: Puberty, by Sue Curewitz Arthen

Puberty is defined as the age or period at which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction, in other eras of
history, a rite or celebration of.this landmark event was a part of the culture.
k

From the Women's Resource Center

Getting your period" marks a rite of passage for young girls entering womanhood”
kk

k
The age limit for puberty varies with countries and races due to the climate, hereditary, physical and social
conditions. Those who live in cold regions attain puberty at a much later age as compared with those living in
hot regions where both male and female attain it at a quite early age.

The well-known authors of the book Woman say:

The average temperature of the country or province, is considered the chief factor here, not only with regard to
menstruation but as regards the whole of sexual development at puberty 1
k

Raciborski, Jaubert, Routh and many others have collected and collated statistics on the subject to which readers
are referred. Marie Espino has summarised some of these data as follows:

A:

The limit of age for the first appearance of menstruation is between nine and twenty-four in the temperate-zone;

B:

The average age varies widely and it ay be accepted as established that the nearer the Equator, the earlier the
average age for menstruation. 2
k

So now we know that the age of the first appearance of menstruation can be between nine and twenty-four years,
this is important to know, which we shall see next. The quran confirms that consummation of marriage can only
occur when girls have reached puberty, or in other words had their first menstrual period or had reached the
general age of puberty and / or had already other signs of majority like having wet dreams and public hair.

Qu’ran An-nisa 6:

Waibtaloo alyatama hatta itha balaghoo alnnikaha fa-in anastum minhum rushdan faidfaAAoo ilayhim
amwalahum wala ta/kulooha israfan wabidaran an yakbaroo waman kana ghaniyyan falyastaAAfif waman kana
faqeeran falya/kul bialmaAAroofi fa-itha dafaAAtum ilayhim amwalahum faashhidoo AAalayhim wakafa
biAllahi haseeban

Prove orphans till they reach the marriageable age; then, if ye find them of sound judgment, deliver over unto
them their fortune; and devour it not by squandering and in haste lest they should grow up Whoso (of the
guardians) is rich, let him abstain generously (from taking of the property of orphans); and whoso is poor let
him take thereof in reason (for his guardianship). And when ye deliver up their fortune unto orphans, have (the
transaction) witnessed in their presence. Allah sufficeth as a Reckoner.
k
What does the arabic word balaghoo in this verse mean ?

Baligh:

Originally balagha, to reach, mature, ripen. Here it is the person who has reached the state of puberty. At this
age the person is responsible for his or her acts. The state is known also as bulugh.

Bulugh:

The state of puberty. It's synonym is Hulum, meaning the age of dreams, and tamyeez, the age of discretion.
k

Prove orphans till they reach the marriageable age ,…It means the age of marriage, the age of their maturity in
the Legislation. k
k

Ibn Kathir in his tafsir comments:

The age of puberty, according to Mujahid. The age of puberty according to the majority of scholars comes when
the child has a wet dream. In his Sunan, Abu Dawud recorded that `Ali said, "I memorized these words from the
Messenger of Allah , “There is no orphan after the age of puberty nor vowing to be silent throughout the day to
the night” .

In another Hadith, `A'ishah and other Companions said that the Prophet said, “The pen does not record the
deeds of three persons: the child until the age of puberty, the sleeping person “until waking up, and the senile
until sane” k

Or, the age of fifteen is considered the age of adolescence. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Umar said,
I was presented in front of the Prophet on the eve of the battle of Uhud, while I was fourteen years of age, and he
did not allow me to take part in “that battle. But I was presented in front of him on the eve of the battle of Al-
Khandaq (The Trench) when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed “me (to join that battle).

Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz commented when this Hadith reached him, “ This is the difference between a child and
an adult.” There is a difference of opinion over whether pubic hair is considered a sign of adulthood, and the
correct opinion is that it is. The Sunnah supports this view, according to a Hadith collected by Imam Ahmad
from `Atiyah Al-Qurazi who said, We were presented to the Prophet on the day of Qurizah, whoever had pubic
hair was killed, whoever did not was left free to go, I was one of those who did not, so I was left free.'' The Four
Sunan compilers also recorded similar to it. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' Allah's statement, 3
k
Maulana Muhammad Ali in his commentary of the qu’ran comments:

These words, moreover, show that marriage should be performed at the age when a person has attained majority,
for the age of marriage is spoken of as being the age of attaining majority. 4
k

We now clearly see and have enough proof to state that consummation of marriage in islam can only occur when
a girl has reached puberty. Puberty in islam can be reached by: menstruation, having wet dreams, public hair &
breasts, and the age of 15. These facts can be found in Ibn Kathirs famous tafsir and the hadith. So a girl who has
not yet menstruated can only consummate her marriage when she has reached puberty/ majority trough other
ways / signs. The verses quoted by sham shamoun apply to a girl in this condition (she has reached majority for
example by having public hair and wet dreams, while she had not yet menstruated). This exposes the cheap lie of
the christian missionary Sham Shamoun that Islam condones pedophilia, which we have proven is not true.
Notice also how the qu’ran in soerah 65:1-4 only speaks about ‘those have no courses yet’, nowhere does the
verse say ‘those who have not reached majority’, the soerah doesn’t say this ! Remember also that in islam a girl
on the onset of puberty may not marry or consummate her marriage if it would do her any harm. She can only
marry if she is able to and agrees with it. If she is not mentally and emotional ready for it or does not have the
means for it, then she cannot marry and / or consummate her marriage (scholars agree about this), see booklet 3
B. This sort of understanding and respect for a girl’s feeling and state of condition cannot be found in the bible.
Also read:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/age3.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/pedophilia_rebuttal.htm

He wrote:

For further, detailed discussion of this issue, see: An Examination of Muhammad’s Marriage to a Prepubescent
Girl And Its Moral Implications.

Response:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/aisha.htm
Sources:

1:

Herman H. Ploss, Max Bartels and Paul Bartels, Woman, Volume I, Lord & Bransby, 1988, page 563.

2:

English-translation of Sahih Muslim, Volume 2, International Islamic Publishing House, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
page 715.

3:

http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=10463

4:

The Holy Qu’ran by Muhammad Maulana Ali , commentary soerah 4:6


www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

Here is a reference permitting to rape captive women:

Also prohibited are women already married, except those whom your right hands possess: Thus hath God
ordained prohibitions against you: Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek them in marriage with
gifts from your property, - desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that ye derive benefit from them, give them their
dowers at least as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree Mutually to vary it, there is no blame on
you, and God is all-knowing, all-wise. - Soerah 4:24 Yusuf. Ali

The above passage emphatically allows for the raping of women that are taken captive, even if these captives
happened to be married. It did not remain an abstract theoretical right, but was readily put into practice by the
Muslim jihadists:

Abu Sirma said to Abu Sa'id al Khadri: O Abu Sa'id, did you hear Allah's Messenger mentioning al-'azl ? He
said: Yes, and added: We went out with Allah's Messenger on the expedition to the Bi'l-Mustaliq and took
captive some excellent Arab women; and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives,
but at the same time we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but
by observing 'azl (withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid conception ). But we
said: We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us; why not ask him? So we asked Allah's
Messenger, and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of
Resurrection will be born. - Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3371

Abu Said al-Khudri said: The apostle of Allah sent a military expedition to Awtas on the occasion of the battle of
Hunain. They met their enemy and fought with them. They defeated them and took them captives. Some of the
Companions of the Apostle of Allah were reluctant to have intercourse with the female captives in the presence
of their husbands who were unbelievers. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down the Quranic verse, ‘And all married
women (are forbidden) unto your save those (captives) whom your right hand possesses’. That is to say, they are
lawful for them when they complete their waiting period. - Sunan Abu Dawud, Volume 2, Number 2150

Response:

Before explaining the reason why slavery was allowed in islam etc. , i first want to show and proof the reader
that raping of female slaves is forbidden in islam. Islam gave men permission to have sexual intercourse with
their slave-girl for a reason i will explain later. However female slaves could not be forced to sexual intercourse
or raped, this was forbidden since islam commanded slave owners to treat their slaves well with respect and
dignity, like one’s brother or sister, which clearly shows that rape of female slaves was forbidden and is not
allowed in islam. The next hadith proof this moreover:

Related by Al-Daraqutni, Ibn Majah and Ahmad.

The Prophet said: “There shall be no infliction of harm on oneself or others".


kk
The word ‘others’ includes all people, so also slavegirls ! Raping a slavegirl is clearly doing her harm emotional
and physical, which would be a big sin for a muslim to commit and a violation of the above hadith. Moreover the
prophet commanded muslims to treat their slaves well and with respect, which clearly proofs that rape of female
slaves is forbidden in islam. The prophet said:
k
k

Bukhari, Iman, 22; Adab, 44; Muslim, Iman, 38–40; Abu Dawud, Adab, 124

Your servants and your slaves are your brothers. Anyone who has slaves should give them from what he eats and
wears. He should not charge them with work beyond their capabilities. If you must set them to hard work, in any
case I advise you to help them.
k

Al-Adab al-Mufrad Al-Bukhari , Nr. 158

Ali reported that the last words of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, were: "The prayer !
The prayer! Fear Allah concerning your slaves !
k

Al-Adab al-Mufrad Al-Bukhari , Nr. 188

Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, advised that slaves should be
well-treated. He said, 'Feed them from what you eat and clothe them from what you wear. Do not punish what
Allah has created. "
k

Al-Adab al-Mufrad Al-Bukhari , Nr. 190.

Sallam ibn 'Amr reported from one of the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,
said, "Your slaves are your brothers, so treat him well. Ask for their help in what is too much for you and help
them in what is too much for them." K
kk

Al-Adab al-Mufrad Al-Bukhari , Nr. 192

Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: "The slave has his food
and clothing. Do not burden a slave with work which he is incapable of doing." k
k
Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, 2 ,4

Not one of you should [ when introducing someone ] say ‘This is my slave’ , ‘This is my concubine’. He should
call them ‘my daughter’ or ‘my son’ or ‘my brother’.

For this reason Umar and his servant took it in turns to ride on the camel from Madina to Jerusalem on their
journey to take control of Masjid al-Aqsa. While he was the head of the state, Uthman had his servant pull his
own ears in front of the people since he had pulled his. Abu Dharr, applying the hadith literally, made his servant
wear one half of his suit while he himself wore the other half. From these instances, it was being demonstrated to
succeeding generations of Muslims, and a pattern of conduct established, that a slave is fully a human being, not
different from other people in his need for respect and dignity and justice, in Al-Tabataba'i’s tafsir we read:

Al-Tabataba'i, Tafsir 16:338-358

The masters were obliged not to put slaves under hardship; slaves were not to be tortured, abused or treated
unjustly. They could marry among “themselves with their master's permission - or with free men or women !
They could appear as witnesses and participate with free men in all “affairs. Many of them were appointed as
governors, commanders of army and administrators. In the eyes of Islam, a pious slave has precedence over “an
impious free man k
k

The Prophet had stipulated in his last pilgrimage speech:

And your slaves ! see that you feed them such food as you eat yourselves and dress them what you yourself
wear. And if they commit a mistake “which you are not inclined to forgive then sell them, for they are the
servants of Allah and are not to be tormented !

And again in another hadith the prophet, peace be upon him, made clear that raping female slaves is forbidden.
The prophet, peace be upon him, said:

Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Tharr

The Prophet said: “You must refrain from dealing wickedly with others, for that would count as a benefaction
you do to yourself “
k
Related by Ibn Majah and Abu Dawood on the authority of Abu Sirmah:

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Whoever causes harm to others subjects himself to harm
caused by God”

The word ‘others’ includes all people, so also slavegirls ! Raping a slavegirl is clearly doing her harm, emotional
and physical , which would be a major sin for a muslim to commit and violation of the above hadith. Allah swt
also commands muslims in the Qur’an to treat their male and female slaves kindly and with respect:

Surah An Nisa, verse 36

Serve God, and join not any partners with Him ; and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need,
neighbours who are near, neighbours “who are strangers, the Companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet),
And what your right hands possess : for God loveth not the arrogant, the “vainglorious
k

The phrase "What your right hands possess" refers to one’s male and female slaves. Allah swt ordains the kind
treatment of slaves in the same verse where He commands man to worship Him and to treat his parents, relations
and neighbours generously, and this signifies the importance of the command to treat slaves good, well and with
respect.
Status of Slave Women in Islam

When Islam was reveled to Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, slavery was a worldwide
common social phenomenon; it was much older than Islam. Slavery was deeply rooted in every society to the
extent that it was impossible to imagine a civilized society without slaves.

In spite of this social fact, Islam was the first religion to recognize slavery as a social illness that needed to be
addressed. Since slavery was deeply rooted in the society, Islam did not abolish it at once. Rather, Islam treated
slavery in the same manner it treated other social illnesses. Islam followed the same methodology of gradual
elimination in dealing with this social disease as it did with other social illnesses, for example: the prohibition of
alcohol in three steps.

Concerning having slave women, we would like to let you know that it happens to be a practice necessitated by
the condition in which early Muslims found themselves vis-a-vis non-Muslims, as both parties engaged in wars.
Slave women or milk al-yameen are referred to in the Qur'an as “Those whom your right hand possess” or “ma
malakat aymanukum”; they are those taken as captives during conquests and subsequently became slaves, or
those who were descendants of slaves.

Thus, it was a war custom in the past to take men and women as captives and then turn them into slaves. Islam
did not initiate it, rather, it was something in practice long ago before the advent of Islam. And when Islam
came, it tried to eradicate this practice, bit by bit. So it first restricted it to the reciprocal practice of war, in the
sense that Muslims took war captives just as the enemies did with Muslims.

But as it aimed at putting an end to such issue, Islam laid down rules which would eventually lead to eradicating
the practice. So it allowed Muslims to have intercourse with slave women taken as captives of just and legitimate
wars. In so doing, the woman would automatically become free if she got pregnant. What's more, her child
would also become free.

Not only that, Islam also ordered a Muslim to treat the slave woman in every respect as if she were his wife. She
should be well fed, clothed and given due protection. In the family environment, she had the opportunity to learn
about Islam and was free to accept it or reject it. She also had the opportunity to earn her freedom for she could
be ransomed.

In the light of the above-mentioned facts, and the nature of the question posed by people, it's clear that some
people misunderstand the wisdom behind the permissibility of having female slaves and think that it is meant to
unleash men’s desires and give them more enjoyment. Never ! That is not the point ! It is, rather, means of
freeing slaves; and this is clarified above in the fact that if a master got a female slave pregnant, then he could
neither sell her nor give her away as a present. And if he died, she would not be considered part of his property.
She'd receive her freedom and her baby would also be free.

But, we have to stress that this case should not be confused with that of female servants or maids, for they are
free and not slaves. Therefore, it is forbidden to engage in sexual relations with them except through an Islamic
marriage.

Slavery has been abolished by international conventions, and goes in line with aims and objectives of Islam, as it
has called for centuries ago. As for marrying slaves, it is something permissible under two conditions: first, if
one is unable to pay the dowry of a free woman. Second, if there is fear of committing adultery if one doesn’t get
married. This is clarified by the following verse:
K
An-Nisaa: 25

And whose is not able to afford to marry free, believing women, let them marry from the believing maids whom
your right hands possess. This is “for him among you who feareth to commit sin. But to have patience would be
better for you
k

This verse shows that Muslim men should abstain from illicit relations and seek enjoyment through marriage to
free women or through their female slaves. In conclusion, Allah has forbidden certain types of behavior and
permitted other kinds of behavior as a safeguard to the individual and to the society. Allah has forbidden
fornication and adultery. However, in the case of captives whom your right hands posses, it's something
1
necessitated by the special circumstances which were created when the Muslims were at war.”

Read also: http://www.answering-christianity.com/right_hand_possession.htm


He wrote:

Ibn Kathir wrote: (except those whom your right hands possess) except those women whom you acquire through
war, for you are allowed such women after making sure they are not pregnant.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri said, "We captured some women from the area of Awtas who
were already married, and we disliked having sexual relations with them because they already had husbands. So,
we asked the Prophet about this matter, and this Ayah was revealed…

(Also forbidden are women already married, except those whom your right hands possess).
Consequently, we had sexual relations with these women." This is the wording collected by AT-Tirmidhi, An-
Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir and Muslim in his Sahih. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir Volume 2, Parts 3, 4 & 5 , p. 422 )

Response:

After their return to Islamic territory. Each soldier was then entitled to have relations only with the slave girl
over which he was given the right of ownership and not with those slave girls that were not in his possession.
This right of ownership was given to him by the Head of the Islamic state. Due to this right of ownership, It
became lawful for the owner of a slave girl to have intercourse with her.

Note:

I my previous reponses i showed that this permission for intercourse, clearly was not a permission to rape them,
since islam forbids muslims to harm others and slavewomen were to be treated with respect and good care, see
page 25. Also islam came to erase this practise, like the scholars of islamonline said:

But as it aimed at putting an end to such issue, Islam laid down rules which would eventually lead to eradicating
the practice. So it allowed Muslims to have intercourse with slave women taken as captives of just and legitimate
wars. In so doing, the woman would automatically become free if she got pregnant. What's more, her child
would also become free.

Not only that, Islam also ordered a Muslim to treat the slave woman in every respect as if she were his wife. She
should be well fed, clothed and given due protection. In the family environment, she had the opportunity to learn
about Islam and was free to accept it or reject it. She also had the opportunity to earn her freedom for she could
be ransomed. See also page 2 t/m 7.
k

If a slave woman was married previously in enemy territory to a non-Muslim, and is then captured alone, i.e.
without her husband, it is not permissible for any Muslim to have relations with her until her previous marriage
is nullified, and that is done by bringing her to an Islamic country and making her the legal possession of a
Muslim. Bringing her into Islamic territory necessitates the rendering of her previous marriage as null and void
by Islamic law because with her husband in enemy territory and she in Islamic territory, it becomes virtually
impossible for them to meet and live as man and wife. That is why it is not permissible to have intercourse with a
woman whose husband is also taken into captivity and put into slavery with her. Another resemblance between
the two is that, just as a divorcee has to spend a period called "Iddat" before another man is allowed to marry her,
similarly, a slave woman has to spend a period called "Istibraa" before her owner can have coition with her.
Rasulullah, Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam, enjoined his followers to treat the slaves kindly, gently, and, above all,
to regard them as members of the family. In this way, they were made to feel wanted; which was far better than
treating them as outcasts and leaving them to wander the streets of a strange society in a peniless, destitute
condition. Such treatment would have ultimately forced them to take up evil occupations such as prostitution in
the case of slave woman in order to fill their hungry stomachs. The First World War in 1914 was a clear
reflection of the evils involved in setting captive women free to roars about in a strange society with strange
surroundings. During that war, German and English women prisoners on either side were set free to roam the
streets with no-one to feed them. The result was obvious that they resorted to other unrefined and uncivilised
methods of income on the streets. Thus, it is evident that the Islamic treatment of women prisoners of war was
conducive towards better social relations and led to the refinement of their overall social lives. Over and above
all this, history will show that Islam did not encourage slavery but rather encouraged moves towards the
extirpation of slavery. Rasulullah, Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam, said:
k K
k

Sahih Bukhari, Food, Meals, Volume 7, Book 65, Number 286:

Give food to the hungry, pay a visit to the sick and release (set free) the one in captivity (by paying his ransom)
K k

If a slave woman becomes pregnant from her owner, and delivers his child, she automatically gets her freedom
after the death of her master whose child she gave birth to. Moreover, there are many wrongs and sins for which
the liberation of a slave serves as a compensation and atonement. This was a further incentive for the extirpation
of slavery. Rasulullah, Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam, also taught that whosoever teaches good manners to his
slave girl, adorns her with politeness and good education, then frees her and gets married to her, for him there is
double recompense and reward. These encouraging teachings served as incentives towards the emancipation of
slaves and slaves were liberated by the thousands.

• Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam himself freed 63 slaves


• Hazrat Abu Bakr Radhiallahu Anhu freed 63
• Hazrat Abdur-Rahman bin Auf Radhiallahu Anhu 30,000
• Hazrat Hakim bin Huzam Radhiallahu Anhu 100;
• Hazrat Abbas Radhiallahu Anhu 70;
• Hazrat Ayesha Radhiallahu Anha 69;
• Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar Radhiallahu Anhu 100;
• Hazrat Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu used to free one slave every Friday and he would say that he would
tree any slave who performed his prayers with humility.
• Hazrat Zul-Kilah Radhiallahu Anhu freed 8,000 slaves in a single day.
• Hazrat Umar Radhiallahu Anhu passed certain laws during his Khilafat which led to the emancipation
of thousands of slaves, and to the prevention of certain specific forms of slavery.

As a result of all these laws, there came a time when slavery was totally extirpated. But of course, this
extirpation came about after a gradual process because that was the only safe and expedient way of tackling the
problem. Read also:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/equality.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/request_freedom.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/right_hand_possession.htm
He wrote:

The Holy Bible, however, prohibits the raping of captive women and condemns adultery completely. Note what
God’s true Word says about the treatment of captive women:

Response:

We have clearly seen that rape of female slaves is forbidden in islam. After my response to the false claims of
the christian missionary about his bible, the reader will find out then it is the bible which allows rape of female
slaves and total humiliation. Moreover since we are dealing with human lives here , it is important to look at
which religion offers female slaves a good life, safe and well future. The reader will be shocked after finding out
which destiny and horrible future female slaves had in the bible and christianity. On the next pages of my
booklet the reader can check these facts.
He wrote:

When you go to war against your enemies and the Lord your God delivers them into your hands and you take
captives, if you notice among the captives a beautiful woman and are attracted to her, you may take her as your
wife. Bring her into your home and have her shave her head, trim her nails and put aside the clothes she was
wearing when captured. After she has lived in your house and mourned her father and mother for a full month,
then you may go to her and be her husband and she shall be your wife. If you are not pleased with her, let her go
wherever she wishes. You must not sell her or treat her as a slave, since you have dishonored her. - Deuteronomy
21:10-14

M.G. Kline, considered one of the leading old testament theologians of the last century, wrote regarding God’s
ruling in Deuteronomy 21:10-14: This first of three stipulations concerned with the authority of the head of the
household deals with the limits of the husband's authority over his wife. The case of a captive woman is used as
a case in point for establishing the rights of the wife, perhaps because the principle would obviously apply, a
fortiori in the case of an Israelite wife. On the purificatory acts of verses 12b, 13a, which signified removal from
captive-slave status, compare Lev. 14:8; Num. 8:7.

On the month's mourning, see Num 20:29 and Deut 34:8. This period would provide for the achieving of inward
composure for beginning a new life, as well as for an appropriate expression of filial piety. 14. Thou shalt not
sell her. A wife might not be reduced to slave status, not even the wife who had been raised from slave status…
then thou shalt let her go whither she will. The severance of the marriage relationship is mention here only
incidentally to the statement of the main principle that a man's authority did not extend to the right of reducing
his wife to a slave. This dissolution of the marriage would have to be accomplished according to the laws of
divorce in the theocracy. Not the divorce was mandatory, but the granting of freedom in case the man should
determine to divorce his wife according to the permission granted by Moses because of the hardness of their
hearts. - Wycliffe Bible Commentary p. 184

The late chief rabbi of the British Empire, Chief Rabbi J. H. Hertz noted regarding this passage: "A female war-
captive was not to be made a concubine till after an interval of a month. The bitter moments of the captive's first
grief had to be respected. She must not subsequently be sold or treated as a slave. 12. bring her home. This law
inculcates thoughtfulness and forbearance under circumstances in which the warrior, elated by victory, might
deem himself at liberty to act as he pleased. ‘After the countless rapes of conquered women with which recent
history has made us so painfully familiar, it is like hearing soft music to read of the warrior's duty to the enemy
woman, of the necessary marriage with its set ritual and its due delay. And the Legislator proceeds to trace the
course of the husband's duty in the event of the conquered alien woman failing to bring him the expected delight.
‘Then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with
her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her'" … 13. she shall be thy wife. And enjoy the full rights and duties
of a Jewish wife; Exodus xxi, 10.14. no delight in her, i.e. no longer any delight in her. The Rabbis deemed such
a marriage a concession to human weakness, as a preventive against worse manifestations of the unbridled
passions of man...humbled her. Dishonored her." - Pentateuch & Haftorahs, edited by Dr. J H Hertz, p. 840

Thus, we can clearly see that the Holy Bible even dignified captive gentile women by elevating them to the same
status as that of married Israelite women.

Response:

Notice very carefully how these verses in deuteronomy say ‘you may take her as your wife’ instead of ‘you
may ask her to be your wife or propose marriage to her’. Now why does the verse on the end says: ‘since you
have dishonored her’. The hebrew word which is translated as dishonored is: ‘anah’ , which means humiliated.
What does this mean ?

2 Samuel 13:12

And she answered him, Nay, my brother, do not force ( anah ) me; for no such thing ought to be done in Israel:
do not thou this folly.
k

2 Samuel 13:14

Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice: but, being stronger than she, forced ( anah ) her, and lay with
her.
k

2 Samuel 13:22

And Absalom spake unto his brother Amnon neither good nor bad: for Absalom hated Amnon, because he had
forced ( anah ) his sister Tamar.
k

2 Samuel 13:32

And Jonadab, the son of Shimeah David's brother, answered and said, Let not my lord suppose [that] they have
slain all the young men the king's sons; for Amnon only is dead : for by the appointment of Absalom this hath
been determined from the day that he forced ( anah ) his sister Tamar.
k

Genesis 34:2

And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her,
and defiled ( anah ) her. k
k

k k
Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary: ‘Anah’

1: to be occupied, be busied with

2: to afflict, oppress, humble, be afflicted, be bowed down

a:

1. to be put down, become low

2. to be depressed, be downcast

3. to be afflicted

4. to stoop

b:

1. to humble oneself, bow down

2. to be afflicted, be humbled

c:

1. to humble, mishandle, afflict

2. to humble, be humiliated

3. to afflict

4. to humble, weaken oneself

d:

1. to be afflicted

2. to be humbled

K
2
Source: Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary
k
What is the Nature of the Sexual Act Contemplated in Deut. 21:10-14 ?

Deut. 21:10-14 provides as follows:

When you go forth to war against your enemies, and the Lord your God has delivered them into your hands, and
you have taken them captive, And you see among the captives a beautiful woman, and desire her, and take her
for a wife - Then you shall bring her home to your house, and she shall shave her head and do her nails,And she
shall remove the garment of her captivity from her, and remain in your house and weep for her father and
mother a for month, and after that you may approach her and have intercourse with her, and she shall be your
wife. And if you do not want her, you shall send her out on her own; you shall not sell her at all for money, you
shall not treat her as a slave, because you "violated" her.

We shall focus on the expression "violated her," 'initah in Hebrew, from the root 'anah. It is in the translation of
this word that an attitudinal difference between the Targumim becomes apparent. In 2 Samuel 13;11-14, the
story of Amnon and Tamar, the root 'anah is used twice: "do not violate me," and then "he overpowered her, he
violated her, and he lay with her." If we understand "and he lay with her" to mean "and he had intercourse with
her," we may understand from the juxtaposition of the two concepts that 'anah can be considered sexual
violence. That is, in this instance the use of 'anah together with "had intercourse" seems to imply actual rape.

This seems to be the case as well in Gen.34:2, the story of Dinah and Shechem. There the text says: "He
[Shechem] took her, and he lay with [had intercourse] with her and he violated her [vaye'anehah]." 'Anah alone
would not mean necessarily rape, but simply sexual violence of some sort. Rape is again implied here by the use
of 'anah and "had intercourse" together.

The idea of rape may also be expressed with other terminology. In Deuteronomy 22:25, 28 we find the verb "had
intercourse" used with the verbs "took hold of," "grabbed", to imply the idea of forced intercourse i.e. rape. The
verb 'anah is used alone in Lamentations 5:11, Ezekiel 22:10, and Judges 19:25, and from the context in these
instances seems to imply rape.

We must recognize, however, that though it is important to determine what is meant by 'anah in Deuteronomy
21:14, rape is only one way of exerting sexual violence. Clearly sexual violence is conveyed in all the quoted
instances where 'anah is used. Thus although there is no specific mention of rape in Deuteronomy 21:14, the
word 'initah implies that the woman's consent (if any) to intercourse was due to her circumstances.

The expression 'initah is particularly poignant, a point that seems to have been recognized in both the Onqelos
and Neophyti Targums. Onqelos actually uses the root 'anah in his translation, while Neophyti 1 has "you have
exercised your power/authority [reshut] over her." Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, on the other hand, considers 'anah
to be only actual intercourse, translating with the verb shamash, and thus failing to transmit the Bible's
sensitivity to the captive's powerlessness.

Source: Deuteronomy 21:10-14: The Beautiful Captive Woman, Pearl Elman , page 1 & 2
k
It’s clear that these slave women were humiliated. She was powerlessness and clearly could be forced into
marriage. Notice also that deuteronomy 21:14 nowhere says that is forbidden to have sexual intercourse with
your female slave. The verse only says ‘you make take her as your wife ‘. In other words the verse only
confirmed that it is allowed for the israeli soldiers to marry female slaves if they want. Since these marriages
with non-jewish women were disliked, a waiting period of 30 days was made, and some rituals were required. In
this period no intercourse would be allowed ( according to most jewish commentaries ) , since this could
increase his desire to marry her, which was disliked. However nowhere does the verse forbids rape before these
rituals or after the battle etc. The verse only tells us that it is permissible to take female captives as wifes, thats
all. And if they want them to marry, then intercourse is not allowed for 30 days, and some rituals have to be
performed. If still christians cannot accept this , they have to accept the fact that clearly these women were
forced into marriage, since the verse says ‘you have humiliated her’. Now let us look at the next comments:

Is Deut. 21: 10-14 Anti-Rape Legislation ?

Clearly, biblically and post-biblically, it was understood that intercourse, even once, was an oppression to the
captive. Sifrei states as a commentary to the biblical "because you have violated her": "even once." Midrash
Tannaim explains that this conclusion is derived from Gen. 34: 2 - the story of Dinah and Shechem, and the
mention there of the term 'anah. That the sages chose to interpret intercourse as oppression displays sensitivity
to the captive's plight.

Rape of captive women by soldiers has been the inevitable consequence of military action throughout history, as
has been highlighted by recents events in Croatia. Can Deut. 21: 10ff be considered anti-rape legislation for
soldiers at war ? The answer is: not as it was eventually developed.

Biblically, it seems the captive woman, by virtue of being a captive, has no choice but to go home with her
captor. He is only allowed to have intercourse with her after a period of thirty days during which time she stays
in his house. Clearly, immediate rape is not allowed. It can be understood that biblically we may be looking at
anti-rape legislation for soldiers at war.

We see actual anti-rape legislation for soldiers directly after battle in the Yerushalmi in Makkot 2: 6 - no
intercourse is allowed with the captive unless all the rituals demanded biblically have been performed.

However, this changes in the Bavli. The Bavli does not understand this section of Deuteronomy in the same way
as the Yerushalmi. Rather we see in Kiddushin 21b the general agreement that a soldier is allowed one act of
intercourse with a captive, but not on the battlefield. Whether he is allowed to have intercourse with her again
before he brings her home is a matter of divided opinion. As the Bavli allows the soldier this one act of
intercourse, what was biblical anti-rape legislation for soldiers after a battle can no longer be perceived as
such.

The Yerushalmi and the Bavli clearly disagree on this issue. As the Bavli is the authoritative Talmud
halakhically, it is the Bavli's position that prevails. Thus Deut. 24: 10ff cannot be understood as anti-rape under
current halakhah.

Source: Deuteronomy 21:10-14: The Beautiful Captive Woman, Pearl Elman, page 12
k
Commentary on Deuteronomy 21:10-14, when is rape allowed ?

Maimonides, Hilkhot Melakhim 8: 3ff, seems to interpret the passage discussed in the following way: a warrior
is allowed one act of intercourse which must be in a private place. It seems a priest is allowed this act without
any responsibility as he is not allowed to marry her. This opinion is quoted by Nahmanides in his commentary
on Deuteronomy. He states that the simple meaning of the Bible is to prohibit intercourse until after the entire
conversion procedure is complete, and that the Yerushalmi agrees with the simple meaning. He explains that the
Bavli Kiddushin prohibition against oppression on the battlefield means that the soldier takes her home, has
intercourse with her once, and then cannot have intercourse again with her until the entire conversion procedure
is complete. Nahmanides, like the other commentators, does not address the issue of the priests and the captive
woman. …………………….

A biblical imperative is sacrosanct, but the sages were unhappy with the situation of a heathen captive woman
attached to an Israelite soldier.

According to the Bavli sages in Kiddushin 21b, the permission offered to the soldier in this case is an
accommodation to lust. The captive woman then becomes the vehicle for the satisfaction of his evil inclination.
In bHullin 109b it is explained that the Torah forbids a man a non-Jewess, but permits him the captive woman.
Not only is she the vehicle by which he releases his lust, she is not even his first choice. The captive woman can
be described as a consolation prize. …..

There was no uniform opinion as to when the first intercourse was permitted. The timing varied from
immediately after the battle, but in a private place, to not until after thirty days and conversion. Clearly, there
was coercion in both cases, whether physical or psychological or both.

According to the Bavli, first intercourse could occur before the captive arrived at the man's home, perhaps as
soon as the actual fighting stopped. The journey to his home could be lengthy, as she was taken from a city far
away (Deut. 20: 15). It might occur that very shortly after she arrived at the man's home she would discover that
she was pregnant. Even if she was not, her options were very limited. In order to simply survive, she might
choose to be converted and remain in the household. It can be understood that a woman in these circumstances
would be unhappy and resentful, and possibly full of hatred against the one she perceived to be the cause of her
unfortunate circumstances. Possibly the sages were sensitive to this when they claimed that the marriage would
not be a happy one.

Source: Deuteronomy 21:10-14: The Beautiful Captive Woman , Pearl Elman , page 8, 13 &14
k

Female captives under biblical law have hardly any rights. The debate moreover is when the act of ”rape” is
allowed. Even if we for the sake of argument accept “the waiting period of one month” before the act of ”rape”
could be done, it still doesn’t change the fact that the captive woman is raped and even worser “forced into
marriage”. Harold C. Washington, Professor of Hebrew Bible, Saint Paul School of Theology, writes:

Harold C. Washington “Lest He Die in the Battle and Another Man Take Her” , page 205

The fact that the man must wait for a month before penetrating the woman… does not make the sexual
relationship something other than “rape”... Only in the most masculinist of readings does the month-long waiting
period give a satisfactory veneer of peaceful domesticity to a sequence of defeat, bereavement, and rape.”
k
Besides rape the woman is forced into marriage. Nowhere does the bible speaks about a woman’s consent to it.

29sn You have humiliated her.

Since divorce was considered rejection, the wife subjected to it would “lose face” in addition to the already
humiliating event of having become a wife by force (21:11-13).

Furthermore, the Hebrew verb translated “humiliated” here (anah) , commonly used to speak of rape (cf. Gen
34:2; 2 Sam 13:12, 14, 22, 32; Judg 19:24), likely has sexual overtones as well. The woman may not be enslaved
or abused after the divorce because it would be double humiliation (see also E. H. Merrill, Deuteronomy [NAC],
291).

Source:

http://www.bible.org/netbible/deu21_notes.htm#2129
k

Laws concerning captive women taken as sexual consorts:

Deuteronomy 21:10 When thou goest forth to war against thine enemies, and the Lord thy God hath delivered
them into thine hands, and thou hast taken them captive, (11) And seest among the captives a beautiful woman,
and hast a desire unto her, that thou wouldest have her to thy wife; (12) Then thou shalt bring her home to thine
house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails; (13) And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from
off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou
shalt go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife. (14) And it shall be, if thou have no delight in
her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not make
merchandise of her, because thou hast humbled [dishonored/humiliated] her.

There seems to be a loose use of the term "wife" here. There is no betrothal, no marriage ceremony, no bill of
divorcement required to terminate the relationship, etc. Also, in this case, no mention of the rights of her
children. Probably what we have here is a "concubine"--a kind of lower-level, secondary sort of wife--a woman
with whom it is legitimate (as indicated here) to have sex (and, no doubt, children).

Source:

http://www.d.umn.edu/~jbelote/biblekin.html#captivewomen

The islamic attitude, the attitude of our beloved prophet Muhammed was completely different then the attitude of
the bible towards female captives of war. If a man wanted to marry a female captive, he could do a proposel
instead of taking her home, shaving her head and forcing her into marriage by an act of intercourse. The Islamic
attitude is complete different, which can be seen from the story of Muhammed and Safiyya, who became a
female captive after the battle of Khaybar. The prophet later asked her to marry him, instead of the biblical way
of taking her home, shaving her head and forcing her into marriage by an act of intercourse. No, in islam female
captives were treated with respect, dignity and human rights. The prophet’s proposel to saffiya can be read in
Marlin Lings famous book about the life of our beloved Prophet Muhammad. I shall quote from this book now:
Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based On The Earliest Sources (George Allen & Unwin, 1983) , p. 269

He [the Prophet Muhammad - Ed.] then told Safiyyah that he was prepared to set her free, and he offered her the
choice between remaining a Jewess and returning to her people or entering Islam and becoming his wife. "I
choose God and His Messenger," she said; and they were married at the first halt on the homeward march.
k

Notice how the prophet also offered her to return to her people.Moreover the prophet only asked her for
marriage, he clearly did not force her. She was never forced, on the contrary she was free to decide and choose
what was best in her eyes. She freely choosed to marry the prophet.

Muhammad Fathi Mus'ad, The Wives of the Prophet Muhammad: Their Strives and Their Lives, p. 172

Safiyyah moved to the house of the Prophet. He loved, appreciated and honored her to the extent that he made
her say, "I have never seen a good-natured person as the Messenger of Allah. (see also; Abu Ya'la al-Mawsili,
Musnad, vol. 13, p. 38 )
k

After the prophet’s good treatment, love and respect for safiyya, their marriage became one of the most
beautifull marriages in history. The next example shows u show much Safiyya loved the prophet:

Muhammad Fathi Mus'ad, The Wives of the Prophet Muhammad: Their Strives and Their Lives, p. 175

The Prophet acknowledged the honesty of Safiyyah and what a great acknowledgement it was as it came from
the most honest person on earth. Zayd ibn Aslam said, "When the Prophet was so sick and on the verge of death
his wives gathered around him. Safiyyah bint Huyayyay said, 'O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, I would like to
be in your place.' Hearing her utterance, the Prophet's wives winked at her. The Prophet saw them and said,
'Rinse your mouths.' They said, 'For what, Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'For your winking at her, by Allah, she
is telling the truth.'"
k

The prophet here gave us muslims the islamic manner on how to treat female captives of war. The way of how
the prophet treated Safiyya as female captive is the way muslims should treat female captives in war. From this
attitude we can see that that muslims must treat their female captives with respect, honor, dignity, and no force
or coercion. The example of the prophet is the example muslims must follow. Allah swt makes this clear to us
the glorious qu’ran:

Qu’ran 33:22

Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the Last Day, and
remembereth Allah much.
k
Moreover islam made clear that abusing female captives was forbidden:

Related by Al-Daraqutni, Ibn Majah and Ahmad.

The Prophet said: “There shall be no infliction of harm on oneself or others".


kk

The word ‘others’ includes all people, so also female captives. Therefor any form of abuse towards a female
captive would clearly be a violation of the above hadith. Moreover in another quranic ayah a specific command
is given to treat female slaves/captives good:

Surah An Nisa, verse 36

Serve God, and join not any partners with Him ; and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need,
neighbours who are near, neighbours “who are strangers, the Companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet),
And what your right hands possess : for God loveth not the arrogant, the “vainglorious
k

The phrase "What your right hands possess" refers to one’s male and female slaves / captives. Allah swt ordains
the kind treatment of slaves in the same verse where He commands man to worship Him and to treat his parents,
relations and neighbours generously, and this signifies the importance of the command to treat slaves good, well
and with respect. The biblical attitude towards female captives was far from respectfull, and different:

Deut. 21:10-14

When you go forth to war against your enemies, and the Lord your God has delivered them into your hands, and
you have taken them captive, And you see among the captives a beautiful woman, and desire her, and take her
for a wife - Then you shall bring her home to your house, and she shall shave her head and do her nails,And she
shall remove the garment of her captivity from her, and remain in your house and weep for her father and mother
a for month, and after that you may approach her and have intercourse with her, and she shall be your wife. And
if you do not want her, you shall send her out on her own; you shall not sell her at all for money, you shall not
treat her as a slave, because you "violated / humiliated” her.

Comment:

The Talmud states that a warrior can take only one captive, and he has the right to marry her. The Bavli here
does not seem to address the possibility that the warrior may not want to marry her at all, as this would
contravene the biblical text. It would seem from the context that she has no right to refuse, probably because of
her status as a captive.

Source: Deuteronomy 21:10-14: The Beautiful Captive Woman , Pearl Elman , page 11
k
So rape was legal if a man was at war and saw a foreign woman that he wanted. According to the law, all he had
to do was capture her and take her home, shave her head, trim her nails and strip her naked. After 30 days of
captivity he could consider her his wife by going into her ! The act "going into her" after 30 days was to become
her husband. And if she didn't please him he was free to kick her out. Nowhere does it mention getting the
woman’s consent, even worser nowhere does it mention not to harm or abuse her. And again we have seen the
word ‘anah’ used in deuteronomy 21:14 implies sexual violence and the powerlessness situation of the female
captive. Notice also how the word ‘anah’is used in the same verse were the solider becomes the husband of the
female slave by "going into her" , which moreover proofs that this happened without her consent since she was
powerlessness. The act of intercourse is nothing compared to the fact the she is forced into marriage with her
capter. It would be a nightmare for any women to be forced into marriage with a man you don’t like for the rest
of your life. Now if everything was done with consent of the women, then certainly the verse would have never
said at the end ‘ since you have humiliated ( anah ) her ‘ , which clearly shows she was forced and oppressed.

Notice also that the soldier could kick the female slave out of his house when he was not pleased with her. So
after the humilaiting event of becoming a wife by force, the female slave could be kicked out. Nowhere does the
bible provide any protecttion for these female slaves. When they were kicked out of the house of the solider (
after being raped ) , they had nothing ! They had no house, no food, no money ! By this we see that the female
captive actually had no other choice then accept a marriage with the soldier by force, otherwise she would be
kicked out of the house and had nothing to survive. The bible grants the soldier the right to kick his female slave
out of the house whenever he was not pleased with her. One can imagine that these female slaves (after being
kicked out of the house) were becoming victims of theft and rape in the society. They had nothing and no
protection, and therefor were an easy victim for criminals and rapists. Islam on the other hand protected these
female slaves, they were never kicked out of the house of their masters. On the contrary the qu’ran says:

Qu’ran 24:33

Let those who find not the wherewithal for marriage keep themselves chaste, until God gives them means out of
His grace. And if any of your slaves ask for a deed in writing (to enable them to earn their freedom for a certain
sum), give them such a deed if ye know any good in them: yea, give them something yourselves out of the means
which God has given to you. But force not your maids to prostitution when they desire chastity, in order that ye
may make a gain in the goods of this life. But if anyone compels them, yet, after such compulsion, is God, Oft-
Forgiving, Most Merciful (to them)
k

In this Noble Verse, we see that if a slave requests his freedom from his Muslim master, then his master not only
must help him earn his freedom if there is good in the Slave, but also pay him money so the slave can have a
good start in his free life. This a complete different attitude towards female slaves hen the bible ! In the bible
female slaves could be kicked out of the house with nothing to survive. Islam is far superior then christianity in
treatment of others. Notice the commentary note of Abdullah Yusuf Ali on this soerah:

The Meaning of the Holy Qur'an, Yusuf Ali, Note 2991, page 875.

The law of slavery in the legal sense of the term is now obsolete. While it had any meaning, Islam made the
slave's lot as easy as possible. A slave, male or female, could ask for conditional manumission by a written deed
fixing the amount required for manumission and allowing the slave meanwhile to earn money by lawful means
and perhaps marry and bring up a family. Such a deed was not to be refused if the request was genuine and the
slave had character. Not only that, but the master is directed to help with money out of his own resources in
order to enable the slave to earn his or her own liberty.
k
So here we see that the slaves were helped by giving them jobs were they could earn money to free themselves.
The fact that these slave were given jobs, means they were given a future. The slaves who were given a job could
earn money for themselves in the future, so when they were free men they had means to live and were safe. They
could support and take care of themselves and their families. In the qu’ran the owners of the slaves are even
commanded to give their slaves money, Notice the words of allah in the qu’ran “And give them something out of
the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you.” k

Ibn Kathir in his tafsir comments on this:

This is the share of the wealth of Zakah that Allah stated to be their right. This is the opinion of Al-Hasan,
Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and his father and Muqatil bin Hayyan. It was also the opinion favored by
Ibn Jarir.

Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said, "This is urging the people, their masters and others.'' This was also the view of
Buraydah bin Al-Husayb Al-Aslami and Qatadah. Ibn `Abbas said: "Allah commanded the believers to help in
3
freeing slaves.''
k

So islam commands people to give money to slaves. So they could earn their freedom and start a life with the
wealth they were given, a right which can be never found in christianity !

Maulana Muhammad Ali Comments:

33b. The word kitab, translated writing, as used here, stands for mukatabah, which is an infinitive noun of
kataba, signifying he (a slave) made a written (or other) contract with him (his master), that he (the former)
should pay a certain sum as the price of himself, and on the payment thereof be free (LL); also he (a master)
made such a contract with him (his slave). It was called a kitab (or writing) because of the obligation which the
master imposed on himself. The money was paid in two or more instalments. Thus every possible facility was
afforded to the slave to earn his freedom. Though the practice of the master making such a contract with the
slave prevailed before the advent of Islam, the important reform introduced by Islam was that, when a slave
desired such a contract to be made, the master could not refuse it. Twelve centuries before any attempt was made
by any individual or community to legislate for the liberty of slaves, a dweller in the Arabian desert had laid
down this noble institution, that, if a slave asked for a writing of freedom, he was not only to be given that
writing by the master, but he was also to be provided with money to purchase his freedom, the only condition
being if you know any good in them, i.e., if he is fit for work and able to earn his livelihood. And, in addition, the
duty was imposed upon the State of spending a part of the collection of the poor-rate for this object, as stated in
4
9:60.
k

The islamic state helped male and female slaves to earn a living. They were protected from harm and slaves were
to be treated with respect dignity and honor:
Maulana Muhammad Asad comments on soerah 24:33

[The noun kitab is, in this context, an equivalent of kitabah or mukatabah (lit., “mutual agreement in writing”), a
juridical term signifying a “deed of freedom” or “of manumission” executed on the basis of an agreement
between a slave and his or her owner, to the effect that the slave undertakes to purchase his or her freedom for an
equitable sum of money payable in installments before or after the manumission, or, alternatively, by rendering a
clearly specified service or services to his or her owner. With this end in view, the slave is legally entitled to
engage in any legitimate, gainful work or to obtain the necessary sum of money by any other lawful means (e.g.,
through a loan or a gift from a third person). In view of the imperative form of the verb katibuhum (“write it out
for them”), the deed of manumission cannot be refused by the owner, the only pre-condition being an evidence -
to be established, if necessary, by an unbiased arbiter or arbiters - of the slave’s good character and ability to
fulfill his or her contractual obligations. The stipulation that such a deed of manumission may not he refused,
and the establishment of precise juridical directives to this end, clearly indicates that Islamic Law has from its
very beginning aimed at an abolition of slavery as a social institution, and that its prohibition in modern times
constitutes no more than a final implementation of that aim. (See also next note, as well as note on 2: 177.) and
give them [their share of the wealth of God which He has given you. [According to all the authorities, this relates

A:

to a moral obligation on the part of the owner to promote the slave’s efforts to obtain the necessary revenues by
helping him or her to achieve an independent economic status and/or by remitting part of the agreed-upon
compensation, and

B:

to the obligation of the state treasury (bayt al-mal) to finance the freeing of slaves in accordance with the
Quranic principle - enunciated in 9: 60 - that the revenues obtained through the obligatory tax called zakah are to
be utilized, among other purposes, “for the freeing of human beings from bondage” (fi r-riqab, an expression
explained in note on 2: 177). Hence, Zamakhshari holds that the above clause is addressed not merely to persons
owning slaves but to the community as a whole - The expression “the wealth of God” contains an allusion to the
principle that “God has bought of the believers their lives and their possessions, promising them paradise in
return” (9: 111) - implying that all of man’s possessions are vested in God, and that man is entitled to no more
5
than their usufruct.]
k

Here we have seen that islam’s treatment of female slaves is far superior to the low treatment of slaves in
christianity and the bible. The female slave in the bible could ether be forced to marriage with the israeli soldier,
and therefor be married for the rest of her life to person whom she not likes (which would be a nightmare) or she
could be kicked out of his house without any wealth or money. The last option for her would be a nightmare too,
since she likely would have to sell her body on the street to earn a living. Secondly the female slaves that were
kicked out of the owners house, would be an easy victim for criminals and rapists, since she had no protection
and place to live. So biblically female slaves were victim of a nightmare in both options. Anyone with common
sense can see that female slaves had no other choice then to marry the soldier by force, which would by a
synonym for selling her body to the owner, in order to survive and escape the danger of falling into prostitution
or a street victim. The last option would be the case when she not married him and /or was kicked out of his
house. K
Surah An Nisa, verse 36

Serve God, and join not any partners with Him ; and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need,
neighbours who are near, neighbours “who are strangers, the Companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet),
And what your right hands possess : for God loveth not the arrogant, the “vainglorious
k

The phrase "What your right hands possess" refers to one’s male and female slaves. Allah swt ordains the kind
treatment of slaves in the same verse where He commands man to worship Him and to treat his parents, relations
and neighbours generously, and this signifies the importance of the command to treat slaves good, well and with
respect. Also remember that the bible believes in slaves for life:

Leviticus 25:44-46

Your male and female slaves are to come from the nations around you; from them you may buy slaves. You may
also buy some of the temporary residents living among you and members of their clans born in your country, and
they will become your property. You can will them to your children as inherited property and can make them
slaves for life, but you must not rule over your fellow Israelites ruthlessly
k

What kind of a human value does the Bible give to slaves ? If slaves and their children must be inherited and
passed down to newer generations as slaves, then how in the world will they ever gain their freedom ? Does the
Bible believe in Freedom ? Does the Bible believe in liberating human beings from slavery ? Apparently it does
not ! Notice also how the verse only commands not to rule ruthlessly over fellow Israelites, what about gentiles
and non Isrealites, clearly the bible doesn’t care much about them. Since those female slaves mentioned in the
bible were non – Isrealites, when can even imagine more how much these slave women were humiliated and
forced into marriage our kicked out of the house with nothing to live for or to survive in society. Her only optio
to survive in this situation was prostitution. Moreover the bible teaches that female slaves had to obey their
masters in all things (which would include being forced into marriage) .

Colossians 3:22

Slaves, in all things obey those who are your masters on earth, not with external service, as those who merely
please men, but with sincerity of heart, fearing the Lord
k

Since we have seen before how easily slave women could be kicked out of the house before marriage, or
divorced and kicked out of the house after marriage, it’s interesting to see that a free women after divorce by her
husband in the bible wasn’t in a much better condition then a female slave. We shall discuss this issue on the
next page.
The bill of divorce in the Hebrew Old Testament:

Deuteronomy 24:1-2: This book recapped much of the history of the ancient Hebrews that was covered in the
first four books of the Pentateuch: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. Deuteronomy 24 contains the first
reference to divorce in the Bible. The King James Version translates these verses as:

Deuteronomy 24:1-2:

When A man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because
he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and
send her out of his house.
k

The phrase "bill of divorcement" is a translation of the Hebrew word "keriythuwth" It was a document that
formally terminated the marriage bond. The word appears in only two other locations in the Hebrew Scriptures.
In both passages it refers to God giving the ancient Hebrews, the Children of Israel, a bill of divorcement:

Isaiah 50:1:

Thus saith the LORD, Where is the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom I have put away ?..
k

Jeremiah 3:8:

And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given
her a bill of divorce...
k

To "send her out" translates the Hebrew word "shalach." It means that the husband has abandoned her by either
passively letting her leave, or actively by casting her out. If the wife were ejected permanently from the house
without receiving a bill of divorcement, she would remain married to her husband. Of course, he could remarry
by taking an additional wife. Family styles among the ancient Hebrews were very flexible. Solomon had 700
wives of royal birth, along with hundreds of concubines.
If no bill of divorcement was given by the husband, a wife would face the next problems that would bring her
moreover in an untenable position:

• she could not go back to her husband, because he did not want her.
• she could not seek another man to take her in because she was still married to her original husband. To
live with another man could get both of them executed for committing adultery.
• she could not exist on her own, because there really were only two roles for a woman at the time: to be
owned as a piece of property by her father, or to be owned by her husband. She may have not have had
access to a social safety network to help her survive.

The bill of divorcement only released her bond to her original husband, she still had no acces to a social safety
network to help her surive, she was send away with nothing and therefor it would became difficult for her to
survive. However the bible still gave husbands also the right to send their wifes away without a bill of divorce:
K
k

The bill of divorce was not necesarry

The Old Testament law concerning divorce, apparently quite clear, is recorded most fully in Deuteronomy 24:1
ff. A perusal of the commentaries will, nevertheless, convince anyone that there are difficulties of interpretation.
The careful reader will notice that the renderings of the King James Version and the Revised Version (British
and American) differ materially. the King James Version reads in the second part of Deuteronomy 24:1 : "then
let him write a bill," etc., the Revised Version (British and American) has "that he shall write," etc., while the
Hebrew original has neither "then" nor "that," but the simple conjunction "and." There is certainly no command
in the words of Moses………………………………..

The fact that Joseph had in mind the putting away of his espoused wife, Mary, without the formality of a bill or
at least of a public procedure proves that a decree was not regarded as absolutely necessary (Matthew 1:19)

Source:

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia


k k

The New Commentary on the Whole Bible states:

The abandonment of one's wife in the ancient Near East usually meant that she and her children would suffer
poverty and oppression. In order to survive they were often forced into slavery.

Source:

J.D. Douglas, ed., "Old Testament Volume: New Commentary on the Whole Bible," Tyndale House, (1997). Page
1368.
k K
In islam on the other hand, women are protected against this cruel stuation because according to the Noble Quran
a husband is to pay his divorced wife maintenance:

Qur’an 2:241

For divorced women Maintenance (should be provided) On a reasonable (scale). This is a duty On the righteous
k

Here already we see that islam is far superior then christianity when it comes to the rights and protection of
women. Muslim men had to take care for their wifes even after divorce, so their ex-wifes wouldn’t become
victims of society, or were forced into forbidden things to earn a living. Islam clearly protected women against
this cruel practise and situation, which was kept open in the bible.

Muhammad Asad comments:

The amount of alimony - payable unless and until they remarry - has been left unspecified since it must depend
6
on the husband's financial circumstances and on the social conditions of the time.
k

Maulana Muhammad Ali comments:

Note that this provision is in addition to the dowry which must be paid to them. Just as in the previous verse the
widow is given an additional benefit, here a provision in addition to her dowry is recommended for the divorced
7
woman. This shows how liberal are the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an regarding women.
k

Moreover women in islam have to right to re-marry after divorce. No document written by the husband is needed
for that. Islam also teaches us that if there is a dispute between the married couple, a member of each family can
be brought in to resolve it.
k

Qur'an 4:35

And if you fear disunity between them, then send an arbiter from his side and an arbiter from her side. If they
wish for reconciliation God will affect harmony between them, surely God is All-knowing, Al-Aware."
k
Finally i would like to point out that the new testament turned the rules regarding divorce more into a nightmare
for women. In the final rule given in the New Testament divorce women cannot divorce their husbands when
they are sad and unhappy in their marriage and are abused by their husand ! The new testament clearly tells us
that the only reason for divorce is described as fornication/ adultery.

Mathew 19:9

And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except [it be] for fornication, and shall marry another,
committeth adultery: and whoso “marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery
k

Mark 19:12

Also, if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery
k k

Notice, that still after fornication of their husbands, women still have no right to any financial maintenance of
their husband after divorce. Moreover the nightmare is already complete, since she can only divorce him for
fornication, any other reason is forbidden. This rule has brought women even more in a uncomfortable position.
Imagine how it would be for a woman to stay married for the rest of her life to an abusive husband, the bible
specificly mentions that only fornication is a ground for divorce and nothing else !
Sources:

1:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-
Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544596

2:

http://www.studylight.org/lex/heb/view.cgi?number=06031

3:

http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=24&tid=35947

4:

Maulana Muhammed Ali’s commentary on the qu’ran , soerah 24:33

5:

http://www.geocities.com/masad02/021

http://www.geocities.com/masad02/002c

7:

Maulana Muhammed Ali’s commentary on the qu’ran , soerah 2:241


www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

The problem, however, sits deeper. Two stories about Muhammad’s behavior from own life will illustrate this.

Jabir reported that Allah's Messenger saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, as she was tanning a
leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman
advances and retires in the shape of a devil, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for
that will repel what he feels in his heart. (Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3240)

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) saw a woman who charmed him, so he
went to Sawdah who was making perfume in the company of some women. They left him, and after he had
satisfied his desire he said, "If any man sees a woman who charms him he should go to his wife, for she has the
same kind of thing as the other woman." Darimi transmitted it. (Al-Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 927)

Response:

First: ”The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil ” is a figure way of speech. It refers to the
situation where the devil influences the mind of men with lustfull thougts when they see a woman.The hadith
doesn’t mean or say that the woman herself is a devil, on the contrary the qu’ran calls her muhsana, a fortress
against satan.The hadith describes how lustfull thoughts can turn a woman’s image into a lustfull object for
men, this is described in a figure way of speech as ‘she advances and retites in the shape of a devil, which clearly
refers to the way some men look at her and suddenly see her as a lustfull object ( caused by the devil ). In a
similar hadith the prophet described these men as devils themselves in a figure way of speech. It was narrated
from Abd-Allaah that the prophet said: k
k k
k

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1173

"The woman is ‘awrah and when she goes out the Shaytaan stares up at her."
kk

Shayk Gibril Fouad Haddad comments on this hadith that the devil here an euphemism is for depraved men.
Secondly he comments that this hadith applies to the uncovered woman who might allure such men. Similarly
the awra here is not literal but figurative, signifying all that should remain private. k

Since the prophet himself described these men as devils, we can understand why the prophet advised men in this
situation to go home and make love to their wifes. This due to the fact that when a man makes love to his wife,
he sees moreover how beautifull and special his wife is to him. Due to this a husband will not think about other
women anymore. The wife is his protections against satan, just like the husband is his wifes protection against
satan.This is a fact denied by the christian missionary. Just look at how many western men cheat their wives by
having sexual intercourse with other women instead of their own wifes. This is mostly the result of not having
sexual pleasure at home with ones own wife, or not spending enough time with her together. Satan easily
controls these men and women. Secondly the husband in islam must always perform sexual intercourse with his
wife in such a way that she derives pleasure from it too, which means husbands must give their wifes foreplay
and act romantic with them in accordance to the sunnah of our prophet:
Al-Tibb al-Nabawi, 183, from Jabir ibn Abd Allah:

“the Messenger of Allah forbade from engaging in sexual intercourse before foreplay.” K k
k

Read also: http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/islamic_way_of_making_love_to_wife.htm

He wrote:

Nobody has to have sexual intercourse immediately simply because a beautiful woman passes by. Human beings
are not animals but can make a decision where to direct their thoughts and desires. Obviously, Muhammad did
not only see a woman, but started to entertain lustful desires for her. The narrations imply that Muhammad
became so aroused that he could not bear it anymore and needed to release the pressure immediately, in the
middle of the day, interrupting the work his wife was doing, and even sending away visitors who were with his
wife at the time. Muhammad committed adultery in his mind and then used the body of one of his wives to
release the physical pressure resulting from these adulterous desires. He did not make love to his wife with the
intention of making her happy and satisfied, but he simply "satisfied his desire" by using her "thing" while his
mind was with the other woman. The fact that there exist at least two narrations about similar but distinct
incidents suggests that this seems to have been a habit of his.

Response:

A lot of christians missionaries are the biggest hypocrites alive. According to their own bibe it’s sinfull to think
about other women. Their bible says it’s like adultery when a man looks with lustfull thouhts at a woman, see
Mathew 5:28. Well what would the bible say if someone is thinking and fantasizing about sex with other women
all the time ? Since the bible already calls a lustfull look adultery, it woul surely refer thinking and fantasizing
about other women as ”adultery in ones mind.” I can’t imagine that a christian would prefer “adultery in his
mind” instead of making love to his own wife, to erase these thoughts and make her happy too. I prefer to make
love to my wife, to see how special and beautifull she is to me. Moreover this makes a man forget other women.
However the christian missionary Sham Shamoun prefers to keep on thinking sinfull about other women and
therefor prefers to continue what is called in his bible “adultery.” He knows very well that most men can’t get
these thoughts out of their mind, unless they would make love to their own wifes. Even worser most men keep
on looking at other women all the time, and some who can’t control themselves in this situation commit adultery.
Islam clearly disapproved of this and advised men in this situation to go home and make love to their wifes.
Secondly the prophet, peace be upon him, did satisfy his wifes during sexual intercourse, which is well known
fact ! He even cared so much for women’s pleasure, that he forbade sexual intercourse before foreplay with ones
wife. This sort of understanding for women’s need and feelings can’t be found in the bible.This moreover proofs
that the prophet, peace be upon him, satisfied sawdah too and certainly gave her foreplay, to bring her in the
mood after they went to a private room. Moreover in islam men are obligated to satisfy their wifes during sexual
intercourse, and to act romantic with them. This was commanded by the prophet himself, and therefor clearly
refutes the absurd statements made by the christian missionary about the prophet’s sexual habits in his eyes.
Read also:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/sex_as_sadaqa.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/islamic_way_of_making_love_to_wife.htm
In Islam it is for both men and women forbidden to look lustfully at the other sex. Except off course to ones own
spouse. However islam recognizes the fact that this is sometimes hard to avoid for a person. For example a
beautifull woman can suddenly unexpect pass by in front of a man and attract his attention unaware. A man due
to this can get lustfull thoughts which could lead to fornication or adultery. The prophet advised men in this
situation to go home and make love to their wifes. This due to the fact that when a man makes love to his own
wife, he sees moreover how beautifull and special his wife is to him. Due to this a husband will not think about
other women anymore.

Finally again i would like to make clear with some hadith and quranic verses that in islam a man should not
gaze at a strange women nor a woman at a man so fixedly that temptation is stimulated.

An Nur, 30-31

Tell the believers to lower their looks and guard their private organs. This is purer for them. God is fully aware
of what they are doing. And ask “believing women to lower their looks and to guard their private organs....
k

Dr Hassan Al-Turabi writes:

In the traditions, Jabir bin Abduallah is reported to have said,” I asked the Prophet about looking at some woman
by chance, the Prophet told me to divert my looks “

The Prophet advised Ali: “O Ali, you must not gaze at a woman.You are allowed the first look but not the
subsequent .“ But Ali's report does not mean that looking at a person of the opposite sex is absolutely forbidden.
It is only when one seeks sexual pleasure or finds and relishes it. Indeed, in the model society of Islam, Muslims
used to assemble freely and frequently; they were mostly acquainted with each other, men and women; they
conversed and interacted intensively. But all those activities, were undertaken in a spirit of innocence and in the
context of a virtuous society.

Source:

Dr Hassan Al-Turabi in his booklet: “On the position of women in islam and in islamic society”, Chapter II: The
Verdict Of Jurisprudence, writes:
k

k
k
k
The meaning behind the prohibition of some looks at women is borne out by the correlation between such looks
and sexual intercourse. In Bukhari and Abu Dawooed we find the next hadith:
k
k
Related by Bukhari and Abu Dawud:

Allah decreed for every human being his unavoidable share of sexual intercourse. The eye partakes of that by
looks, the tongue by speech the soul “aspires and craves, and the genital organs fulfil or deny the final act
k

He wrote:

God’s true Word warns a person from lusting after another man’s wife:

Exodus 20:14-17:You shall not commit adultery; You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet
your neighbor's wife, or his male servant, or his female servant, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your
neighbor's.

Leviticus 18:20: And you shall not lie sexually with your neighbor's wife and so make yourself unclean with her.

Response:

According to gods corrupted word prophet david slept with his neighbor’s wife. David watches a woman bathe,
likes what he sees and goes in unto her.

2 Samuel 11:2-4

One evening David got up from his bed and walked around on the roof of the palace. From the roof he saw a
woman bathing. The woman was very “beautiful, and David sent someone to find out about her. The man said,
'Isn't this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam and the wife of Uriah the Hittite ?’ Then David sent messengers to
get her. She came to him, and he slept with her. (She had purified herself from her uncleanness.) Then “she went
back home
k

K
So what happened to Leviticus 20:10 ?

Leviticus 20:10

If a man commits adultery with another man’s wife -- with the wife of his neighbor -- both the adulterer and the
adulteress must be put to death
k
Instead of David, an innocent child was punished for his sin !

2 Samuel 12:7-8

Then Nathan said to David, "You are the man! This is what the LORD , the God of Israel, says: 'I anointed you
king over Israel, and I delivered “you from the hand of Saul. I gave your master's house to you, and your master's
wives into your arms. I gave you the house of Israel and Judah. “And if all this had been too little, I would have
given you even more
k

2 Samuel 12:12-14

You did it in secret, but I will do this thing in broad daylight before all Israel.' Then David said to Nathan, "I
have sinned against the LORD ." “Nathan replied, "The LORD has taken away your sin. You are not going to
die. But because by doing this you have made the enemies of the “LORD show utter contempt, the son born to
you will die
kk

15-23. the Lord struck the child . . . and it was very sick—

The first visible chastisement inflicted on David appeared on the person of that child which was the evidence and
monument of his guilt. His domestics were surprised at his conduct, and in explanation of its singularity, it is
necessary to remark that the custom in the East is to leave the nearest relative of a deceased person to the full and
undisturbed indulgence of his grief, till on the third or fourth day at farthest (John 11:17). Then the other
relatives and friends visit him, invite him to eat, lead him to a bath, and bring him a change of dress, which is
necessary from his having sat or lain on the ground. The surprise of David's servants, then, who had seen his
bitter anguish while the child was sick, arose apparently from this, that when he found it was dead, he who had
so deeply lamented arose of himself from the earth, without waiting for their coming to him, immediately bathed
and anointed himself, instead of appearing as a mourner, and after worshiping God with solemnity, returned to
his wonted repast, without any interposition of others.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/JamiesonFaussetBrown/jfb.cgi?book=2sa&chapter=012
k

How come David wasn't commanded to be put to death by God Almighty ? Why wasn’t David punsihed
according to the law ? The innocent child died instead of David, which is complete unjust. Where is the justice
here ? It’s amazing to see christian missionaries like Sham Shamoun believing that this unjust punishment is
Gods true word. God can’t be unjust, which proofs that the bible is a corrupt book made by human hands. For
more barbaric injustice in the bible read:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/killing_children_honored_in_nt.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/pregnant_women_ripped_open.htm
He wrote:

If there is a man who commits adultery with another man's wife, one who commits adultery with his friend's
wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death. Leviticus 20:10

The Lord Jesus Christ warned his followers - You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’
But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lustful intent has already committed adultery with her
in his heart - Matthew 5:27-28

Response:

Jesus said the man who looks lustfully upon a woman, commits adultery with his eyes. Despicably, the Bible
states how God will discover the private parts of women:

Isaiah 3:16-17

Moreover the Lord saith, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and
wanton eyes, walking and“mincing as they go, and making a tinkling with their feet: Therefore the Lord will
smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and the Lord will discover their secret parts
k

Pay close attention to the end of the verse: “and the lord will discover their secret parts” k

David Guzik's Commentary on Isaiah

Their obsession with their appearance, their love of luxury, and their promiscuity made the daughters of Zion
ripe for judgment: Therefore the Lord will strike with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and
the LORD will uncover their secret parts. Their “crown” will be a scab, and instead of being beautifully adorned,
they will be exposed and humiliated. Also, the Lord will take away the finery.

In Isaiah’s time, these judgments were connected with the coming invasions. Because of scarcity and disease, the
haughty daughters of Zion would be sick and diseased. They would be raped and humiliated. And all their
wonderful “accessories” would be taken away.

Source:

http://www3.calvarychapel.com/ccbcgermany/commentaries/2303.htm
l

Pay close attention on how the biblegod here punishes the daughters of zion with rape and humiliation. It’s
shocking to read that the biblegod punished women with rape and humiliation. This can’t be gods true word.
Clarke’s Commentary - Isaiah 3

Will discover their secret parts "Expose their nakedness"] It was the barbarous custom of the conquerors of
those times to strip their captives naked, and to make them travel in that condition, exposed to the inclemency of
the weather; and the worst of all, to the intolerable heat of the sun. But this to the women was the height of
cruelty and indignity; and especially to such as those here described, who had indulged themselves in all manner
of delicacies of living, and all the superfluities of ornamental dress; and even whose faces had hardly ever been
exposed to the sight of man. This is always mentioned as the hardest part of the lot of captives. Nahum, ver. 5, 6,
denouncing the fate of Nineveh, paints it in very strong colours:- "Behold, I am against thee, saith Jehovah, God
of hosts: And I will discover thy skirts upon thy face; And I will expose thy nakedness to the nations; And to the
kingdoms thy shame.

Source:

http://www.godrules.net/library/clarke/clarkeisa3.htm
k

Jamieson, Fausset, Brown, commentary Isaiah 3: 17

discover--cause them to suffer the greatest indignity that can befall female captives, namely to be stripped naked,
and have their persons exposed ( Isa 47:3; compare with Isa 20:4 ).

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/JamiesonFaussetBrown/jfb.cgi?book=isa&chapter=003
k

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible , The Book of Isaiah, Chapter 3

3:17

Secret parts - By giving her into the power of those enemies that shall strip her of all her raiment.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/WesleysExplanatoryNotes/wes.cgi?book=isa&chapter=003
k

k
So the soldiers of the enemy will strip the women off, so that they can discover their ‘secret parts’. Anyone with
common sense will know that this refers to rape of females by soldiers of the enemy. This is confirmed in the
honest commentary of David Guzik. Anyone with common sense knows what happens next after the enemies
have stripped the women of their raiment. So now we read that according to the bible god punished the daughters
of zion with rape and total humiliation, which moreover proofs how much women are put down and oppressed in
the bible. This cruel punishment says enough. Christian missionaries like Sham Shamoun don’t care about these
cruel punishments and facts. According to them it’s all justice and love. It’s shocking to read that in the bible
god according to christian belief punished women with rape and total humiliation. This can’t be gods true word.

He wrote:

Thus, Muhammad and his teachings come under the condemnation of the plain commandments of God’s true
Word. Had Muhammad instructed his followers to discipline their thought life, and not to lust after other women
in the first place, things might have been very different.

Response:

In my previous responses i have already refuted these false claims. Muhammed, peace be upon him, clearly told
men not to look lustfully at women. This command is also given in Surah An Nur 30-31. However islam
recognizes the fact that this is sometimes hard to avoid for a person. For example a beautifull woman can
suddenly unexpect pass by in fornt of a man and attract his attention unaware. A man due to this can get lustfull
thoughts which could lead to fornication or adultery. The prophet, peace be upon him, advised men in this
situation to go home and make love to their wifes. This due to the fact that when a man makes love to his wife,
he sees moreover how beautifull and special his wife is to him. Due to this a husband will not think about other
women anymore. Also remember that men are obligated to satisfy their wifes during sexual intercourse in islam,
a command which cannot be found in the bible. The bible even calls sexual relations with ones wife as defiling:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/bible_view_on_women.htm
He wrote:

The readers can see how these specific Muslim teachings once again further expose Islam’s degradation and
humiliation of women. Both Allah and his messenger viewed women as little more than chattel which could be
used, abused, raped and sold by Muslim men. For more on these issues please read the following articles:

http://answering-islam.org/Silas/femalecaptives.htm
http://answering-islam.org/Silas/childbrides.htm
http://answering-islam.org/Shamoun/prepubescent.htm
http://answering-islam.org/Shamoun/marriage_age.htm
http://answering-islam.org/Responses/Osama/lesbian.htm

Response:

When we deeply study both religions, that we find out that it is the bible which degrades women at it’s best and
not islam, some examples:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/umar/slave_girls.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/is_muhammad_true_prophet_3.htm#spoils_of_war
http://www.answering-christianity.org/childbrides_rebuttal.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/lesbian_rebuttal.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/answering_apologists_and_exposing_rape.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/lust_for_virgins.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/female_birth.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/women_menses.htm
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

Women are ‘Awrah

Islam traditionally regards women as ‘awrah, a word which is used in the Quran: Tell the believing men to lower
their gaze and be modest. That is purer for them. Lo! Allah is aware of what they do. And tell the believing
women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to
draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or
husbands' fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers or their brothers' sons or sisters' sons, or
their women, or their slaves, or male attendants who lack vigour, or children who know naught of women’s
nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto
Allah together, O believers, in order that ye may succeed. S. 24:30-31 Pickthall

O believers, let those your right hands own and those of you who have not reached puberty ask leave of you
three times -- before the prayer of dawn, and when you put off your garments at the noon, and after the evening
prayer -- three times of nakedness for you. There is no fault in you or them, apart from these, that you go about
one to the other. So God makes clear to you the signs; and God is All-knowing, All-wise. S. 24:58 Arberry

From the above we can gather that ‘awrah refers to a person’s nakedness which must be covered. In his
explanation to Sura 24:58, the late Muslim translator Muhammad Asad defines the word as: [Lit., "three
[periods] of nakedness (thalath awrat) for you". This phrase is to be understood both literally and figuratively.
Primarily, the term awrah signifies those parts of a mature person’s body which cannot in decency be exposed to
any but one’s wife or husband or, in case of illness, one’s physician. In its tropical sense, it is also used to denote
spiritual "nakedness", as well as situations and circumstances in which a person is entitled to absolute privacy.
The number "three" used twice in this context is not, of course, enumerative or exclusive, but is obviously meant
to stress the recurrent nature of the occasions on which even the most familiar members of the household,
including husbands, wives and children, must respect that privacy.] (Source; bold emphasis ours)

What this essentially means is that a woman must entirely cover herself with the exception of the face and hands
because her entire person is classified as indecent, as nudity, and therefore harmful to men to look at:

K
Response:

It’s her beauty, her honor and private body, not indecency. No strange man has the right to enjoy and look at her
privacy, except her husband. Further Sheikh Gibril.Fouad Haddad comments:
k

Awrah:

The correct definition of `awra, a word applied to both men and women, is “private parts”.
k

He wrote:

The Prophet said: "A woman should be concealed, for when she goes out the devil looks at her."
Response:

The devil is an euphemism for depraved men. Concealed is a figure way of speech, it refers to covering ones
awrah. Sham shamoun obvious has a problem with understanding figure way of speech.

He wrote:

Alî was with the Prophet when the latter asked: What is the best trait in women ? but no-one spoke. Ali said:
When I returned I asked Fatima and she replied: that men do not see them .I mentioned this to the Prophet and he
said: Truly, Fat.ima comes from me. ( Narrated by al-Bazzâr in his Musnad )

Response:

The hadith speaks about the best trait in women. Fatima, the prophet’s daugher explainded this as: “That men do
not see them”. She refers with this to the modesty of muslim women and fear that strange men see their private
parts and beauty. In other words the muslim women protect their dignity and honor by not letting men see them,
which refers to their private body / awrah. She’s modest and modesty is one of her beautys and best traita. This is
something that some christians with double moral like Sham Shamoun cannot understand.

He wrote:

Renowned Muslim scholar and philosopher Al-Ghazali wrote: If the husband wants to enjoy her body, she
should not refuse. The Prophet said: If the wife of a man dies while he is pleased with her, she will enter
Paradise. The Prophet said: When a woman prays five times a day, fasts the month of Ramazan, saves her
private parts and obeys her husband, she will enter the Paradise of her Lord. The Prophet said about the women:
They bear children, give birth to children and show affection to children. Even though they do not come to their
husbands, they will enter Paradise if they pray. The Prophet said: I peeped into Hell and found that the majority
of its inmates are women. It was asked: Why, O Messenger of God? He said: They take recourse to much curse
and deny relatives. There is another Hadis: I peeped into Paradise and found that there are a few women there. I
asked: Where are the women? He said: Two things of reddish colour stood as a stumbling block against them-
gold and Zafran (ornaments and varied dresses). Once a girl came to the Prophet and asked: I don’t want to get
married. The Prophet said: Yes, get married and it is better. A woman of Khasham tribe once came to the
Prophet and asked him: I want to marry, but what are the rights of the husband? He said: When he wants her, she
will not refuse it even though she remains on a camel’s back. She will not give anything of his house in charity
without his permission. If she does it, she will commit a sin and her husband will get rewards. She will not keep
optional fast without his permission. If she does it and becomes hungry and thirsty, it will not be accepted from
her. If she goes out of his house without his permission, the angels curse him[sic] till she returns to his house or
till she repents. The Prophet said: When a woman stays within her house, she becomes more near to God. Her
prayer in the courtyard of her house is more meritorious than her prayer in mosque. Her prayer in a room is
better than her prayer in her courtyard. The Prophet said: A woman is like a private part. When she comes out,
the devil holds her high. He said: There are ten private parts of a woman. When she gets married, her husband
keeps one private part covered; and when she dies, the grave covers other parts. The duties of a wife towards her
husband are many, two out of them are essentially necessary. The first one is to preserve chastity and to keep
secret the words of her husband and the second thing is not to demand unnecessary things and to refrain from
unlawful wealth which her husband earns. (Imam Ghazali’s Ihya’ ‘Ulum-Ud-Din ,Book II, pp. 42-43)
Response:

I will discuss these commonly misquoted hadith step by step. It’s also important to know and understand that in
islam a particular hadith must be understood in the context of general rulings and other hadith. The last part i
mentioned is something which christian missionaries mostly fail to understand.

1:
k

Misquoted Hadith:

The Prophet said: “I peeped into Hell and found that the majority of its inmates are women.”
k k

Comment:

The Ahaadith that indicate the women as the major inhabitants of Jahannam refer to that time when Rasulullah
had physically seen Jannah and Jahannam. They do not mention that it will always remain like tha, see Faydhul
Baari and Malfoozaat-e-Kashmiri vol.4 page.244

2:
k

Misquoted Hadith:
k
The Prophet said: “If the wife of a man dies while he is pleased with her, she will enter Paradise”
k

Comment:

This is a weak hadith narrated by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah with a chain containing two unknowns. Never-
theless the hadith means that after her religious duties, the wife's greatest social duty is to her husband, while the
latter's greatest social duty is to his mother as established by the narration: “The one person in the world owed
the greatest right by a woman is her husband, and “the one person in the world owed the greatest right by the
man is his mother”

k
3:
k

Misquoted Comment:

Her prayer in the courtyard of her house is more meritorious than her prayer in mosque. Her prayer in a room is
better than her prayer in “her courtyard k
k

Comment:

Every prayer of a man in his house is also better than in the mosque except for the obligatory prayer. Secondly
the prophet also said: “Do not prevent the maidservants of Allah from going to the mosques “

4:
k

Strange Hadith:

Ali reported the Prophet saying: 'Women have ten ('awrat). When she gets married, the husband covers one, and
when she dies the grave covers the ten."
k

Comment:

Listed among the forgeries by al-Fattani in Tadhkirat al-Mawdu`at. To adduce such a narration in a debate on
Women in Islam shows ignorance
5:
k

Misquoted hadith

A woman of Khasham tribe once came to the Prophet and asked him: I want to marry, but what are the rights of
the husband ? He said: When he wants her, she will not refuse it even though she remains on a camel’s back.
k

Comment:

A:

This hadith is hyperbolic and not to be taken literally

B:

Its gist is that the wife should not refuse her husband's advances, and

C:

The opposite is also established from the Qur'an:


k
k

Qu’ran 4:129
k
{turn not away (from a woman) altogether, so as to leave her (as it were) hanging}
kk

D:

The prophet approved Salman's word to Abu al-Darda:


k
k

Bukhari, vol 7, nr 127

“and your wife has a right over you.” Shayk G.F. Haddad comments:” this unanimously means cohabitation.”
k
E:

And al-Qurtubi said:


kk
k

Tafsir al-Qurtubi for 2:178


k
“She has over him the same right of sexual cohabitation he has over her” k
k

F:

The prophet explicitly stipulated that a Muslim must seek his wife's permission even for coitus interruptus.
Narrated by Umar Ibn Khattab: "The Prophet forbade the practice of 'azl with a free woman except with her
permission."

Fataawa al-Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Fataawa Islamiyyah, vol. 3, p. 190.

the scholars say that one should not engage in ‘azl with a free woman except with her permission, because she
has the right to have children. Moreover, withdrawing without her permission diminishes her pleasure, because
the woman’s pleasure can only be completed after ejaculation. So not asking her permission causes her to lose
out on pleasure and on the possibility of having children. Hence we state the condition that this may only be
done with her permission. --
-

We see that a woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss
penile withdrawal as a method of contraception. One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a
practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is entitled in islam. Also, if she desires to bear
children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint as we have
seen is based on a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the practice of
coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission The position regarding the woman's right to orgasm
was developed over time by several Muslim jurists during the same period. The Prophet even cared so much for
women’s pleasure, that he forbade sexual intercourse before foreplay with ones wife. This sort of understanding
for women’s need and feelings can’t be foun in the bible.

Al-Tibb al-Nabawi, 183, from Jabir ibn Abd Allah:

“the Messenger of Allah forbade from engaging in sexual intercourse before foreplay.” K k
k

K
Here we see that women in islam have the right to romantic foreplay and sexual pleasure. Nothing near such
respect for the feelings of one's wife near is found even at the peak of Judeo-Christian civilization.
Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sada al Muttaqin, V 372

Imam al-Ghazali says: "Sex should begin with gentle words and kissing." Imam al-Zabidi adds:"This should
include not only the cheeks and lips; and then he should caress the breasts and nipples, and every part of her
body"
k

Moreover the Qu’ran says:

Qur’an 2.187
k
“They are garments for you and you are garments for them.” K
k

A husband and wife must protect each other from harm just like a garment protects the body from any harm and
discomfort. A husband and wife who fullfill each others sexual needs will protect each other from fornication
and adultery, just like a garment protects the body from harm. Therefor scholars agree that this verse confirms
that both husband and wife must fullfill each others sexual needs. It is the nature of garments that they bring
comfort, dignity, and keep one from indecency and harm. A husband and wife must exercise their rights within
the qur’anic paradigm of love and mercy.

Scholars explain that particular rulings must be understood in the context of general rulings, for affirming one
matter does not entail negating another. All rights in marriage must be understood within the clear context of the
qur’anic command to “live together in excellence, love and mercy”, and the words of the Prophet: “The most
perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to your spouses.”
In islam men are obligated to satisfy their wifes during sexual intercourse, and to act romantic with them. Marital
rape is strict forbidden, see:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/islamic_way_of_making_love_to_wife.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/sex_as_sadaqa.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/no_marital_rape.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/women_rights_for_sex.htm

The bible does not give women any rights to foreplay or sexual demands.The wife must obey her husband in
everything. The bible doesn’t care for womens feelings and need to foreplay.

Ephesians 5:24

Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything
k
This biblical verse moreover teaches us that a woman must obey her husband when he wants sexual intercourse,
she has to submit to him in everything and therefor cannot refuse his request. The word everything clearly
includes sex too. So a wife in christianty must submit to her husbands request for sex. Here again we see how
hypocrite christian missionaries are when they attack islam on women issues. The bible clearly puts the wife in
an inferior position, where the husband in everything can demand his wifes submission.

How is the church to be subject to Christ ? The answer is obvious: in everything ! Christ demands nothing short
of total and absolute and unconditional obedience to Himself. In fact, 1 Samuel chapter 15 of the bible moreover
teaches us ( using the case of King Saul ) that partial obedience is actually wicked disobedience in God's sight.
So if the wife is to portray the correct picture, she must obey and submit to her husband in everything. The
christian scholar, Rev. Kerry Ptacek who is a church planter in the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church in
the Tennessee-Alabama Presbytery located in Birmingham Alabama comments:

Rev. Kerry Ptacek Comments:

Since the fall of Adam, women have been cursed by a reminder of Eve's independence of her husband. God's
words to Eve, "your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you," refer to a desire for power over
her husband (Gen 3:16b). This would remind Adam's male descendents of the original failure to act as the
representative head of the wife.

Although all wives experience Eve's desire to rule over their husbands, Paul's words are a command to Christian
wives. The Bible provides no basis for the notion that this submission can be compelled by the husband, aside
from appealing to the Word of God. However, like all unrepentant sin, the refusal of a wife to submit to her
husband can be a matter of church discipline if brought to the attention of an elder by her husband. Since failure
to submit to her husband is "as to the Lord," persistence in such sin is especially incompatible with communicant
membership in the church. ……………….

In verse 24 the word translated "therefore" in fact is alla, which usually is translated "but." As an adversative, it
could be translated "on the other hand" or "nevertheless." Paul is saying that even though the husband is not a
savior like Christ, wives must still be subject to their husbands as the church is to Christ.

It is possible that a Christian wife might think that because her husband is not very Christlike, she need not be
subject to him. I believe that the tendency to interpret the role of the husband as a type of savior played into this
error. Peter said Christian wives should submit even to husbands that "do not obey the word" (1 Pet 3:11).
Rightly understood Paul is saying the husband's headship alone is the basis for a wife being "subject" -- this is
the same Greek word as "submit" in verse 22 -- "to their own husbands in everything."

Others have sought to undermine this command by putting forward situations in which a husband commands his
wife to sin. However, "in everything" refers to all matters, it does not envision complying with what the Bible
considers to be sin. However, such sin should be clear, not conjectural.

Source:

http://members.aol.com/kptacek/fscw.html
k
Now people perhas may think that this are only men’s opinions and interpretations of the bible. Well the biblical
text “submit to your husbands in everything” is quite clear. Since the text is so clear without doubt, true christian
women like Elizabeth Rice Handford, the wife of Pastor Walter Handford and the daughter of Dr. John R. Rice
tell us the true meaning of verses like Ephesians 5:24. She wrote a book called “me ? obey him ? “ I shall quote
some parts of her book, which show us the true meaning of the biblical verses about a wifes submission to her
husband. After quoting Ephesians 5:24 she writes:

Mrs. Handford writes:

"it is impossible to find a single loophole, a single exception, an `if' or `unless.' The Scriptures say, without
qualification, to the openminded reader, that a woman ought to obey her husband" .

Source:

“ME? OBEY HIM?” by Elizabeth Rice Handford, page 25


k

Mrs. Handford writes:

"She is to obey her husband as if he were God Himself."

Source:

“ME? OBEY HIM?” by Elizabeth Rice Handford, page 28


k

Notice that this are not the words of men, but the words of a true christian women who follows the true meaning
of the bible. It shall be clear now that women in christianity cannot refuse their husbands request for sex.. Her
father,the famous christian scholar Dr. John R.Rice. deals with this matter in his book The Home, chapter VII:

Dr. John R.Rice makes the next statement in light of Ephesians 5:24

"here the Scripture seems to take for granted that there will never be a case where God will call upon a wife to
disobey her husband"

Source:

The Home, p. 106


k
6:

Misquoted hadith:

“A woman is like a private part / awrah . When she comes out, the devil holds her high”

Comment:

The above mistranslates ‘istashrafaha’ to mean ‘holds her high’ when in fact it means ‘stares up at her,’ and the
devil is here an euphemism for depraved men. Secondly this applies to the uncovered woman who might allure
such men. Those are the same values as in early Christian society whereas the modern Western world can no
longer understand that women are private human beings and not public sexual objects. Similarly the awra here is
not literal but figurative, signifying all that should remain private. The medieval philosopher Pierre Abelard
said: “If you cannot understand figurative language, avoid intellectual pursuits.”

7:
k

Misquoted hadith:

If she goes out of his house without his permission, the angels curse him[sic] till she returns to his house or till
she repents.
k

Comment:

A particular ruling must be understood in the context of general rulings. Islam requires that the wife adopt an
attitude of adjustment and harmony with the husband and the husband is required to be affectionate and
accommodating as far as possible for the needs of his wife. He must not impose any undue restrictions on her for
this will ignite the wrath of god upon him and contradicts soerah 30:21. Finally i would like to quote the
following fatwa made by scholars in the famous figh book of the maliki mahdab called ‘the guiding helper’.

The Guiding Helper, song 38, marriage, page 307

With regard to a wife seekings her husband’s permission before leaving the house, the proper perspective must
be understood. In general circumstances of mutual trust, there is no need for a wife to ask permission from her
husband to go out.
k
Moreover scholars like Ibn Qudama al-Maqdasi, al-Mughni, Kitab al-Walimah, Mas'alah Qasm al-Ibtida' explain
that: “We believe that the reasoning of ‘illah’ behind such a ruling is more concerned with safety of women and
the keeping of together the family unit than of restricting the women.” Read also:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/permission_for_women.htm
Imam Ghazali , by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq

Imam Ghazali is one of the towering figures in Islamic history, whose influence on the Muslim world continues
to remain strong and deep. The rich spiritual dimension of his contribution is indisputable. His legacy of
sagacity, wisdom, and enlightenment is a veritable treasure for many.

Yet, truth seekers and conscientious people who believe in Islam don't revere any individual scholar, however
great and towering he is, with an absolutist mindframe. Hence, reading the following chapter from one of his
notable works one would find remarks and views about women that are utterly degrading, verging on misogyny.
Several years ago when an Islam basher cited some of these aspects from Imam Ghazali's writings I could not
believe it.

After reading his views about women, it seems reasonable to say that, despite his all other contributions to the
Islamic history, his views at least in this area are more his own than based on Islam, i.e., the Qur'an and the
Sunnah. k

Even though the entire presentation of thoughts by Imam Ghazali here projects an Islamic veneer, yet the hadiths
that he reports are often without any source, or only selective hadiths that are more restrictive of women are
mentioned without taking into consideration other ones that directly contradict these.

His weakness in the science of Hadith is well-known. Taj-ud-Din Subki has collected such traditions in Tabaqat-
Shafeiyya that have been cited by the Imam in his Ihya-ul-Uloom but which cannot be traced to any source. (See
Tabaqat, vol. IV, pp. 145-182).

[Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam, Lahore, Islamic Publications,
5th edition, 1981; footnote on p. 66] Also, for specific example, see Appendix note #6 in Dr. Suhaib Hasan, An
Introduction to the Science of Hadith, London, Al-Qur'an Society, 1994.]
k
k

Note:

Keep in mind dear reader that the christian missionary sham shamoun all the time quoted from the book ‘Ihya-
ul-Uloom’ of Imam Ghazali, which as we now know from the scholar Taj-ud-Din Subki contains stories / hadith
which cannot be traced to any source, which explains why these stories contradict the authentic hadith and
qu’ran. Therefor these stories that contradict the authentic hadith and qu’ran are clear forgeries.
k

Predictably, Islam bashers have a field day with such works and thoughts. But conscientious Muslims should be
less worried about the Islam bashers than the negative influence such Imams' views and opinions have on the
Muslims minds and societies.
Muslims need to be proactive in self-critical reexamination of many such classical works. Such reexamination is
not for wholesale repudiation and discrediting of the past contributions of many noble Islamic personalities.
Rather, we must accept the fact that they were human beings and not without their personal biases or various
influences and experiences that had shaped their positions. Conscientious Muslims would engage in critical
reexamination like divers seeking pearls. In the deep ocean of knowledge and understanding, those who seek
pearls must sift through more than just piles, separating pearls from empty shells and also watch out for shells
that can be harmful.

As we cherish and utilize the pearls of wisdom from the works of scholars, such as Imam Ghazali, we also
ignore the empty shells as well as anything potentially harmful. Noble souls, such as Imam Ghazali, never taught
us to blindly follow and revere anyone, including himself, and he never would have endorsed and encouraged an
uncritical acceptance of his views, especially when some views are simply unfounded from Islamic viewpoint or
stand contradicted by the Qur'an, the Sunnah and the Seerah.

Source:

Counsel for Kings [ Nasihat al-Muluk ] , London, Oxford University Press, pp. 158-173
He wrote:

Others argue that even her hands and face should be covered. The following Salafi Muslims state:

The correct view is that a woman is obliged to cover her entire body, even the face and hands. Imam Ahmad said
that even the nails of a woman are ‘awrah, and this is also the view of Maalik. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah
said: " It seems that the view of Ahmad is that every part of her is ‘awrah, even her nails, and this is also the
view of Maalik." (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 22/110).

Response:

I will quote from shayk albani’s excellent book ‘Jilbaab al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah’ , which replies to those who
say that it is obligatory for women to cover the face. In his book the shayk refutes the claims quoted by the
christians missionary. The shayk writes:

“Shaykh at-Tuwaijree claimed that scholars unanimously held that the woman’s face was awrah and many who
have no knowledge, including some Ph.D. holders, have blindly followed him. In fact, it is a false claim, which
no one before him has claimed. The books of Hambalite scholars which he learned from, not to mention those of
others, contain sufficient proof of its falsehood. I have mentioned many of their statements in Ar-Radd. For
example, Ibn Hubayrah al-Hambalee stated in his book, al-Ifsaah, that the face is not considered ‘awrah in the
three main schools of Islaamic law and he added, “It is also a narrated position of Imaam Ahmad.” Many
Hambalite scholars preferred this narration in their books, like Ibn Qudaamah and others. Ibn Qudaamah in al-
Mughnee explained the reason for his preference saying, “Because necessity demands that the face be uncovered
for buying and selling, and the hands be uncovered for taking and giving.”

Among the Hambalite scholars, is the great Ibn Muflih al-Hambalee about whom Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyahi
said: “There is no one under the dome of the sky more knowledgeable about the school of Imaam.Ahmad than
Ibn.Muflih.” And his teacher, Ibn Taymiyyah, once told him, “You aren’t Ibn Muflih, you are Muflih!”

It is incumbent on me to convey Ibn Muflih’s statements for the readers because of the knowledge and many
benefits contained in them. Included in them is further confirmation of the falsehood of Shaykh at-Tuwaijree’s
claim and support for the correctness of my position on the issue of uncovering the face. Ibn Muflih stated the
following in his valuable work al-Aadaab ash-Shar‘iyyah – which is among the references cited by Shaykh at-
Tuwaijree (something which indicates that he is aware of it, but has deliberately hidden these crucial facts from
his readers while claiming the contrary):
k

“Is it correct to chastise marriageable women if they uncover their faces in the street ? “

The answer depends on whether it is compulsory for women to cover their faces or whether it is compulsory for
men to lower their gaze from her. There are two positions on this issue.
1:

Regarding the hadeeth of Jareer in which he said, “I asked Allaah’s Messenger about the sudden inadvertent
glance and he instructed me to look away.” Al-Qaadee ‘Iyaad commented, “The scholars, May Allaah Most
High have mercy on them, have said that there is proof in this hadeeth that it is not compulsory for a woman to
cover her face in the street. Instead, it is a recommended sunnah for her to do so and it is compulsory for the man
to lower his gaze from her at all times, except for a legislated purpose. Shaykh Muhyud-deen an-Nawawee
mentioned that without further explanation.”
k

2:

Then al-Muflih mentioned Ibn Taymiyyah’s statement which at-Tuwaijree relies on in his book, while feigning
ignorance of the statements of the majority of scholars. Statements like those of al-Qaadee ‘Iyaad and an-
Nawawee’s agreement with it.
k

Then al-Muflih said, “On the basis of that, is chastisement legal ? Chastisement is not allowed in issues in where
there is a difference of opinion, and the difference has already been mentioned. As regards our opinion and that
of a group of Shaafi‘ite scholars and others, looking at a marriageable woman without desire or in a secluded
circumstance is permissible. Therefore, chastisement is not proper.” This answer is in complete agreement with
Imaam Ahmad’s statement, “It is not proper that a jurist oblige people to follow his opinion (math-hab).” And
this is if the truth were on his side. What of the case where the jurist proudly, dishonestly misleads people and
declares other Muslims to be disbelievers as at-Tuwaijree did on page 249 of his book saying,

“… Whoever permits women to expose their faces and uses the proofs of al-Albaanee has flung open the door for
women to publicly flaunt their beauty and emboldened them to commit the reprehensible acts done by women
who uncover their faces today.” And on page 233 he said, “… and to disbelief in the verses of Allaah.” k

Those are his words – May Allaah reform him and guide him. What would he say about Ibn Muflih, an-
Nawawee, al-Qaadee ‘Iyaad and other Palestinian scholars, as well as the majority of scholars who preceded
1
them and who are my salaf regarding my opinion on this matter ?
He wrote:

In contrast to those who say that this is not obligatory, if we examine the views of those who say that it is not
obligatory for women to cover the face, we will see that it is as Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd said:

One of the following three scenarios must apply:

1 There is clear, sound evidence, but it has been abrogated by the verses that enjoin hijaab…

2 There is sound evidence but it is not clear, and it does not constitute strong evidence when taken in
conjunction with the definitive evidence from the Qur’aan and Sunnah that the face and hands must be
covered…

3 There is clear evidence, but it is not sound (Hiraasat al-Fadeelah, p. 68-69)

Response:

This statement is not quite true, there is no definitive evidence for this, since many scholars have debated about
this issue. If there was a clear definitive evidence, no one would debate about it. Moreover the the quotations
from shayk albani’s excellent book ‘Jilbaab al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah’ , clearly show us that the majority of
scholars held the view that the face and hands are not ‘awrah’ , and that this is the correct view. In my next
booklet i will gave proof and evidences for this statement. But off course i respect the opinion of others. I would
like to stress out that i pray for Allah swt to bless all our sisters, wether they wear niqab/ face-veil or hijab. Both
groups have a lot of courage. My opinion is just that niqab is religiously voluntary, although commendable and a
great sunnah of the wifes of the prophet, may allah swt bless them all.
Sources:

1: http://www.islamicweb.com/beliefs/women/albani_niqab.htm
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

With regard to the evidence that it is obligatory to cover the face and hands,

Allaah says ( interpretation of the meaning ): "O Prophet ! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of
the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes
or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not
to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful" - al-Ahzaab 33:59

Ibn Taymiyah said: Allaah commands women to let the jilbaab come down (over their faces) so that they will be
known (as respectable women) and not be annoyed or disturbed. This evidence supports the first opinion.
‘Ubaydah al-Salmaani and others stated that the women used to wear the jilbaab coming down from the top of
their heads in such a manner that nothing could be seen except their eyes, so that they could see where they were
going. It was proven in al-Saheeh that the woman in ihraam is forbidden to wear the niqaab and gloves. This is
what proves that the niqaab and gloves were known among women who were not in ihraam. This implies that
they covered their faces and hands. -Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 15/371-372

Ahmad said: the adornment which is apparent is the clothing. And he said: every part of a woman is ‘awrah,
even her nails. It was narrated in the hadeeth, ‘The woman is ‘awrah,’ This includes all of the woman. It is not
makrooh to cover the hands during prayer, so they are part of the ‘awrah, just like the feet. Analogy implies that
the face would be ‘awrah were it not for the fact that necessity dictates that it should be uncovered during prayer,
unlike the hands." - Sharh al-‘Umdah, 4/267-268.

Response:

Shayk albani in his Book ”Jilbaab al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah “ writes about the main errors of those who make the
face veil obligatory. The first error pointed out by the shayk is “their interpretation of al-idnaa’ in the verse of
the Jilbaab ( 33:59 ) to mean covering the face”. This misinterpretation is contrary to the basic meaning of the
word in Arabic which is “to come close”, as is mentioned in authoritative dictionaries like al-Mufradaat by the
well-known scholar, ar-Raaghib al-Asbahaanee. However, there is sufficient evidence in the interpretation of the
leading commentator on the Quran, Ibn ‘Abbaas, who explained the verse saying, “She should bring the jilbaab
close to her face without covering it.” It should be noted that none of the narrations used as evidence to
contradict this interpretation are authentic.

The second main error of those wo make the face veil obligatory is “their claim that the khimaar / headscarf
covers the head and the face”. In doing so “the face” has been arbitrarily added to its meaning in order to make
the verse: "Let them drape their headscarves over their busoms" ( 24:31 ) appear to be in their favor, when, in
fact it is not. The word khimaar linguistically means only a head covering. Whenever it is mentioned in general
terms, this is what is intended. For example in the hadeeths on wiping on the khimaar and the prophetic
statement, “The salaah of a woman past puberty will not be accepted without a khimaar.” This hadeeth confirms
the invalidity of their misinterpretation, because not even the extremists themselves – much less the scholars –
use it as evidence that the covering of a woman’s face in salaah is a condition for its validity. They only use it as
1
proof for covering the head.

Moreover the translation presented by the website from which the christian missionary quotes is not correct. I
shall show the reader the original arabic and it’s literal translation, which nowhere mentions anything about
veiling the face.
Surah Al-Ahzaab 33 ayah 59

Ya ayyuha an-Nabi, qul li azwajika wa banatika wa nisa al-muminin yudnina alayhinna min jalabib hinna;
dhalika adna an yu'rafna fa laa yu'dhayn. Wa kana Allahu Ghafur ar-Rahim
k

Yaa = Oh

Ayuha = You

Nabiyu = Prophet

Qul = Say

Li = to

Azwaajika = Your Wvies

Wa = And

Banaatika = Your Daughters

Wa = And

Nisaaa = Women

Al Muminin = Believers ( feminine plural )

Yudniina Alayhinna Min Jalaabiibihinn = Draw their garments close around them

Yudniina literally means to bring closer or to lower something, in this case the jilbab. Nowhere does the verse
says that the face should be covered. In fact, the verse is devoid of the word ‘face’. Like Shayk Albani said:
“This misinterpretation is contrary to the basic meaning of the word in Arabic which is “to come close”, as is
mentioned in authoritative dictionaries like al-Mufradaat by the well-known scholar, ar-Raaghib al-Asbahaanee.”

The ayah quoted from Surah Al-Ahzab only directs Muslim women to put some outer garment over their clothes,
and to draw it close around them. The jilbab or outergarment should cover everything ,except face and the hands.
According to the majority of the scholars a combination of garments that cover what the jilbab is to cover may
substitute for the jilbab. Specifically, these scholars permit the head to be covered by the headscarf / khimar and
the feet to covered by socks and shoes. As long as a sister covers her head and neck with the khimar, then her
jilbab does not need to cover over her head, but may be like a coat, which just covers from the shoulders on
down. And as long as her feet are completely covered with socks and shoes, then her jilbab does not need to
come down to the ground but may come down only to the ankles. This is the majority position.

There are also renowned scholars like imam Abu hanifa who had the opinion that women could show their feet.
Dr.`Abdul-Kareem Zidan, professor of Shari`ah at Al-Azhar University, states the following: “The majority of
Muslim jurists state that the woman’s feet is `Awrah. However, the Hanafis maintain that the woman’s feet are
2
not `Awrah. I myself prefer the opinion of the Hanafis.” Women are allowed to choose the opion of the great
Imam Hanifa.
Shayk Faraz Rabbani comments:

What is meant by an outer garment is something that: covers the awrah, is thick and non-transparent, loose, and
modest. This can be something that is a separate loose garment worn over one's clothes, or simply loose clothing
3
that fulfills the abovementioned conditions, as the scholars explicitly mention.

….it would not be disliked to wear denim clothing ( such as a jilbab for women, or loose jeans ) , if it fulfills the
4
conditions and proprieties of modest Muslim clothing.
k

Surah al-ahzab doesn’t support the opinion that the face veil is fard. There is sufficient evidence in the
interpretation of the leading commentator on the Quran, Ibn ‘Abbaas, who explained the verse saying, “She
should bring the jilbaab close to her face without covering it.”

Now we must move on to Surah an-Nur ayah 31, which was revealed after the Battle of the Ditch: this is the
surah in which were revealed the definitive rules and regulations clearly prohibiting fornication, the exact
punishment for its commital, the rules and regulations related to establishing wether such a serious crime had
been committed, etiquettes of social visits, and the command to lower the gaze, preserve chasity and cover the
body properly.

Surah an-Nur ayah 31 may be regarded as the surah which deals with decency, etiquette, public life, the
appearance of Muslim men and women, social gatherings, and the permissibility of inviting and being invited for
meals. This surah is the final universal islamic statement about the topics mentioned, in particular, the covering
of the muslim women in public, as mentioned in verse 31. All other previously revealed regulations, as in surah
al-Azhab ayah 59 , may be considered as either pertaining to the noble household of the Prophet, as is clear from
the verse themselves; or intermediary steps necessitated by the lewd behaviour of the local thugs before specific
severe punishments for such acts been revealed.

Surah an-Nur ayah 31 is final rule about the covering of the muslim women in public. The proof of this sequence
is given in the sequence of the revelation of these surahs. Al-Suyuti, in volume one of the” al-Itqan fi Ulum al-
Qur’an” quoted Jabir Ibn Zayd as having arranged the Madinan surahs as follows: al-Baqarah , Al ‘Imran, al-
Anfal, al-Azhab … He listed surah an-Nur as the eighth surah to have been revealed at madinah. More evidence
of it’s later revelation, and the fact that it was revealed after Surah al-Azhab, is to be found in Surah an-Nur itself
in verse 11-12, which speaks about the slander incident, in which the hypocrites impugned the most honourable
Aischa, wife of the Prophet. All commentators are of the view that this incident took place following the Battle
of al-Muraysi’ , when the Muslim expedition was returning to Madinah. At that time Zaynab, who was referred
to in Surah al-Azhab, was already married to the Prophet. On the occasion of her marriage, Surah al-Azhab ayah
53 had been revealed in which the wives of the Prophet were commanded to be secluded from public view, and
the Muslims, if they wished to ask anything of them, were ordered to do so from behind a curtain.

Further proof that Zaynab, at that time, was already married to the Prophet may be found in the fact that Aischa
praised her dignified and restrained attitude during the slander affair, whilst Zaynab’s sister Hammah was deeply
implicated in spreading the rumours around madinah. The statement of Aischa absolving Zaynab of any blame
and describing her as the only person, after herself, enjoying such a high position in the affection of the Prophet,
confirms the fact that Zaynab was, by that time, a well established member of the household of the Prophet.
Ibn Taymiyyah’s view:

In the light of the above, it is most curious to discover that a man of such immense scholarship as Ibn
Taymiyyah, in his book “The Great Fatawa (section 2: Figh, part 2 : Prayers, Vol. 22, p. 109 ff) “ should claim
that verse 59 of Surah al-Ahzab abrogates verse 31 of Surah An-Nur, when the historical evidence shows that the
reverse is true: that Surah An-Nur was the final statement on the matter, and that Surah al-Azhab was an earlier
step towards the final, universal rules.

In conclusion, it is clear from the historical development of Islamic rules that the later parts of the revelation are
the final word. This is the main argument used by the Muslim scholars when they are faces with two texts which
both deal with the same matter, but which seem to be at odds with one another. The same procedure is used by
the commentators of the Qur’an and Hadith.

The famous Muslim scholar al-Suyuti in his section on “The Abrogating and the Abrogated” mentions that the
abrogated verses come earlier in time, and the abrogating verses come later on. This is the usual arrangement
exept in two specific cases, neither of which refer to any part of Surah an-Nur ayah 31.

Another scholar, Ibn Salamah, who also wrote a book entitled “Nasikh wa Mansukh (The Abrogating and the
Abrogated) “ , surveyed the Qur’an, surah by surah. When he reached Surah 24 (an-Nur) , he said: the thirty-first
verse of Surah an-Nur is: ”and say to the believing women..” Verse 60 of the same Surah makes an exception to
verse 31 in the case of elderly women who have no desire for marrying: they are permitted to discard their outer
garments. Thus, verse 31 of Surah an-Nur stands as the final, unabrogated universally applicable requirement
regarding the covering of the Muslim woman’s ‘awrah. More proof for this can be found in the next hadith:

kkk

Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 32, Number 4091:

Narrated Aisha: May Allah have mercy on the early emigrant women. When the verse "That they should extend
their headcoverings to cover their bosoms" was revealed, they tore their murut and used this as khimar.
k k

The hadith provides us with the interesting information that Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 was apparently revealed
before Surah an-Nur ayah 31 because at the time that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed the women were
already wearing jilbabs. When Surah an-Nur ayah 31 was revealed, the women tore pieces off their jilbabs to
make headscarves, khimar is the arabic word for headscarf. Therefor this hadith supports the evidence that
Surah an-Nur ayah 31 stands as the final, unabrogated universally applicable requirement regarding the covering
of the Muslim woman’s ‘awrah

This point has been dealt with at length in order to make it clear that it is verse 24:32 which is the final statement
on the question of awrah, and not 33:59, which was an earlier measure intended to bring in some form of control
until the final ruling was to be given. On the next pages Surah an-Nur ayah 31 will be explained.

Source:

Hibab or Niqab by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh with an introduction by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, Page 66 t/m 72
Surah an-Nur ayah 31 stands as the final, unabrogated universally applicable requirement regarding the covering
of the Muslim woman’s ‘awrah.

Surah an-Nur ayah 31:

Wa qul li al-mu'minat yaghdudna min absarihinna wa yahfazna furujahunna wa laa yubdina zenatahunna illa
maa zahara min haa wal-yadribna bi khumurihinna ala juyubihinna; wa laa yubdina zenatahunna illa li
bu'ulatihinna aw aba'ihinna aw aba'i bu'ulatihinna aw abna'ihinna aw abna'i bu'ulatihinna aw ikhwanihinna aw
bani ikhwanihinna aw bani akhawatihinna aw nisa'ihinna aw maa malakat aymanu hunna aw at-tabi'ina ghayri
ulu'l-irbat min ar-rijal aw at-tifl alladhina lam yazharu ala awrat an-nisa wa laa yadribna bi arjulihinna li yu'lama
maa yukhfina min zenatahinna. Wa tubu ilaAllahi jami'an, ayyuha al-mu'minun la'allakum tuflihun
k

Translation:

And say to the faithful women to lower their gazes, and to guard their private parts, and not to display their
adornment except what is apparent of it, and to extend their headcoverings (khimars) to cover their bosoms
(jaybs), and not to display their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers, or
their sons, or their husband's sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their
womenfolk, or what their right hands rule (slaves), or the followers from the men who do not feel sexual desire,
or the small children to whom the nakedness of women is not apparent, and not to strike their feet (on the
ground) so as to make known what they hide of their adornments. And turn in repentance to God together, O you
the faithful, in order that you are successful
k k

Pay close attention to the words: “and not to display their adornment except what is apparent of it” in Surah an-
Nur ayah 31. Secondly the surah tells women to extend their headcoverings over their bosoms, not faces ! Let us
now examine the opinions of the famous commentators, and then those of the jurists.

Some say that the words “and not to display their adornment except what is apparent of it” refers to the outer
garments. This is the view of Ibn Masúd. Al-Hassan al-Basri is of the same view. Others say that “and not to
display their adornment except what is apparent of it” refers to the kohl ( atype of eyeliner ) , the ring, the
twobracelets and the face. This is the opinion of : Aisha Umm al-Muminin, Anas ibn Malik, Abdullah ibn
Abbas and Miswar ibn Makhrama - these are all Sahaba - and also of Ata , Qatada , Sa'id ibn Jubayr, Mujahid,
al-Dahhak , and al-Hasan - these are all Tabi'un. Almost every tafsir/ commentary on the Quran will include
some if not all of these authorities for this opinion. So here we clearly see that the large majority including most
of the sahaba and the prophet’s wife Aicha hold the opinion that “and not to display their adornment except what
is apparent of it” refers to the face, hands and it’s decorations.

Ata’ , one of the scholars of the tabu ‘un, said the “face and the two hands” ; Qatadah, another tabi ‘i scholars,
said: “I was informed that the Messenger of Allah said: “It is forbidden for a woman who believes in Allah and
the Last Day to uncover her arms, except to here, and he caught half of his hand.” Among the commentators
themselves, some of the most respected have followed the face and hands opinion, among these are: Imam
Tabari, Imam Zamakhshari, Imam Fakhr ad-Din Razi, Imam Qurtubi. We can read what they and other
renowned scholars have written in their own words:
Imam Abu Jafar Tabari

The strongest and most accurate view is that which says that the exemption refers to the face and the hands. Also
included are kohl, rings, bracelets, and makeup. We say that this is the strongest and most accurate opinion
because all scholars are unanimous that everyone who needs to pray must cover the awra in his or her salat. A
woman may reveal the face and the hands in her salat, while she must cover the rest of her body. What is not
5
awra is not haram to be revealed
k
k k

Imam Abu'l-Qasim Zamakhshari

Why is the woman permitted to display 'what is apparent of it' ? Because to conceal that would cause her
inconvenience. A woman is forced to deal in commodities with her hands. She is compelled by genuine need to
expose her face especially at the times of giving evidence, litigating in court, and marriage. She is compelled to
walk the streets and expose her feet, especially poor women. This is the meaning of 'illa maa zahara min ha', that
6
is, what the situations of ordinary life compel her to expose
k
k

K
k

Imam Fakhr ad-Din Razi

Since the showing of the face and hands is necessary, the jurists had no choice but to agree that they are not
7
awra. k
k

Imam Abu Abdullah Qurtubi

Since the normal case is that a woman’s face and hands are revealed by the force of habit and for worship, as this
8
is required in salat and hajj, then it is appropriate to say that the exemption applies to these
k

Imam al-Shafi`

All a woman's body is awrah with the exception of her hands and her face. The top of her feet is
9
also awrah
k
Imam Abu Hanifa

It is well-known that Imam Abu Hanifa held that women may display their faces and their hands. In fact, he even
held that women could display their feet, which is not a position held by any of the other madhhabs, and not by
all Hanafi scholars. it is mentioned in Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa Nihayat al-Muqtasid by Imam ibn Rushd, which
is a guide to the differences of opinion in fiqh; and it has been cited in the major Hanafi fiqh guide Hidayat al-
Muhtadi Sharh Bidayat al-Mubtadi (commonly referred to as "al-Hidayah") by Burhan al-Din Abul-Hasan `Ali
ibn `Abdul-Jalil Abu Bakr al-Marghinani al-Rushdani al-Hanafi. The face-and-hands-alone opinion has been
mentioned by the Hanafi scholar Abu Bakr al-Jassas in Ahkam al-Qur'an and attributed to Imam Abu Hanifa by
10
Ahmad ibn Naqib in his Umdat as-Salik.
k

Imam ibn Rushd

Imam ibn Rushd has attributed the face-and-hands position to the Malikis in Bidayat al-Mujtahid and this is
11
generally agreed to be the position of the Maliki madhhab
k
k

Imam ibn Qudama

I prefer this opinion because necessity demands that the face should be uncovered for buying and selling, and the
12
hands should be uncovered for giving and taking"
k

Now let us turn to those scholars who were concerned with the rules and regulations of the Qu’ran. Al-Jasas,
writing in the fourth century of the Hijrah era, was the first to write systematically about the rules of the Qur’an
in a definitive way. In volume3, page 315 of his work “The Rules of the Qu’ra” , he wrote:

Al-Jasas wrote:

….except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof – Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and ‘Ata’ were reported as saying: “What
(must ordinarily) appear thereof”means what is in the face and hands, the colouring of the hands and the kohl in
the eyes. The same applies to Ibn ‘Umar and Anas. Ibn ‘Abbas, i another report, added the hands, the face and
the ring.
k
Another scholar, Abu Bakr, the author of the tafsir, quoted by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh in his book “Hibab or
Niqab”said:

Abu bakr said:

The sayinh of Allah the Most High “………. that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except
what ( must ordinarily ) appear thereof” referred to the strangers, not the husband, nore the close relatives,
because He has explained, later in the same ayah, the rules relating tot hem. Our colleagues, the Hanafi scholars,
say that this refers to the face and hands. For kohl os the ornament of the face and henna is the ornament of the
hands. Once he has allowed one to look at these ornaments, this necessitates the permissibility of looking at the
face and the hands. Moreover, what indicates the fact that the face and the hands are not ‘awrah is the fact that
the woman prays with them uncovered. If they were ‘awrah, she should have covered them as she covers the rest
which is ‘awrah.

The saying of Ibn Mas’ud, that it is the clothes, is meaningless. For it is known that He mentioned the
adornment, meaning the part of the body on which it appears. You see, as regards everything that is considered
to be an adornment in the form of jewelry, she is allowed to show these things to people if they were not put on,
13
so we know that what is meant is the parts of the body on which these ornaments are worn.
k

Now let’s take a look what another renowned Muslim scholar, Ibn al-Arabi, writing in the sixth century of the
hijrah, said concering this issue.

Ibn al-Arabi writes:

There are three views concerning the apparent adornment, 1: The clothes, that is, she is allowed to show only her
clothes. This is the saying of Ibn Masúd, 2: The kohl and the ring. This is the saying of Ibn ‘Abbas and al-
miswar ibn Makhramah. 3: The face and the hands. This view and the second one have the same meaning. …..

The correct poin of view concerning the “apparent adornments”is that which is on the face and the hands. For it
is these which appear in prayers and on hajj; as an act of ‘ibadah, and as a way of life, they are customarily
14
uncovered.
k

Moreover the word khimar used in Surah an-Nur ayah 31, must in fact be a headscarf and not a niqab / face veil.
In common usage, the words ‘head’ and ‘face’are distinct. Unless specified otherwise, the word ‘head’ is not
taken to refer to the ‘face’, but instead refers to the rest of the head, while the word ‘face’ is specially used to
designate the face. An example of this is the process of wudu; the Quran and hadiths mention washing the ‘face’
separately from wiping the ‘head’, and we do not again run our hands over the face when we get to the stage of
wiping the head. In order to say that the khimar is a garment which covers the face, therefore, it must be
specified that it covers the ‘face’. If the khimar just covers the ‘head’ then the general meaning is that it covers
the hair. Keeping this in mind, here are some definitions of the khimar and what it means in classical Arabic:
k
k k

k
The dictionary of classical Arabic, Aqrab al-Mawarid:

The word khimar refers to all such pieces of cloth which are used to cover the head. It is a piece of cloth which is
used by a woman to cover her head.
k

Shaykh Muhammad Nasiruddin Albani:

The word khimaar linguistically means only a head covering. Whenever it is mentioned in general terms, this is
what is intended
k

kk

Imam Abu Abdullah Qurtubi:

Women in those days used to cover their heads with the khimar, throwing its ends upon their backs. This left the
neck and the upper part of the chest bare, along with the ears, in the manner of the Christians. Then God
commanded them to cover those parts with the khimar
k

This moreover proofs that the word khimar means headscarf. Its linguistic meaning is a headcovering, not a face
veil, and the information provided by both Imam Qurtubi and Shaykh Muhammad Nasiruddin Albani clearly
shows that the khimar is to be worn as a headscarf not as a face veil, moreover we have seen that the words “and
not to display their adornment except what is apparent of it” refers to the face, hands and it’s decorations. Some
scholars like Abu hanifa and al-Muzani also include the two feet as being excepted from ‘awrah.

He wrote:

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah that the Prophet said: "The woman is ‘awrah and when she goes out the
Shaytaan gets his hopes up." Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1173

Response:

Shayk Gibril Fouad Haddad comments: “The above mistranslates ‘istashrafaha’ to mean ‘gets his hopes up’
when in fact it means ‘stares up at her,’ and the devil is here an euphemism for depraved men. Secondly this
applies to the uncovered woman who might allure such men. Those are the same values as in early Christian
society whereas the modern Western world can no longer understand that women are private human beings and
not public sexual objects. Similarly the awra here is not literal but figurative, signifying all that should remain
private. The medieval philosopher Pierre Abelard said: “If you cannot understand figurative language, avoid
intellectual pursuits.” ( We have also seen in my previous responses that the face and hands are being excepted
15
from ‘awrah ).
He wrote:

And: All of the woman’s body is ‘awrah and must be covered during prayer, except for her face, because the
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "No prayer will be accepted from an adult woman
unless she wears a khimaar (head-cover)." (Reported by the five Muhadditheen) There is some dispute as to
whether her heels and feet should be covered. The author of al-Mughni (2/328) said: "As for the rest of the free
woman’s body, it must be covered during prayer. If any part becomes uncovered, it renders her prayer invalid,
except if only a little bit is uncovered. Maalik, al-Oozaa’i and al-Shaafi’i said the same.

The free woman who has attained the age of majority is obliged to cover her entire body during prayer, apart
from her face and hands, because all of her is ‘awrah. If she prays and any part of her ‘awrah becomes
uncovered, such as a shin or foot or all or part of her head, then her prayer is invalid, because the Prophet said:
"Allaah will not accept the prayer of a woman who has started to menstruate, except with a khimaar (covering)"
(Reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Maajah and al-Tirmidhi, with a saheeh isnaad)

Abu Dawud reported from Umm Salamah that she asked the Prophet about a woman who prayed wearing a dir’
(upper garment) and a khimaar (head cover), but no izaar (lower garment). He said: "The woman is ‘awrah."

As for the face, the Sunnah is to uncover it during prayer, so long as no non-mahram men are present. According
to the majority of scholars, the feet must be covered; some scholars allow uncovering the feet but the majority
say the opposite. Abu Dawud reported from Umm Salamah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that she was asked
about a woman who prayed in a khimaar and qamees (dress or gown). She said, "There is nothing wrong with it
if the dir’ (chemise) covers her feet." In any case, it is better to cover the feet, to be on the safe side. As far as the
hands are concerned, there is more leeway: there is nothing wrong with either covering them or uncovering
them, although some scholars think that it is better to cover them. And Allaah is the Source of strength.

L
Response:

Here we see that the website quoted by the christian missionary Sham Shamoun admits that a women’s face and
hands are not awrah, yet they state that this only the case when a women prays in private. One wonders why then
must a woman wear a khimar ( headscarf ) in private ? We now see that the website quoted by the christian
missionary Sham Shamoun in their fatwa have no strong evidence at all for their opinion. On the contrary the
th
renowned hadith scholar al-Shawkani in the 13 refutes the claim that ‘uncovering of the face and hands is only
allowed in prayer”

Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh in his book “Hibab or Niqab” writes:

The important point in this discussion, which will answer the objections of those who differentiate between
prayer and daily life, is the fact that al-Shawkani refers the whole discussion and the differences of opinions to
the discussion about the interpretation of the verse which tells women not to “display their beauty and ornaments
except what ( must ordinarily ) appear therefore” ( Surah al-Nur, 24:31 ) , which is basically the statement of
general application in daily life and social interaction, not the specific time of prayer.

Source:

Hibab or Niqab by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh with an introduction by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, Page 85 & 86
k
It is clear to anyone and the large majority of scholars agree on this that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 which tells us that
the face and hands of women are not awrah ( according to abu hanifa the feet are also not awrah ) and therefor
may be uncovered, refers to public life and social interaction.

Surah an-Nur ayah 31:

And say to the faithful women to lower their gazes, and to guard their private parts, and not to display their
adornment except what is apparent of it, and to extend their headcoverings (khimars) to cover their bosoms
(jaybs), and not to display their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers, or
their sons, or their husband's sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their
womenfolk, or what their right hands rule (slaves), or the followers from the men who do not feel sexual desire,
or the small children to whom the nakedness of women is not apparent, and not to strike their feet (on the
ground) so as to make known what they hide of their adornments. And turn in repentance to God together, O you
the faithful, in order that you are successful
k k

Surah an-Nur ayah 31 clearly refers to daily life and social interaction. The surah for example tells women to
lower their gazes and not to stamp with their feet ( to attract attention of men ) etc. And like we already showed
before according to the large majority of scholars and the sahaba, women are allowed uncover their faces and
hands in public life.

Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh in his book “Hibab or Niqab” writes:

Al-Banna, in “al-Fath al-Rabbani” , a commentary on Ibn Hanbal’s collection of hadith, discusses the issue
under the same title, “Covering the ‘awrah”. In the sectio non “What is reported concerning the woman’s body
being ’awrah except for the face and the hands” , Ibn Hanbal quoted Aischa’s saying at the house of Safiyyah.
There she saw some youn girls who were offering their prayers without covering their heads. Aischa said: “They
should not pray without a cover on their heads. One day the Messenger of Allah entered the house. There was a
young girl in my custody. He handed me a piece of cloth saying, “Cut into two pieces, one for your maid and
other for Um Salamah’s maid for it appears that they both have reached the age of womanhood”.

Al-Banna went through the discussion as Ibn hajar and al-Shawkani, quoting almost the same arguments. Then
he added: “Imam al-Nawawi, in his notes on Muslim’s collection of ahadith, mentioned a good number of rules
which it is good to mention here. These are the general rules dealing with ‘awrah.” This however, is not the place
for such a discussion. But it is in another area which is related to the question of ‘awrah that we find al-Nawawi
making it clear that the face and the hands are not part of the ‘awrah, wether in prayer or outside of it.

It is in the book of marriage (al-nikah), in the section on the recommendation for the person wishing to marry a
woman, that he should look at the face and the hands before proposing her.

Source:

Hibab or Niqab by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh with an introduction by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, page 86 t/m 88
k
Imam al-Nawawi wrote:

As for the free woman, her ‘awrah is her whole body except the face and the two hands, for Allah Most High
said: “…they should not display their beauty and ornaments excepts what ( must ordinarily ) appear thereof…”
( Surah al-Nur, 24:31) . Ibn ‘Abbas said: “That which must appear is the face and the two hands. And the
Prophet forbade the woman in ihtam to put on the face veil or gloves. If the face and two hands were part of
‘awrah, he would not have forbidden them to cover them. At the same time, she may need to uncover them for
such day to day matters as buying, selling, giving, talking, etc. So these two areas were made exceptions from
‘awrah.”

The ‘awrah of the free woman is her whole body except the face and the two hands up to the wrist. Some of or
Khurasan scholars are of the view that the soles of the feet are not ‘awrah. Al-Muzani, one of the great students
of al-Shafi, said: “The two feet are not ‘awrah either.” ……………

I mentioned what is well established of the Shafi’i school, that the ‘awrah of the woman is verything except the
face and the two hands up to the wrists. Malik is of the same view and so are other group scholars. This is one of
the views of ibn Hanbal, Abu Hanifah, al-Thawri and al-Muzani also include the two feet as being excepted from
‘awrah.

Source:

Sharh al-Muhaththab, vol.3 p.173. See also “Hibab or Niqab’ by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh with an introduction
by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, page 96 & 97.
k

Here we see that the large majority and renowned famous scholars of different schools of thought agreed that
women are allowed to uncover their face and hands in public life. In other words the large majority of scholars
agree that the face and hands are not ‘awrah. In addition to this, we may infer from Allah's words, "Tell the
believing men that they should lower their gazes", that the faces of the women of the Prophet's time were not
veiled. Had the entire body including the face been covered, it would have made no sense to command them to
lower their gaze, since there would have been nothing to be seen. Moreover the next hadith proofs that the face
and hands of women are not ‘awrah. The hadith has three authentic narrations and was correct by all major
hadith scholars such as Albani.

Narrated by Abu Dawood Nr. 4092

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: Asma, daughter of AbuBakr, entered upon the Apostle of Allah wearing thin
clothes. The Apostle of Allah turned his attention from her. He said: O Asma', when a woman reaches the age of
menstruation, it does not suit her that she displays her parts of body except this and this, and he pointed to her
face and hands.
k

Notice also how the prophet here didn’t talk about salat, but spoke in general terms. Therefor the large majority
and renowned famous scholars of different schools of thought agreed that women are allowed to uncover their
face and hands in public life. On the next pages we shall proof our stance with some more hadith.

k
Sahih Bukhari Book 74 Nr. 247.

Narrated Abdullah bin Abbas: Al-Fadl bin Abbas rode behind the Prophet as his companion rider on the back
portion of his she-camel on the Day of Nahr (on the Farewell Hajj) , and Al-Fadl was a handsome man. The
Prophet stopped to give people verdicts. In the meantime, a beautiful woman from the tribe of Khath'am came,
asking the verdict of Allah's Apostle. Al-Fadl started looking at her as her beauty attracted him. The Prophet
looked back while Al-Fadl was looking at her; so the Prophet held out his hand backwards and caught the chin of
Al-Fadl and turned his face to the other side in order that he should not gaze at her. She said, "O Allah's Apostle!
The obligation of performing hajj enjoined by Allah on His worshipers has become due (compulsory) on my
father, who is an old man and who cannot sit firmly on the riding animal. Will it be sufficient that I perform hajj
on his behalf?". He said, "Yes".
k

The incident described in this hadith took place in Dhu’l-Hijja of 10 A.H. during the Farewell Hajj of the
Prophet. In other words this incident took place long after both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah
31 had been revealed. The hadith gives a final verdict.

It is agreed that woman are not permitted to wear niqab when they are in ihram, as the Prophet stated this. One
wonders why he would have done this if niqab were fard. According to those who say that niqab is fard, a
woman must still draw fabric over her face whenever non-mahrem men are nearby so that she remains veiled.

The Hadith of Al-Bukhari tells us how a beautifull women during the farewell Hajj asked the Prophet a question.
Al-Fadl the cousin of the Prophet started looking at the women as her beauty attracted him. How could Al Fadl
know that the woman was beautifull ? In other words her face was clearly uncoverd in front of the Prophet and
his cousin, neither of whom is mahram for her. So if niqab was really fard, then clearly the woman would have
wear a faceveil in front of the prophet and his cousin, but she didn’t ! Moreover the Prophet did not tell that
woman to wear a niqab. All he did was turn Fadl's head away to stop him from staring. Had it been obligatory,
he would have told her. This is a clear daleel that it is halal for a woman to uncover her face !

Perhaps the clearest report which tells us how women used to go out in public at the time of the Prophet is one
related by sahih Muslim of an event that took place after the Prophet's farewell pilgrimage.
k
k

Another tradition in Sahih Muslim states:

Subay’ah al-Aslamiyyah was married to Sa’d b. Khawlah and he was one of those who were present at the battle
of Badr. He died during the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage, leaving her pregnant. Sometime after the death of
her husband, she delivered a child. When she became clean, she adorned herself to seek remarriage. Aba Sanabil
Ba’kak of the family of Abd al-Dar passed by her and said to her: “Perhaps you intend to remarry as I see you
fully adorned. By God, you cannot marry unless four months elapse on the death of your husband. “ Subay’ah
narrated: “On hearing this, I gathered upon me my clothes in the evening and came to the Prophet to ask him
about this matter, and he told me that my `iddah had ended when I gave birth to my child, and said that I could
get married if I wished."

Source:

See Fath al-Bari, 7/310, Kitab al-maghazi, bab istifta' Subay'ah bint al-Harith al-Aslamiyyah; Sahih Muslim,
10/110, Kitab al-talaq, bab inqida' 'iddah al-mutawafa 'anha zawjuha wa ghayruha.
k
Like i said before this incident took place after the Prophet's farewell pilgrimage. In other words this incident
took place long after both Surah al-Ahzab ayah 59 and Surah an-Nur ayah 31 had been revealed. Therefor the
hadith gives a final verdict. It is clear here that Subay’ah was not putting on a veil and her face was uncovered as
otherwise she could not have been recognised. We see here how Aba Sanabil Ba’kak noticed that Subay’ah was
fully adorned, or in other words was waering make-up on her face and hands. It is also clear that this uncovering
of the face was not occasioned by her desire to remarry but it must have been her normal practise, as otherwise
Aba Sanabil Ba’kak could not have identified her. It also clear that Subay’ah did not go to the Prophet in the
evening without putting on her full dress as she says, “I gathered upon me my clothes, “ which points out to the
use of jilbabs ( see also page 2 and 3 ). All this shows that women during the period of early Islam were not as
closely confined to their homes as those of the Muslim middle classes nowadays (in some places ) and that they
enjoyed a fair amount of freedom of movement.

Silsilat al-Ahadith as-Sahih Nr. 3472.

Ibn Abbas said: A beautiful woman, from among the most beautiful of women, used to pray behind the Prophet.
Som of the people used to go to pray in the first row to ensure they would not be able to see her. Others would
pray in the last row of the men, and they would look from underneath their armpits to see her. Because of this
act, in regard to her, Allah revealed, "Verily We know the eager among you to be first, and verily We know the
eager among you to be behind" ( Surah al-Hijr ayah 24 )
k

This hadith is found in ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, Tayalisi, Baihaqi, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, and Nasai and it is judged
sahih by Albani. In this hadith we clearly see that the woman’s face was uncovered. Why did Allah swt not
reveal a command for niqab, if niqab is fard to prevent such situations ? Instead, the Prophet merely admonished
the men, who are commanded to lower their gazes in Surah an-Nur ayah 30 and were not doing so. Morever this
authentic hadith clearly shows us that a women’s face and hands are not awrah.

One of the great Hanafi text books is “Bad’ al-Sana ‘i fi Tartib al-Shar ‘i ( “The best structural origin in the
arrangement of the Shari ‘ah” ) by al-Kasani, who was nicknamed the “King of the Scholars”. In volume 5 of
this work ( Kitab al-Istihsan, also known as “The forbidden and the Permitted”, which precedes the book of
sales ) , he discussed the question of ‘awrah in detail.

al-Kasani writes:

It is forbidden to look at the entire body of a strange women, with the exception of the face and the hands. Allah
Most High said: “say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze…( Surah Al-Nur , 24:30 ). But the
places of the apparent adornments which are the face and the two hands were exempted by the phrase “except
what ( must ordinarily ) appear thereof”. What is meant by the “adornment” is the site of the adornment. The site
of the apparent adornments are the face and the hands. When buying and selling, or taking and giving, the
woman usually needs to uncover her face and palm, so she is alllowed to keep them uncovered. Abu Hanifa is
reported to have allowed the uncovering of the feet too, as is reported by Imam al-Hasan.

Source:

Bad’ al-Sana ‘i fi Tartib al-Shar ‘i , volume 5. See also: “Hibab or Niqab” by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh with an
introduction by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, Page 94
k
He wrote:

Because of this very degrading classification of women as ‘awrah which makes them dangerous to men,
Muhammad condemned any female for putting on perfume:

Narrated AbuMusa: Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: Every eye is lustful and when a woman
applies perfume and then goes about in an assembly, she is like such and such, i.e. an adulteress. - Transmitted
by Tirmidhi and AbuDawud and Nasa’i transmitted something similar. (Al-Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 330)

Response:

Here we clearly see that the christian missionary doesn’t know what he’s talking about. Here again he proofs that
he has a great lack of islamic knowledge. Awrah is an Islamic term which refers to everything that should remain
private of one’s body, and therefor must be covered at all times. Like shayk gibril fouad haddad explained: “The
correct definition of `awra, a word applied to both men and women, is “private parts”.

Why must women cover their awrah ? The answer is because it protects women from depraved men and harm. It
protects her from harassment, which are concerns only outdoors and in public.The chrsitian missionary moreover
proofs that he cannot read and understand the quran, since the quran clearly says that the covering of the ‘awrah
is to protect women from harassment and depraved men, not because women are dangerous ! This has been
made clear in one of the ayahs about hijab:

Surah Al-Ahzaab 33 ayah 59

O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round
them (when they go abroad). That will be better, so that they may be recognised and not annoyed. Allah is ever
Forgiving, Merciful.
k

So the christian missionary calls the term ‘awrah which refers to everything that should remain private of one’s
body ( for women to protect them from harassment, and to hide their private parts, and therefor keeping their
honor ) a degrading classification. In other words the christian missionary Sham Shamoun calls it a degrading
classification for people when god tells them not to show their private parts, and to cover themselves and be
modest. Moreover the fact that islam protects a woman’s beauty and honor, and doesn’t allow strangers to look
at her private parts, is according to him something degrading especially since it protects them for harrasment. It’s
obvious that the christian missionary doesn’t know what he says. He wants to play the big guy by playing with
islamic terms like ‘awrah, while he hardly doesn’t know it’s correct meaning. Moreover he doesn’t know the
purpose of covering one’s ‘awrah. It should be clear now to anyone that the christian missionary Sham Shamoun
can’t be taken serious in debate or discussion.
Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and Al-Tirmidhi:

The Prophet said: "A man should not look at the awrah of another man, nor a woman of a woman, nor should a
man go under one cloth with another man, nor a woman with another woman"
k

It looks like the christian missionary isn’t even aware of the fact that men in islam too have ‘awrah, which the
above hadith shows us. In others words men too have private parts that need to be covered when going into
public etc. For the man, the 'awrah is defined as the area between the navel and the knees. Difference exists,
however, among jurists whether the knees and the thighs should be included in the definition of the man's 'awrah.
For a good discussion on the evidence related to both views, see Sayyid Sabiq's Fiqh-us- Sunnah, vol. 1, pp. 125-
127.

As for the hadith quoted by the christian missionary about women wearing perfum in public, it applies to those
women who perfume themselves with a strong scent to attract the attention of strange men in public. This
behaviour could lead to fornication and adultery, especially since it doesn’t take much for a woman to attract the
attention of men (wearing a strong scent would definately attract the attention of a lot of men, and would also
contradict the purpose of the hijab, to protect women from strange men and harassment). Therefor the prophet
said that a woman who perfumed herself to attract the attention of men in public is like an adulteress, since this
behaviour could lead or open the doors to adultery. However women can wear a nice strong scent for their own
husband at home and/ or when she visits her family etc. As long as there are no non-mahrem men around her,
she can wear perfume with a strong scent. When she goes out she should not wear perfume with a strong scent,
but things like deodorant and creams that have a light scent. It’s sunnah and important for both muslim men and
women not to smell bad. We have to be clean and fresh.

Sheikh faraz rabbani comments:

It is permitted to apply kohl and oil ( and other cosmetics a ), without dislike, when fasting. [ al-Fatawa al-
Hindiyya; Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar ] Perfume has the same rulings when fasting.

However, it is not permitted for women to go out wearing perfume, because the Messenger of Allah firmly
forbade it in rigorously authenticated hadiths. Deodorant and creams that have a light scent -- such that it isn't
obviously discernable to others unless they get really close -- are permitted; however, women should avoid
16
heavily scented personal care products.
k

Another Muslim scholar comments on the issue if it is allowed for women to wear perfume in public.
k
k

ZainabAl-Alwani comments:

The perfume whose smell is hidden and only the person can feel, not others, is permissible. The prohibition is for
17
wearing perfume that attracts others.
k
So women can clearly use personal care products, deodorants, cremes and perfumes that have a light scent –
such that it isn't obviously discernable to others unless they get really close. These products are allowed for
women to use when they go into pubic, like Shayk Faraz Rabbani explained in his fatwa. I also recommend the
reader to read the next article, which moreover again proofs how christianity degrades women and not islam:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/bassam_zawadi/womens_veil.htm
Sources:

1:

http://www.islamicweb.com/beliefs/women/albani_niqab.htm

2:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-
Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503545454

3:

http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=1915&CATE=143

4:

http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=1985&CATE=137

5:

From his tafsir of Surah an-Nur ayah 31, this is in Volume 18, pages 118-119 of Jami Bayan Ta'wil al-Qur'an

6:

From his tafsir of Surah an-Nur ayah 31

7:

From his tafsir of Surah an-Nur ayah 31

8:

From his tafsir of Surah an-Nur ayah 31

9:

He wrote this in his book ‘Al-Umm’

10:

Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa Nihayat al-Muqtasid


11:

Bidayat al-Mujtahid

12:

He wrote this in his fiqh guide al-Mughni

13:

Hibab or Niqab by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh with an introduction by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, page 79 & 80

14:

Hibab or Niqab by Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh with an introduction by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, page 80 & 81

15:

http://www.livingislam.org/n/wmnc_e.htm

16:

http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=6367&CATE=6

17:

http://www.islamonline.net/livefatwa/english/Browse.asp?hGuestID=R17I12
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

In this section we will look at quotations from some additional Muslim sources that further degrade women,
particularly sources that cite the views of scholars on some of the passages which were mentioned previously.
We begin with the views of Ali ibn Abu Thalib, the fourth Muslim caliph who was both Muhammad's first
cousin and his son-in-law. These comments are believed to be taken from some of his lectures that were then
compiled together. Ali said regarding women:

O' ye peoples! Women are deficient in Faith, deficient in shares and deficient in intelligence. As regards the
deficiency in their Faith, it is their abstention from prayers and fasting during their menstrual period. As regards
deficiency in their intelligence it is because the evidence of two women equal to that of one man. As for the
deficiency of their shares it is because of their inheritance being half of men. So beware of the evils of women.
Be on your guard even from those who are (reportedly) good. Do not obey them EVEN IN GOOD THINGS so
that they may not attract you to devils. (Nahjul Balagha-Peak of Eloquence, translated by Syed Ali Reza, p. 204)

Response:

You should have said: “in this section i will continue in quoting lies, in-authentic sources, and the view of some
extremists”. Nahjul Balagha is a complete unreliable in-authentic source, which is only used by the shia
muslims. It’s a well known fact around sunni scholars that this book is in-authentic and contains a lot of
forgeries. So these words quoted by sham shamoun are in-authentic and can already never be trust. Imam
Dhahabi makes this clear in his Mizan Al I'tidal. He says regarding its compiler Sharif Murtada:
k k
k

‫ ةغالبلا ج=ن باتك عضوب م=تملا و=و‬، ‫ مولعلا يف ةيوق ةكراشم =لو‬، ‫ريمأ ىلع بوذكم =نأب مزج ةغالبلا ج=ن =باتك علاط نمو‬
‫=نع =للا ىضر ىلع نينمؤملا‬

- He is the one blamed for forging the book Nahj al-Balagha.


k

Similarly, in his Siyar A`lam al Nubala' as Shaikh Gibril states Imam Dhahabi states:

‫ ىضترملا‬: ‫ادي‬XYZ[‫`_ ا[^\]\ي ا‬abc[‫\ي ا‬de[‫_ ا‬fgh[‫ ا‬، i]\j kl kabm kl _dn ، o[pq \l‫ أ‬، rs\de[‫ ا‬oaht ، iuvg^[‫ ا‬wsgx[‫ ا‬rjّze[‫ا‬. i]\j X[ُ‫ و‬kj
‫مظاكلا‬. ‫ ةنس دلو‬355 ، \mXّ€ t : ‫ام=ريغو ينابزرملا =للادـبع يبأو يجابيدلا دمحأ نب ل=س‬. ‫ بيطخلا لاق‬: ‫=نع تبتك‬. ‫ تلق‬: =‫ و‬jp…
، p†l ‡ˆ`[‫ ا‬kj ‫م‬pj‰‫ ا‬pfpm ‫ت‬pn\Š\j ‹aŒ k[‫ و‬، ‡
ّ m ‹aŒ‫Ž و‬qpl p†uel‫ [[ و‬Xatp]‫ و‘ أ‬، ‹`n ’‫_ رŠ_ ا‬
ّ dn ‫م‬pj‰‫ ا‬i[‫”‹ إ‬p•[‫ أ‬rl\b`^[‫ ا‬r–zZ[‫†— ا‬t ‫ب‬p˜‫آ‬
Žaš‫؟ و‬wœ`^[‫ ا‬ks‫ْ أ‬k[‫و‬: ‫يضرلا فيرشلا =يخأ عمج لب‬

- Al Murtada Abu Talib Ali ibn Husayn ibn Musa Al Musawi (355-436) is the compiler of the book 'Nahj
al Balagha' the words of which are attributed to Imam Ali - Allah be well-pleased with him - and no
chains of transmissions exist for such an attribution. Some of it is falsehood and it contains some truth,
however, there are in it forgeries of which the Imam is completely innocent and never said - but where is
he that judges fairly? It is also said that his brother is the compiler, al-Sharif al-Radiy. Al-Murtada's
diwan (of poetry) is large.... in four volumes.
k
Imam Yusuf al-Nabahani , the Sufi scholar, strongly warned Sunnis against reading this work. The sermons have
alot of forgeries and therefor a lot of scholars warned Sunnis from reading this book. It directly attacks al-
Shaykhan (Abu Bakr and `Umar radi Allahu `Anhum) and Mu`awiyah (radi Allahu `Anhu) ! Which is reason
enough to avoid.

Also we clearly see that there are no chains of transmissions tracing back to Imam Ali, so it’s absurd to claim
that Imam Ali said such things as quoted by sham shamoun. Moreover the saying ‘not to obey women, even in
good things’ contradicts the sunnah of our beloved prophet, peace be upon him, who followed (obeyed) his wife
Umm Salama in her advise:

k K

Umm Salama:

Umm Salama , one of the Prophet’s wives, was instrumental in advising the Prophet during the crisis at
Hudaybiya in 628.A.D. (6.A.H.). Her advice prevented disunity among the Muslims after the Treaty of
Hudaybiya and her opinion prevailed over that of many men, including Umar ibn al-Khattab. Umm Salama was
also an inquisitive student of Islam.

Kk
Source:

Muhammad al-Ghazali, Fiqh al-Sira, Alim al-Marifa, p. 363 , al-Tabari, Tafsir, vol. 22, p. 10
k k

Also allah swt tells us in the quran that: k


k

Qu’ran 9:71

The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil:
they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah
pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.
k

So allah gave women too the right to forbid men evil, and to command/enjoin them good. What would have been
the use of this quranic command, if men should not obey women ‘in good things’. This clearly contradcits the
meaning of the quranic ayah, which gives women the right to command men the good and to forbid them the
evil. Vice versa the same. Therefor we can clearly see that the story quoted by sham shamoun is a forgery
attributed to Imam Ali.

Abu Yusuf [d. 183] records in “ al-Radd ‘ala Siyar al-Awza’i “ :

The Prophet said: The hadith about me will spread. So what comes to you about me and is in agreement with the
Qu’ran is from me and what comes to you about me and in is in conflict with the Qur’an is not from me.
k
Abu Yusuf [d. 183] the famous companion of imam Abu Hanifa accepted this hadith as authentic. Here we see
that the Prophet warned the Ummah against the lies which would be attributed to him after his death. To know
which story / hadith about the prophet is true, we have to compare it with the qu’ran. The qu’ran is the greatest
gift Allah has given us, it protects the truth ! Same case is with Imam Ali, anyone with common sense knows
that this hadith of the Prophet can also be applied to the sahaba. After their death people for politcal reasons or
whatsoever attributed stories / hadith to them too. To know wich storiy and hadith are true, we have to compare
them with the qur’an, like the Prophet told us to do. It’s clear that the sermon attributed to Imam Ali in the
quotation of sham shamoun is a clear forgery, since it contradicts the qur’an and the authentic sunnah of our
Prophet. Imam Ali the beloved son-in-law of our Prophet Muhammed would have never contradict and reject the
authentic sunnah and the qur’an ! The chainless story / hadith quoted by the christian missionary can therefor be
put in the trashcan.

He wrote:

The translator's note states:

1. Amir al-mu'minun gave this sermon after the devastation created by the Battle of Jamal. Since the devastation
resulting from this battle was the out-come of blindly following a woman's command, in this sermon he has
described women's physical defects and their causes and effects. Thus their first weakness is that for a few days
in every month they have to abstain from prayer and fasting, and this abstention from worship is a proof of their
deficiency in Faith. Although the real meaning of 'Iman (belief) is heart-felt testification and inner conviction yet
metaphorically it also applies to action and character. Since actions are the reflection of Belief they are also
regarded as part of Belief. Thus, it is related from Imam 'Ali ibn Musa ar Rida (p.b.u.t.) that: 'Iman (belief) is
testification at heart, admission by the tongue and action by the limbs

Response:

Actually this whole commentary can be avoided, since i have showed in my previous response that we are
dealing with a forgery here, however for the sake of argument we will reply to this commentary quoted by sham
shamoun. As for the part that women cannot pray during menstruation, k
k
k

Sheikh Salman al-Oadah comments:

These are matters of Islamic Law. A woman is neither sinful nor blameworthy because of the prayers and fasts
that she misses. She, in fact, receives blessings by obeying Allah and abstaining from those acts while she is
menstruating. 1
k

K
Secondly during menstruation a women can perform other forms of worship, like reading islamic books, giving
charity, and just being a ‘mother’ for wich she receives a lot of blessings. So we can’t litery say that women are
defficient in religion just because they cannot pray and/or fast during menstruation, since women can perform
worhsip in many other ways. Morever obeying Allah by abstaining from thoes acts while she is menstruating is
part of her religion, she receives blessings for it. Receiving blessings from Allah swt can strenght one’s imaan /
belief etc. Moreover let us take a look at the next hadith, which refutes the claim “that women are defficient in
religion”completely:
Narrated by Imam Ahmad in his “Musnad” :
k
The Prophet said: “Take care of your home for that is your Jihad.”
kk

Jihad is the epitome of Islamic life. Declaring home-making as Jihad for women is giving it the highest possible
status in an Islamic society. We all know the extreme high reward Allah swt gives someone for performing
Jihad. Women are given this sort of reward for taking care of their home. Which means that women during their
menstrual period can receive one of the highests rewards of Allah swt by home-making. So this hadith proofs
that women cannot be litery viewed as defficient in religion due to their menstrual period, which certaily cannot
be called as a defect, since menstruation is part of the menstrual cycle, which helps a woman's body prepare for
the possibility of pregnancy each month, which is a blessing and miracle of Allah swt !

He wrote:

The second weakness is that their natural propensities do not admit of full performance of their intelligence.
Therefore, nature has given them the power of intelligence only in accordance with the scope of their activities
which can guide them in pregnancy, delivery, child nursing, child care and house-hold affair. On the basis of this
weakness of mind and intelligence their evidence has not been accorded the status of man's evidence, as Allah
says:

… then call to witness from among your men and if there not be two men then (take) a man and two women, of
those ye approve of the witnesses, so that should be one of the two (women) forget the (second) one of the two
may remind the other… (Qur'an, 2:282)

Sheikh Salman al-Oadah comments:


k

“Her testimony as a witness is half that of men only in matters wherein she is generally less versed than men. In
other matters wherein women have particular knowledge, like fosterage and virginity, the testimony of a woman
is accepted but not that of a man.” 2
k k

Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood comments:

It has been suggested that the Prophet,peace be upon him, regarded women as inferior to men for two reasons -
the inheritance laws in which a daughter received half the share of a son; and the fact that two female witnesses
were regarded as the equal of one male witness.

In fact, the Qur’an actually taught that the witness of a woman was just as valid as that of a man, and made no
distinction regarding the sex of a witness in every single reference except one – the concession of granting two
female witnesses in legal cases where women had little knowledge or expertise. The intention of this concession
was to prevent women being tricked or cheated by unscrupulous men who could take advantage of their
inexperience in business matters.
k

Qu’ran 2.282:

O believers ! When you deal with each other in lending for a fixed period of time, put it in writing. Let a scribe
write everything down with justice between the parties. The scribe, who has been given the gift of literacy by
Allah, should not refuse to write; he is under obligation to write. Let the debtor dictate, fearing the Almighty, his
Lord, and not diminishing anything from the settlement. If the borrower is mentally unsound or weak or is
unable to dictate himself, let the guardian of his interests dictate for him with justice. Let two witnesses from
among you bear witness to all such documents, if two men cannot be found, then one man and two women of
your choice should bear witness, so that if one of the women forgets anything the other may remind her.
Witnesses must not refuse (to bear witness) when they are called upon to do so. K
k

In every other kind of case, there was no reason why the witness of a woman should not be just as reliable as
evidence as that of a man, and no distinction of either sex was made or necessary. For example:
k
k

Qu’ran 24:4

Those who accuse a chaste woman of fornication and do not produce four witnesses to support their allegation,
shall be flogged with eighty lashes and their testimony shall not be accepted ever after, for they are the ones who
are wicked transgressors
k k

The text implies any four witnesses, who could be of either sex. In societies where it is insisted that the witnesses
should all be male, this is really a cultural gloss on the rule, since any text in the Arabic masculine plural
grammatically includes both men and women, unless specifically stated otherwise. Assumptions that women’s
evidence would be unreliable because of the inferiority of women in intellectual capacity, memory, or character
stem from a patriarchal perspective in a male-dominated community which tried to limit the appearance of their
women in public. The Qur’an does not bear this attitude and established the equality of men and women before
Allah. The restrictions against public appearance are a nonsense in this century, when the medical evidence of
the rape could be presented by a woman doctor to a female litigator in front of a female jurist! It is certainly a
travesty of justice to deny a victim of rape the right to testify to this violent attack merely because she is a
woman. 3

Muhammad Asad in "The Message of the Qur’an" writes:

The stipulation that two women may be substituted for one male witness does not imply “any reflection on
woman's moral or intellectual capabilities: it is obviously due to the “fact that, as a rule, women are less familiar
with business procedures than men and, therefore, more liable to commit mistakes in this respect 4
k
Sheikh Shaltut writes:

There is a stronger proof for equality in the Qur'an's statement that the woman is just like the man in the type of
testimony known as the oath of condemnation [Translator’s note: An oath in which either the husband or the
wife accuses his or her partner of adultery and the only witness is one of them.]

"And as for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves, let the testimony of one of
them be four testimonies (i.e. testifies four times) by Allah that he be one of those who speak the truth. And the
fifth (testimony) (should be) invoking the Curse of Allah on him if he be one of those who tell a lie (against her).
But it shall avert the punishment (of stoning to death) from her, if she bears witness four times by Allah, that he
(her husband) is telling a lie. And the fifth (testimony) should be that the Wrath of Allah be upon her if (her
husband) speaks the truth". [ Surah 24:6- 9]

That is, four repetitions of the oath or testimony by the man concluded by an invocation of his damnation by
Allah if he is lying, countered by and invalidated by four repetitions of the woman's counter statement, also
followed by an invocation of Allah's wrath upon her if she is lying.

Source:

Islamic Beliefs and Code of Laws, Sheikh Shalt, p.111 – 112


k

The scholars of ourdialogue.com comment on the soerah:

This is in business transactions only. It does imply that, as a rule, women are less familiar with business
procedures than men and, therefore, more liable to commit mistakes in this respect. Besides, there are certain
cases when only women witnesses are acceptable, and one woman witness is sufficient to prove her case. 5
k

Read also:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/women_not_deficient_in_intelligence_and_religion.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/why_two_women_witnesses.htm

He wrote:

The third weakness is that their share in inheritance is half of man's share in inheritance as the Qur'an says:
“Allah enjoineth you about your children. The male shall have the equal of the shares of two females…” (4:11)

This shows woman’s weakness because the reason for her share in inheritance being half is that the liability of
her maintenance rests on man. When man's position is that of a maintenance and care taker the status of the
weaker sex who is need of maintenance and care-taking is evident.
Response:

The late Sayyid Qutb in his priceless work "In the Shade of the Qur'an" explains soerah 4:34 , which says that
men are the protectors and maintakers of women, to which the commentator quoted by the christian missionary
refers to. Sayyid Qutb comments:
k
k

“In the Shade of the Qu’ran” , commentary Soerah 4:34

"The family is the first institution in human life, in the sense that its effect is felt in every stage of human life. It
is within the family that man, the most noble of all creatures, according to the Islamic concept of life, is brought
up. The running and administration of much inferior institutions, such as those engaged in financial, industrial
and commercial affairs, is normally assigned to those who are most qualified for the job by their education,
training and natural abilities. It is only logical that the same rule be applied to the family, the institution which
looks after the upbringing of the most noble creature in the universe, namely, man.

"The divine code of living takes him and his nature in consideration, as well as the natural abilities given to both
man and woman to enable them to discharge the duties assigned to each of them. It maintains justice in the
distribution of duties, giving to each of them only the type of duties to which they are suited. It is needless to say
that both man and woman are the creation of Allah who does not wish to do injustice to anyone He has created.
Indeed He gives each of His creations the abilities and talents which befit the duties assigned to him or her.

"Allah has created human beings as males and females, following the "dual" role which is central to the system
of creation. He has given the woman the great tasks of child-bearing, breast-feeding and looking after her
children. These are not tasks of the type which may be fulfilled without careful preparation, physically,
psychologically and mentally. It is only just, therefore, that the other part, i.e. man, should be assigned the task
of providing the essential needs and the protection required for the woman to fulfill her highly important duties.
She could not be given all those tasks and be still required to work in order to earn her living and to look after
her children at the same time. It is only fair as well that man should be given the physical, mental and
psychological qualities which enable him to fulfill his duties in the same way as the woman is given the abilities
to help her fulfill her duties. All this is part of the reality of human life, because Allah maintains absolute justice
among all. 6
k

This verse, Soerah 4:34 intends to establish a responsibility of men for the protection and maintenance of women
in a restricted social context. Biologically, only women can bear the future generations of Muslims. The Qur’an
creates a harmonious balance in society by establishing a functional responsibility for males to facilitate this
biological function of females. So we clearly see that the role of men to be protector and caretaker of women has
nothing to do with superiority or anything like that. The fact that men are maintakers, caretakers and protector of
women does not give men inherent superiority or authority over women. It establishes mutual responsibility in
society. Responsibility is not superiority. As for the misconception about inheritence in islam, read:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/inheritance.htm
http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/Q_WI/misconception.htm#Inheritance
He wrote:

After describing their natural weakness as Amir al-mu'minin points out the mischiefs of blindly following them
and wrongly obeying them. He says that not to say of bad things but even if they say in regard to some good
things it should not be done in a way that these should feel as if it is being done in pursuance of their wish, but
rather in a way that they should realize that the good act has been performed because of its being good and that
their pleasure or wish has nothing to do with it. If they have even the doubt that their pleasures has been kept in
view in it they would slowly increase in their demands and would wish that they should be obeyed in all matters
however evil, the inevitable consequence whereof will be destruction and ruin. Ash-Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh
writes about this view of Amir al-muminin as under:

Amir al-muminin has said a thing which is corroborated by experiences of centuries. (Ibid., pp. 204-205)

K
Response:

This commentary is redicilous, it should be clear that every advise, wether it comes from a man or a woman is
followed because of it’s goodness. If a wife gives her husband a good advise, then he should follow it and thank
her for it, and praise her. This makes her happy and is also the sunnah of our beloved prophet muhammed. Due
to the importance for husbands to follow the sunnah of our beloved prophet in marriage, Sheikh Mohammad
Abdelhaleem Hamed has written a book called ‘how to make your wife happy’. In his book he writes about
consultation in marriage: l
k
k

Sheikh Mohammad Abdelhaleem Hamed writes:

Consultation ( Shurah )

1: specifically in family matters.


2: giving her the feeling that her opinion is important to you.
3: studying her opinion carefully.
4: be willing to change an opinion for hers if it is better.
5: thanking her for helping him with her opinions. 7
k

This clearly refutes the commentary quoted by the christian missionary. Men must give their wifes the feeling
that her opinion is important to him, this would honor her and make her happy, which is in perfect harmony with
the next hadith, the prophet said: “ The most perfect of the believers in their belief are those with the best
manners, and the best of you are those who are best with their wives “, the hadith can be found in Al-Tirmidhi
and is sahih.

Man's treatment of his wife is a measure of the perfection of his faith. It’s obvious that pleasing one’s wife and
praising her good advises are part of this perfect behaviour and the sunnah of our Prophet. Also the quran
commands men to live ‘honorably’ with their wifes, which certainly is not the case when a man would never do
something in accordance to the wish of his wife, to make her happy and out of respect for her. Marriage in islam
is based on mutual love and respect, see soerah 30:21 & 4:19. Each partner must do his best to fullfill the wishes
of the other, since this creates a harmony of love, mercy and happiness in marriage, which is important in islam.
Sheikh Abdullah Adhami comments:

Always try your best to be good to your wife by words and by deeds. Talk to her, smile to her, seek her advice,
ask for her opinion, spend quality time with her and always remember that the Prophet Salallaahu 'alaiahi
wa'sallaam said "the best of you are those who are best to their wives"

Finally, it is common that spouses vow to love and honor their spouses until death do them part. I do believe that
this vow is good or even great, but not enough! It is not enough that you love your wife. You have to love what
she loves as well. Her family, her loved ones must also become your loved ones. Don't be like my colleague who
was unhappy about his wife's parents coming to visit for few weeks. He candidly said to her "I don't like your
parents" Naturally she angrily looked at him straight in the eye and said " I don't like yours either"...

Also, it is not enough that you love her until death do you part. Love should never end and we do believe there is
life after death where those who did righteousness in this world will be joined by their spouses (Surah Al
Zukhruf 43:70) and offsprings. 8
k

Sahih Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 62, Number 117:

Narrated Aisha:

Eleven women sat (at a place) and promised and contracted that they would not conceal anything of the news of
their husbands. ….

The eleventh one said, "My husband is Abu Zar and what is Abu Zar (i.e., what should I say about him)? He has
given me many ornaments and my ears are heavily loaded with them and my arms have become fat (i.e., I have
become fat). And he has pleased me, and I have become so happy that I feel proud of myself. He found me with
my family who were mere owners of sheep and living in poverty, and brought me to a respected family having
horses and camels and threshing and purifying grain . Whatever I say, he does not rebuke or insult me. When I
sleep, I sleep till late in the morning, and when I drink water (or milk), I drink my fill. ……………….

Aisha then said: Allah's Apostle said to me, "I am to you as Abu Zar was to his wife Um Zar." .
k

Here again we see that it is sunnah to make ones wife happy, by also fullfilling her wishes and pleasing her, just
like Abu Zar did with his wife by buying her beautifull ornaments for example and making her feel proud of
herself, by respecting her etc.
Ustadha Zaynab Ansari comments:

Furthermore, a man's leadership is supposed to be characterized by wisdom and compassion. The Prophet, peace
be upon him, said, "Allah will ask every caretaker (ra'iy) about the people under his care, and the man will be
asked concerning the people of his household." (Ahmad, Nisai and Abu Dawud). So, according to the words of
the Noble Prophet, the man is the caretaker of the household. What does caretaking imply? It implies loving
concern. I have also heard scholars say that the woman is the queen of her household, meaning that it is not
necessary for the husband to control every aspect of the household.

What husbands and wives should do is strike a balance in terms of qawamah and shura, or leadership and
partnership. There are certain matters where the husband should get the ultimate say. There are certain matters
where the wife should get the final say. It is up to the couple to determine which issues they feel they should
have the final say in, and which issues are the province of the other spouse. 9
k

Islam also emphasizes the importance of taking counsel and mutual agreement in family decisions. The Qur'an
gives us an example: k
k
k

Qu’ran 2:233

"...If they (husband wife) desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, there is no blame
on them..." k
k

In another Passage the Quran makes clear that believers run their affairs by mutual consultation, this means that
a marriage relationship in islam is also based on mutual consultation:

Qu’ran 42:38

Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish reglar prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation;
who spend out of what We bestow on them for sustenance; Volume 8, Book 73, Number Volume 8, Book 73,
Number

Shayk Abdullah Yusuf Ali in his qu’ran commentary on the next page, perfectly explains the meaning of this
Surah. He proofs moreover again that marriage in islam based on mutual consultation. Let’s take a look at the
commentary given by Shayk Abdullah Yusuf Ali on the next page:
Shayk Abdullah Yusuf Ali comments:

We have the following further qualities in those who wish to serve Allah. They are ready at all times to hearken
to Allah’s Signs, or to listen to the admonitions of the prophets of Allah, and to follow the true Path, as they
understand it: they keep personal contact with Allah, by habits of Praying and Praise; their conduct in life is open
and detemined by mutual Consultation between those who are entitled to a voice, e.g. , in private domestic
affairs, as between husband and wife, or other responsible members of the household: in affairs of business, as
between partners or parties interested: and in State affairs, as between ruler and ruled, or as between different
departments of administration, to reserve the unity of administration. Volume 8, Book 73, Number 65: Narrated

Source:

The meaning of The Holy Qur’an” Abdullah Yusuf Ali , Page 1257, Al Shura, Note 4578 The meaning of
The Holy Qur’an” Abdullah Yusuf Ali , Page 1257, Al Shura, Note 4578:

The Prophet and the Sahaba gave us perfect examples of this behaviour:

k K

Consulation in islam:

Umm Salama , one of the Prophet’s wives, was instrumental in advising the Prophet during the crisis at
Hudaybiya in 628.A.D. (6.A.H.). Her advice prevented disunity among the Muslims after the Treaty of
Hudaybiya and her opinion prevailed over that of many men, including Umar ibn al-Khattab. Umm Salama was
also an inquisitive student of Islam.

Kk
Source:

Muhammad al-Ghazali, Fiqh al-Sira, Alim al-Marifa, p. 363 , al-Tabari, Tafsir, vol. 22, p. 10
k k

Consultation in Islam:

Hasan Basir said, 'The Prophet used to consult people, including women, and sometimes he adopted the opinion
of women'

Source:

Uyun al Akhbar IIbn Qutaibah, Vol 1 p 27 Volume 8, Book 73, Number 65: Narrated Al-Aswad: Volume 8,
Book 73, Number 65: Narrated Al-Aswad:

k
Umar Ibn Khattab consulted women:

Ibn Sirin states that Umar consulted eminent people when faced with problems, including women of integrity.
Many times when he found an aspect of goodness and commendability in a woman's opinion, he adopted it.

Source:

Al Sunan al Kubra, Baihaqi, Vol 10 p 113


k

Umar Ibn Khattab consulted women:

Shifa was an intelligent woman, Umar put her opinion ahead in consultation and gave her preference over other's
opinions.

Source:

Al istiab fi Asma al AshabK


kk

Imam Ali followed adivce of women:

Caliph Ali took the advice from Umm Kulthum, who stopped him from acting incorrectly based on false
rumours about Abdullah ibn Umair Makhai.

Source:

Tarikh al Rusul wal Muluk, Tabari, Vol 5 p 164 Volume 8, Book 73, Number 65: Narrated Al-Aswad:
Volume 8, Book 73, Number 65: Narrated Al-Aswad:

Moreover the Prophet seved out of freewill his wifes at home:

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 65: Narrated Al-Aswad:

I asked 'Aisha what did the Prophet use to do at home. She replied. "He used to keep himself busy serving his
family and when it was time for the prayer, he would get up for prayer."
k
The prophet clearly never carried the view that his wifes would misuse or abuse his goodwill, he just served his
wifes, and did his best to make them happy. The sunnah clearly refutes the redicilous commentary quoted by the
christian missionary. The Prophet moreover told us that man's treatment of his wife is a measure of the
perfection of his faith:

Riyad as-Salihin, Chapter 34, Nr. 278

The Prophet said: “The most perfect of the believers in their belief are those with the best manners, and the best
of you are those who are best with their wives.”
k k

We clearly see that the qu’ran and authentic sunnah of our beloved Prophet Muhammad moreover proof that the
quotations from the book “Nahjul Balagha” are clear forgeries. The qu’ran and authentic sunnah of our beloved
Prophet also refutes the biased commentary quoted by the christian missionary. Marriage relationship in islam is
based on mutual consultation, love and mercy. Moreover in marriage we must follow the qu’ran and sunnah of
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.

The Prophet said; “God detests the ja'zari al jawwaz” , that is, one who is harsh toward his family and who is
arrogant

source:

Abu Bakr b. Lal related it in Makdrim al-Akhldq from the hadith of Abu Hurayrah. It is also stated in the two
Sahihs from the hadith of Jariyah b. Wahab al-Khazad and Abu Da'tid Moreover in marriage we must follow the
qu’ran and sunnah of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
Another response to a commonly quoted hadith attributed to Ali in Nahj Al Balagah:

Due to the importance of answering lies about islam, i’ve included this narration in my article, with a response
from Shayk Gibril to it. Here’s another narration supposedly from our liege lord 'Ali in Shi'a texts such as Nahj
Al Balagah:

al-mar'atu sharrun kulluhaa


wa-sharru maa fiyhaa
anna laa budda minhaa.

The woman is bad totally,


and the worst of her is
that you cannot do without her.

Shaykh Gibril stated:

The above sounds more like a Goliardic cliché. The Goliards were defrocked young priests or failed novices who
roamed the taverns of medieval Europe courting prostitutes with mostly bad Latin and vernacular poetry.

If ‘woman is totally bad and the worst part is that you can't do without her’ it would follow that men are even
more totally bad, since Allah Most High said that ‘He created from one soul its spouse’. Original sin and the evil
that is woman - the old Judeo-Christian construct.

More shining proofs that the above is a forgery are the sound Prophetic sayings: ‘Of your world, perfume and
women were made lovely to me’ and ‘Monachism (or celibacy) is not of Islam. He is not one of us who shuns
marriage’ and ‘The world is all a temporary possession and the best temporary possession in the world is a
righteous wife.’ Would `Ali deplore something which the Prophet, peace be puon him, himself declared lovely ?
or deprecate the Sunna of marriage as a necessary evil ? or gainsay the Prophet, peace beu pon him, in that the
best temporary possession in the world is actually all bad ? Never.

Furthermore, Fatima is one of those great women of Islam that rival even the Virgin Mary in rank (the others
being Khadija, Assia, and `A'isha) - and she was `Ali's wife. How then could he stoop to make such a comment,
being also the son-in-law of the Prophet, peace beu pon him, who said: ‘Whatever hurts Fatima, hurts me’ ?

If women are totally bad, then why does Allah Most High mention them so often as one of his most prized
rewards in Paradise ? And what Muslim would say that women are bad when mothers are the chief means by
which the Prophet, peace be upon him, shall pride himself of the abundance of this Umma before other
Communities on the Day of Resurrection (mutawatir) ?

No, `Ali - Allah be well-pleased with him - is exalted above saying such a cynical and impious remark. It truly
belongs to the medieval European literary genres of women-bashing, of which many clerical-minded scribblers
made a good living - but never from the mouth of `Ali. Nor is Nahj al-Balagha a reliable source for `Ali's
sayings in the least, nor is Khomayni an authority - reliable or otherwise - on verification methodology for
statements attributed to early Muslims!

Here is a more likely statement by `Ali about our time, eludicating the latter hadith: "There shall come a time
when people have energy only to fill their bellies; their pride will be in their possessions; their qibla will be their
women; their religion will be silver and gold. Those are the most evil of creatures, and they shall have no share
[of the Hereafter] in the sight of Allah." Narrated by al-Sulami as cited in Kashf al-Khafa and Kanz al-`Ummal.
Similarly, the Prophet, peace beu pon him, said that ‘Every Umma has a fitna, and the fitna of my Umma is al-
maal (money and property).’ At the same time, Money properly spent is actually the most important Pillar of
Islam after prayer and the Prophet, peace be upon him, exalted money spent to outfit armies or remit a dowry,
and he lavishly praised the rich man who thanks his Lord. Allah Most High listed horses among the pleasurable
pursuits of the world, along with money and women, and the Prophet, peace beu pon him, said: ‘Goodness is in
the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection.’ And the Prophet Sulayman, aleikom salaam, chose to ask
for knowledge but then was also given both women and property in abundance, meaning great goodness.... In all
this, women = goodness.

All this shows that `Ali - the Gate of the City of Wisdom - would never say such an obviously unwise, childish,
mindless cliché, even for bad poetry, as ‘woman is all bad.’
Sources:

1:

http://www.islamtoday.net/english/showme_weekly_2003.cfm?cat_id=30&sub_cat_id=524

2:

ibid

3:

http://members.aol.com/ruqaiyyah/articles/antifem.htm

4:

http://www.geocities.com/masad02/002c

5:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/e3.htm

6:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/m23.htm

7:

http://www.jannah.org/sisters/wifehappy.html

8:

http://beautifulislam.net/marriage/a_wife_p.html

9:

http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=4919&CATE=121
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

Al-Ghazali writes: Don’t sport with wife so much that her conduct is ruined and fear goes out of her mind, but
take to middle course. Don’t give up your duties and strike some sort of fear in her mind at the time of doing
evils. Hazrat Omar said: Act opposite to women as there is blessing in opposing them. Some one said: Take
advice from them but act to the contrary. The Prophet said: He who becomes a slave of women is ruined. He said
for this reason that if a husband acts according to the wishes of his wife, he becomes her slave and is thus ruined
as God has made him her master. The right of the husband is that the wife should follow him and the husband
should not follow her. God termed the husbands as the maintainers of women and husbands as masters. God
says: Both (Zulaikha and Joseph) found the master (husband) of Zulaikha near the door. Imam Shafeyi said: If
you honour three kinds of men, they will disgrace you and if you disgrace them, they will honour you -wife,
servant and Nabati. Evils and little intelligence are strong over them. The Prophet said: The example of a
religious woman among general women is that of a crow with white belly among one hundred crows. The wise
Luqman advised his son: O dear son, fear unchaste wife, as she will make you grow old before you grow old.
Fear the harms of women as they do not call towards good. Beware of unchaste women. The Prophet said: Seek
refuge to God from three calamities. An unchaste wife will make you old before you get old. In another
narration-If you go to her, she will rebuke you. If you don’t go to her, she will be treacherous to you. When the
Prophet fell seriously ill and could not come to the mosque for prayer, he said to Abu Bakr to lead the prayer,
Hazrat Ayesha said: The mind of my father is soft. When he will find your place vacant, he will be perturbed.
The Prophet said: When you prevent Abu Bakr to lead the prayer, you have swayed towards your low desires
being misguided from the right path. When the wives of the Prophet disclosed the secret talks of the Prophet,
God said: If both of you make repentance to God, he will unite your hearts. He said this regarding his good
wives. The Prophet said: No nation prospers over whom a woman rules. ( Ihya’ ‘Ulum-Ud-Din,V.II, pp. 32-33 )

Response:

On the next pages i will discuss the hadith to which the christian missionaries pay attention here in al-ghazali’s
work. Like always they misquote this work to mislead readers about the position of women in islam. First i want
to make clear that Imam Ghazali in the beginning of this quotation by the christian missionary talks about fear of
God. When a wife commits some evil, then the husband should do his best to let her fear god. In other words he
should make her consious of her evil in an islamic polite way. The same applies also to men. A wife should
make her husband also fear god, by pointing out his evil habits and proving him that it is a violation of allah’s
laws. This is one of the duties of couples in marriage. They must keep each other on the right path and god
fearing. All this must be done in the light of the sunnah, which means doing such things out of love , with respect
and politeness. Couples in marriage should always point out the mistakes and sins of each other in a polite
islamic way. This because the Prophet told us not to become angry at each other or furious, which proofs that we
always have to stay polite and calm, see:

Sahih Bukhari, Good Manners and Form, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 137

The Prophet said, ' Do not become angry and furious.' The man asked (the same) again and again, and the
Prophet said in each case, ' Do not become angry and furious.'
k

Moreover the Prophet said: “God detests the ja'zari al jawwaz” , that is, one who is harsh toward his family and
who is arrogant. Abu Bakr b. Lal related this hadith in “Makdrim al-Akhldq” from the hadith of Abu Hurayrah.
It is also stated in the two Sahihs from the hadith of Jariyah b. Wahab al-Khazad and Abu Da'tid. Therefor these
two hadith clearly shows us that a husband must never be harsh or angry towards his wife, he must always be
kind and correct her mistakes (if needed) in a polite islamic way, according to the sunnah of our Prophet !
1:
k

Strange Hadith:

Hazrat Omar said: Act opposite to women as there is blessing in opposing them. Some one said: Take advice
from them but act to the contrary k
k

K
Comment:

This hadith attributed to Umar is in-authentic, and no chains of transmission exist for this hadith. Moreover we
can see easily see that this hadith attributed to Umar a clear forgery is. Umar had a complete different attitude
towards women then the one mentioned in the hadith, which is false attributed to him. Further it should be noted
that the hadith false attributed to Umar Ibn Khattab contradicts the authentic sunnah of our beloved Prophet
Muhammad and the words of Allah swt in the glorious Qur’an. Shayk Yusuf al-Qaradawi in one of his writings
points this out:

Sheikh yusuf al-qaradawi writes:

The woman in Islamic law is equal to her male counterpart. She is as liable for her actions as a male is liable.
Her testimony is demanded and“valid in court. Her opinions are sought andacted upon. Contrary to the pseudo
hadith: "Consult women and do the opposite," the Prophet consulted his wife,Um Salama on one of the most
important issues to the Muslim community 1
k

Umm Salama:

Umm Salama, one of the Prophet’s wives, was instrumental in advising the Prophet during the crisis at
Hudaybiya in 628.A.D. Her advice prevented disunity among the Muslims after the Treaty of Hudaybiya and
her opinion prevailed over that of many men, including Umar ibn al-Khattab. 2
k

Sheikh Salman al-Oadah writes:

Thirdly, women are still viewed in some circles as not being entitled to have their own opinions or to make their
own decisions. There is a saying: “Consult with them but do not heed what they say.” Some people might even
have gotten the notion in their heads that this blatant lie is a saying of our Prophet (peace be upon him) ! …

A woman, just like a man, needs to have her importance acknowledged, her grievances heard, and her aspirations
fulfilled. 3
k
Here we clearyly see that it is sunnah to follow the good advise of your wife, which proofs the hadith in question
here attributed to Umar is false and cannot be true. Shayk yusuf al-qaradawi and Shayk Salman al-Qadah
moreover confirm that statements like the one attributed to Umar don’t represent islam and are not part of islam.
Umar Ibn Khattab as a true follower of the sunnah would never contradict the sunnah of our beloved Prophet.
Moreover in the next story Umar was opposed by a woman, instead of opposing her he told her she was right and
accepted her statement !

Umar Corrected by a woman:

One day, Umar ibn al-Khattab declared in public: "Anyone who pays more for their dowry than what the Prophet
[peace be upon him] used to pay, will put the excess amount in the Public Treasury."

A woman from the Quraish came to him and said: "O commander of the Believers, which have more right to be
followed, the Book of Allah [the Qur'an]or your statement? " He answered: "The Book of Allah." So she told
him, "You have just prohibited the people from giving the excess amount from the dowry, but Allah Taalah has
revealed in His Book: "And if you have given them a geat amount of gold as dower, take not the least bit of it
back." [4:20]? " Therefore Umar said a few times: "The Woman is correct and Umar is mistaken." He addresses
people again, and said: "Verily a man may do whatever he sees fit with his wealth."

Source:

Sunan al Kubra, Beirut, Dar al-Fikr, nd., vol 7, p 233


k

Umar’s view towards women:

Umar ibn al-Khattab said that a man came to his house to complain about his wife. On reaching the door of his
house, he hears 'Umar's wife shouting at him and “reviling him. Seeing this, he was about to go back, thinking
that 'Umar himself was in the same position and, therefore, could hardly suggest any solution for his
problem.Umar saw the man turn back, so he called him and enquired about the purpose of his visit. He said that
he had come with a complaint against his wife, “but turned back on seeing the Caliph in the same position. Umar
told him that he tolerated the excesses of his wife for she had certain rights against him. He “said, "Is it not true
that she prepares food for me, washes clothes for me and suckles my children, thus saving me the expense of
employing a cook, a washerman “and a nurse, though she is not legally obliged in any way to do any of these
things ? Besides, I enjoy peace of mind because of her and am kept away from indecent “acts on account of her.
I therefore tolerate all her excesses on account of these benefits. It is right that you should also adopt the same
attitude.”

Source:

Rahman, Role of Muslim Women page 149


k
Umar consulted women and didn’t oppose them:

Ibn Sirin states that Umar consulted eminent people when faced with problems, including women of integrity.
Many times when he found an aspect of goodness and commendability in a woman's opinion, he adopted it.

Source:

Al Sunan al Kubra, Baihaqi, Vol 10 p 113


k

Umar consulted women:

Shifa was an intelligent woman, Umar put her opinion ahead in consultation and gave her preference over other's
opinions.

Source:

Al istiab fi Asma al AshabK


kk

These hadith morever show us that Umar respected women, consulted them, and adopted their opinion if it was
good. So Umar clearly never opposed women, and he clearly never saw it as a blessing to oppose them. On the
contrary he respected, consulted, and adopted their good opinions. Here again we clearly see that the hadith
quoted by the christian missionary attributed to Umar Ibn khattab is a clear forgery. Further it is known that this
hadith attributed to Umar (quoted by the christian missionary) is in-authentic, which moreover proofs that the
hadith is clear a forgery which can be put in the trashcan. Moreover the Qu’ran tells us that:

Qu’ran 9:71

The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil:
they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah
pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.
k

The arabic word which is translated as protectors in this verse is “awliyya” which means: helpers, supporters,
friends, protectors. Allah in this ayah gives women the right to correct men when they are wrong. What would
have been the use of revealing this ayah if men should always oppose women ? What would have been the use of
this ayah to call and describe women as helpers and protectors of men, if men should oppose them ? What would
have been the use to give women the right to correct men when they are wrong, if men should oppose them ?
This quranic ayah moreover proofs that the story / hadith attributed to Umar ibn Khattab, which is quoted by the
christians missionary, is false, untrue and a clear forgery ! The quran here clearly tells us that men and women
are helpers, protectors and friends of each other. This means they are a team, and should work together as a team
instead of opposing each other. Moreover this means they should listen to each other, and take good advice from
each other ( instead of opposing each other, which would violate this quranic command ).
Finally i would like to quote Sheikh Abdullah Adhami’s comments on how to treat you wife in marriage. The
comments in his article are based on the Qu’ran and sunnah of our beloved Prophet Muhammed. These
comments again proof that the hadith attributed to Umar Ibn Khattab is a clear forgery, and doesn’t represent
islam and it’s true teachings. We must also remember that Allah swt in soerah 4:19 us men commands to live in
kindness and honor with women, which includes just treatment, team-work and respect for women.

Sheikh Abdullah Adhami comments:

Always try your best to be good to your wife by words and by deeds. Talk to her, smile to her, seek her advice,
ask for her opinion, spend quality time with her and always remember that the Prophet Salallaahu 'alaiahi
wa'sallaam said "the best of you are those who are best to their wives"

Finally, it is common that spouses vow to love and honor their spouses until death do them part. I do believe that
this vow is good or even great, but not enough! It is not enough that you love your wife. You have to love what
she loves as well. Her family, her loved ones must also become your loved ones. Don't be like my colleague who
was unhappy about his wife's parents coming to visit for few weeks. He candidly said to her "I don't like your
parents" Naturally she angrily looked at him straight in the eye and said " I don't like yours either"...

Also, it is not enough that you love her until death do you part. Love should never end and we do believe there is
life after death where those who did righteousness in this world will be joined by their spouses (Surah Al
Zukhruf 43:70) and offsprings. 4
k
2:

Misquoted Hadith:
k
The prophet said: “The example of e religious women among general women is that of a crow with a white belly
among one hundred crows “
k

Comment:

This narration again uses the rhetorical figure of hyperbole to say that the virtuous woman is incomparable and
exceptional, as stated literally in al-Tabarani's version of the very same narration. This is also the condition of
virtuous men as established by the narrations:

Sunan Abu Dawud Book 32, Number 4078:

The prophet said: “stand out among the people ( due to your excellence ) like a mole on the face”
k

Reported by Al-Bukhari
k
The prophet said: “ the likeness of one who remembers Allah and one who does not is like the difference
between the living and the dead “
k

Sahih Muslim Book 001, Number 0427:

Abdullah b. Mas'ud reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) addressing us said: Aren't you
pleased that you should constitute one-fourth of the inhabitants of Paradise? He (the narrator) said: We glorified
(our Lord, i. e. we called aloud Allah-o Akbar, Allah is the Greatest). He, then, again said: Aren't you pleased
that you should constitute one-third of the inhabitants of Paradise? He (the narrator) said: We glorified (our
Lord) and he (the Holy Prophet) then again said: I hope that you would constitute half of the inhabitants of
Paradise and I shall explain to you its (reason). The believers among the unbelievers would not be more than a
white hair on (the body of a) black ox or a black hair on (the body of a) white ox.
k
3:
k

Misquoted Hadith:

The Prophet said: “He who becomes a slave of women is ruined”


k

K
Comment:

This hadith is by some interpretated out of context. The correct meaning and context of this hadith can be found
when we look at other hadith that use the same “word expression”. We see that the Prophet also said those who
become a slave of clothes are ruined, and those who become a slave of money are ruined.

Fayd al-Bari, 6/81, Kitab al-jihad, bab al-hirasah fi'l-ghazw fi sabil-Allah.

The Prophet said: “Wretched is the slave of the dinar, dirham and fancy clothes of velvet and silk! If he is given,
he is pleased, and if he is not given, he is displeased. “
k

By this we now understand that the hadith in question refers to the “extreme desire for women”. To be a slave of
them means to be extreme fixated on it and give it undue attention in one’s life, which will result in disobedience
of Allah. Moreover those who are fixated on the “extreme desire for women” are ruined, because they reject /
disobey allah’s command for women, this is what the prophet ment with “slaves of women.” The hadith talks
about the real extreme desire for women, in such a way that allah’s commands are disobeyed for them.The same
applies to those wo are slaves of money. Such people care more about buisiness and money making instead of
praying at the right times and obeying Allah swt. Also men who have a real extreme desire for women can easy
be seduced by shaytan to commit adultery / fornication, which would ruin them. The hadith in question does
certainly not mean that men should never act on the wishes of their wifes. On the contrary the quran commands
men to live just and honorable with women, which also includes the fullfillment of the wishes of their wifes.
K
k

Ustadha Zaynab Ansari comments:

Furthermore, a man's leadership is supposed to be characterized by wisdom and compassion. The Prophet, peace
be upon him, said, "Allah will ask every caretaker about the people under his care, and the man will be asked
concerning the people of his household." ( Ahmad, Nisai and Abu Dawud ). So, according to the words of the
Noble Prophet, the man is the caretaker of the household. What does caretaking imply? It implies loving
concern. I have also heard scholars say that the woman is the queen of her household, meaning that it is not
necessary for the husband to control every aspect of the household.

What husbands and wives should do is strike a balance in terms of qawamah and shura, or leadership and
partnership. There are certain matters where the husband should get the ultimate say. There are certain matters
where the wife should get the final say. It is up to the couple to determine which issues they feel they should
have the final say in, and which issues are the province of the other spouse. 5
k
A husband should also do his best to fullfill the wishes of his wife, since this creates a bond of mutual respect,
love and understanding in marriage. The qur’an moreover clearly teaches us that the relations between the
spouses in Islam should be based on mutual tranquility, love and mercy.

Ar-Rum: 21

Allah says: "And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may
dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for
those who reflect." K
k

Al-Baqarah: 187

And He says: “Permitted to you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives. They are your garments
and ye are their garments….”
k

Commentators on the Qur’an understand this to mean that husbands and wives are for mutual support, mutual
comfort, and mutual protection. Tranquility, love, and mercy summarize the ideals of Islamic marriage. It is the
duty of the husband and wife to see that they are a source of comfort and tranquility for each other. They should
do everything physically, emotionally and spiritually to make each other feel happy and comfortable. They must
care for each other. They should not harm or injure each other, either physically or verbally. In order to increase
the tranquility and comfort in their relations and in their home, they should love each other and be merciful and
kind to each other. 6 This commentary and quranic verses proof the commentary made by Imam ghazali on the
hadith wrong, since the Qu’ran teaches us that marriage must be based on mutual comfort and love. Soerah
2:228 teachus that men and women have equal rights to each other. Therefor a husband should also do his best to
fullfill the wishes of his wife, since this creates a bond of mutual respect, love and understanding in marriage
(which islam requires). Muslim scholar Zainab Al-Alwani (Instructor, School of Islamic Social Sciences,
Leesburg, Virginia ) , who Studied Islamic Studies in Muhammad ibn Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
adds:

Zainab Al-Alwani writes:

a marriage relationship in Islam is not where one party dominates the other. On the contrary, the relationship is
build on concepts of Shura (consultation) , Waliyah (mutual protection) , Sakeenah (tranquility), Amanah
(trusts), Rahmah (mercy). 7
k

Moreover the Prophet told us in in a famous authentic hadith that: “The best believers are those who are the best
towards their wifes.” These sayings moreover proof that the hadith in question quoted by the christian
missionary doesn’t refer to men’s behaviour towards their wifes, but refers to the extreme desires some men
have for women. Extreme in such a way that they even disobey Allah swt for them. Moreover the context of the
hadith does not refer to marriage, but to extreme desire for women in general.
Finally i would like to point out that is a sunnah to help your wife in household work. Therefor the hadith in
question does also certainly not refer to husbands who help their wifes in household work, or other things.

The sunnah of helping your wife in household work:

There was no type of household work too low or too undignified for him. Aiysha has stated: He always joined in
household work and would at times mend his clothes, repair his shoes and sweep the floor. He would milk,
tether, and feed his animals and do the household shopping.

Source:

Qazi Iyaz: Shifa; Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter: Kitabul Adab


k

4:
k

Strange Hadith :

Imam Shafi said: If you honour three kinds of men, they will disgrace you and if you disgrace them, they will
honour you -wife, servant and Nabati. Evils and little intelligence are strong over them.
k

K
Comment:

Shayk Gibril Fouad Haddad comments: “the above is a spurious attribution to al-Shafi`i along with other racist
and sexist clichÈs falsely attributed to him without chains of transmission” 8
5:
k

Misquoted Hadith:

The wise Luqman advised his son: O dear son, fear unchaste wife, as she will make you grow old before you
grow old. Fear the harms of women as they do not call towards good. Beware of unchaste women.
k k

Comment:

Statements like “women do not call towards good” are not supported in the quran nor in the authentic hadith of
our beloved prophet Muhammed, peace be upon him. On the contrary the quran rebukes this statement.
K
kk

Qu’ran 9:71:

“And as for the believers, both men and women – they are friends and protectors of one another: they [all] enjoin
the doing of what is right and “forbid the doing of what is wrong, and are constant in prayer, and render the
purifying dues, and pay heed unto God and His Messenger” k
k

K
Women are clearly also viewed as the protectors of men. If women did not ‘call towards good’ then certainly the
quran would have never describe them as protectors of believing men, and the quran would never have give them
the right to enjoin good, if they never would call towards good, or were bad in nature. In Surah 2:187 Allah says:
kk
k

Qu’ran 2:187

“They are garments for you and you are garments for them”
k

Women are viewed as men’s garments, and men are viewed as women’s garments. Just like a garment, a
husband and wife give each other protection, comfort etc.
k
kkk

Shayk Yusuf Estes comments :

Islam does not consider woman an instrument of the devil, but rather the Qur'an calls her muhsana, a fortress
against Satan. This is because a good woman, by marrying a man, helps him keep to the path of rectitude in his
life. It is for this reason that Prophet Muhammad (saw) considered marriage as a most virtuous act. 9
k
This clearly rebukes the statement attributed to Luqman quoted by imam ghazali, which is clearly in
contradiction with the authentic hadith of our beloved prophet and the qu’ran. The next hadith moreover proofs
that the statement “women do not call towards good” is not islamic:

k
k

Reported by at-Tirmidhee no. 3094 , Ibn Maajah no. 1856, Ahmad 5/282 :

The Prophet said: “Let one of you have a heart which is thankful, a tongue which makes mention of Allaah, and
a believing wife who helps one of you upon the affairs of the Hereafter”
ll

Reported by At-Tabarani and Al-Hakim

The Prophet said: “If Allah grants a Muslim a righteous wife, this helps him preserve half of his religion. He
should, therefore, fear Allah as regards the other-half”
k

kk

Sahih Muslim 10/56, Kitab al-rida', bab istihbab nikah al-bikr:

The Prophet said: “This world is just temporary conveniences, and the best comfort in this world is a“righteous
woman“
k

kk
k

Al-Tirmidhi no. 3978

The Prophet said: “A woman acts for the people," i.e. she gives protection on behalf of the Muslims.
k
K

If women did not call towards good, then how in the world could the prophet call women ‘the best comfort in
this world’ ? and ‘a help for men to preserve half of his religion’ etc. ? These hadith and quranic verses clearly
refute and proof that the statement ‘women do not call towards good’ is not islamic and clearly a forgery
attributed to Luqman. Or Luqman made a statement based on his own opinion instead of the qu’ran and sunnah,
which would be very strange and alien. The prophet in the last hadith even states that a woman gives protection
on behalf of the muslims. If women do not call towards good , then how can she give protection on behalf of the
muslims ? These hadith are enough proof to silent the lie that women do not call towards good, which is clearly a
forgery attributed to Luqman ! There are even no chains of transmissions for this saying, which moreover proofs
that we are dealing with a forgery. Stories like this can be put in the trash can. Further islam is the quran and
authentic hadith of our beloved prophet, and not the opinions of other men which are not based on the quran and
the authentic sunnah. Such opinions are not part of islam.
Imam Ghazali , by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq

Imam Ghazali is one of the towering figures in Islamic history, whose influence on the Muslim world continues
to remain strong and deep. The rich spiritual dimension of his contribution is indisputable. His legacy of
sagacity, wisdom, and enlightenment is a veritable treasure for many.

Yet, truth seekers and conscientious people who believe in Islam don't revere any individual scholar, however
great and towering he is, with an absolutist mindframe. Hence, reading the following chapter from one of his
notable works one would find remarks and views about women that are utterly degrading, verging on misogyny.
Several years ago when an Islam basher cited some of these aspects from Imam Ghazali's writings I could not
believe it.

After reading his views about women, it seems reasonable to say that, despite his all other contributions to the
Islamic history, his views at least in this area are more his own than based on Islam, i.e., the Qur'an and the
Sunnah. k

Even though the entire presentation of thoughts by Imam Ghazali here projects an Islamic veneer, yet the hadiths
that he reports are often without any source, or only selective hadiths that are more restrictive of women are
mentioned without taking into consideration other ones that directly contradict these.

His weakness in the science of Hadith is well-known. Taj-ud-Din Subki has collected such traditions in Tabaqat-
Shafeiyya that have been cited by the Imam in his Ihya-ul-Uloom but which cannot be traced to any source. (See
Tabaqat, vol. IV, pp. 145-182).

[Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam, Lahore, Islamic Publications,
5th edition, 1981; footnote on p. 66] Also, for specific example, see Appendix note #6 in Dr. Suhaib Hasan, An
Introduction to the Science of Hadith, London, Al-Qur'an Society, 1994.]
k
k

Note:

Keep in mind dear reader that the christian missionary sham shamoun all the time quoted from the book ‘Ihya-
ul-Uloom’ of Imam Ghazali, which as we now know from the scholar Taj-ud-Din Subki contains stories / hadith
which cannot be traced to any source, which explains why these stories contradict the authentic hadith and
qu’ran. Therefor these stories that contradict the authentic hadith and qu’ran are clear forgeries.
k

Predictably, Islam bashers have a field day with such works and thoughts. But conscientious Muslims should be
less worried about the Islam bashers than the negative influence such Imams' views and opinions have on the
Muslims minds and societies.
Muslims need to be proactive in self-critical reexamination of many such classical works. Such reexamination is
not for wholesale repudiation and discrediting of the past contributions of many noble Islamic personalities.
Rather, we must accept the fact that they were human beings and not without their personal biases or various
influences and experiences that had shaped their positions. Conscientious Muslims would engage in critical
reexamination like divers seeking pearls. In the deep ocean of knowledge and understanding, those who seek
pearls must sift through more than just piles, separating pearls from empty shells and also watch out for shells
that can be harmful.

As we cherish and utilize the pearls of wisdom from the works of scholars, such as Imam Ghazali, we also
ignore the empty shells as well as anything potentially harmful. Noble souls, such as Imam Ghazali, never taught
us to blindly follow and revere anyone, including himself, and he never would have endorsed and encouraged an
uncritical acceptance of his views, especially when some views are simply unfounded from Islamic viewpoint or
stand contradicted by the Qur'an, the Sunnah and the Seerah.

Source:

Counsel for Kings [ Nasihat al-Muluk ] , London, Oxford University Press, pp. 158-173
Sources:

1:

http://www.jannah.org/sisters/qaradawi.html

2:

al-Tabari, Tafsir, vol. 22, p. 10

3:

http://www.islamtoday.com/showme_weekly_2004.cfm?cat_id=30&sub_cat_id=692

4:

http://beautifulislam.net/marriage/a_wife_p.html

5:

http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=4919&CATE=121

6:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-
Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503546482

7:

http://www.islamonline.net/livedialogue/english/Browse.asp?hGuestID=mnVZqu

8:

http://www.livingislam.org/n/wmnc_e.htm

9:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1123996015618&pagename=IslamOnline-English-
AAbout_Islam/AskAboutIslamE/AskAboutIslamE
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

We conclude our discussion with comments taken from a Salafi Muslim website who provide the opinions of
other writers and scholars to support the exegesis given in answer to specific questions. The main page to the
website we will be using is www.islamqa.com.

Response:

The website used by the christian missionary is well known for their extreme stances on certain issues. I
recommend the reader to visit other sites like ourdialogue.com and sunnipath.com, who have a lot of good
fatwas published on their websites. I also strongly advise readers to visit websites like islamtoday.com and
livingislam.org , which contain a lot of great info.

He wrote:

Regarding whether Islam allows for women rulers, this Salafi site responds: the evidence from the Qur’aan and
Sunnah indicates that it is not permissible for a woman to assume positions of senior public authority, such as the
caliph (khaleefah), minister of state (wazeer or vizier) or judge (qaadi) and so on.

Evidence from the Qur’aan: Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): "Men are the protectors and maintainers
of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them)
from their means" [al-Nisa 4:34]

Al-Qurtubi said: The words "Men are the protectors and maintainers of women" mean that they spend on them
and protect them, and also that they (men) are the rulers and governors, and the ones who go on military
campaigns, and none of these are the role of women. Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 5/168.

K
Response:

Soerah 4:34 is one of the most misquoted quranic verses by both muslims and non-muslims. In my response i
shall clear up all the misconceptions and misinterpretations of this ayah. I shall now quote a fatwa of qualified
scholars on this soerah, which explains it’s true meaning. The scholars of the European Council for Fatwa
explain this verse: k

Qu’ran 4:34

Men are the protectors and maintainers (Qawama) of women, because Allah has given each preference over the
other, and because they support “them from their means
k
The beauty of the Quranic expression is illustrated in the statement that: "Allah has given each preference over
the other " and not merely that Allah gave preference to men over women. This is because men are preferred in
some aspects and women are preferred in others; particular the emotional aspect of life, whilst the man is obliged
to pay the marital gift or which is known today as Dowry or ‘Mahr’, to establish the marital house and support it.
Therefore, if a man ever attempts to harm this family; he will be the very first victim of this act of destruction. 1

My own note:

The verse intends to establish a responsibility of men for the protection and maintenance of women in a
restricted social context. Biologically, only women can bear the future generations of Muslims. The Qur’an
creates a harmonious balance in society by establishing a functional responsibility for males to facilitate this
biological function of females.

This verse does not give men inherent superiority or authority over women. It establishes mutual responsibility
in society. Responsibility is not superiority. Even though men are responsible for women in this restricted
context, the verse is not intended to mean that women cannot handle their own affairs, control themselves or
become leaders, whether among women, men and women or even of nations, as has been assumed.

He wrote:

Ibn Katheer said: It means the man is in charge of the woman; he is her leader, the ruler over her who disciplines
her if she goes astray. "because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other" means, because men are
superior to woman, and a man is better than a woman. Hence"prophethood was given only to men, as is the role
of caliph, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "No people will ever prosper
who appoint a woman in charge of them." - Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 1/492.

Response:

The scholars of ourdialogue.com respond to a question about soerah 4:34, to which ibn kathir refers here and
interpretates as men being superior to women ( which we shall proof is not correct ) : k

Question:

Could you please explain the meaning of Verse 34 of the fourth surah entitled ‘Women’. Some people state that
the Qur'an endorses the notion of man's superiority to woman. I am rather confused. Please comment in detail.
K k

The scholars of ourdialogue.com answer: “The Qur'anic verse to which you have referred may be rendered in
translation as follows: k
k
Qu’ran 4:34

Men shall take full care of women with the bounties with which Allah has favored some of them in greater
measure than others, and with what they may spend of their own wealth. The righteous women are devout,
guarding the secret which Allah has willed to be guarded
k

Although the verse goes on to point out certain rulings in matrimonial relations, the part to which you have
referred is the one I have quoted. As it is translated above, the verse gives no suggestion of superiority. Indeed, it
relates to the way the family is organized in Islamic society.

To explain its meaning and what is really involved in assigning responsibilities to man and woman within the
family, there is little that I can do better than quote you at length from the commentary written by the late Sayyid
Qutb in his priceless work "In the Shade of the Qur'an"

Commentary by Sayyid Qutb on soerah 4:34 , quoted from his book ‘In the shade of the quran’:

“The family is the first institution in human life, in the sense that its effect is felt in every stage of human life. It
is within the family that man, the most noble of all creatures, according to the Islamic concept of life, is brought
up. The running and administration of much inferior institutions, such as those engaged in financial, industrial
and commercial affairs, is normally assigned to those who are most qualified for the job by their education,
training and natural abilities. It is only logical that the same rule be applied to the family, the institution which
looks after the upbringing of the most noble creature in the universe, namely, man.

The divine code of living takes him and his nature in consideration, as well as the natural abilities given to both
man and woman to enable them to discharge the duties assigned to each of them. It maintains justice in the
distribution of duties, giving to each of them only the type of duties to which they are suited. It is needless to say
that both man and woman are the creation of Allah who does not wish to do injustice to anyone He has created.
Indeed He gives each of His creations the abilities and talents which befit the duties assigned to him or her.

Allah has created human beings as males and females, following the "dual" role which is central to the system of
creation. He has given the woman the great tasks of child-bearing, breast-feeding and looking after her children.
These are not tasks of the type which may be fulfilled without careful preparation, physically, psychologically
and mentally. It is only just, therefore, that the other part, i.e. man, should be assigned the task of providing the
essential needs and the protection required for the woman to fulfill her highly important duties. She could not be
given all those tasks and be still required to work in order to earn her living and to look after her children at the
same time. It is only fair as well that man should be given the physical, mental and psychological qualities which
enable him to fulfill his duties in the same way as the woman is given the abilities to help her fulfill her duties.
All this is part of the reality of human life, because Allah maintains absolute justice among all.

Among the qualities the woman has been given are tenderness, good reaction and instinctive response to the
needs of childhood without waiting for much deliberation and reflection. The essential human needs even of a
single individual are not left for leisurely reflection and planning. Response to them is made instinctively so that
they may be met more or less involuntarily. There is no external compulsion in this. It is an impulsive reaction
which the woman enjoys, despite the fact that it requires sacrifice from her. This is part of Allah's work which is
always perfect.
These are not superficial qualities. Indeed, they are implanted in the woman's physical, mental and psychological
constitution. Some leading scientists believe that they are present in each cell in the woman's constitution
because they are rooted in the first cell which multiplies to form the fetus and the child.

On the other hand, among the qualities the man is given are toughness, slow reaction and response as well as
proper thought and reflection before action. All these functions, ever since he lived on hunting in the early
stages, to fighting for the protection of his wife and children, to earning his living in any way, require some
deliberation and consideration before taking any decision and implementing it. These qualities are also deeply
rooted in the constitution of man.

It is man's qualities which make him more able and better equipped to take charge of the family. Similarly, his
duty of supporting his family as part of the distribution of duties, makes him more suitable to be in charge. That
is because earning the living of his family and all its members is part of being in charge. Moreover, looking after
the finances of the family is closer to his family duties.

There are two elements which the Qur'an highlights as it states that in Islamic society, men are required to look
after woman. It is an assignment of duties on the basis of natural abilities and fair distribution of responsibilities.
Each party is assigned the duties to which he or she is most suited by nature.

That man is better equipped to be in charge is part of human nature. He has the proper natural abilities for that
role which is essential for the proper progress of human life. It is a simple fact that one party is equipped for this
role and assigned the duty to play it while the other is not. Hence, it is totally unfair that the latter should be
required in any situation to take up these responsibilities in addition to her own natural duties. If this latter party
is given the necessary practical and scientific training to fulfill these duties, her ability to play the other role, i.e.
that of motherhood, is undermined. That is a role which requires certain abilities of the type we have mentioned,
such as good reaction and immediate response along with the natural physical and mental abilities.

These are very serious questions which may not be left to human beings to decide at will. Whenever they have
been left to human beings to decide, whether in the past or in recent times, the very existence of mankind was
threatened and the essential human qualities which distinguish men from other creatures was in danger of
extinction.

There is plenty of evidence which points out that the rules of human nature force themselves on man even when
people deny them altogether. One aspect of that is the decline in the quality of human life and the serious danger
to which it has been exposed whenever this rule which gives man the task and the authority to look after the
family has been violated. Such violation leads to serious repercussions. Another indication is that the woman
prefers that man assumes his role of being in charge of the family. Many women experience feelings of worry,
dissatisfaction and unhappiness when they live with men who relinquish their role of being in charge for any
reason. This is readily admitted by women who try to challenge man's role.

Another example of the social repercussion of this unnatural family situation, where the father does not play his
role either because of his weak character which allows the mother to overshadow or control him, or because of
his early death or in one-parent families, is that very often the children suffer instability which may lead to
mental perversion and behavioral deviation.

These are only a few examples through which nature indicates its presence and the need to organize human life
according to its laws. It must be finally stated that the way Islam distributes family responsibilities does not by
any means lead to the negation of the woman's character or role in the home and in society at large. Neither does
it mean the cancellation of her civil status.
It simply defines her role within the family and how it is run. For the family is a very important institution which
must be protected and maintained. In any institution, the observance of certain values does not mean the
abrogation of the character or the rights of the partners or the workers. Islam defines the role of the man and
what his being in charge means as well as his duties as one who takes care of his family, protects it and earns its
living."
K
__________________________________________________________________________________________

I trust this lengthy quotation from Sayyid Qutb amply explains the meaning of the verse to which you have
referred and in which there is no suggestion of any superiority given to men. 2

My own comment:

The verse intends to establish a responsibility of men for the protection and maintenance of women in a
restricted social context. Biologically, only women can bear the future generations of Muslims. The Qur’an
creates a harmonious balance in society by establishing a functional responsibility for males to facilitate this
biological function of females.

This verse does not give men inherent superiority or authority over women. It establishes mutual responsibility
in society. Responsibility is not superiority. Even though men are responsible for women in this restricted
context, the verse is not intended to mean that women cannot handle their own affairs, control themselves or
become leaders, whether among women, men and women or even of nations, as has been assumed.

And again the verse speaks about men’s nature and qualities to be leader of the family, this does not mean that
women cannot held leadership positions in offices or can’t be judges, on the contrary women can. However her
main task and first priority should be being a mother and queen of her house, which requires qualities that only
women have at best !

Secondly we have seen that scholars of ourdialogue.com and the european council of fatwa, clearly rebuked the
statement that ‘men are superior to women’ and that ‘men are better then women’. These statement are clearly
not supported in the qu’ran nor in the authentic hadith and sunnah of our prophet. Therefor these statement are
not supported in islam, and don’t represent islam and it’s true meaning. Another renowned scholar Fathi Osman
comments on this:

Fathi Osman comments:

The view that a man is superior to a woman because he is physically ‘stronger’ lacks the support of the Qur’an
and authentic Sunnah. The divine sources mention ‘care’ and ‘responsibility’ within the family, but not
superiority. Muslim men and women are equal in their individual and social responsibilities, being in charge
(protectors) of one another and of the whole society (awliyya), as stated in Surah al-Taubah 9:71

Source:

Fathi Osman (1996), Muslim Women in the Family and the Society, Reprint, Kuala Lumpur:
SIS Forum (Malaysia) Berhad., p. 48 k
The next comments made by renowned sunni scholar Shayk G.F. Haddad moreover clearly refutes the
statements quoted on the website from which the christian missionary quotes ( to attack islam).

Shayk Gibril Fouad Haddad comments:

"Ar-rijalu qawwamoona ala an-nissaa." Many translators give this as showing men have superiority over women.
Is that a fair reflection of the meaning? I suggest the answer is No! "Men shall take full care of women with the
bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on the former than on the latter, and with what they may
spend out of their possessions. And the righteous women are truly the devout ones, who guard the intimacy
which God has ordained to be guarded." I believe this is well put by Muhammad Asad. It is not a question of
superiority or inferiority. Rather it is a question of defining responsibilities. The word which causes much of the
misunderstanding is "qawwamoon" which some people take to mean authority. If you check in the Lissan Al-
Arab, which is the most authoritative and voluminous Arabic dictionary you will find Muhammad Asad's
translation exactly matches the explanation in this dictionary." 3
k

Finally we can see that our beloved Prophet Muhammed himself rebuked statements like ‘men are superior to
women’ and ‘men are better then women’ , since he said:

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 113; Ahmad, 25663

The prophet said: “ Yes, for women are the twin halves of men.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-
Tirmidhi
k

In the Arabic text, the Prophet, peace be upon him, uses here a word, which implies total similarity and
equivalence. Hence, the Prophet’s statement suggests no inferiority attached to women. The Qur’an and the
Sunnah assign the same duties to both men and women, and promise them the same reward. If this does not
mean the same status, I would like to know what does.
Sources:

1:

http://www.e-cfr.org/eng/article.php?sid=33&PHPSESSID=f68bfd8af71bea7ec44852e47b6dbfff

2:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/m23.htm

3:

http://www.abc.se/~m9783/fiqhi/fiqha_e22.html
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

Evidence from the Sunnah: It was narrated that Abu Bakrah said: When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) heard that the people of Persia had appointed the daughter of Chosroes as their
queen, he said, "No people will ever prosper who appoint a woman in charge of them."

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4163.

Response:

Those who claim that women cannot held leadership positions rely on this hadith. In reality, all that can be
correctly affirmed is that some scholars relied on this hadith to disenfranchise women from leadership. There
has never been unanimity on this matter among scholars, past and present. Secondly the very inference of
disenfranchisement is suspect. From the earliest days of muslim scholarship, even those jurists who implicitly
accept the hadith above as containing some injunction have differed on the meaning of it. Some scholars prohibit
women from all public duties. Abu Hanifa permits a woman to hold public office, even to be a judge in matters
in which her testimony is admissible, that is all cases other than those involving fixed penalties and retaliation.
Ibn Hazm in his muhalla, allows a woman to hold every office apart from that of the head of state based on this
hadith. Hafiz Ibn Hajr indicates in fathul bari that Imam Tabari not only supports the unrestricted appointment of
woman to judgeship, he permitted also her appointment as head of state. A similar view is also reported from
Imam Malik Ibn Anas and adopted by some maliki jurists. It is also not true that the leadership of muslims by
women is a modern phenomenon caused by westernisation. Various muslim communities at various times have
been de-facto or de-jure ruled by women. Women have ruled Muslim communities and their leadership was
accepted and respected by the scholars of those communities.
K

A group of kharijites, the shuhaybiyyah, held that women are eligible for the office of head of state as recorded
by Ibn Hazm in Kitabul Fisal. According to historical texts, not only did they appoint their imam's daughter as
his successor, the lady delivered sermons from the pulpit and led them in prayer and on the battle- field. The
famous thirteenth century Mamluk queens Radhia Sultana of Delhi and Shajaratul-Durr of Egypt were not the
only women sovereigns over muslim communities. Ibn Battuta tells us how for forty years, from 1347 to 1388,
muslims in the Maldives were ruled by queens. The first was Sultana Khadija the daughter of Sultan Salah al-
Din Albendjaly who ruled for 33 years. Her two sisters, Sultana Myriam and Sultana Fatima, followed in
succession. Djajadimingrat lists 34 sovereigns who ruled over the muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Indonesia
between the 16th and 20th centuries. Four princesses succeeded each other as queens between 1641 and 1699.
First was Sultana Tadj al-'Alam Saffiyat al Din Shah who was succeeded, in order, by Sultana Nur al-'Alam
Nakiyyat al-Din Shah, 'Inayat Shah Zakiyyat al-Din Shah and Kamalat Shah.
k

The Shiite dynasty of Yemen also produced two queens, Asma Bint Shihab al Sulayhiyyah and 'Arwa Bint
Ahmad al-Sulayhiyya. Each of them took the title al- Sayyida al-hurra and had the sermon said in her name.
There were also the Mongol Khatuns like Kutlugh Katun and Safwat al-Din Khatun. These are just examples but
they suffice to refute the claims of those who believe the likes of Benazir Bhutto were the first women to rule
Muslim lands.
k

Where does this leave the hadith of Abu Bakrah ?


A:

One group adopts the next line of argument. Exemplified here by Justice Aftab Hussain in his book ‘Status of
Women in Islam’ , the central argument of this group is that it is clear that Abu Bakrah did not understand from
the words he narrated an injunction against the leadership of women. He was a companion of Aisha and followed
her and fought among her troops and returned with her to Madina after her defeat. He remembered this hadith as
he stated during the Battle of the Camel and yet neither left her side nor advised anyone else to. This group says
that to insist that the hadith is an injunction against female leadership places this companion of the Prophet in
very unbecoming light. Is it possible that a true companion would remember an injunction of the holy Prophet
and proceed in disobeying it as if he had never remembered ? Would he be so impudent as to subsequently
announce this recollection without any explanation for his non-compliance ?
k k k
k k

Dr Asghar Ali Engineer writes:

In the context of the Battle of the Camel, Aishah was in command of the army which included many illustrious
companions of the Prophet. None of them objected to her being in command, nor did they desert her for that
reason. Even Abu Bakra, the narrator of the above hadith, did not desert her. Had he been convinced that the
Prophet had prohibited women from being imam (leader or head) he should have deserted Aishah as soon as he
recalled this tradition. How then could it be said that a woman cannot become leader of a government when her
leadership was accepted by such eminent companions of the Prophet ?

Source:

Engineer, Asghar Ali (1992), The Rights of Women in Islam, Kuala Lumpur: IBS Buku Sdn Bhd, page 77
k

B:

Another group takes a different course. This group accepts the hadith as authentic but insists that it was a
prophecy relating to the Kingdom of Persia and had no legal implications beyond that. The argument of this
group is, in my view, best presented by Hiba Ra'uf 'Izzat in her book Al-Mar-ah wa 'l-'Amal as-Siyasi. This
group argues that the hadith must be read along with related ones since, according to Hafiz Ibn Hajr, it merely
completes the story of the Chosroe who tore the Prophet's letter.

Al-Bukhari reported three traditions connected with this episode, two of which were in the chapter on "Letter of
the Prophet to Chosroe and Caesar". Abu Bakra's hadith is No 4425. The preceding hadith, No 4424, was
reported from Ibn Abbas who said that "the Prophet of Allah sent Abdullah Ibn Huzafa with his letter to Chosroe
and commanded him to hand it to the leader of Bahrain for delivery to Chosroe. When Chosroe read it he tore it.
I believe Said Ibn Musayyab said: 'Then the Prophet prayed to Allah that he tear them up completely'." The third
hadith is No 6639 reported by Bukhari in the chapter on "how the oath of the Prophet was" and it goes:"When
Caesar dies there will be no Caesar after him. When Chosroe dies there will be no Chosroe after him. I swear by
He in whose hand is my life, you will spend their treasures in the path of Allah!"

These are the three hadiths reported by Bukhari on Chosroe and the Persians and their consistency is self -
evident. In one he prays to Allah to destroy the Chosroe's dynasty the way he tore the letter. The second predicts
that there will be no Chosroe after him and the Ummah will inherit the Kingdom's treasures. The third, Abu
Bakra's, predicts that the Persians (who were still being ruled by Chosroe's dynasty) would not prosper. To
extend this last hadith's scope to all societies ruled by women is refuted by the context. In addition it is refuted
by Qur'anic evidence on the queen of Sheba (Al Naml: 28-44 ). Any one who reads those verses can see that
1
they refer to a people who prospered under a wise and powerful female sovereign.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 219:

When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen
(ruler), he said, "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."
k

This Hadith suffers from the following flaws:

1.

It is evident from the very text of the narrative that it was never known until the battle of Jamal took place in
36 AH. It was brought forward only after A’ishah faced Ali in battle. Before that it was never heard of , which
of course is quite strange.

2.

One of the narrators is Awf Ibn Abi Jamilah about whom scholars of Rijal know that he used to give
preference to Ali over Uthman and it is also known that since A’ishah sided with Uthman, a group of the
followers of Ali targeted her to besmear her character. Moreover, the hadith can never be applied to the case
of A’ishah since she never claimed to be the ruler of the Muslims.

3.

It is a Gharib Hadith. In Hadith parlance, a narrative which has just one narrator in any section of its chain is
called Gharib. It makes the narrative quite weak. It is only Abu Bakrah who is reporting this narrative at the
top of this chain. The nature of the narrative is such that other companions too should have reported it from
the Prophet but we find none.

4.

If the content of the Hadith is analyzed, one can easily conclude that the Prophet could never have uttered
these words ( if the hadith was ment as a general statement ). After all, success in this world was attained by
many nations who had women rulers until the time of the Prophet and even after him.

5.

Last but not the least, this Hadith is against the Qur’an. It is the purport of the Qur’an (42:38 ) that anyone
who enjoys the confidence of the majority is eligible to become the ruler of the Muslims: “And their system is
based on their consultation” ( 42:38 ) Nowhere does the Quran exclude women from this general principle. 2
Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood comments:

Sometimes the supposed anti-female hadith seems completely untrue. One such hadith was the one that no nation
that allowed itself to be ruled by a woman would prosper. This may have been an example of one of the
Prophet’s wry comments, but the hadith itself is suspect. It was quoted for the first time some 150 years after the
Prophet’s death, with the claim that it was recorded by Abu Bakra just before the Battle of Siffin, that battle
itself being some thirty years after the Prophet’s death. The reason was that the troops opposing Caliph Ali were
being led by a woman, in fact the lady was none other than the Prophet’s beloved wife Aishah !

The hadith seems in direct opposition to the words of the Qur’an to the ruling Queen of Sheba in the time of the
Prophet Sulayman, who ruled over the most wealthy and well-known people in the history of Arabia. She was
asked to accept Islam, but not to give up her rule.

Indeed, some feel that Abu Bakra’s testimony should be held in doubt anyway, since he had previously been
flogged for a fraudulent statement, and the shari’ah ruling was that after such an offence the person’s word
should never again be upheld as reliable in a court of law. This decision and flogging made Abu Bakra ineligible
for being regarded as a reliable transmitter of hadiths in the future. 3

Note:

Let us examine this Hadith first in its context. If the Prophet actually did say this, it was upon hearing that the
Persians had appointed Chosroe’s daughter as ruler. He was probably predicting the fall of the dynasty. In other
words the statement was not general in it’s meaning. Scholars will agree that there are several Hadiths of this
type ; i.e. limited to certain events which do not include any kind of later application. Also remember that the
prophet told his followers that a third of their religion could be learned from Aisha !
k k

He wrote:

Al-Shawkaani said in Nayl al-Awtaar, 8/305: This indicates that women are not qualified to rule, and it is not
permissible for people to appoint them as rulers, because they must avoid that which will cause them not to
prosper.
kkkkk

Response:

Like we showed before, the hadith in question was untrue or a prophecy relating to the Kingdom of Persia and
had no legal implications beyond that. This view is supported by some renowed scholars and commentators..
Another scholar Muhammad al Ghazalli wrote of the hadith that it was meant specifically about the Queen of
Persia. To interpretate this hadith as a general rule would contradict the Quran and it’s story of queen Sheba.
Muhammad al-Ghazali states that this hadith must be closely scrutinized and while he has no particular desire to
have a woman act as head of state, he is adamant that the state be headed by the most capable person. Ghazali
also argued that narrowly interpreting this hadith would contradict historical realities, e.g. England under Queen
Victoria, India under Indira Ghandi, and Israel under Golda Meir. He also argues that femininity or masculinity
is irrelevant in this regard and he goes on to state that a pious woman is better than a bearded man who has gone
4
astray k
Secondly even if we for the sake of argument accept the hadith as a general statement, then still the hadith in
question only refers to the position of khalif, or in other words the postion of head of the state. So the hadith in
question does not forbid women to become judges or head of a buisiness company etc.
K k
k

Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 219:

Narrated Abu Bakra: During the battle of Al-Jamal, Allah benefited me with a Word (I heard from the Prophet).
When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen
(ruler), he said, "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."
k

Now based on this hadith the majority of scholars consider that it is haram for a women to be the khalifah of the
muslim ummah. What the scholars said is haram is a woman being the leader of the muslim ummah , that is
being the khalifah, not anything else.

In fact Umar Ibn Khattab appointed a woman over the management of the market of Madina. In addition, in the
first islamic centuries after the prophet , peace be upon him, it is documented that women were judges in the
Muslim community and they were not judging women only. We have to realize that at the time of the prophet
muhammed there were no Islamic organizations in the form we know today simply because there was no need
for them, and if we are going to equate the responsibility of leading the muslim ummah to the responsibility of
leading an company or Muslim Student Assocation then there is something seriousely wrong with us. The
khalifah has an enormous burden to carry way more than an ‘Muslism Student Assocation president’ or ‘head of
a company’ can even dream of. Calling for jihad and carrying it out, collecting zakat, leading the prayers,
5
managing the economic and social systems of the country, etc.

Conclusion:

The hadith in question can be interpretated in different ways, and therefor is no definite proof to say that women
cannot become head of the state. There’s a strong view that women indeed can become head of the state. This
view is supported by famous scholars like imam Tabari, imam Malik and others. However there has never been
unanimity on this matter among scholars, past and present. However most scholars today agree that woman can
hold any position of leadership other than actually being the head of state, as long as her work doesn’t contradict
or transgress the islamic values and rules. Her work should not affect other duties which cannot be neglected,
such as her duty towards her children and husband, which is her foremost and basic duty. The woman's first and
greatest work, in which no one can rival her, is to rear new generations. She is prepared for that by Allah, both
physically and psychologically, and she should not be occupied by anything else materialistic or moral
whatsoever, as nobody can replace her in that great work on which the future of the nation and its wealth, i.e. its
human wealth, depend.

Al-Tirmidhi no. 3978

The Prophet said: “A woman acts for the people," i.e. she gives protection on behalf of the Muslims.
k
K
Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi comments:

Woman's invaluable work, in fact, is to look after her children and husband. As for employment, which is meant
for earning a living, she is permitted to do it provided that the following conditions are met:
k

• it should be legal. The Muslim woman is not permitted to work in a place where she will be in privacy
with non-mahram (marriageable) man, or in clubs where she is supposed to offer alcohol to people.
• she should abide by the Islamic morals in dress, talk, etc.
• woman's employment should not be at the expense of her principal work, namely caring about her
6
children and husband.
He wrote:

Al-Maawirdi said, in the context of his discussion of the position of wazeer:

It is not permissible for a woman to play this role, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) said, "No people will prosper if they delegate their affairs to a woman." And because these positions require
wisdom and resolve, which women may be lacking in, and requires appearing in public to handle matters
directly, which is haraam for them to do.

Response:

Like we showed before the hadith quoted by Al-Maawirdi is questionable. However if we for the sake of
argument accept the hadith, then we still cannot say that women can’t be a wazeer / minister, since the hadith in
question clearly only refers to the position of head of the sate. This can already bes een in the context the hadith
was said, namely after the persians had appointed a woman as their nation’s leader. Further it should be clear to
anyone with common sense that both women and men can be lacking in wisdom, it depends on the person self.
There are wise men and unwise men. In the same way there are wise women and unwise women.

Muslim scholar Zeinab Mustafa states:

The Islamic approach to women is great and unique. Islam considers women as equal as men. This can be found
in the Qur’an and hadith : k
kk
k

Qu’ran 4:1

O mankind ! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, his
mate, and from them twain scattered like seeds countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye
demand your mutual rights , and revérence the wombs that bore you: for Allah ever watches over you
k

Al-Tirmidhi, 113:

The prophet said: “ Yes, for women are the twin halves of men.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-
Tirmidhi
k

So both Allah most high and his messenger never discriminate between men and women. Allah has given both
the ability to perform acts of worship and the capability to undertake responsibilities and we will find in our
history that women used to be in charge of the market place during the time of Caliph `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab.
Women used to be doctors, scholars, and sometimes judges. Women can be in charge of any position, except the
head of the state. So, she could be a minister but she cannot be the head of the state.
k
There is a hadith where the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, describes the Persian people as being in
error because they put a woman as the head of the state. But this hadith does not indicate that women are less
than men; however, it shows us that it is better and more suitable that the head of the state should be a man. This
is the opinion of most scholars of Islam.
k

Women can obviously be the head of any organization, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, and they can help in
every field that develops humanity. The only reservation in this regard would be that they work in a lawful field.
k

Dr. Jamal Badawi comments:

Although not mentioned in the Qur'an, one Hadeeth of the Prophet is interpreted to make woman ineligible for
the position of head of state. The Hadeeth referred to is roughly translated: "A people will not prosper if they let
a woman be their leader." This limitation, however, has nothing to do with the dignity of woman or with her
rights. It is rather, related to the natural differences in the biological and psychological make-up of men and
women.

According to Islam, the head of the state is no mere figurehead. He leads people in the prayers, especially on
Fridays and festivities; he is continuously engaged in the process of decision-making pertaining to the security
and well-being of his people. This demanding position, or any similar one, such as the Commander of the Army,
is generally inconsistent with the physiological and psychological make-up of woman in general. It is a medical
fact that during their monthly periods and during their pregnancies, women undergo various physiological and
psychological changes. Such changes may occur during an emergency situation, thus affecting her decision,
without considering the excessive strain which is produced. Moreover, some decisions require a maximum of
rationality and a minimum of emotionality - a requirement which does not coincide with the instinctive nature of
women.

Even in modern times, and in the most developed countries, it is rare to find a woman in the position of a head of
state acting as more than a figurehead, a woman commander of the armed services, or even a proportionate
number of women representatives in parliaments, or similar bodies. One can not possibly ascribe this to
backwardness of various nations or to any constitutional limitation on woman's right to be in such a position as a
head of state or as a member of the parliament. It is more logical to explain the present situation in terms of the
natural and indisputable differences between man and woman, a difference which does not imply any supremacy
7
of one over the other. The difference implies rather the "complementary" roles of both the sexes in life.
k

Note:

Dr. Jamal Badawi explains excellent why the majority of scholars agree that the position of khalif should be
appointed to men. We have seen that this has nothing to do with the dignity of women or with her rights or
wisedome etc. It is rather, related to the natural differences in the biological and psychological make-up of men
and women. However there are some scholars who even agree that also women can become khalif, or in other
words head of the state. This because their is also evidence from the qu’ran for this opinion etc.
Professor Rafiullah Shehab, in his book ‘Mansab-e-Hukoomat our Musalman Aurat' , quotes besides others the
following authorities to support his contention that a Muslim woman can become head of state:

• Muhammad- bin-Jarir Al Tabari, one of the early commentators of Islam, gave the verdict (Fatwa) that
a Muslim, woman is eligible for all the offices in an Islamic state.
• Imam Malik, the founder of Maliki school of Islamic Fiqh is reported to have opined that a woman can
head the state in all its affairs.
• Sheikh-ul-Islam Allama Khair-ud-Din Ramli has justified the rule of woman by the application of
Doctrine of Necessity.
k
He wrote:

What is the Islamic view on a woman being nominated as a candidate for the position of head of state, or head of
a government, or a public ministry ?

Ibn Baz replied: It is not permissible to appoint or elect a woman as head of state. This is indicated by the
Qur’aan, Sunnah and scholarly consensus. In the Qur’aan, Allaah says: "Men are the protectors and maintainers
of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other…"

The ruling in the verse is general and includes a man’s position of leadership in his family, and applies more so
to his position of public leadership. This ruling is supported by the reason given in the verse itself, which is
men’s intellectual superiority and better understanding etc, which are basic qualifications for leadership…
kkkkkkkkkkkk

Response:

Nowhere does this verse even talks about intelligence or superiority ! The opinion of the Ibn Baz is very biased
and has no support in the qu’ran nor in the authentic sunnah. The scholars of the European Council for Fatwa
comment on soerah 4:34 k
k
k

Qu’ran 4:34

Men are the protectors and maintainers ( Qawama ) of women, because Allah has given each preference over
the other, and because they support “them from their means”
k

The beauty of the Quranic expression is illustrated in the statement that "Allah has given each preference over
the other " and not merely that Allah gave preference to men over women. This is because men are preferred in
some aspects and women are preferred in others; particular the emotional aspect of life, whilst the man is obliged
to pay the marital gift or which is known today as Dowry or ‘Mahr’, to establish the marital house and support it.
8
Therefore, if a man ever attempts to harm this family; he will be the very first victim of this act of destruction.

Note:

The verse intends to establish a responsibility of men for the protection and maintenance of women in a
restricted social context. Biologically, only women can bear the future generations of Muslims. The Qur’an
creates a harmonious balance in society by establishing a functional responsibility for males to facilitate this
biological function of females.

This verse does not give men inherent superiority or authority over women. It establishes mutual responsibility
in society. Responsibility is not superiority. Even though men are responsible for women in this restricted
context, the verse is not intended to mean that women cannot handle their own affairs, control themselves or
become leaders, whether among women, men and women or even of nations, as has been assumed
k
Comment by the scholars of ourdialgue.com

Although the verse goes on to point out certain rulings in matrimonial relations, the part to which you have
referred is the one I have quoted. As it is translated above, the verse gives no suggestion of superiority. Indeed, it
9
relates to the way the family is organized in Islamic society.
k

Also like i said before the verse does nowhere even talk about intelligence or wisedome. The verse is only telling
us that each gender due to it’s nature is more fit for a certain task then the other without mentioning anything like
intelligence or wisedome. It is rather, related to the natural differences in the biological and psychological make-
up of men and women. Men, by nature, are more hot-blooded, tending more towards strength and severity, while
women’s natures are cooler and tending more towards gentleness and love. Therefor a men is more fit for the
role as ‘Qawama’ , which means to be the protector and maintainer of the family. Men with their physical
strenght and not-blooded nature are more fit to carry the heavy burdens of work outside the house and financial
responsibilities. Also men due to their physical strenght and nature are more fit to protect their famiy and wifes
from any danger and harm. Women with their sweet emotions , motherinstinct and tenderness are more fit to
raise children and taking care of them. She’s like the prophet said the queen of her house, and teacher of
generations. Therefor soerah 4:34 intends to establish a responsibility of men for the protection and maintenance
of women in a restricted social context. Biologically, only women can bear the future generations of Muslims.
The Qur’an creates a harmonious balance in society by establishing a functional responsibility for males to
facilitate this biological function of females.

So we now clearly see that statements like ‘men are intellect superior’ are not supported in the qu’ran nor in the
authentic hadith. The extremists quoted by the christian missionary rely their opinion on a wrong literal
interpretation of one hadith, which has been proven wrong by other renowned scholars, this is explained at:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/women_not_deficient_in_intelligence_and_religion.htm

Also the argument, that women are inherently deficient in reason and religion, is described as weak by Ibn al-
Shatt ( d.1323 CE ) , because if one accepts this argument, this deficiency must also be present when a woman
10
acts as a narrator of hadith However, women are recognised as narrators of hadith, and also as mufti. So how
can one describe women as lacking in wisedome ? or describe men as superior in intelligence to women ? while
the majority of scholars in the past and present days all agree that women can also be a mufti !

Women as Mufti and Qadhi

Interpretation of revelation was free of gender restrictions. A woman’s legal opinion (fatwa) was just as valid
and morally binding as the legal opinion of a man. Thus a woman could legitimately be a mufti, a legal expert
whose task it was to communicate legal rules to non-specialists including, at times, judges and other holders of
political power. There was complete agreement among Sunni jurists that women could be mufti. It was as a
result of the law’s acceptance of women as mufti, moreover, that al-Tabari was led to argue that a woman could
be a judge in all areas of the law.

Source:

Fadel, Mohammad (1997) , “ Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in Medieval Sunni Legal
Thought.”.,.pages.189,.190.&.200
k
Moreover the qu’ran refutes the statements made by Ibn Baz:

Qu’ran 9:71

And [as for] the believers, both men and women - they are friends and protectors of one another: they enjoin the
doing of what is right and forbid “the doing of what is wrong, and are constant in prayer, and render the
purifying dues, and pay heed unto God and His apostle. It is they upon “whom God will bestow His grace:
verily, God is almighty, wise
k

Aftab Hussein comments:

Taubah 9:71 mentions “believing men (mu’minun)” and “believing women (mu’minat)” as being awliyya over
each other. Revealed in 8 Hijrah towards the end of the Prophet’s life, Surah al-Taubah 9:71 sums up the spirit of
equality and mutuality that the Qur’an preaches in the relationship between men and women.

To enjoin the right and forbid the wrong is primarily the duty of the State, which is in a position to discharge it
effectively. The verse makes women as much protecting friends of men as men are of women. It further orders
women to discharge the duty of enjoining good and forbidding wrong which can be discharged effectively by the
‘ulil amr (person in authority) who symbolises the State. The verse paves the way for women to become the
repository of State authority, including the authority of the Head of the State

Source:

Hussein, Aftab (1991) , Status of Women in Islam, Lahore: Law Publishing Company, Page. 228
k

Now let’s take a look at the postition given to women in the bible. Let us see if women can become judges or
leaeders in christianity. Finally we will compare the right given to women in christianity with the rights given to
women in islam. k
k
k

1 Timothy 2:1-14

Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over
the man, but to be in silence For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman
being deceived was in the transgression.
k
In other words women according to the bible cannot teach men and cannot have any leaderships position which
would give them authority over the man. The verse and it’s context are clearly general, which is confirmed by
classic bible commentaries, which i shall quote next:

John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament , 1 Timothy Chapter 2

Paul has plainly now laid the foundations, and he proceeds therefore to details. Men were to pray everywhere,
lifting up pure hands, without wrath, and without vain human reasonings. Women were to walk in modesty,
adorned with good works, and to learn in silence. A woman was forbidden to teach or to exercise authority over
men; she was to abide in quietness and silence. The reason given for this is remarkable, and shews how, in our
relations with God, everything depends on the original starting-point. In innocence Adam had the first place; in
sin, Eve It was she who, being deceived, brought in transgression. Adam was not deceived, guilty as he was of
disobeying God. United to his wife, he followed her, not deceived by the enemy but weak through his affection.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/DarbysSynopsisofNewTestament/dby.cgi?book=1ti&chapter=002
k

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible The Book of 1 Timothy Chapter 2

2:12

To usurp authority over the man - By public teaching.

2:13

First - So that woman was originally the inferior.

2:14

And Adam was not deceived - The serpent deceived Eve: Eve did not deceive Adam, but persuaded him. "Thou
hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife," Genesis 3:17. The preceding verse showed why a woman should
not " usurp authority over the man." this shows why she ought not " to teach." She is more easily deceived, and
more easily deceives. The woman being deceived transgressed - "The serpent deceived" her, Genesis 3:13, and
she transgressed.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/WesleysExplanatoryNotes/wes.cgi?book=1ti&chapter=002
k
So according to the bible only eve, as a woman was in transgression and not the man ! Therefore all women are
viewed as inferior and less intelleigence then men and therefor cannot teach men, since teaching requires
intelligence and wisedome. Women in the bible are viewed as the gender whose easily deceived and therefor not
fit to teach men ! Compare this to islam which allows women to be a mufti and teach men ! Read and compare
this gift given to women in islam with the curse given tot hem (to be in silence and forbidden to teach men) by
paul in christianity. Women in islam were scholars and teached men, see:

http://www.islamfortoday.com/womenscholars.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/womens_education.htm
Sources:

1:

Women and Political leadership in muslim thought: a critique, by Sanusi Lamido Sanusi

2:

http://www.renaissance.com.pk/Feb52y5.htm

3:

http://members.aol.com/ruqaiyyah/articles/antifem.htm

4:

M. al-Ghazali, Sunna al-Nabawiya Bayna Ahl al-Fiqh wa Ahl al-Hadith, Dar al-Shuruq, 1989, p.56 & 58

5:

http://www.jannah.org/sisters/sislead.html

6:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-
Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544064

7:

http://www.load-islam.com/C/Women/The_Status_of_Women_in_Islam

8:

http://www.e-cfr.org/eng/article.php?sid=33&PHPSESSID=f68bfd8af71bea7ec44852e47b6dbfff

9:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/m23.htm

10:

Fadel, Mohammad ( 1997 ) , “ Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in Medieval Sunni 5:
Legal Thought ” , page 192
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

The ummah unanimously agreed in practical terms at the time of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the imams of
the first three generations, which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) testified were the best
of generations, that women should not be appointed as governors or judges. There were women who were
brilliant in religious knowledge, to whom scholars would refer concerning knowledge of Qur’aan, hadeeth and
religious rulings, but no woman aspired to positions of public leadership during that time or any other position of
that nature. The shar’i responsibilities of such positions cannot be carried out by women, because that involves
travelling to the provinces, and mixing with the members of the ummah, and meeting with them, and leading the
army sometimes in jihad, and negotiating with the enemy, and accepting oaths of allegiance from members of
the ummah, and meeting with them, men and women, at times of war and peace, and so on. This is not
appropriate for a woman, and it goes against the rulings of sharee’ah that are established to protect her and keep
her safe from having to go out and mix in such a manner.

K
Response:
These statement k
k

Sanusi Lamido Sanusi comments:

There has never been unanimity on this matter among scholars, past and present. For example Abu Hanifa
permits a woman to hold public office, even to be a judge in matters in which her testimony is admissible- that is
all cases other than those involving fixed penalties/hudud and retaliation /qisas. Ibn Hazm in his Muhalla, allows
a woman to hold every office apart from that of the Head of State based on this hadith. Hafiz Ibn Hajr indicates
in Fathul Bari that Imam Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari not only supports the unrestricted appointment of woman to
judgeship, he permitted also her appointment as Head of State. A similar view is reported from Imam Malik Ibn
Anas and adopted by some Maliki jurists. 1
k

The prominent Muslim scholar Zeinab Mustafa states:

So both Allah most high and his messenger never discriminate between men and women. Allah has given both
the ability to perform acts of worship and the capability to undertake responsibilities and we will find in our
history that women used to be in charge of the market place during the time of Caliph `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab.
Women used to be doctors, scholars, and sometimes judges. Women can be in charge of any position, except the
head of the state. So, she could be a minister but she cannot be the head of the state.
k

Ibn Hazm comments:

In addition, Umar, the second head of state after the death of Prophet Mohammad, appointed a woman named Al
Shafa bint Abdullah ibn abd Shams as the manager over the market of Medina. 2
k
So here we clearly see that Umar the khalif appointed a woman as manager over the market, in other words he
gave her a leaderships position. So why then can’t she be a judge etc. ? The quranic verses and islamic history
on the cotrary clearly show us that women can be judges or manager of a company etc. Famous scholars in the
past like the great Abu Hanifa, Imam Tabari and Ibn Hazm agreed that women could become judges.

Secondly in Islam, contacts between men and women are permissible as long as both parties adhere to the
teachings of Islam and ethical morals. There is nothing wrong that men and women co-operate together on that
which is lawful and permissible such as acquiring beneficial knowledge or good work.
k

Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi comments:

In principle, contacts between men and women are not totally rejected; rather, recommendable so long as a noble
objective is intended and the subject itself is lawful such as acquiring beneficial knowledge, good work,
charitable project, obligatory Jihad or many other deeds that require the efforts and the co-operation the both
sexes. The following are the conditions that must be met when there is a contact between both sexes:

1:

Both parties should adhere to lowering the gaze. No lustful look should exist. Almighty Allah says: [Tell the
believing men to lower their gaze and be modest. That is purer for them. Lo! Allah is aware of what they do.
And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that
which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own
husbands or fathers or husbands' fathers, or their sons or their husbands' sons, or their brothers or their brothers'
sons or sisters' sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male attendants who lack vigour, or children who know
naught of women's nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their
adornment. And turn unto Allah together, O believers, in order that ye may succeed.] (An-Nur: 30-31)

2:

A Muslim woman should observe the Muslim code of dressing. The Muslim dress for women, as well-known,
covers the whole body save for the face and the hands. It is neither tight nor light in a way that describes the
features of the body.

3:

General morality should be adhered to. In other words, a woman should be serious in speech and decent in way
of walking, nipping any trial of Satan to spread immorality in the bud. Also, no perfumes are to be worn while
being away from home, for the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Any woman who wears
perfumes and then passes by a group of men and they smell it, she is an adulteress.”
k
Note:

this does not mean that it is forbidden to use personal care products when one goes outside, the hadith only talks
about perfume. Shayk Faraz Rabbani in his fatwa about perfume and kohl tells us: “Deodorant and creams that
have a light scent, such that it isn't obviously discernable to others unless they get really close, are permitted” 3
k

4:

No man and woman are allowed to be together in a place where no other males exist, for the Prophet (peace and
blessings be upon him) said: “(Doing so) their third mate will be Satan i.e. leading them to sin.” This applies also
to the relatives of the husband as the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Beware of sitting with
women alone!” They (the Companions) said: “What about the relative of the husband, O Messenger of Allah?”
He said: “A relative of the husband is death i.e. the cause of death.” This is because a relative of a husband may
stay for a long time and thus the danger of sin becomes greater.
k

5:

Finally, we would like to note that all these contacts are not to be given loose rein. They are to be carried out
according to need and reasonable interaction. Contacting men, no Muslim woman is allowed to forget about her
nature or her role as a woman and instructor of all Muslim generations.
k

Fatwa by islamonline.net 4
He wrote:

Rationally speaking, women should not be given positions of public office, because what is required of the one
who is chosen for such a position is that he should a man of great resolve, determination, smartness, will power
and good management skills. These characteristics are lacking in women because they have been created with
weakness in their intellect and thinking, and with strong emotions, so electing them to such positions is not in the
interests of the Muslims and does not help them to achieve greatness. ( Majallat al-Mujtama’, issue no. 890. And
Allaah knows best. Islam Q&A )

Response:

This statement about women is untrue, and proven wrong by other renowned scholars. The extremists quoted by
the christian missionary Sham Shamoun rely their opinion on a wrong literal interpretation of one hadith, which
has been proven wrong by other renowned scholars. The hadith in question is:
k
k

Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 6, Number 301

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla to offer the prayer on 'Id-al-Adha or
Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, ‘O women ! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority
of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women).’ They asked, ‘Why is it so, O Allah’s Apostle ? ‘ He replied,
‘You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more defficient in
intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you.’ The women
asked, ‘O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion ?’ He said, ‘Is not the evidence of
two women equal to the witness of one man ?’ They replied in the affirmative. He said, ‘This is the deficiency in
her intelligence. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses? ‘ The women replied in
the affirmative. He said, ‘This is the deficiency in her religion.’
k

K
Many are those who question the meaning it conveys. This is largely due to the fact that the Hadith is quoted
only in part and the relevant statement is cited out of context. People always attribute to the Prophet the
suggestion that women are inferior to men on grounds of a deficient mind a lack of faith. This is far from true.
On the next pages scholars refute this claim, and the reader can find out what the true meaning ot this hadith is:
Shayk Gibril Fouad Haddad comments:

The problem here is not authenticity but meaning.. Even the plainest statement can become completely
incoherent on the tongue of a retarded person or a pathological liar. The hadith here uses two figures of speech.
The first is hyperbole meaning exaggeration in the words ‘even a prudent, sensible man might be led astray by
some of you’ meaning all the more so an ordinary man. The second figure is synechdoche consisting in using
the whole for the part: intelligence to mean the specific legal testimony of a woman, and religion to mean the
prayer and fast at the time of menses.

Numerous verses and other narrations stress that the reward of women equals that of men even if their acts
differ. So this particular narration is not meant literally but as an acknowledgment of the power women wield
over men while ostensibly less active in the public and spiritual spheres.

However, the real import of the hadith spoken at the farewell pilgrimage, and its actual context was that the
prophet challenged the women that were present to realize that unless they helped raise money with their gold
and jewelry, they would miss the reward of men waging jihad as well as show ingratitude.

In the full version of the hadith the Prophet also orders the women to ask forgiveness and desist from frequently
cursing their husbands. All this was spoken at a time of:

1. the impending departure of the latter on jihad


2. the impending departure of the Prophet from this world and
3. the fact that: cursing the believer is like killing him.
k

But the prophet was also being playful in his use of strong terms to impress this teaching on the listeners.
Ruqayyah Waris Maqsud writes:
k

After the farewell pilgrimage at the eid prayer, the prophet walked past the men leaning on Bilal's arm, and came
to the rows of women behind them. Bilal spread out a cloth and the prophet urged the women to be generous
with their gifts of charity, for when he had been allowed a glimpse into the flames of hell, he had noted that most
of the people being tormented there were women.

The women were outraged, and one of them instantly stood up boldly and demanded to know why that was
so. 'Because' he replied: ' you women grumble so much and show ingratitude to your husbands ! Even if the
poor fellows spent all their lives doing good things for you, you have only to be upset at the least thing and you
will say ' I have never received any good from you.' At that the women began vigorously to pull off their rings
and ear-rings, and throw them into Bilal’s cloth.
k

Bukhari 1.28, recorded by Ibn Abbas- who was present on that occasion as a child. 5
k

Note:

Hyperbole = Mubalagha

Synechdoche = Majaz mursal


The scholars of ourdialogue.com comment:

Question:

My daughter keeps asking me about the Hadith that women are deficient in mental ability and in religion. Could
you please explain it? Why does the Prophet, peace be upon him, say that most women will be in hell ?
k

Your daughter is not alone. Many are those who question the meaning it conveys. This is largely due to the fact
that the Hadith is quoted only in part and the relevant statement is cited out of context. People always attribute to
the Prophet, peace be upon him, the suggestion that women are inferior to men on grounds of a deficient mind a
lack of faith. This is far from true. Let us look at the Hadith in full:

Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim

On the occasion of Eid, either that of sacrifice or that of ending the fast, the Prophet, peace be upon him, went to
the prayer place, and then went to speak to women and he said: “Ladies! I have not seen people deficient in mind
and religion yet can get away with a rational man’s mind like any one of you.” They asked: “How are we
deficient in mind and religion, Messenger of God?” He said: “Is it not true that a woman’s testimony counts as
half that of a man?” When they answered in the affirmative, he said: “This is her mental deficiency. Is it not true
that when a woman is in her period she neither prays nor fasts?” They again answered in the affirmative. He
said: “This is her religious deficiency.
kk

To start with, the Prophet, peace be upon him, was speaking to a congregation of women on a joyous occasion.
Exemplary in his care for others, particularly his companions, and kind and compassionate as he was, it is
inconceivable that he would insult them by such a statement, if he meant it as a statement of fact, like some of us
do. The Prophet, peace be upon him, simply used this phrase “deficient in mind and religion” to alert them to
what he wanted to say to them. The Prophet, peace be upon him, frequently uses such a method, inserting some
words that may not be relevant to the point he wants to stress, so that they serve to attract the attention of his
audience. Furthermore, his statement expresses amazement at a well-known situation, when a man is infatuated
by a woman to the extent that his behavior changes in character. He may be wise and intelligent, yet he could
easily behave in a way that is inconsistent with his intelligence and wisdom when he is so infatuated. This is a
case where a woman who is generally weaker ( faster overcome by emotions, less physical strenght ) than a man
can control him.

The Hadith mentions that the Prophet’s women audience asked him to clarify what he said. His clarification
pinpoints certain aspects that suggest no inferiority whatsoever. The mental deficiency is related to the fact that
in certain cases, two women witnesses are required in place of one-man witness. This has to do with the role of
each of the two sexes in Islamic society. It is no reflection on a woman’s mental ability. As for religious
deficiency, the Prophet, peace be upon him, states the fact that a woman is exempt from prayer and fasting when
she is in menstruation. While God gives a woman the reward for prayer and fasting as if she has done them,
since she stops only because of her condition and in response to God’s orders, still the fact that she does not
fulfill these duties means that her worship is less in terms of what she offers. It does not mean that she is a lesser
believer.
As for a relevant statement of fact in this regard, the Prophet, peace be upon him, says, “Women are full sisters
of men.” In the Arabic text, the Prophet, peace be upon him, uses here a word, which implies total similarity and
equivalence. Hence, the Prophet’s statement suggests no inferiority attached to women. The Qur’an and the
Sunnah assign the same duties to both men and women, and promise them the same reward. If this does not
mean the same status, I would like to know what does.

May I add here that the translation of this Hadith as quoted by you is wrong, because it splits the relevant
sentence and gives the Prophet's words in such a way that they appear to make a statement of fact. This is wrong,
as I have explained.

As for the other part, a full translation of it goes as follows: “ I have seen hell and I have never seen any thing
more horrific than what I saw then. I also saw that the majority of its dwellers are women. They asked: “On
what grounds, Messenger of God ? He said: “By their denial.‚ They said: “Their denial of God ?‚ He answered:
“No. Their denial of their spouses and their denial of kindness. You may be kind to one of them all the time, but
when she finds fault with you she says: I have never received any kindness from you. ”

To start with, the Hadith does not say that most women are in hell. It says that the majority of hell dwellers are
women, which simply signifies that more women fail in this worldly test than men. Then the Prophet, peace be
upon him, points out their failure, which is not based on denying God. Rather, it is denying kindness, particularly
in marital situations. The Prophet, peace be upon him, has pointed this out in more than one Hadith, warning
women against grumbling and frequent complaints. He is also warning them here against denying kindness by
their husbands, highlighting a failing that is often expressed in denying past kindness.

The Hadith shows that women can easily avoid such a destiny by being fair and appreciative of kindness. They
should always be grateful to God for what He has given them and also be appreciative of any kindness done to
them by others, particularly those with whom they live, be they their husbands, parents or other relatives. 6
k

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Extra comments:

The Hadith in question does not depict a woman as inferior; not at all ! Islam honours women very high and
many verses of the Qur'an and practices of the early Muslims bear witness to the fact that woman is, at least, as
vital to life as man is. She is not inferior to man in islam, neither in religion or intelligence. Islam never belittles
woman or underestimates her role in the society. Allah has made this clear in the Glorious Qur’an, by stating
shining examples of some women for the believers – male and female- to emulate. In this context, the Glorious
Qur’an says:

At-Tahrim: 11-12

And Allah citeth an example for those who believe: the wife of Pharaoh when she said: My Lord! Build for me a
home with thee in the Garden, “and deliver me from Pharaoh and his work, and deliver me from evil doing folk;
and Mary, daughter of Imran, whose body was chaste, therefor We “breathed therein something of Our Spirit.
And she put faith in the words of her Lord and His Scriptures, and was of the obedient.
k

Allah Almighty and prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, praised women. Let us look at the following
quotes from our islamic sources:

Qu’ran 33:35

For Muslim men and women,- for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and
women, for men and women who are “patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for
men and women who give in Charity, for men and women who fast (and “deny themselves), for men and women
who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in God's praise,- for them has God prepared
forgiveness and great reward.
k

Qu’ran 9:71

The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil:
they observe regular prayers, “practise regular charity, and obey God and His Apostle. On them will God pour
His mercy: for God is Exalted in power, Wise.
k

In islam women clearly have the right to forbid men what is wrong and to enjoin them the good. This proofs that
women aren’t inferior or defficient compared to men in religion or intelligence, since Allah swt gives women
the same right to correct men when they are wrong and to forbid them what is evil. If women were inferior or
less in religion then men, then why does Allah swt give them the right to correct men when they are wrong, and
to forbid them what is evil. This moreover clearly proofs that the hadith in question was never ment litery, and is
clearly a figure way of speech like shayk gibril fouad showed and the scholars of ourdialogue.com.
More proof to show that the hadith cannot have a literal meaning and was not ment as a statement of fact, is the
fact that a literal interpretation of it would conflict with various injunctions which are there in the Qur’an itself
and also in some other traditions. If women were really viewed as defective in reason and religion in islam, then
it would be necessary to restrict their power to dispose of their properties and at least make it subject to the
approval and permission of their husbands or guardians. But Islam has acknowledged the absolute competence
of women in this respect and has allowed her full rights of disposition over her properties. A literal interpretation
would also conflict with some of the historical facts in the Prophet’s time and that of the rightly guided Caliphs.
During the time of the rightful guided Caliphs, the Caliphs sought counsel from women and gave importance to
their opinions.

The Literature abounds with stories of women who dialogued with men about proper islamic practices, or the
preferred interpretation of an Islamic text. Women also were major reporters of hadith. As a result many
prominent men came to them for religious education and guidance.

Source:

Ahmad Shalabi, Al-Tarbiyah wa al-Ta’lim, in 5 Mawsu’at Al-Hadarah Al-Islamiyah pp 342-44 (Exp. 8th ed.,
Cairo, Maktabat al-Nahdhah al-Nabawiyah, 1987).

All these facts proof that the hadith in question was never ment as a statement of fact, or literal. The Prophet with
his words was onl challenging women to perform extra good deeds. How can the human intelligence interpretate
this tradition literal (like the website from which the christian missionary quotes does) , when the first person to
believe in the Prophet,peace be upon him, was a woman, Khadijah. How can women be defective in religion
when the first martyr (syahidah) to die in the cause of Islam was also a woman, Ummu Amir, the wife of Yasir.

Also in the past the argument, that women are inherently deficient in reason and religion, is described as weak by
Ibn al-Shatt ( d.1323 CE ) , because if one accepts this argument, this deficiency must also be present when a
woman acts as a narrator of hadith 7 However, women are recognised as narrators of hadith, and also as mufti.
So how can one describe women as lacking in wisedome ? or describe them as weak in intelligence ? While the
Prophet and the majority of scholars in the past and present days all agree that women can also be a mufti !

Women as Mufti and Qadhi

Interpretation of revelation was free of gender restrictions. A woman’s legal opinion (fatwa) was just as valid
and morally binding as the legal opinion of a man. Thus a woman could legitimately be a mufti, a legal expert
whose task it was to communicate legal rules to non-specialists including, at times, judges and other holders of
political power. There was complete agreement among Sunni jurists that women could be mufti. It was as a
result of the law’s acceptance of women as mufti, moreover, that al-Tabari was led to argue that a woman could
be a judge in all areas of the law.

Source:

Fadel, Mohammad (1997) , “ Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in Medieval Sunni Legal
Thought.”.,.pages.189,.190.&.200
k
Conclusion:

This particular hadith is not meant literally but as an acknowledgment of the power women wield over men
while ostensibly less active in the public and spiritual spheres. Secondly the prophet, peace be upon him, clearly
did not talk about potential of brain or capacity of talent or skill in the hadith. The arabic word in the hadith
which is translated as ‘intelligence’ is ‘aqal’ , which in the context of the hadith refers to ‘mind’ and not
‘intelligence’. The same word ‘aqal’ is therefor in: Sahih Bukhari, Witnesses, Volume 3, Book 48, Number 826,
translated as ‘mind’. To testify as a witness before court, doesn’t measure reason or intelligence, but control of
emotions ! The prophet referred in the hadth in question to the testominy of a women, which has nothing to do
with woman’s intelligence or reason, but with woman’s nature: “she gets faster scared then men and is less stable
in controlling her emotions”. Moreover a woman is overloaded by being a mother or a babysitter or pregnant. All
these carriers are around the clock, because of what she is, she is always likely to forget more than a man who is
devoted to one career only. Moreover women are not familiar with buisiness transactions, and therefor more
liable to forget certain details of the testimony (which is one of the main reason why the Quran stipulates that an
extra woman should be present as a witness during buisiness transactions). These things have all nothing to do
with intelligence or brain capacity. This moreover proofs again that the hadith in question was never ment literal.
K
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Comment by the scholars of ourdialgue.com

The prophet, peace be upon him, says “Women are full sisters of men.” In the Arabic text, the Prophet, uses
here a word, which implies total similarity and equivalence. Hence, the Prophet’s statement suggests no
inferiority attached to women. The Qur’an and the Sunnah assign the same duties to both men and women, and
promise them the same reward. If this does not mean the same status, I would like to know what does. 8
k
k

He wrote:

They respond to a similar question asked by a different individual: This is because positions of leadership and
government require a person to join men's gatherings, which is not allowed for women according to sharee'ah
because of the aayah (interpretation of the meaning): "And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves
like that of the times of ignorance." [al-Ahzaab 33:33]. These positions also require perfect wisdom, reason and
alertness, and the testimony of a man has been made equal to that of two women, the reason for which Allaah
has explained in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning): "... so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other
can remind her." [al-Baqarah 2:282].

Response:

First i want to adress an important point about the ayah these scholars misquote from soerah al-ahzaab:
k

Soerah 33:33:

And stay in your houses. Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the Time of Ignorance. Be regular in
prayer, and pay the poor-due, and obey Allah and His messenger. Allah only wants to remove the sins from you,
O Ahle al-Bait, and to purify you with a thorough purification.
k
Ahle Bait :

title reserved for the family of the holy prophet, peace be upon him, so this verse clearly adresses the prophet’s
wifes, and not women in general.
k

The eminent muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi in his fatwa replies to those scholars who misquote the
quranic ayah of al-Ahzaab to deprive women from certain politcal rights:

K kk

A Response to Those Who Deny Women Political Rights, by Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi:

The fatwa that maintains that woman’s candidacy is impermissible is also based on the verse in which Almighty
Allah says (And stay in your houses) (Al-Ahzab 33:33). In reply to this, we say that it is indisputably known that
the verse addresses the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) as indicated in the context. It is
worth mentioning that there were special rulings related to the Prophet’s wives (may Allah be pleased with
them). To illustrate, if one of them committed manifest lewdness, she would receive double punishment; if she
did a righteous deed, she would receive double reward; they were not permitted to remarry after the death of the
Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). The Qur’an states in the same context (O ye wives of the Prophet!
Ye are not like any other women) (Al-Ahzab 33:32). This is why Muslim scholar unanimously agree that it is
permissible for a Muslim woman to go out to school or university, to the market, and to work as a teacher, a
doctor, a nurse or other lawful professions, provided that the regulations of Shari`ah are observed.

Furthermore, the noble verse that states (And stay in your houses) did not prevent the Mother of the Believers
and the most knowledgeable of Muslim women, `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) to go out from her
home, even from Madinah, and travel to Basra, leading a large army of the Prophet’s Companions, among whom
were two of the ten promised Paradise and the six caliphate candidates, Talhah and Az-Zubair. She went out
demanding what she thought right, namely retaliation for the killing of `Uthman ibn `Affan (may Allah be
pleased with him). Though it is said that she later regretted going out, it was not because of a question of its
being permissible for a woman; it was because her political point of view was wrong, and there is a big
difference.

Thus, some Muslim scholars use the abovementioned verse as a general legal proof that it is impermissible for a
woman to go out of her home unless necessary. They even deny a woman’s going out to school and university.
No wonder then that they deprive women of the right to vote in elections. Accordingly, such scholars make half
the Muslim nation, the women, insignificant as voters or witnesses to such a crucial event as elections. In other
words, they make the righteous Muslim women insignificant in this regard, whereas other women go out to vote
for secular and anti-Islamic candidates. Such scholars disregard the fact that the meaning of the rest of the verse
in hand indicates that it is permissible for a woman to go out if she observes modesty, decency, and chastity and
does not adorn herself as was the custom in the pre-Islamic Jahiliyah. That is to say, such adornment is
impermissible only when a woman is going out, but it is permissible for her at home. 9
k
Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood comments on Soerah 2:282:

It has been suggested that the Prophet, peace be upon him, regarded women as inferior to men for two reasons -
the inheritance laws in which a daughter received half the share of a son; and the fact that two female witnesses
were regarded as the equal of one male witness.

In fact, the Qur’an actually taught that the witness of a woman was just as valid as that of a man, and made no
distinction regarding the sex of a witness in every single reference except one, the concession of granting two
female witnesses in legal cases where women had little knowledge or expertise. The intention of this concession
was to prevent women being tricked or cheated by unscrupulous men who could take advantage of their
inexperience in business matters.

Qu’ran 2:228

O believers! When you deal with each other in lending for a fixed period of time, put it in writing. Let a scribe
write everything down with justice ‘between the parties. The scribe, who has been given the gift of literacy by
Allah, should not refuse to write; he is under obligation to write. Let the ‘debtor dictate, fearing the Almighty,
his Lord, and not diminishing anything from the settlement. If the borrower is mentally unsound or weak or is
unable to dictate himself, let the guardian of his interests dictate for him with justice. Let two witnesses from
among you bear witness to all such ‘documents, if two men cannot be found, then one man and two women of
your choice should bear witness, so that if one of the women forgets‘anything , the other may remind her.
Witnesses must not refuse (to bear witness) when they are called upon to do so.
k k

In every other kind of case, there was no reason why the witness of a woman should not be just as reliable as
evidence as that of a man, and no distinction of either sex was made or necessary. For example:

Qu’ran 24:4

Those who accuse a chaste woman of fornication and do not produce four witnesses to support their allegation,
shall be flogged with eighty lashes“and their testimony shall not be accepted ever after, for they are the ones who
are wicked transgressors
k k

The text implies any four witnesses, who could be of either sex. In societies where it is insisted that the witnesses
should all be male, this is really a cultural gloss on the rule, since any text in the Arabic masculine plural
grammatically includes both men and women, unless specifically stated otherwise. Assumptions that women’s
evidence would be unreliable because of the inferiority of women in intellectual capacity, memory, or character
stem from a patriarchal perspective in a male-dominated community which tried to limit the appearance of their
women in public. The Qur’an does not bear this attitude and established the equality of men and women before
Allah. The restrictions against public appearance are a nonsense in this century, when the medical evidence of
the rape could be presented by a woman doctor to a female litigator in front of a female jurist! It is certainly a
travesty of justice to deny a victim of rape the right to testify to this violent attack merely because she is a
woman. 10

K
Muhammad Asad in "The Message of the Qur’an" writes:

The stipulation that two women may be substituted for one male witness does not imply “any reflection on
woman's moral or intellectual capabilities: it is obviously due to the “fact that, as a rule, women are less familiar
with business procedures than men and, therefore, more liable to commit mistakes in this respect. 11
k

The scholars of ourdialogue.com comment on the soerah:

This is in business transactions only. It does imply that, as a rule, women are less familiar with business
procedures than men and, therefore, more liable to commit mistakes in this respect. Besides, there are certain
cases when only women witnesses are acceptable, and one woman witness is sufficient to prove her case. 12
k

Conclusion:

The two soerahs used by the extremists don’t support their claims. Soerah 33:33 addresses the wives of the
Prophet, and not women in general. Furthermore, the noble verse did not prevent the Mother of the Believers
and the most knowledgeable of Muslim women, `A’ishah to go out from her home. Secondly soerah 2:282 has
nothing to do with intelligence or wisedome, but with justice. Like Muhammad Asad said: “The stipulation that
two women may be substituted for one male witness does not imply “any reflection on woman's moral or
intellectual capabilities: it is obviously due to the “fact that, as a rule, women are less familiar with business
procedures than men and, therefore, more liable to commit mistakes in this respect”.The intention of this
concession was to prevent women being tricked or cheated by unscrupulous men who could take advantage of
their inexperience in business matters. Therefor the extremists quoted by the christian missionary have no
support in the islamic sources for their claims. On the contrary the claims are proven false by other scholars and
the qu’ran and authentic sunnah.

Related by Nasa'i, Ahmad and others

The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: “I warn you of extremism in the deen for indeed
those that came before you were destroyed due to their extremism in the deen. “
k

Kk

Read also:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/women_not_deficient_in_intelligence_and_religion.htm
Sources:

1:

Women and Political leadership in muslim thought: a critique, by Sanusi Lamido Sanusi

2:

Ibn Hazm, Al-Muhalla bil Athar, vol. 8 Dar Al-Kitab Al-Ilmiya 1988, p.527

3:

http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=6367&CATE=6

4:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503544520&pagename=IslamOnline-English-
Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE

5:

http://www.livingislam.org/n/wmnc_e.html

6:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/Ws1.htm

7:

Fadel, Mohammad ( 1997 ) , “ Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in Medieval Sunni 5:
Legal Thought ” , page 192

8:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/Ws1.htm
9:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-
Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503549686

10:

http://members.aol.com/ruqaiyyah/articles/antifem.htm

11:

http://www.geocities.com/masad02/002c

12:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/e3.htm
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

Imaam al-Muwaffaq Ibn Qudaamah said: "For this reason the Prophet and his successors and those who came
after them never appointed a woman to be a judge or a governor of a province, as far as we know. If it were
permissible, it should have happened."

Imaam al-Ghazaali said: "The position of leader could never be given to a woman even if she possessed all the
qualities of perfection and self-reliance. How could a woman take the position of leader when she did not have
the right to be a judge or a witness under most of the historical governments?"

Response:

Among the first generation of Muslims, women were involved in the transmission of Prophetic reports as well as
the development of legal doctrine. The most prominent of these women was Aishah. The fact that Aishah was a
wife of the Prophet gave her privileged status as a transmitter of religious doctrine. It was her own qualities as an
individual, however, that afforded her the authority to interpret law. Female participation in the production and
reproduction of the religious sciences did not cease with the demise of the first generation of Muslims. Evidence
of female participation in the public transmission of the hadith can be found in many diplomas (ijazas)
containing women’s names and in the manuscripts that mention women as teachers and as students. There is
some evidence that women also participated in the more speculative branches of the religious sciences, such as
positive law and speculative legal philosophy. Al-Hattab, a North African jurist of the 16th century CE, mentions
the names of his teachers, his teachers’ teachers, and the chain of authorities (isnad) that linked him to the
authors of the various books that he had studied in his legal career. Two women appear in this chain of
authorities, Zaynab bint al-Kamal al-Maqdisiyya al-Musnida and Umm al-Hasan Fatima bint Khalil al-Katani (or
1
al-Kinani).

This fact of women’s recognised participation as intellectuals created awareness of the contradiction between the
epistemological equality women enjoyed in the production and transmission of knowledge and their
marginalised position in political contexts, whether as a witness or as a judge in a court of law. It also lessened
the plausibility of any argument that sought to ground discrimination in the nature of the female
k

There are arguments in medieval Islamic legal discourse that defend the gender-based distinction against women
in the political contexts by ultimately locating the source of this discrimination not within the woman, but rather
2
in specific social circumstances and the role that women played within those social circumstances
k

A witness’s testimony and a judge’s verdict are both political because the consequences of each are immediate,
3
tangible and binding.

Al-Qarafi’s argument noted the difficulty courts have in enforcing the law. This institutional argument is
compounded by the fact that men (including himself) in his 13th century CE Egyptian society viewed women as
being generally inferior to men. Subsequently, there is a greater likelihood that the losing party will not respect
the court’s decision. Al-Qarafi’s second argument, that women are inherently deficient in reason and religion, is
described as weak by Ibn al-Shatt (d.1323 CE), because if one accepts this argument, this deficiency must also
4
be present when a woman acts as a narrator of hadith However, women are recognised as narrators of hadith,
and also as mufti. It is therefore possible to extend this argument by saying that if there is a society in which
men would respect the decisions of the court and comply with court verdicts regardless of the gender of the
witnesses or the judges, there is then no reason to exclude qualified women from being appointed as judges.
Women as Mufti and Qadhi

Interpretation of revelation was free of gender restrictions. A woman’s legal opinion (fatwa) was just as valid
and morally binding as the legal opinion of a man. Thus a woman could legitimately be a mufti, a legal expert
whose task it was to communicate legal rules to non-specialists including, at times, judges and other holders of
political power. There was complete agreement among Sunni jurists that women could be mufti. It was as a
result of the law’s acceptance of women as mufti, moreover, that al-Tabari was led to argue that a woman could
5
be a judge in all areas of the law

There are also a number of historical instances about the exercise of jurisdiction of qadhi by women without any
objection by the ulama’ of that age. The oldest example is of the mother of Muqtadar Billah who presided at the
6
High Court of Appeal

Sources:

1:

Fadel, Mohammad (1997), “Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in
Medieval Sunni Legal Thought”, Int. J. Middle East Studies 29: 191. , page 191

2:

Ibid, page 191

3:

Ibid, page 188

4:

Ibid, page 192

5:

Ibid, pages 189, 190, 200

6:

Tarikh al Khulafa by Sayuti, cited in Aftab Hussein (1991) Status of Women in Islam, Lahore: Law Publishing 6:
Company, p. 229
k

Ibn Hazm comments:

Umar, the second head of state after the death of Prophet Mohammad, appointed a woman named Al Shafa bint
7
Abdullah ibn abd Shams as the manager over the market of Medina.
k

If a women was appointed as manager over the market of Medina by the famous companion of the prophet and
Caliph Umar Ibn Khattab, then why can’t she be a judge ? Theres no hadith or qu’ranic verse that forbids this.
On the contrary the quran supports the view that women can be judges in islam. Secondly the qur’an also tells us
in soerah 27:23-44 the story of the Queen of Sheba, she ruled over the most wealthy and well-known people in
the history of Arabia. She was asked to accept Islam, but not to give up her rule.

Women's Participation in Politics

Islamic history is filled with women who undertook various forms of political activism. Unfortunately, much of
this history has been ignored by some. The website quoted by the christian missionary clearly ignores this
history. Moreover social responsibility in Islam is derived from the Quranic verse which states:
k K
k

Qu’ran 9:71

And [as for] the believers, both men and women - they are friends and protectors of one another: they enjoin the
doing of what is right and forbid “the doing of what is wrong, and are constant in prayer, and render the
purifying dues, and pay heed unto God and His apostle. It is they upon “whom God will bestow His grace:
verily, God is almighty, wise
k

Surah al-Taubah 9:71 is the final verse to be revealed on the male/female relationship. In it, men and women are
said to be each other’s awliyya, which means protectors or protecting friends and guardians. And it also talks
about the obligations of both men and women in Islam, including enjoining what is just and forbidding what is
evil.The references in the verse to the activities required, e.g. enjoining the right, prayer, etc. show that both
women and men are to take an active role in society rather than merely a passive one. Political involvement is a
means to fulfill one’s obligations to society. Involvement in the political system can take many forms, from
voting in elections, to holding a position as a legislator or a judge, to being a head of state. Islamic history
provides precedents for each of these roles for women.
Aftab Hussein comments:

Taubah 9:71 mentions “believing men (mu’minun)” and “believing women (mu’minat)” as being awliyya over
each other. Revealed in 8 Hijrah towards the end of the Prophet’s life, Surah al-Taubah 9:71 sums up the spirit of
equality and mutuality that the Qur’an preaches in the relationship between men and women.

To enjoin the right and forbid the wrong is primarily the duty of the State, which is in a position to discharge it
effectively. The verse makes women as much protecting friends of men as men are of women. It further orders
women to discharge the duty of enjoining good and forbidding wrong which can be discharged effectively by the
ulil amr (person in authority) who symbolises the State. The verse paves the way for women to become the
repository of State authority, including the authority of the Head of the State

Source:

Hussein, Aftab (1991) , Status of Women in Islam, Lahore: Law Publishing Company, Page. 228
k

Aisha, Mother of the believers:

Aisha, a wife of Prophet Muhammad, was also politically active. In the year 658.A.D. (36- A.H.) she played a
major role in the armed resistance against Ali, the fourth successor after the death of Prophet Muhammad. Aisha
went to mosques and rallied people to take up arms against Ali. (Ibid). Aisha, the only woman on the battlefield,
led thousands of men into the "Battle of the Camel." (Ibid). Aisha was clearly an influential leader as shown by
the following statement made by Hasan the son of Ali after Aisha traveled to Basra with Talha and al-Zubayr,
members of Ali’s opposition, to rally support. Hasan, in a speech made in Kufa, stated, "I swear by God, surely
she is the wife of your Prophet, in this life and the hereafter. But it is a test from God to know whether you will
obey Him or her."
Kk
k
Source:

Abdelhalim Abu Shaka, The Emancipation of Woman at the Time of the Prophet, 1990, p. 151 (citing Bukhari)
k

Conclusion:

There is no specific and direct injuction in the Qur’an and Sunnah concerning women as judges. There are only
conflicting opinions of the jurists. However Islamic history, quranic verses and scholars in the past clearly show
us that women too can become judges in islam and hold leadership positions, except the position of head of the
state. Some scholars aslo had the view that a woman also could become head of the state, for example Imam
tabari and Imam Malik had this view. This is supported by the story of Queen Sheba in the Qu’ran.
Indonesia, which follows the Shafii school, has appointed over 100 women judges in the syariah courts
following the enforcement of the Marriage Law of 1974. Other Muslim countries, including Pakistan and
Bangladesh also have women judges in the family courts. There is no hadith nor quranic verse that forbids
women to be judges or head of a company. Morover the quran supports the option for women to become judge.
The traditional Islamic scholar Ibn Hazm was of the opinion that women could be judges in all cases. Ibn Hazm
cites the verse:
k k
k

Quran 4:58

Behold, God bids you to deliver all that you have been entrusted with unto those who are entitled thereto, and
whenever you judge between people, to judge with justice. Verily, most excellent is what God exhorts you to do:
verily, God is all-hearing, all-seeing
k

Ibn Hazm argues that this verse is addressed to both men and women and that there is no reason to discriminate
8
between a man or woman ( or a free person or a slave ) as to who can judge between people. Likewise, Imam
9
al -Tabari believed that women could be judges in all cases. Imam Abu Hanifa believed that women could be
judges on issues related to family law. In addition, Umar, the second head of state after the death of Prophet
Mohammad, appointed a woman named Al Shafa bint Abdullah ibn abd Shams as the manager over the market
10
of Medina.

Sources:

7:

Ibn Hazm, Al-Muhalla bil Athar, vol. 8 Dar Al-Kitab Al-Ilmiya 1988, p.527

8:

Ibn Hazm, Al-Muhalla bil Athar, vol. 8 Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiya, 1988, p. 528

9:

M.H. Sherif, The Muslim Woman Between the Truth of Sharia and the Fallacy of Falsification, Dar al Marifa 2:
al Jamiyya, 1987, p. 142

10:

Ibn Hazm, Al-Muhalla bil Athar, vol. 8, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiya, 1988, p. 527
He wrote:

Imaam al-Baghawi said: "The scholars agreed that women are not fit to be leaders or judges, because the leader
needs to go out to organize jihaad and take care of the Muslims’ affairs, and the judge needs to go out to judge
between people, but women are 'awrah and it is not right for them to go out. Because of their weakness, women
are not able to do many things. Women are imperfect, and the positions of leaders and judge are among the most
perfect of positions for which only the most perfect of men are qualified." (Question 3285)

Response:

The scholars never agreed about this issue ( see page 2 t/m 6 ). Further the comment that women are imperfect is
a very biased personal view which has no support in the qu’ran nor in the authentic sunnah. Further such a view
would be an insult to Allah, who made his creation of mankind (both men and women) perfect. If women are
imperfect, then men would also be imperfect since Allah swt created mankind in pairs, called men and women:
k
k

Qu’ran 51:49

And all things We have created by pairs, that haply ye may reflect
k

Mandkind is created in pairs, called men and women. Both together form mankind and therefor none can be
imperfect compared to the other, since both form mankind and mankind as creation cannot be imperfect.
Secondly both men and women are created from the same nafs, which means soul / living entity / spirit. Therefor
men and women are equal spiritual in islam, since both are created from the same soul. Since both are spiritual
equal, it’s impossible to say that women are imperfect and men not.

Qu’ran 4:1

O mankind! Be conscious of your Sustainer, who has created you out of one living entity, and out of it created its
mate, and out of the two spread abroad a multitude of men and women.
k

And finally the prophet, peace be upon him, called men and women twinhalves of each other. A twinhalve can
never be imperfect to the other halve. Therefor men and women are equal in worth and perfection. Moreover
since they are twinhalves of each other, it means they are also equal as human beings and persons in islam !
k
k
Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 113; Ahmad, 25663

“women are the twin halves of men.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi
k

Moreover perfect persons are persons who are given as an example for mankind to follow. The qu’ran gives
both men and women as examples for the believers to follow. Allah has made this clear in the Glorious Qur’an,
by stating shining examples of some women for the believers– male and female- to emulate. Which clearly
proofs that women are not regarded as ‘less perfect or imperfect’ in islam:

Tahrim: 11-12

And Allah citeth an example for those who believe: the wife of Pharaoh when she said: My Lord! Build for me a
home with thee in the Garden, and deliver me from Pharaoh and his work, and deliver me from evil doing folk;
and Mary, daughter of Imran, whose body was chaste, therefor We “breathed therein something of Our Spirit.
And she put faith in the words of her Lord and His Scriptures, and was of the obedient
k k

Further the statement that women cannot go out because they are awrah is also not true. This view is based on a
wrong interpretation of one hadith. The hadith question is:

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1173

The woman is ‘awrah and when she goes out the Shaytaan stares up at her

Shayk Gibril Fouad Haddad in his explenation tells us that the devil is here an euphemism for depraved men.
Secondly the hadith applies to the uncovered woman who might allure such men. Similarly the `awra here is not
literal but figurative, signifying all that should remain private. The hadith in question in no way deprives women
from going out, or having a leaderships position. As long as a women covers her awrah / private parts, she can
go out and hold these positions. Therefor when going out a muslim woman should observe the muslim code of
dressing. The Muslim dress for women, as well-known, covers the whole body save for the face and the hands. It
is neither tight nor light in a way that describes the features of the body. Moreover it’s important that woman's
employment should not be at the expense of her principal work, namely caring about her children and husband.
If these conditions are met, and as long as the women does not work in places where she will be in privacy with
non-mahram man, women can be judges, ministers or head of a company or president of a Muslism Student
Assocation.
Muhammad Asad stated:

The Quran, sunnah, and Islamic history provide ample evidence of women undertaking various forms of political
involvement from the bai’ah to fighting in battles to influencing political decisions. Ignoring the contributions of
Muslim women deprives our Islamic heritage of valuable role models while continuing the stagnation of Islamic
thought. To exclude women from political involvement simply because they are women is an act of tribalism
based on gender. The Prophet stated: "He is not of us who proclaims the cause of tribal partisanship..."

k
Source:

Muhammad Asad, The Principles of State and Government in Islam, Dar Al-Andalus, 1980, p. 32 (citing Abu
Dawud )
k
He wrote:

Their opinion is not an isolated one, but one found throughout the hadith literature:

Narrated AbuHurayrah, Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "When your commanders are your best
people, your rich men are your generous people and your affairs are conducted by mutual consultation, the
surface of the earth will be better for you that its interior. But when your commanders are your worst people,
your rich men are your niggardly people and your affairs are in the hands of your women, the interior of the
earth will be the better for you than its surface." Tirmidhi transmitted it, saying this is a gharib tradition. (Al-
Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 1439)

Response:

Before we discuss the authenticity of this hadith, it’s first important to notice that this hadith nowhere mentions
anything about women’s intellect, skills or status. None of these things are mentioned in the hadith, so the
opinions of the extremists quoted by the christian missionar are not even found in this hadith. Further the hadith
mentions a combination of certain things together. It mentions ‘bad commanders’ ,‘rich men who are niggard ‘
and ‘affairs are in the hands of your women’. If all these things together are found in the society, then in a figure
way of speech the interior of the earth will be better for the poeple than it’s surface according to this hadith. So
the hadith in question does not solely refer to women, but also to men. Further the phrase ‘you affairs are in the
hands of your women’ could refer to the situation in the family, where Allah swt tells us that men are the
protectors and maintakers of women. The husbands take care of the afairs after mutual consent with their
women. So the hadith could refer to a situation where the society/government fails to help men in supporting
their function as protector and maintaker of the family. Instead of mutual consultation, all the affairs and burdens
are passed down to the women by the society, who already carry the heavy burdens of being a mother and
looking after her husband and childeren. All these carriers are around the clock. So if women alone were given
all the responsibilites and affairs in their hands, then things could get out of hand and chaos could occur. Notice
how the hadith speaks about ‘mutual consultation’ as a good thing , which means both men and women should
be working together !

Quality of the hadith:

Commenting on the quality of this hadith, Imam Tirmidhi writes: "This is a Gharib Hadith (i.e. a hadith that had
been narrated by only one person in each era until the codification period) - we do not know it except from Salih-
al-Murriy. There are some strange facts in the narrations of Salih in which he is unique (mutafarrid). He is
however, a pious man."
k

So here we see that the person in question who has narrated the hadith is not trustworthy, since his narrations
contains strange facts, for which he is well known. Moreover the hadith is classified as gharib.

Gharib = unfamiliar – strange- doubtfull. The narration is strange and not reported by others or differs from the
versions narrated by others. Secondly a hadith is termed gharib when only a single reporter is found relating it at
some stage of the isnad , which is the case here.
Ahmad b. Hanbal said:

"Do not write these gharib Hadith because they are unacceptable, and most of them are weak” (al-San'ani 2:409)
k

So qualified scholarship tells us that this haditn is unacceptable, and forces us not to accept this narration.
However for the sake argument , i gave an explenation in the beginning of my response. But it should be clear
that a hadith which is classified as ‘unacceptable’ should not even be a matter of discussion in a debate. However
christian missionaries do not care about this, which shows how ignorant and arrogant they are in debates. Finally
we will discuss the rights given to women in christianity, and compare them to islam.

k
k

1 Timothy 2:1-14

Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over
the man, but to be in silence For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman
being deceived was in the transgression.
k

K
k
In other words women according to the bible cannot teach men and cannot have any leaderships positions which
would give them authority over men. The verse and it’s context are clearly general, which is confirmed by
renowned classic bible commentaries, which i shall quote now.

John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament , 1 Timothy Chapter 2

Paul has plainly now laid the foundations, and he proceeds therefore to details. Men were to pray everywhere,
lifting up pure hands, without wrath, and without vain human reasonings. Women were to walk in modesty,
adorned with good works, and to learn in silence. A woman was forbidden to teach or to exercise authority over
men; she was to abide in quietness and silence. The reason given for this is remarkable, and shews how, in our
relations with God, everything depends on the original starting-point. In innocence Adam had the first place; in
sin, Eve It was she who, being deceived, brought in transgression. Adam was not deceived, guilty as he was of
disobeying God. United to his wife, he followed her, not deceived by the enemy but weak through his affection.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/DarbysSynopsisofNewTestament/dby.cgi?book=1ti&chapter=002
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John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible The Book of 1 Timothy Chapter 2

2:12

To usurp authority over the man - By public teaching.

2:13

First - So that woman was originally the inferior.

2:14

And Adam was not deceived - The serpent deceived Eve: Eve did not deceive Adam, but persuaded him. "Thou
hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife," Genesis 3:17. The preceding verse showed why a woman should
not " usurp authority over the man." this shows why she ought not " to teach." She is more easily deceived, and
more easily deceives. The woman being deceived transgressed - "The serpent deceived" her, Genesis 3:13, and
she transgressed.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/WesleysExplanatoryNotes/wes.cgi?book=1ti&chapter=002
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So according to the bible only eve, as a woman was in transgression and not the man ! Therefore all women are
viewed as inferior and less intelleigence then men and therefor cannot teach men, since teaching requires
intelligence and wisedome. Women in the bible are viewed as the gender whose easily deceived and therefor not
fit to teach men ! Compare this to islam which allows women to be a mufti and teach men ! Read and compare
this gift given to women in islam with the curse given tot hem (to be in silence and forbidden to teach men) by
paul in christianity. Women in islam were scholars and teached men, see:

http://www.islamfortoday.com/womenscholars.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/womens_education.htm

Moreover the bible even views it as a shame for women to speak in the church or in public assemblies, which
moreover proofs that women in christianity never can hold any position of leadership or teacher. In christianity
women are not given this right

1 Corinthians 14:34-35

Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but [they are
commanded] to be under obedience, as also saith the law. And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their
husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.
M
Matthew Henry Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible , Chapter 14

Verses 34-35 Here the apostle,

1.

Enjoins silence on their women in public assemblies, and to such a degree that they must not ask questions for
their own information in the church, but ask their husbands at home. They are to learn in silence with all
subjection; but, says the apostle, I suffer them not to teach, 1 Tim. 2:11, 12. There is indeed an intimation (ch.
11:5) as if the women sometimes did pray and prophecy in their assemblies, which the apostle, in that passage,
does not simply condemn, but the manner of performance, that is, praying or prophesying with the head
uncovered, which, in that age and country, was throwing off the distinction of sexes, and setting themselves on a
level with the men. But here he seems to forbid all public performances of theirs. They are not permitted to
speak (v. 34) in the church, neither in praying nor prophesying. The connection seems plainly to include the
latter, in the limited sense in which it is taken in this chapter, namely, for preaching, or interpreting scripture by
inspiration.

And, indeed, for a woman to prophesy in this sense were to teach, which does not so well befit her state of
subjection. A teacher of others has in that respect a superiority over them, which is not allowed the woman over
the man, nor must she therefore be allowed to teach in a congregation: I suffer them not to teach. But praying,
and uttering hymns inspired, were not teaching. And seeing there were women who had spiritual gifts of this sort
in that age of the church (see Acts 22:9), and might be under this impulse in the assembly, must they altogether
suppress it? Or why should they have this gift, if it must never be publicly exercised ? For these reasons, some
think that these general prohibitions are only to be understood in common cases; but that upon extraordinary
occasions, when women were under a divine afflatus, and known to be so, they might have liberty of speech.
They were not ordinarily to teach, nor so much as to debate and ask questions in the church, but learn in silence
there; and, if difficulties occurred, ask their own husbands at home. Note, As it is the woman’s duty to learn in
subjection, it is the man’s duty to keep up his superiority, by being able to instruct her; if it be her duty to ask her
husband at home, it is his concern and duty to endeavour at lest to be able to answer her enquiries; if it be a
shame for her to speak in the church, where she should be silent, it is a shame for him to be silent when he
should speak, and not be able to give an answer, when she asks him at home.

2.

We have here the reason of this injunction: It is God’s law and commandment that they should be under
obedience (v. 34); they are placed in subordination to the man, and it is a shame for them to do any thing that
looks like an affectation of changing ranks, which speaking in public seemed to imply, at least in that age, and
among that people, as would public teaching much more: so that the apostle concludes it was a shame for women
to speak in the church, in the assembly. Shame is the mind’s uneasy reflection on having done an indecent thing.
And what more indecent than for a woman to quit her rank, renounce the subordination of her sex, or do what in
common account had such aspect and appearance? Note, Our spirit and conduct should be suitable to our rank.

The natural distinctions God has made, we should observe. Those he has placed in subjection to others should
not set themselves on a level, nor affect or assume superiority. The woman was made subject to the man, and she
should keep her station and be content with it. For this reason women must be silent in the churches, not set up
for teachers; for this is setting up for superiority over the man.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/MatthewHenryComplete/mhc-com.cgi?book=1co&chapter=014
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John Darby's Synopsis of the New Testament, 1 Corinthians Chapter 14

Women were to be silent in the assembly: it was not permitted to them to speak. They were to remain in
obedience and not to direct others. The law moreover held the same language. It would be a shame to hear them
speak in public. If they had had questions to ask, they might inquire of their husbands at home.

With all their gifts, the word did not come out from the Corinthians, nor had it come unto them only; they ought
to submit to the universal order of the Spirit in the assembly. If they pretended to be led by the Spirit, let them
acknowledge (and this would prove it,) that the things which the apostle wrote to them were the commandments
of the Lord: a very important assertion; a responsible and serious position of this wonderful servant of God.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/DarbysSynopsisofNewTestament/dby.cgi?book=1co&chapter=014
kk

Anyone with common sense can see that women in the bible hardly have any rights, women in the bible are
viewed as inferior to men. They were not allowed to teach men or to have any leaderships position. Islam on the
other hand allows women to teach men and to become judges. Also Muhammad’s wife Aishah has been known
to have corrected Abu Hurairah in respect of traditions which were in conflict with the Qur'an. She was
consulted on her knowledge of the Sunnah by the believers. Imam Zarkashi ( born in 745 Hijrah ) , one of the
greatest scholars of the Shafi’i school in his time, devoted a book dedicated to Aishah’s particular contribution in
this field, entitled “Collection of Aishah’s Corrections to the Statements of the Companions” (Al-‘irada fi ma
istadrakathu ‘A’isha ‘ala al-sahaba).
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

On the issue of whether men and women are equal in Islam, these Salafis unashamedly quote Ibn Kathir’s
comments on Sura 2:282 and claim: Ibn Katheer said: Two women are to take the place of one man because
women are lacking in reason, as Muslim narrated in his Saheeh from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (peace and
blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "O women, give in charity and seek forgiveness a great deal, for I have
seen that you form the majority of the people of Hell." A wise woman among them said, "Why is it, O
Messenger of Allaah, that we are the majority of the people of Hell ?" He said, "Because you curse too much,
and you are ungrateful to your spouses. I have seen none lacking in common sense and failing in religion but (at
the same time) robbing the wisdom of the wise, besides you." The woman asked: "O Messenger of Allaah, what
is wrong with our common sense and our religion?" He said: "Your lack of common sense (can be well judged
from the fact) that the evidence of two women is equal to that of one man, that is a proof of the lack of common
sense, and you spend some nights (and days) in which you do not offer prayer and in the month of Ramadan
(during the days) you do not observe fast, that is a failing in religion." - Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 1/336

Response:

The hadith ad quranic ayah quoted by ibn kathir has nothing to do with intelligence or wisedom. I shall now
quote a fatwa about this hadith from the scholars of ourdialogue.com:

Fatwa by the scholars of ourdialogue.com :


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Question:

My daughter keeps asking me about the Hadith that women are deficient in mental ability and in religion. Could
you please explain it? Why does the Prophet, peace be upon him, say that most women will be in hell ?
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Your daughter is not alone. Many are those who question the meaning it conveys. This is largely due to the fact
that the Hadith is quoted only in part and the relevant statement is cited out of context. People always attribute to
the Prophet, peace be upon him, the suggestion that women are inferior to men on grounds of a deficient mind a
lack of faith. This is far from true. Let us look at the Hadith in full:

Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim

On the occasion of Eid, either that of sacrifice or that of ending the fast, the Prophet, peace be upon him, went to
the prayer place, and then went to speak to women and he said: “Ladies! I have not seen people deficient in mind
and religion yet can get away with a rational man’s mind like any one of you.” They asked: “How are we
deficient in mind and religion, Messenger of God?” He said: “Is it not true that a woman’s testimony counts as
half that of a man?” When they answered in the affirmative, he said: “This is her mental deficiency. Is it not true
that when a woman is in her period she neither prays nor fasts?” They again answered in the affirmative. He
said: “This is her religious deficiency.
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To start with, the Prophet, peace be upon him, was speaking to a congregation of women on a joyous occasion.
Exemplary in his care for others, particularly his companions, and kind and compassionate as he was, it is
inconceivable that he would insult them by such a statement, if he meant it as a statement of fact, like some of us
do. The Prophet, peace be upon him, simply used this phrase “deficient in mind and religion” to alert them to
what he wanted to say to them. The Prophet, peace be upon him, frequently uses such a method, inserting some
words that may not be relevant to the point he wants to stress, so that they serve to attract the attention of his
audience. Furthermore, his statement expresses amazement at a well-known situation, when a man is infatuated
by a woman to the extent that his behavior changes in character. He may be wise and intelligent, yet he could
easily behave in a way that is inconsistent with his intelligence and wisdom when he is so infatuated. This is a
case where a woman who is generally weaker ( faster overcome by emotions, less physical strenght ) than a man
can control him.

The Hadith mentions that the Prophet’s women audience asked him to clarify what he said. His clarification
pinpoints certain aspects that suggest no inferiority whatsoever. The mental deficiency is related to the fact that
in certain cases, two women witnesses are required in place of one-man witness. This has to do with the role of
each of the two sexes in Islamic society. It is no reflection on a woman’s mental ability. As for religious
deficiency, the Prophet, peace be upon him, states the fact that a woman is exempt from prayer and fasting when
she is in menstruation. While God gives a woman the reward for prayer and fasting as if she has done them,
since she stops only because of her condition and in response to God’s orders, still the fact that she does not
fulfill these duties means that her worship is less in terms of what she offers. It does not mean that she is a lesser
believer.

As for a relevant statement of fact in this regard, the Prophet, peace be upon him, says, “Women are full sisters
of men.” In the Arabic text, the Prophet, peace be upon him, uses here a word, which implies total similarity and
equivalence. Hence, the Prophet’s statement suggests no inferiority attached to women. The Qur’an and the
Sunnah assign the same duties to both men and women, and promise them the same reward. If this does not
mean the same status, I would like to know what does.

May I add here that the translation of this Hadith as quoted by you is wrong, because it splits the relevant
sentence and gives the Prophet's words in such a way that they appear to make a statement of fact. This is wrong,
as I have explained.

As for the other part, a full translation of it goes as follows: “ I have seen hell and I have never seen any thing
more horrific than what I saw then. I also saw that the majority of its dwellers are women. They asked: “On
what grounds, Messenger of God ? He said: “By their denial.‚ They said: “Their denial of God ?‚ He answered:
“No. Their denial of their spouses and their denial of kindness. You may be kind to one of them all the time, but
when she finds fault with you she says: I have never received any kindness from you. ”

To start with, the Hadith does not say that most women are in hell. It says that the majority of hell dwellers are
women, which simply signifies that more women fail in this worldly test than men. Then the Prophet, peace be
upon him, points out their failure, which is not based on denying God. Rather, it is denying kindness, particularly
in marital situations. The Prophet, peace be upon him, has pointed this out in more than one Hadith, warning
women against grumbling and frequent complaints. He is also warning them here against denying kindness by
their husbands, highlighting a failing that is often expressed in denying past kindness.

The Hadith shows that women can easily avoid such a destiny by being fair and appreciative of kindness. They
should always be grateful to God for what He has given them and also be appreciative of any kindness done to
them by others, particularly those with whom they live, be they their husbands, parents or other relatives. 1
Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood comments on Soerah 2:282

It has been suggested that the Prophet,peace be upon him, regarded women as inferior to men for two reasons -
the inheritance laws in which a daughter received half the share of a son; and the fact that two female witnesses
were regarded as the equal of one male witness.

In fact, the Qur’an actually taught that the witness of a woman was just as valid as that of a man, and made no
distinction regarding the sex of a witness in every single reference except one – the concession of granting two
female witnesses in legal cases where women had little knowledge or expertise. The intention of this concession
was to prevent women being tricked or cheated by unscrupulous men who could take advantage of their
inexperience in business matters.

Qu’ran 2.282:

O believers ! When you deal with each other in lending for a fixed period of time, put it in writing. Let a scribe
write everything down with justice between the parties. The scribe, who has been given the gift of literacy by
Allah, should not refuse to write; he is under obligation to write. Let the debtor dictate, fearing the Almighty, his
Lord, and not diminishing anything from the settlement. If the borrower is mentally unsound or weak or is
unable to dictate himself, let the guardian of his interests dictate for him with justice. Let two witnesses from
among you bear witness to all such documents, if two men cannot be found, then one man and two women of
your choice should bear witness, so that if one of the women forgets anything the other may remind her.
Witnesses must not refuse (to bear witness) when they are called upon to do so. K
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In every other kind of case, there was no reason why the witness of a woman should not be just as reliable as
evidence as that of a man, and no distinction of either sex was made or necessary. For example:
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Qu’ran 24:4

Those who accuse a chaste woman of fornication and do not produce four witnesses to support their allegation,
shall be flogged with eighty lashes and their testimony shall not be accepted ever after, for they are the ones who
are wicked transgressors
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The text implies any four witnesses, who could be of either sex. In societies where it is insisted that the witnesses
should all be male, this is really a cultural gloss on the rule, since any text in the Arabic masculine plural
grammatically includes both men and women, unless specifically stated otherwise. Assumptions that women’s
evidence would be unreliable because of the inferiority of women in intellectual capacity, memory, or character
stem from a patriarchal perspective in a male-dominated community which tried to limit the appearance of their
women in public. The Qur’an does not bear this attitude and established the equality of men and women before
Allah. The restrictions against public appearance are a nonsense in this century, when the medical evidence of
the rape could be presented by a woman doctor to a female litigator in front of a female jurist! It is certainly a
travesty of justice to deny a victim of rape the right to testify to this violent attack merely because she is a
woman. 2
Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry comments on Soerah 2:282

Qu’ran 2:282

And get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as
ye choose for witnesses, so that if “one of them errs (through forgetfulness) the other can remind her...
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From this verse, it is generally contended by the critics of Islam that Islam renders two women equal to one man
in the matters of evidence. However, this criticism is totally baseless and unfounded if judged by an unbiased
mind. Firstly, this injunction of the Qur’an pertains to the business and commercial transactions only which are
so often very complicated and ambiguous to understand even by an expert businessman. A woman being
generally not involved in such difficult transactions has no knowledge or understanding of them and, therefore,
she is likely to get confused. Secondly, from the words of the Qur’an it is clear that actually evidence would be
given by one woman and the other would be present merely to remind her if she forgets. Thirdly, the presence of
two women is for the purpose of moral support and boosting the confidence of the woman witness as the
company of the other woman would raise the morale of the female witness. The atmosphere of courts being
dominated by men-the judges, the lawyers, the litigants and the witnesses being generally men-- woman is likely
to get confused and, forget in such an awe-inspiring atmosphere.

In no other matters, except the commercial transactions of complicated nature referred to in verse No. 282 of
chapter 2, does the Qur’an command its believers to equate the evidence of two women with one man. In the
matter of Lian or imprecation where the husband charges his wife of adultery, the testimony of the woman would
be equal to her husband (Al-Qur’an 24:6-9) On the Day of judgement, God will ask the infant female child who
was buried alive and only on her evidence, He would punish the person guilty of this heinous crime even without
listening to or looking at the offender. (Al-Qur’an 81:'8-9). Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon
him); reproduced above establish beyond any doubt that the Prophet of Islam punished the Jew guilty of grinding
the head of a girl between two stones on the evidence of the girl alone, and on the evidence of a woman alone
who had been raped, the Prophet (peace be upon him) punished the man who was guilty. So much so that the
evidence of a woman who had fostered the man and the woman of very respectable families in their infancy,
caused the breach of their marriage, since foster brother and sister cannot be united in marriage according to
Islamic Law.

In the matters which pertain to women specially-and mind it ! these are not few matters since the women
constitute half of human beings-the evidence of a woman would carry rather more weight than the evidence of
man. 3

Encyclopaedia of Seerah says:

However, in some other fields, a woman witness may not only suffice but may also over-ride the evidence of
many men and women, especially in fields where expert and sound knowledge is needed in which women may
be more proficient than a men.

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Sheikh G.F. Haddad writes:

The proof that the meaning of the above verse applies only in a very narrow and technical context is that many
scholars of Islam have permitted “women to be judges. Further, all Sunni schools agree that a woman may be a
mufti just as a man can. Based on that consensus, moreover, al-“Tabari, and probably al-Shaybani, were also of
the position that a woman could be a judge (qadi) for all types of cases, because a fatwa is more “important
(a'zam makanatan) than a judgment (qada').

To go back to the meaning of the verse: Al-Zuhayli said the second woman was needed to remind the first of any
detail she might have forgotten “(as explicitly mentioned in the aya), just as the second man - if there actually
were two male witnesses - would have done with the first. For men “socialize with men, and women with
women; they do not mix so, a priori, they would not be able to correct each other as easily as a member of “their
own sex. Another reason is that from the psychological perspective men and even little boys tend to be more
finnicky about rules and details – “even meaningless details - whereas women and little girls often brush off the
rules as unimportant and overlook minutiae that to their minds may “seem irrelevant. Also, contractual and
commercial life tends to be male-dominated i.e. of greater access and familiarity to men, although there are
“social situations where only women are present.

Further: In Muslim countries, usually only women are present at the time of a birth; whether they are the mid-
wife, doctor etc. In some cases only “one woman may be present. There are serious legal implications in
inheritance as to whether the baby is still-born, lives, or breathes (is alive) and “then dies almost immediately.
Yet, if only one woman is present at such times, her testimony is taken as valid. In the case of two spouses each
“accusing the other of adultery with no other witnesses: each spouse may witness four times, the fifth time they
invoke the curse of Allah on them if “they are telling a lie. In neither of these two examples is the man's word
equivalent to that of two women.” 4
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Sheikh Shaltut writes:

There is a stronger proof for equality in the Qur'an's statement that the woman is just like the man in the type of
testimony known as the oath of condemnation [Translator’s note: An oath in which either the husband or the
wife accuses his or her partner of adultery and the only witness is one of them.]

"And as for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves, let the testimony of one of
them be four testimonies (i.e. testifies four times) by Allah that he be one of those who speak the truth. And the
fifth (testimony) (should be) invoking the Curse of Allah on him if he be one of those who tell a lie (against her).
But it shall avert the punishment (of stoning to death) from her, if she bears witness four times by Allah, that he
(her husband) is telling a lie. And the fifth (testimony) should be that the Wrath of Allah be upon her if (her
husband) speaks the truth". [ Surah 24:6- 9]

That is, four repetitions of the oath or testimony by the man concluded by an invocation of his damnation by
Allah if he is lying, countered by and invalidated by four repetitions of the woman's counter statement, also
followed by an invocation of Allah's wrath upon her if she is lying.

Source:

Islamic Beliefs and Code of Laws, Sheikh Shalt, p.111 – 112


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Allama Muhammad Asad writes:

The stipulation that two women may be substituted for one male witness does not imply any reflection on
woman's moral or intellectual “capabilities: it is obviously due to the fact that, as a rule, women are less familiar
with business procedures than men and, therefore, more liable“to commit mistakes in this respect. 5
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The scholars of ourdialogue.com comment on the soerah:

This is in business transactions only. It does imply that, as a rule, women are less familiar with business
procedures than men and, therefore, more liable to commit mistakes in this respect. Besides, there are certain
cases when only women witnesses are acceptable, and one woman witness is sufficient to prove her case. 6
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So here we clearly see that the hadith quoted by Ibn Kathir and Soerah 2:282 have nothing do with women’s
intellectual capabilities or brain capacity, these interpretations have no support in the quran nor in the autentic
sunnah. Therefor to say that woman are defficient in intelligence is not correct and not islamic.

He wrote:

There may be some women who are wiser than some men, but this is not the usual rule and such women are not
in the majority. Sharee'ah is based on what is general and most common. The fact that women are lacking in
reason does not mean that they are crazy, rather their reason is often overtaken by their emotions, and this
happens to women more often than it happens to men. No one would deny this except one who is arrogant.

Response:

The fact that woman are more often overtaken by emotions then men does not mean that women are less
intelligence then men ! These things have nothing to do with potential of brain or capacity of talent or skill.
Moreover the arabic word in the hadith which is translated as ‘reason / intelligence’ is ‘aqal’ , which actually
means ‘mind’ and not ‘reason / intelligence’. The same word ‘aqal’ is therefor in: Sahih Bukhari, Witnesses,
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 826, translated as ‘mind’. This refers in general to a women’s nature and
emotional character, she gets faster scared then men and is earlier in panic then men and / or overtaken by her
emotions. Moreover the prophet told us that men and woman are equal, see:
Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 113; Ahmad, 25663

The Prophet said: “women are the twin halves of men.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi
k

He wrote:

They also quote Ibn Kathir on Sura 4:34: Ibn Katheer said: Allaah says “'Men are the protectors and maintainers
of women” meaning that the man is in charge of the woman, i.e., he is the leader and head of the household, the
one who disciplines her if she goes astray. “because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other” i.e.,
because men are superior to women and are better than women. Hence Prophethood was given only to men, as
was the position of khaleefah, because the Prophet said, “No people shall ever prosper who appoint a woman as
their ruler.” This was narrated by al-Bukhaari from the hadeeth of 'Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Abi Bakrah from his
father. The same applies to the position of judge etc.

Response:

It is not correct and not possible in Islam to say that men are better and superior to women. Muslim scholar Dr.
Ahmed Shafaat comments on this commonly misquoted Soerah:

Dr. Ahmed Shafaat comments:

The verse begins with the statement that "men are qawwamun over women". The root of the key word,
qawwamun (pl. of qawwam), is qama which means "to stand or to make something stand or to establish
something". It is often used in the Holy Qur'an in the sense of establishing religion or prayer. A related word is
qa'im which means "one who stands or makes something stand". Qawwam is an intensive form of qa'im and has
a sense of continuity in the action involved. So it means one who is continuously standing over something (as,
for example, a guard or caretaker) or one who is continuously making something stand, i.e. is maintaining it. In
the Qur'anic usage of qawwam and related words there is almost always present an idea of propriety. For
example, aqamah of salah is not only praying but also praying properly. The function of qawwam is also
understood in the Qur'an to be characterized by fairness. Thus in 4:135 and 5:8, the only other passages in the
Qur'an where the word is used, the believers are told:
K

"O you who believe! Be qawwamin with fairness..."

"O you who believe! Be qawwamin for God as witnesses to fairness..."


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Thus to be a qawwam over something or someone is to guard, maintain or take care of that something or
someone in a proper and fair manner ( protector, guardian, maintainer ).

The meaning of The Holy Qur’an” Abdullah Yusuf Ali , Page 195, An Nisa, Note 545:

Qawwam: one who stands firm in another’s buisiness, protects his interests, and looks after his affairs; or it may
be, standing firm in his own business, managing affairs, with a steady purpose.
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Muhammad Asad “The Message of The Quran”, Dar Al Andalus Limited, Gibraltar, page 109, Note 42:

“more on some of them than on the others" – The expression qawwam is an intensive form of qa'im ("one who
is responsible for" or "takes care of" a thing or a person). Thus, qama 'ala 'l-mar'ah signifies "he undertook the
maintenance of the woman" or "he maintained her" (see Lane VIII, 2995). The grammatical form qawwam is
more comprehensive than qa'im, and combines the concepts of physical maintenance and protection as well as of
moral responsibility: and it is because of the last-named factor that I have rendered this phrase as "men shall take
full care of women”.
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Thus to be a qawwam over something or someone is to guard, maintain or take care of that something or
someone in a proper and fair manner.

Moreover, the Holy Qur'an makes it clear that while there are many favours of God that He bestows on His
creatures in different measures, there is only one favour which determines the superiority of one member of the
human species over another and that is taqwa or God consciousness. Thus wealth, strength, health, position,
education, etc. are all favours of God but we cannot say that a wealthier person is superior to a poorer person, a
stronger person is superior is superior to a physically feeble person and so on. we can say only that a more
muttaqi person is superior to a less muttaqi person. In the words of the Holy Qur'an:

Qu’ran 49:13

"The nobler among you in the sight of God is the more muttaqi (righteous) among you." K
k
Hafiz Ibn Hibban reported in al-Sahih 11 / 203 / 4862 , via his isnad, from Fadalah ibn Ubayd:

The prophet, peace be upon him, said: ”All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a
non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any“superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a
black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to
every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which
belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to
yourselves.”

Hafiz Ibn Hibban authenticated it by including it in his al-Sahih. Shu`ayb al-Arna'ut said in his comments that its
isnad is sahih. The hadith more over proofs that a person in islam can only be viewed superior to the other in
matters of piety and good actions. Thus the fact that man has been favoured in some ways ( with physical
strenght ) more than woman does not make him superior to her. It is only when his taqwa is more than hers that
he can from the Qur'anic point of view be considered superior to her. And when a person's taqwa increases to a
worthwhile level the question of his superiority does not interest him, for he or she realizes that all praises are
due to God.

Source:

A commentary on the qur'an 4:34 by Dr. Ahmad Shafaat , First published in Al-Ummah, Montreal, Canada in
1984. Copyright Dr. Ahmad Shafaat

Note:

Dr. Ahmad Shafaat has clearly showed and proven us that it is not islamic and not correct to say that men are
better and superior to women, neither the quran nor the authentic sunnah of our beloved Prophet support these
statements. Moreover on page 8 of this booklet, we have seen that the prophet with his statement “women are the
twinhalves of men “ clearly refuted the statement that “men are superior to womem“.
k

As for the hadith quoted by Ibn kathir that “No people shall ever prosper who appoint a woman as their ruler” , i
have discussed this hadith and it’s meaning in great detail in “part 3 k” of my booklet. I strongly recommend the
reader to read part 3 k of my booklet, to get all the required information and answers about this hadith.
He wrote:

Allaah says: “'and because they spend (to support them) from their means” refers to the mahr and the spending
on women's maintenance that Allaah has enjoined upon men in His Book and in the Sunnah of His Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). So a man is inherently better than a woman, and he is superior to
her because he spends on her. So it is appropriate that he should be in charge of her, as Allaah says, 'but men
have a degree (of responsibility) over them' [al-Baqarah 2:228].

Response:

In my previous reponse i clearly showed with proof that soerah 4:34 to which ibn kathir refers, has nothing to do
with superiority. The soerah refers to the role of each gender in the family. Like Dr. Ahmad Shafaat explained
before: “there is only one favour which determines the superiority of one member of the human species over
another and that is taqwa or God consciousness.” So it’s not correct and not islamic to say that men are better
and/ or superior then women because men are maintakers and protectors of women, due to their physical strenght
and nature. More proof this statement can be found in the next quotation from the scholar Fathi Osman:

Fathi Osman writes:

The view that a man is superior to a woman because he is physically ‘stronger’ lacks the support of the Qur’an
and authentic Sunnah. The divine sources mention ‘care’ and ‘responsibility’ within the family, but not
superiority. Muslim men and women are equal in their individual and social responsibilities, being in charge
(protectors) of one another and of the whole society (awliyya), as stated in Surah al-Taubah 9:71

Source:

Fathi Osman (1996), Muslim Women in the Family and the Society, Reprint, Kuala Lumpur:
SIS Forum (Malaysia) Berhad., p. 48
k

Soerah 2:228, which is quoted by Ibn kathir has also nothing to do with men being superior to women or better,
since this soerah refers to men’s extra responsibilites towards their wifes. Therefor this soerah can’t be used as
an argument to say that women are inferior or cannot become judges or head of a company etc. These arguments
are clearly not supported in the qu’ran nor in the authentic sunnah of our beloved Prophet Muhammed.

can’t be used

Qu’ran 2:228:

And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a
degree ( of responsibility ) over “them. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise
k
Shayk Gibirl Fouad Haddad comments:

“In other words, Allah gave men and women similar rights; then he gave the men a greater degree of
responsibility over the women than that of women over men. It follows that the rights owned to the wife are
unnegotiable, whereas the husband has to give up certain rights. This is not a feminist reading but the actual
explanation of Ibn `Abbas according to al-Tabari in his Tafsir, and the latter preferred it over all other
commentaries of that verse. “ 7

Imam al-Tabari argued that the degree referred to in this verse exhorts men to treat their wives better than they
expect to be treated; in other words, the husband should not require his wife to fulfill all of her obligations to
him, but he should still fulfill all of his obligations to her.

Source:

M.H. Sherif, The Muslim Woman Between the Truth of Sharia and the Fallacy of Falsification, Dar al-Marifa al-
Jamiyiya, 1987, p. 141 ( citing al-Tabari, Tafsir, 1954, vol. 2, p. 454 )
k

The view held by Imam al-Tabari, that husbands should treat their wives better than they expect to be treated by
them, was apparently the interpretation given to this verse in the early years of Islam. The dergee speaks about
extra responsibilty and caretaking, not about superioty or status. Men Have to spend extra time, care and love to
their wifes because they are “qawwamuna” of women ( protectors and caretakers ).

Abdullah ibn Abbas said:

I adorn myself for my wife as she adorns herself for me, and I would not like to exact all my rights that she owes
me, so that she also would notclaim all what is due to her...” The degree is a cue to invite men to pleasant
cohabitation and to extend to women more money and good manners,“ because the one with more gifts should
impose more upon himself.

Source:

M.H. Sherif, "Women and Political Power in Muslim Thought", Lecture, Cornell University, 1987 ( citing al-
Tabari, Tafsir, 1954, vol. 2, p. 454 )
k
He wrote

Ali ibn Abi Talhah said, narrating from Ibn 'Abbaas: 'Men are the protectors and maintainers of women' means
that men are the leaders of women and they should obey them in areas where Allaah has enjoined obedience.
Obedience may mean treating his family kindly and protecting his wealth." (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 1/490)

Response:

Ibn Abbas comments on soerah 4:34, which says;

Qu’ran 4:34

Men are the protectors and maintainers (Qawama) of women, because Allah has given each preference over the
other, and because they support them from their means. And the righteous women are the truly devout ones, who
guard the intimacy which God has [ordained to be] guarded
k

The beauty of the Quranic expression is illustrated in the statement that: "Allah has given each preference over
the other " and not merely that Allah gave preference to men over women. This is because men are preferred in
some aspects and women are preferred in others; particular the emotional aspect of life, whilst the man is obliged
to pay the marital gift or which is known today as Dowry or ‘Mahr’, to establish the marital house and support it.
Therefore, if a man ever attempts to harm this family; he will be the very first victim of this act of destruction.

Muhammad Asad “The Message of The Quran”, Dar Al Andalus Limited, Gibraltar, page 109, Note 42:

The expression qawwam is an intensive form of qa'im ("one who is responsible for" or "takes care of" a thing or
a person). Thus, qama 'ala 'l-mar'ah signifies "he undertook the maintenance of the woman" or "he maintained
her" (see Lane VIII, 2995). The grammatical form qawwam is more comprehensive than qa'im, and combines
the concepts of physical maintenance and protection as well as of moral responsibility: and it is because of the
last-named factor that I have rendered this phrase as "men shall take full care of women”.
k

In islam men bear the major responsibility of earning for a living, harnessing and developing the resources of the
earth, facing life hardships, and defending his family and the community against dangers. A man is responsible
to financially support his wife (even if she is rich), his daughters until they are married, his sons until they are
able to support themselves, his needy parents, as well as other blood relatives. To fulfill these major
responsibilities, he should assume the role of Protector/ Guardian/ Leader, moreover to fullfill his duty as
“Qawama of Women” (which means protector / caretaker ). Moreover the function of qawwam is also
understood in the Qur'an to be characterized by fairness, like dr. Ahmad Shafaat explained on page 9 of this
booklet.
Dr. Jamal Badawi writes:

Such degree is Quiwama (maintenance and protection). This refers to that natural difference between the sexes
which entitles the weaker sex to protection. It implies no superiority or advantage before the law. Yet, man's role
of leadership in relation to his family does not mean the husband's dictatorship over his wife. Islam emphasizes
the importance of taking counsel and mutual agreement in family decisions. The Qur'an gives us an example:

Qur'an 2: 233

"...If they ( husband wife ) desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, there is no blame
on them..."
k

Qur’an 9:71

The believing men and women, are associates and helpers of each other. They (collaborate) to promote all that is
beneficial and discourage all that is evil; to establish prayers and give alms, and to obey Allah and his
Messenger. Those are the people whom Allah would grant mercy. Indeed Allah is Mighty and Wise.
k

Over and above her basic rights as a wife comes the right which is emphasized by the Qur'an and is strongly
recommended by the Prophet; kind treatment and companionship. The Qur'an states: 8

Qur'an 4: l9

"...But consort with them in kindness, for if you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein God has
placed much good."
k

Ibn-Hanbal, No. 7396

Prophet Muhammad said: “The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and best of you are those who are
best to their wives.”
k
So the leadership to which Ibn Abbas refers in his explenation of soerah 4:34 has nothin to do with dictatorship
over women. Islam commands men to treat their wives well and with respect, moreover the qur’an emphasizes
the importance of taking counsel and mutual agreement in family decisions. In the authentic hadith we can even
see that man's treatment of his wife is a measure of the perfection of his faith. Therefor the leadership to which
Ibn Abbas refers is a leaderschips position which characterized by fairness (see page 9 ) , moreover to fullfill his
duty as “Qawama” (protector and maintainer of his wife and family ) he should assume the role of Protector/
Guardian/ Leader in the house. Ibn Abbas himself in his comments on soerah 2:282 explains how men should
treat their wifes, while being in position of leader/head of the house:

Al-Tabari in his Tafsir narrated from Ibn `Abbas:

"The daraja mentioned by Allah Most High here is the forfeiting, on the man's part, of some his wife's
obligations towards him and his indulgence towards her, while he is fully obligated to fulfill all his obligations
towards her, because the verse came right after { And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over
them in kindness} . Hence Ibn `Abbas said: “I would not like to obtain all (astanzif) of my right from her
because Allah Most High said { and men are a degree above them}”

Source:

al-Tabari, Tafsir, 1954, vol. 2, p. 454


k

Moreover muslims must follow the sunnah of our beloved Prophet Muhammed , who is the best example for
hudbands to follow in marriage and treatment of one’s wife. Ibn kathirs in his tafsir on soerah 4:19 writes:

Ibn Kathir in his tafsir writes:

(And live with them honorably) , by saying kind words to them, treating them kindly and making your
appearance appealing for them, as much as you can, just as you like the same from them…….

It was the practice of the Messenger of Allah to be kind, cheerful, playful with his wives, compassionate,
spending on them and laughing with them. The Messenger used to race with `A'ishah, the Mother of the Faithful,
as a means of kindness to her. 9
k

The qur’an teaches us the importance to follow the example of our beloved Prophet Muhammad.

Qur’an 33:21

Ye have indeed in the Apostle of God a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in God and the
Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of God.
k
And finally i would like to quote the scholar Maulana Fazlul Karim, who gives an excellent commentary on the
ideal of wifehood in Islam:

The eminent muslim scholar Maulana Fazlul Karim in his book ‘Al-Hadis' writes:

The ideal of wifehood in Islam is love and affection and not subordination and servitude. She is regarded as the
safeguard for husband against sin“and not the `road to inequity', a strong fortress against inroads of the devil and
`not the gate of the devil' a light house of virtue that saves man “from shipwreck when tossed by the raging
waves of passion, and not the instrument of devil's works, and a great transformer of a brute husband into an
angel. A virtuous wife is the best treasure which a man can justly be proud of. She is the queen of the household
because the Prophet said “that a woman is a ruler over the household of her husband. She forms the greatest
factor in the formation of the character of children and in reclaiming husband from falling on slippery ground of
immorality. Indeed, she is a partner in life for consolation and peace.
Sources:

1:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/Ws1.htm

2:

http://members.aol.com/ruqaiyyah/articles/antifem.htm

3:

The book: “Women’s rights in Islam” by Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry, chapter 10:3

4:

http://www.livingislam.org/n/wmnc_e.html

5:

http://www.geocities.com/masad02/002c

6:

http://www.ourdialogue.com/e3.htm

7:

http://www.livingislam.org/fiqhi/fiqha_e22.html

8:

http://www.load-islam.com/C/Women/The_Status_of_Women_in_Islam

9:

http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=10685
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

They don’t stop there: There are other differences between the sexes, including the following: - A man can marry
four women, but a woman can only have one husband.

Response:

Islam neither invented nor encouraged polygamy. Unlimited polygamy was a pre-existing practice prior to the
revelations of the Qur’an. Let’s take a look at the qu’ranic ayah about polygamy:
k

Surah 4:3

If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or
four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a captive) that your right
hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.
k

The letter and the spirit of the verse on polygamy was revealed following the tragedy of the battle of Uhud and
was concerned with the overriding welfare and protection of women and children following the death of dozens
of Muslim men in the still formative Muslim community of Medina. Therefor polygamy was made permissible
in this context, but not the norm in islam or encouraged / recommended in normal circumstances. Moreover the
Qur’an only permits polygamy, if the man is completely sure and able to treat his wifes all equal and with
justice. This is an extreme hard task, and most men these days are not able to fullfill all these conditions.

Sheik Yusuf Al-Qaradawi writes:

The condition which Islam lays down for permitting a man to have more than one wife is confidence on his part
that he will be able to deal equitably with his two or more wives in the matter of food, drink, housing, clothing
and expenses, as well as in the division of his time between them. Anyone who lacks the assurance that he will
be able to fulfill all these obligations with justice and equality is prohibited by Allah Almighty from marrying
more than one woman, for Allah says: "But if you fear that you will not be able to do justice (among them), then
(marry) only one..." (An-Nisa': 3) 1

Reported by Ibn Hibban and al-Hakim

The Prophet said: “Anyone who has two wives and does not treat them equally will come on the Day of
Resurrection dragging one part of his body which will be hanging down."
k
The hadith reported by Ibn Hibban and al-Hakim warns against polygamy should the man not be able to practice
equality amongst his wives. Now let’s take a look at the comments made by Dr. Zakir Naik on this subject.

Dr. Zakir Naik writes:

Qur'an permits limited polygyny As I mentioned earlier, Qur'an is the only religious book on the face of the earth
that says "marry only one". Before the Qur'an was revealed, there was no upper limit for polygyny and many
men had scores of wives, some even hundreds. Islam put an upper limit of four wives. Islam gives a man
permission to marry two, three or four women, only on the condition that he deals with them justly. In the same
chapter i.e. Surah Nisa verse 129 says: "It is very difficult to be just and fair between women". Therefore
polygyny is not a rule but an exception. Many people are under the misconception that it is compulsory for a
Muslim man to marry more than one wife. Broadly, Islam has five categories of Do's and Dont's.

1: "Farz" i.e compulsory


2: "Mustahab" i.e recommended or encouraged
3: "Mubah" i.e permissible
4: "Makruh" i.e "not recommended" or discouraged
5: "Haram" i.e prohibited or forbidden

Polygamy falls in the middle category of things that are permissible. It cannot be said that a Muslim who has
two, three or four wives is a better Muslim as compared to a Muslim who has only one wife. 2
k

Conclusion:

Polygamy in islam is permissible ( but not encouraged in normal circumstances / situations ) , and could be a
solution for certain circumstances / situations. For example, if a wife puts herself in the shoes of a widow who
does not have anyone to care for or look after her, and thinks sincerely of a solution to her problem, she will find
that she would be happy to be a second wife rather than to stay as a widow and continue to suffer the problems in
raising children and having the same life as her peers do. So there is always wisdom behind the permission of
polygamy. Moreover we have seen that polygamy was permitted by the Qur'an to do away injustice to orphans
and widows ( actually the Arabic word yatama includes widows also ) , rather then men’s desires. Moreover the
condition which Islam lays down for permitting a man to have more than one wife is that he has confidence on
his part that he will be able to deal equitably with his wives in the matter of providing food, housing, clothing,
and expenses, and that he will also be able to divide his time between them. Any man who doubts that he will be
able to fulfill all these obligations with justice and equality would be prohibited by Allah Almighty from
marrying more than one woman.

Many forget or fail to fully understand polygamy as practised by the Prophet (peace be upon him). Prophet
Muhammad had a monogamous relationship with Siti Khadijah bint Khuwailid, who was 15 year his senior, for
28 years until her death. Of these 28 years, 17 were before he became a Rasul and 11 years after that. During
those 28 years, he never married anyone else. His next marriage took place two years after Siti Khadijah’s
death, following the marriage of three of his four daughters. Siti Khadijah’s death was a deep loss for the
Prophet for he had not only lost his wife, but his companion and partner in the struggle.
When the Prophet began practising polygamy – a common custom for Arabian society at the time -- it was at the
age of 54. He married a total of 11 times, and most of his marriages were to elderly women, widows, women
with children and divorcees, entered into for political and tribal reasons. The only virgin he ever married was
Aishah, on the insistance of her father, Abu Bakar, the first caliph of Islam. The Prophet married nine women
after Aishah within a space of 5 years and never divorced any of the women he was married to. The only wife
who was to bear him children who lived to adulthood was Siti Khadijah. So, when we look at the way and
reasons he married the 11 women they indicate that the Prophet did not marry to have a “keturunan” (progeny),
nor did he marry young women to fulfill his desire. In fact, he practised polygamy within the realm of spreading
Islam to the communities at the time.

What is even more striking is the fact that even though the Prophet himself practised polygamy, he prohibited his
son-in-law, Saidina Ali Ibn Abi Talib who was married to his daughter Fatimah az-Zahra’, from doing the same.
Many forget the authentic hadith (as reported in Sunan Ibn Majah) which reported that the Prophet, when asked
if he would permit Saidina Ali to marry another woman, said that he would not, “....unless and until Ali Ibn Abi
Talib divorces my daughter, for surely she is part of me and what troubles and agitates her, troubles and agitates
me too; and what harm befalls her befalls me too.” The hadith is also found in Sahih Bukhari:

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 157:

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin
Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give
permission, and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their
daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."
k

It is regretful that many do not cite this hadith nor appreciate the wisdom of the actions of the Prophet in this
regard. The fact that the Prophet prohibited his son-in-law from marrying a second wife, shows us that islam
encourages monogamy, and moreover supports the view that a wifes permission is required for a husband to
marry a second husband ! The prophet knew that his daughter Fatima would hate to see her husband marrying
second wife. Therefor a husband in islam can only marry a second wife, if his first wife agrees with this. Clearly,
had Prophet Muhammad felt that his daughter should consent and allow Saidina Ali to marry another, he would
not have said the above. He would have insisted that she gave her consent. Instead he was emphatic in his
support for her feelings and felt the hurt that she felt.

A great granddaughter of the Prophet, ( Sakina, daughter of Hussein and granddaughter of Fatimah and Ali )
put various conditions in her marriage contract, including the condition that her husband would have no right to
take another wife during their marriage (reported in Kitab Al-Muraddafat ).

Hadith - Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 50, Number 882.

Narrated Uqba bin Amir: Allah's Apostle said: "From among all the conditions which you have to fulfill, the
conditions which make it legal for you to have sexual relations (i.e. the marriage contract) have the greatest right
to be fulfilled."
k
Ibn Qudaamah said in his book “Al-Mughni” :

If he married her on the condition that he should not make her move from her house or her city, then this
condition is valid, because it was reported that the Prophet said: ‘The most deserving of conditions to be fulfilled
are those by means of which sexual intercourse becomes permissible for you.” If he married her on the condition
that he will not marry another wife, then she has the right to leave him if he does take another wife.” In
conclusion, then, the conditions of the marriage contract are divided into three types, one of which must be
adhered to, which is of benefit to the wife, such as her being able to stipulate that he cannot make her move from
her house or city, or travel with him, or take another wife or a concubine. He has to adhere to these conditions,
and if he does not, then she has the right to annul the marriage.

Source:

Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah, part 7, Kitaab al-Nikaah


k

Shaykh Ibn Taymiyah answers the next quesion in “Al-Fataawa al-Kubra” :

Question: a man married a woman and she stipulated that he should not take another wife or make her move
from her house, and that she could stay with her mother, so he married her on this basis. Does he have to adhere
to this, and if he goes against these conditions, does his wife have the right to annul the marriage or not?

Answer: yes, these conditions and similar ones are valid according to the madhhab of Imaam Ahmad and other
scholars among the Sahaabah and Taabi’een, such as ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas, Shurayh al-
Qaadi, al-Oozaa’i and Ishaaq. According to the madhhab of Maalik, the condition states that if he marries
another wife, (the first wife) has the choice of what to do, and this is a valid condition. The woman has the right
to leave him in this case. This is similar to the idea in the Madhhab of Imaam Ahmad. The basis for this is the
hadeeth narrated by (al-Bukhaari and Muslim) in al-Saheehayn from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah
be upon him): ‘The most deserving of conditions to be fulfilled are those by means of which sexual intercourse
becomes permissible for you.’ ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab said: ‘Rights are in accordance with conditions.’ The
Prophet dictated that the conditions which make sexual intercourse permissible are more deserving of fulfilment
than others. This is the ruling on conditions of this nature.”

Source:

al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 3, Kitaab al-Nikaah.


k

On the next page we shall see that the sahaba agreed with this view. Moreover many famous renowned scholars
agreed with these stipulations. The muslim scholar Imâm Ibn Qudâmah al-Maqdisî who agreed with this view
said: “ These (stipulations) are very beneficial for the woman. The benefit of the stipulator is beneficial as well
for the one being stipulated to (since the man knows what is acceptable and what is not).” 3
Imam Ahmad:

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal agreed witht the view that it is necessary to fulfill these conditions, and if the husband
is negligent in any way, the wife will have the right to demand nullification of the marriage

Source:

Ibn Qudama, al-Mugni, 7/71


k

Maliki Madh’had:

The Madh’hab of Malik validates a stipulation upon a man in which it is stipulated that he is not to marry
another women while in marriage with the first (wife) or else she will be given the order (power) in her hand (to
annul the marriage). She would be given the power to separate from him at her choice. This position of Malik is
similar in meaning to the position of al-Imam Ahmed.

Source:

Fatawa of Ibn Taymiyyah 32nd Volume, Page 164-165

Imâm Ibn Qudâmah al-Maqdisî writes:

The summary of (this issue) is that stipulations relating to Nikah (pre-nuptiual agreements) are of three main
categories (Translators note: Only the first issue is translated):

First: (A condition) that which must be fulfill. It is a condition wherein its benefit and worth are returned.
Examples are stipulations wherein he (vows) not to remove her from her residence or land, or that he will not
travel with her (to foreign lands), or that he will not take another wife while with her. All of these are conditions
that he would be bound to fulfilling (if he agreed to them before cohabitation). If he does not honour the
stipulations she is granted the ability (and right) to annul the marriage (at her will). This is reported as being the
opinion of: Umar bin al-Khattab, Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas, Mu‘awiyah, ‘Amr bin al- ‘Aas (radia Allahu ‘Anhom). It
was also stated by: Shurayh, ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul-Aziz, Jabir bin Zayd, Tawus, Al-Awza‘i and Ishaq…….

As well we have named many Sahaba who validated these stipulations, and none from their generation / peers
refuted them. Therefore we establish this as being Ijma‘ (consensual agreement by them all).

Source:

From al-Mughni of Ibn Qudamah Vol. 9, Page 483


k
So we see that sahaba like Umar Ibn Khattab, and renowned scholars like Imam Malik, Imam Ahmad, Ibn
Taymiyya and Ibn Qudaamah confirm that a woman has the right to make stipulations at the writing
of the marriage contract as she wishes and if these stipulations do not contradict Islamic law then the
husband must fulfill them. She has the right to stipulate that he should not take another wife during
their marriage, if he does she has the right to divorce him. Here we clearly see how much islam respects and
honors the rights of woman. Nowhere does the bible give women any of these rights ! let’s take a look on how
the bible treats women:

Deuteronomy 25:5:

If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without
unto a stranger: her husband's “brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of
an husband's brother unto her
kk k

Notice how in the bible a widow without children is forced to have sex with her husband’s brother. This because
the bible says “her husband's brother shall go in unto her”. So she can’t refuse when her husbands brother wants
her. Poor women if she doesn’t like her husbands brother. She even has to marry him, which is a complete
nightmare for women. k

kk

Jamieson, Fausset, Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible , Chapter 25

5-10. the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband's brother . . . shall take her to him
to wife. This usage existed before the age of Moses (Genesis 38:8). But the Mosaic law rendered the custom
obligatory (Matthew 22:25) on younger brothers, or the nearest kinsman, to marry the widow (Ruth 4:4), by
associating the natural desire of perpetuating a brother's name with the preservation of property in the Hebrew
families and tribes. If the younger brother declined to comply with the law, the widow brought her claim before
the authorities of the place at a public assembly (the gate of the city); and he having declared his refusal, she was
ordered to loose the thong of his shoe - a sign of degradation - following up that act by spitting on the ground -
the strongest expression of ignominy and contempt among Eastern people. The shoe was kept by the magistrate
as an evidence of the transaction, and the parties separated.

Source:

http://bible.crosswalk.com/Commentaries/JamiesonFaussetBrown/jfb.cgi?book=de&chapter=025
k

Notice how this commentary admits that the bible rendered this nightmare for women as obligatory. This
moreover proofs again how much the bible degrades women and puts them down.
He wrote:

A man has the right to issue a divorce and it is valid if he does so, but a woman does not have the right to issue a
divorce.

Response:

From the Islamic point of view, marriage is a contract between two parties who are considered equal. Yet men
are given a point of privilege with regard to termination of this contract. This is stated clearly in Verse 228-229
of Surah 2 in the middle of a long passage on the legislation that concerns divorce.

Al-Baqarah 2: 228-229

Divorced women must wait for three monthly courses. And it is not lawful for them to hide what Allah has
created in their wombs, if they sincerely believe in Allah and the Last Day. Their husbands are best entitled to
take them back as their wives during this waiting period, if they desire reconciliation. Divorce may be
pronounced twice; then either keep the wife with honor or let her leave gracefully. And it is not lawful for you to
take back anything out of what you have given them. There is, however, an exception to this; if you fear that
they might not be able to keep within the limits imposed by Allah, there is no harm if both agree mutually that
the wife should obtain divorce by giving something as compensation to the husband. These are the bounds set by
Allah; therefore do not violate them, for those who violate the bounds of Allah are the transgressors.
k

How is this possible ? The answer lies in the nature of the roles assumed by men and women in Islamic society
and their respective responsibilities. In a Muslim family, the man must look after his wife. She need not provide
even a very small share of the family expense, although she may be better off than her husband. He has still to
maintain her, [even] if she earns an income double his own. If the marriage breaks up, he must provide for her
during the waiting period, and pay her any outstanding portion of her dower. If they have young children, he
must pay for their upbringing, even though they may remain with their mother. So meeting all the expenses of
the family living remains his own in addition to the payments due to the divorced wife. If he is to marry another
woman, he must pay her a dower. If he wishes to be reunited with his divorced wife after her waiting period is
over; he must pay her a fresh dower.

This shows that the man stands to incur a heavy financial loss if the marriage breaks up. Hence a man must think
very carefully before he decides to terminate his marriage. If the women is given the same right to terminate the
marriage at any moment, she would impose on the man financial commitment which he may not be able to
undertake and which are not allowed for in the marriage contract. How is it possible that action is taken by one
party and the consequences are borne by the other ?

When the woman is divorced, she need not worry about her living. She goes back to her family, which is
responsible for her living. If her father is alive, he is responsible for her in the same way as before her marriage.
If he is not alive, then her brothers or uncles assume that responsibility. If she has no relatives, the state should
provide her maintenance.
Yet Islam is aware that a marriage may go wrong and there may be genuine reasons for the women to wish to
terminate it. Hence, it provides a fair way for her to obtain the termination of her marriage without difficulty.
She may apply for this termination known as Khula. She does not provide any justification for her request other
than that she does not want to stay married to her husband. Certain rules apply in this case which require her to
refund the dower she received from her husband at the time of marriage. So, it is not true that a man is the only
partner to be able to terminate the marriage easily. Termination is easier in this case, but she also may obtain that
result without difficulty. We shall now discuss women’s right for divroce in islam.

Like i said before, the qur’an has given the right of obtaining divorce to a wife if she agrees to pay some ransom
or compensation. This is called Khula. If the husband and wife are not able to keep the limits of allah and they
agree to dissolve the marriage on the condition that the wife gives some compensation, it would be quite legal.
K
k

Qu’ran 2:229:

Divorce must be pronounced twice and then (a woman) must be retained in honour or released in kindness. And
it is not lawful for you that ye “take from women aught of that which ye have given them; except (in the case)
when both fear that they may not be able to keep within the limits “(imposed by) Allah. And if ye fear that they
may not be able to keep the limits of Allah, in that case it is no sin for either of them if the woman “ransom
herself. These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. Transgress them not. For whoso transgresseth Allah's limits:
such are wrong-doer
k

The jurists are generally of the opinion that such compensation should not exceed the dower given by the
husband to the wife. So it is a kind of facility provided to the woman to secure talaq from her husband by
returning a part of or full amount of the bridal gift or mahr. There is a well reported tradition in bukhari that the
messenger of allah permitted the wife of Sabet-b-Qais to get divorce from her husband by surrendering a garden
which had been given to her in mahr. So the islamic law stipulates that whenever a marriage is dissolved at the
instance of the wife and there is no fault of the husband regarding his performance of marital obligations, the
wife is the contract breaking party and must, therefore, return the part or full of dower which she has received
from the husband.

Secondly: muslim men cannot exploit poor, unprotected and venerable wives by abusing them and knowing that
the wives can not seek divorce for financial difficulties, because according to the Noble Quran, a husband is to
pay his divorced wife maintenance,

Qu’ran 2:241

For divorced women Maintenance (should be provided) On a reasonable (scale). This is a duty On the righteous
k

Further women in islam have the right to remarry after their divorce, a right not given to women in the bible !
Moreover we have seen in my previous responses that that a woman has the right to make stipulations at the
writing of the marriage contract as she wishes and if these stipulations do not contradict Islamic law then the
husband must fulfill them. These rights are not given to women in christianity !
Conditions attached with the right of divorce for the wife:

Many times certain conditions are stipulated in a way that if the husband fails to fulfil them, the wife will have
the right to divorce herself. This (giving the wife the right to divorce herself), is known as Tafweed in the Fiqh
terminology

There are three situations here:

a:

If the Tafweed took place after the spouses had entered into wedlock, then this, without a doubt, can be done.
However, the husband here will be free to accept such conditions, as he is already in the marriage.

When the husband gives this right of divorce to the wife, she will only have this right in the session (majlis) that
she is in. If she did not exercise her right, then this right will go in vain.

However, if the husband granted this right for a specific period (e.g. 5 years) or permanently, then she will have
this right accordingly.

b:

The second situation is when Tafweed takes place at the time of contracting the marriage, meaning the wife
stipulates the conditions, and demands the right to divorce her self in the case of non-fulfilment.

This is also permissible and valid, provided one condition is met, which is that the offer of marriage is initiated
by the woman coupled with the demand for Tafweed, and the man accepts this. If the opposite takes place, it will
be void. (See: Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhatr, 2/285 & Bahr al-Ra’iq, 3/318).

In the above case, if the woman initiated the marriage agreement and asked for the right to divorce herself, if
certain conditions were not fulfilled, then she will be entitled to this right, and whenever she divorces her self (if
the conditions are not fulfilled by the husband) it will be valid.

c:

The third situation of Tafweed is when it takes place before the actual contract of marriage has taken place. In
other words, the woman stipulates certain conditions to be fulfilled if they are to get married, and if they are not
fulfilled, she has the right to divorce herself.

This is also permissible, but subject to one condition that the husband attributes the Tafweed to the marriage.
Meaning he says: “If I marry you, and fail to fulfil such and such condition, then you have the right to issue one
irrevocable divorce upon yourself” (Radd al-Muhtar, 2/681, Bab al-Ta’leeq).
In this case, if they do enter into wedlock, and the husband fails to fulfil the conditions, the wife will have the
right to divorce her self.

It should be remarked here that although the power to give a divorce belongs primarily to the husband, he may
delegate this power to his wife, with or without the conditions. Once this power is delegated, it can not be
revoked, unless the wife hands it back to him

Womens rights for divorce in the bible:

The bible on the other hand does not give women any of these rights. Divorce is not even possible in the bible
when a women is sad and unhappy in her marriage or gets abused by her husand !

Mathew 19:9:

And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except [it be] for fornication, and shall marry another,
committeth adultery: and whoso “marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery
k

Mark 19:12:

Also, if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery
k

So a women can only divorce her husband if he commits fornication , which brings a big problem for women
who are unhappy and can’t live anymore together with their husband. She can’t divorce him except when he is
guily of fornication. If she for any other reason then fornication divorces her husband then she is just as guilty of
sin as someone who commits adultery (one of the biggest sins) . Secondly she can never remarry again, she will
be lonely for the rest of her life. Finally if her husband dies, then theres only one terrible option for the woman,
in case she and her husband had no childeren:

Deuteronomy 25:5:

If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without
unto a stranger: her husband's “brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of
an husband's brother unto her
kk k
He wrote:

A man may marry a woman from among the People of the Book (Jews and Christians), but a Muslim woman
may not marry anyone but a Muslim.

Response:

Women are more shy and overtaken by emotions then men, and therefor it is very likely that the Muslim wife
may fall prey and become impressed with her husband’s faith. Allah swt therefor didn’t allow muslim women to
marry non-muslim men, to protect them from any harm and danger of loosing their islamic faith. Moreover
Muslim scholars Salem Al-Hasi and Mr. Lamaan Ball explain the reason and wisedome behind this rule, which
has nothing to do with discrimination between the sexes.

Muslim scholar Salem Al-Hasi comments:

However, in contrast with other faiths, Islam did not restrict marriage to be only within the Islamic faith. Islam
did not require conversion into the faith as a condition for the interfaith marriage, like Christianity. Nor did it
totally reject the idea of interfaith marriages, as in Judaism. Here, I am referring to the scriptural law of
Christianity and Judaism, not to the civil laws of Western countries.

Simultaneously, Islam is a religion that is suitable for the innate nature and character of the human being. In
order to maintain security, order and purity in the society, Islam seeks to maintain qualities within the foundation
of the family. In this sense only, Islam considers the husband to be the head of the family and responsible for the
well being of family members.

It is a matter of fact that a Muslim man is obliged to recognize and respect the faith of the Christian and the
Jewish woman and cannot compel her to become Muslim. On the other hand, the same cannot be said of the non-
Muslim man. The faith of any non-Muslim man does not even recognize Islam or Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as
being legitimate. He would not necessarily respect Islam’s tenets and practices that a Muslim woman obviously
believes in and is obliged to uphold.

Thus the rights of Christian and Jewish women in a Muslim household are protected in the Islamic law. They are
able to practice their religion freely without any restriction and they can live with the knowledge that their
Prophets and Books will be honored. A Muslim man is even commanded to believe that it is an article of faith to
treat his Jewish or Christian wife in this way.

Additionally, the habits of the non-Muslim husband and his morals will likely be in conflict with and
compromise those of the Muslim woman. Contrary to this, the morals and the value system of the Muslim
husband, if not identical to the principle values of Christianity and Judaism, will not contradict or threaten them.

Hence, under the light of all previous facts, allowing Muslim men to marry non-Muslims and the prohibition for
Muslim women to do so is not a discriminatory rule. It is not a threat to the equality of men and women, or an
indication of the dominance of man. It is directly related to respecting others faiths and the freedom of religions.4
Mr. Lamaan Ball adds:

In order to be clear, we need to understand how the rights to practice your religion are affected by marriage. If
both parties were equal partners with neither being able to impose his or her will upon the other, then Muslim
women marrying Christian or Jewish men would be no different to the Muslim men marrying Christian or
Jewish women. However there is a difference. Christian and Jewish men are clearly set in charge of their wives
and have a right to be obeyed by them.

Christian marriage vows include obeying the husband. The bible explicitly curses Eve by saying she will be
made to obey men (This story is however completely missing in the Qur'an). It has even been until recently
(early last century) the law in England, that upon marriage all of the woman's property becomes the property of
her husband. So any control she had over her life is surrendered to her husband.

Islam recognises the position of difficulty this could land Muslim women in and so does not allow them to be
subjected to the orders of Christian or Jewish husbands. 5
k

Scholars also in general agree that it disliked for muslim men to marry jewish or christian women.

Muslim men’s marriage with a non-muslim woman:

it is generally disliked to do so, even in Muslim lands. In non-Muslim lands, it is generally considered
prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman) to do so, as there is a stronger possibility of the children not growing up
as practicing Muslims...

Source:

Fath al-Qadir, Radd al-Muhtar, Bahr al-Ra'iq


k
He wrote:

A man may travel without his wife or any of his mahrams, but a woman may not travel unless she is
accompanied by a mahram.

Response:

This rule was made to protect women from danger and harm. The scholars of the European Council for Fatwa
and research comment: “This is primarily unlawful according to the hadith of the Prophet:

Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim

A woman who believes in Allah and the Hereafter shall not travel for (a period of) a day and a night unless
accompanied by a mahram of hers
k

Depending on this general text, some scholars are of the opinion that a woman should not travel by herself. Other
scholars stipulate that her travel is permissible in the company of a trustworthy group of men or men and
women. The prohibition conveyed by the hadith is justified by fearing that the woman may be exposed to
mischief or temptation if she travels alone, bearing in mind that the dangers of travel were numerous in the past.
Caliph `Umar ibn al-Khattab allowed the Prophet’s wives (Mothers of the Believers) to travel for Hajj with a
group of believers and sent with them `Uthman ibn `Affan and `Abdul-Rahman ibn `Auf.

In the hadith of the Prophet to `Adiy ibn Hatim we read: “If you live long, you will see the woman travel from
Hirah (a city in Iraq) to circumambulate the Ka`bah fearing none but Allah.” (Reported by al-Bukhari)

This confirms that the cause (of the prohibition) is fear (of insecurity). If security is guaranteed and fear is no
more present, a woman may travel, particularly nowadays when travel has become easy, whether by air, train or
coach. In all these means of transportation, company is available and security is realized for the Muslim woman.

This is in respect of the woman’s travel from one town to another or from one country to another and her arrival
on the same day of her travel, whereupon she finds company providing security. If the journey requires staying
overnight in a hotel on the way, or the journey is intended to perform a certain task that requires residence for a
certain period, the woman, in this case, is supposed primarily to travel with a mahram of hers, or reside for the
required period with a Muslim family in that country to avoid the likelihood of temptation or mischief the
woman may face.

Finally, the Council urges parents to bring up their daughters and the husbands to educate their wives according
to the guidance of Allah, for a Muslim woman will certainly follow the guidance of Allah steadfastly if she has
received her due amount of education and instruction and has learned the rulings and rules of Shari`ah and has
comprehended her religion.” 6
He wrote:

Prayer in the mosque is obligatory for men, but not for women; a woman's prayer in her house is more beloved
to Allaah. A woman may wear silk and gold, but a man must not wear them.

Response:

Shayk Gibril Fouad Haddad comments: “Every prayer of a man in his house is also better than in the mosque
except for the obligatory prayer.” 7

Sahih Muslim Book, 004, Number 0891

Ibn Umar reported: "The Messenger of Allah said: Do not deprive women of their share of the mosques, when
they seek permission from you."
k

He wrote:

Everything that we have mentioned is based on the difference between men and women, because the male is not
like the female. Allaah says: "And the male is not like the female" - Aal 'Imraan 3:36 ...

Response:

The encyclopadia of seerah perfectly explains the meaning of these words:

Encyclopaedia of Seerah says:

Islam recognises biological and physiological differences between the two sexes and the consequent differences
in the nature and areas of their “activities and functions in practical life. It determines their functions, their place
and their duties in the social system on the basis of these differences…….

Islam recognises woman as an equal and full partner to man in their matrimonial relationship. Man is the father
and the bread-winner and woman “is the mother and the manager of the household and the role of both is equally
essential for the successful working of the family life, fundamental “and primary root of human civilisation.
About the equality of man and woman in criminal and civil laws and also about the privileges of women in
certain obligations the Encyclopaedia of Seerah says:

Encyclopaedia of Seerah says:

A woman enjoys perfect equality with man in so far as civil and penal laws are concerned. In the eyes of the law,
both sexes are equal and are“treated alike, the same legal penalties being imposed on both men and women for
breaking any moral, civil or criminal laws. Both enjoy equal rights and privileges as members of the Islamic..
society. In civil law, women lead exactly the same life, with the same rights and obligations as “men. However,
women enjoy certain privileges and exemptions because of their physiological and biological functions. They are
exempt from some “religious duties such as daily prayer and annual fasting in the month of Ramadan during
menstrual periods and during confinement and are permanently exempt from obligatory congregational Friday
prayer.

Whatever the rights women have obtained through demonstrations, strikes and other weapons of persuasion are
still far short of the standard set by “the Holy Prophet fourteen hundred years ago. The woman is still inferior in
Western eyes as she was in the past ages of ignorance.

In the West, a real genuine woman has yet to have respect as the queen of a home, the wife of a husband, the
mother of children. The so-called “respect that she enjoys today is, in fact, for being a he-woman or a she-man
who is physiologically a woman, but mentally a man and who pursues “masculine activities in life. Obviously,
this respect is for manhood, not for womanhood.
k

It may, however; be pointed out that although woman, as a human being occupies equal status with man and is
treated as equal, and enjoys equal rights, privileges etc., the fact remains that there is a differences between the
sexes: No amount of debating or discussion, physical exercise or hard, industrial work can change her sex. As a
woman, her special function in life is different from that of a man and she is naturally equipped with a different
physical, physiological, biological, and even psychological structure. Islam has taken these natural differences
between the sexes into account in differentiating roles and allotting functions to each sex. Their general equality
as human beings is quite natural and reasonable because men and women are two complementary parts of
humanity proceeding from common parents. But to assign them equal or similar functions in life is preposterous
because it is physically impossible to interchange their functions, e.g., men sharing in conception, birth,
suckling, etc. Islam has therefore given due allowance to these factors and treated men and women on the basis
of equality where there is a natural scope for it, and differentiated between them where such differentiation is in
accordance with nature. Therefor men and women are different, but in worth as human beings, respect and
spiritual status equal. The prophet confirmed this in the next hadith:

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 113; Ahmad, 25663

Aischa narrated that the Prophet said: “women are the twin halves of men.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in
Saheeh al-Tirmidhi
k
Sources:

1:

Sheik Yusuf Al-Qaradawi ‘s : “The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam” , section 2: marriage

2:

http://www.islamawareness.net/Polygamy/why.html

3:

http://www.islaam.net/main/display_article_printview.php?id=619

4:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1123996015628&pagename=IslamOnline-English-
AAbout_Islam/AskAboutIslamE/AskAboutIslamE

5:

Ibid

6:

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-
Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503546726

7:

http://www.livingislam.org/n/wmnc_e.html
www.answering-christianity.com presents:

Response to the lies and distortions of christian missionaries about the position of
women in islam

K APart 3, Written by Kevin el-Karim

“The most perfect of believers are those most perfect of character; and the best of you are the best of you to
your spouses.” Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban

"None but a noble man treats women in an honourable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women
disgracefully" At-Tirmithy
He wrote:

We come to the conclusion of our analysis of the authentic view of women in Islam. If someone can read
through all this massive amount of evidence and still conclude that Islam honors and dignifies women, then there
is really nothing more that a person could say.

Response:

The christian missionary makes a fool himself, by claiming to present an authentic view of women in Islam. This
statement of the missionary is as much a joke as he himself. The christian missionary perhaps doesn’t understand
the concept of authentic, which can be proven by his quotations from “Nahj al-Balagha”and hadith forgeries
which were present in “Ihya’ Ulum-Ud-Din” and cannot be traced to any source ,the famous renowned muslim
scholars Imam Taj-ud-Din Subki pointed this out in Tabaqat, vol. IV, pp. 145-182. Moreover the famous hadith
scholar Imam Dhahabi in his “ Siyar A`lam al Nubala” pointed out that no chains of transmissions even exist for
the saying of Imam Ali in “Nahj al-Balagha”, which makes the book complete in-authentic/ unreliable and full of
forgeries and lies, attributed to Imam Ali. Now this christian missionary claims to have present according to his
blind eyes an ‘authentic view’ of women in islam, while his articles is full of non-authentic material, like the
forgeries he quoted from “Ihya’ Ulum-Ud-Din” and “Nahj al-Balagha”. Moreover the christian missionary
makes a fool of himself by quoting in his article “women in islam part 2” the lesbian feminist Irshad Manji, who
hardly knows Arabic nor doesn’t have any qualification in Islamic scholarship. It’s funny to see this christian
missionary claiming to present the ’authentic view’ of women in islam, while he relies on forgeries, chainless
hadith, in-authentic / unreliable sources (like Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad ) , non-muslim quran
translations (like Arberry) , and comments made by a lesbian feminist (Irshad Manji) ! So when the Christian
missionary here claims to present an “authentic view” he’s lying and deceiving. We have seen throughout my
booklet how much of lyer and deceiver this person is. The christian missionary Sham Shamoun is even famous
for his false insults against islam and his rude/bad/arrogant behaviour towards muslims, read:

http://www.answering-christianity.com/sami_zaatri/examining_sam_shamoun_4.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/sami_zaatri/examining_sam_shamouns_character_5.htm

The christian missionary Sham Shamoun is a lyer and deceiver for claiming to present an ‘authentic view on
women islam”, while I caught him on quoting forgeries, non-authentic sources , and comments made by lesbian
feminists. Moreover the christian missionary quoted selective one sided views of islam-qa, by hiding the sources
of renowned muslim scholars that refute the ones he used/quoted. It’s also important to know that sunni scholars
like Shayk Gibril Fouad haddad warned muslims from visiting the website islamqa, since it contains extreme
views on certain issues. Sites like sunniforum for example delete all links found in topic forums, which are
related to islam-qa. This to prevent people from reading their extreme views and teachings on certain issues. In
my booklet I showed the reader how other renowned muslim scholars, and the quran and the sunnah refute the
information quoted by the christian missionary. The christian missionary moreover with purpose denied reliable
Islamic websites like sunnipath.com and islamonline.net for a reason we all know. The christian missionary in
his paper “women in islam part 1” moreover makes a fool of himself by quoting “New York Times Columnist
Judith Miller“ , i never knew that the new york times was an “authentic” islamic source. Another crime of the
christian missionary is his use of orientalists translations, like his quotations from “Guillaume, The Life of
Muhammad” , the oriëntalist Alfred Guillaume in his translation of Ibn Ishaq’s work includes for example things
which Ibn Ishaq had not written about, and he does not, as mentioned earlier by someone, clearly demaricate
this. For example, the entire section about the satanic verses ( a story which is well know as a forgery) is no
where to be found in the original Arabic work, yet it somehow is in the English "translation" (from which the
christian missionary off course quotes). As for Ibn Ishaq (from which the christian missionary quoted), Jalal
Abualrub in his excellent booklet “The Prophet Of Mercy” writes how the hadith scholar Adh-Dhahabi listed
some of the major scholars of Islam who refuted Ibn Is`haq's reliability in Hadeeth narrations.
Imam Malik, for instance, called Ibn Is`haq a liar and Yahya Ibn Sa`eed al-Ansari, as well as, al-A`mash refuted
one of Ibn Is`haq's narrations by saying that he lied. As a general statement, Yahya Ibn Sa`eed graded Ibn Ishaq
as being weak in Hadeeth narration. Adh-Dhahabi listed some of the reasons why Ibn Is`haq was considered
weak regarding Hadeeth narration, as follows.

A– Imam A`hmad Ibn Hanbal stated that Ibn Is`haq was a Mudallis , and in another occasion, he said that Ibn
Ishaq's Tadlees (v. for Mudallis) was substantial. Imam A`hmad also said that Ibn Is`haq did not care from
whom he collected Hadeeth.

[Mudallis = Ibn Is`haq often started his narrations by saying, “Those whom I trust narrated to me”, or “Some
men from this city told me”, etc. He also would collect Hadeeths from unreliable narrators and hide the name of
his teacher by saying, “So and So said”, meaning the teacher of his teacher, who may be trustworthy, so that the
Hadeeth narration is not rejected if the name of his own teacher is specified.]

B – Imam Ibn Numair said that Ibn Is`haq reported false Hadeeths from unknown narrators.

C – Adh-Dhahabi concluded by saying that among the worst errors made by Ibn Is`haq is that he used to record
narrations he collected from anyone, and thus, did not have Wara` in this regard, may Allah forgive him.

The christian missionary is also guilty of spreading the lie in his paperwork “women in islam part2 “ that Muta
(tempory marriage) is still allowed in islam, while the authentic hadith clearly forbid this:

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 527:

Narrated 'Ali bin Abi Talib: On the day of Khaibar, Allah's Apostle forbade the Mut'a (i.e. temporary marriage)
and the eating of donkey-meat.
k

Sahih Muslim, Book 008, Number 3259:

Rabi' b. Sabra reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) prohibited the
contracting of temporary marriage.
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The chrisian missionary who screams to present an “authentic view” clearly rejects authentic sources, since it
doesn’t suit his mind and ideas. As a result he desperately quotes a muslim sect in his booklet, that reject the
authentic hadith collections of bukhari and muslim, and still believe that Muta is allowed. This is what the
christian missionary in his own biased mind believes to be “authentic”. Again and again the christian missionary
is guitly of spreadings lies and deceiving the reader by claiming to present an “authentic view’ , while his paper
is full of lies. By rejecting authentic islamic sources, the christian missionary shot himself in his own leg, and
made a fool of himself.
The christian missionary in his paperwork “women in islam part 1 ‘ quoted also Ali Dashti, and calls him “the
late iranian Muslim scholar”. The truth is Ali Dashti, is an Marxist-influenced Iranian who cannot be considered
as an Isamic scholar. According to the translator’s introduction of his book (from which the christian missionary
quoted) , it appears he rejected Islam for "patriotism" and established a newspaper called "Red Dawn". This was
in the 1920s. Moreover he must have been active in Soviet Socialist issues because he was invited to Russia to
celebrate the 10th anniversary of the revolution. This information moreover proofs that Al Dashti can’t be
considered as a Muslim scholar. However the christian missionary does, which proofs his lack of islamic
knowledge. To use a book of Ali Dashti in a debate on islam, shows ignorance and arrogance on the part of the
christian missionary. Moreover this proofs again how the christian missionary is lying and deceiving the reader,
by claiming to present an “authentic view”, while this is a big lie ! The christian missionary obviously loves to
quote forgeries, chainless narrations, a muslim sect, eccentric commentaries, biased translations, a columnist of
the New York Times and comments made by a Marxist-influenced Iranian and a lesbian feminist in his
paperwork on “women in islam”. Do i need to say more ? If there are still people who believe in the articles
written by the christian missionary Sham Shamoun, and still think that this christian missionary is trustworthy,
honest and fair, then there is really nothing more that a person could say.

The real authentic view of islam on women:

To finish my article, i shall in short show the reader “the real autentic view” of women in islam, by quoting
authentic islamic sources. It’s important for everyone to know that islam = the Qu’ran and authentic Sunnah of
our beloved Prophet Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.

1:

In Islam men and women are spiritual equal to each other. Both have been crated from the same “nafs” , which
means: sould, mind, living entity, spirit etc.

Soerah 4:1

O mankind! Be conscious of your Sustainer Who has created you out of one living entity (nafs) and out of it
created its mate, and out of the two spread abroad a multitude of men and women.
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2:

Allah swt has created mandkind in pairs, therefor men and women together form a pair, which is spiritual equal
to each other.

Soerah 51:49

And all things We have created by pairs, that haply ye may reflect
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3:

Since mankind is created in pairs, Islam regards men and women as complementary to each other.

Soerah 3:195

Their Lord hath accepted their prayer and answered: ”'Never will I suffer the work of any one of you, male or
female, to be lost. Ye are complementary to each other'."
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4:

Both men and women have been created for the same purpose, contrary to the bible, which in “ 1 Corinthians
11:9 ” states that women were created for men, but not the reverse.

Soerah 51:56

I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me
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5:

Men and women were also both created for each other, in order to live in peace, harmony and love. The Qu’ran
makes this clear be describing both men and women as garments for each other:

Soerah 2:187

Permitted to you on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives, they are your garments and you are their
garments
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Just as a garment hides our nakedness, so do husband and wife, by entering into the relationship of marriage,
secure each other's chastity. The garment gives comfort to the body; so does the husband find comfort in his
wife's company and she in his. Actually a garment is the grace, the beauty, the embellishment of the body, so too
are wives to their husbands as their husbands are to them.
6:

Allah swt is equal in giving reward to both men and women, according to their actions.

Soerah 16:97

Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has Faith, verily, to him will We give a new Life, a life that
is good and pure and We will bestow on such their reward according to the best of their actions
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7:

The quran gave two women as an example to the believers– male and female- to emulate. In this context, the
Qur’an says:

At-Tahrim: 11-12

And Allah citeth an example for those who believe: the wife of Pharaoh when she said: My Lord ! Build for me
a home with thee in the Garden, and deliver me from Pharaoh and his work, and deliver me from evil doing folk;
and Mary, daughter of Imran, whose body was chaste, therefor We breathed therein something of Our Spirit.
And she put faith in the words of her Lord and His Scriptures, and was of the obedient
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8:

Both men and woman have different strenghts and specialties, however islam recognizes the fact that both men
and women in total worth are equal to each other.The Prophet called men and women twinhalves of each other.
Which means men and woman are equal to each in total worth as human beings, perfection, honor and dignity:
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Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 113; Ahmad, 25663

Aischa narrated that the Prophet said: “women are the twin halves of men.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in
Saheeh al-Tirmidhi
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9:

The Prophet described wome as the best comfort in this world:


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Sahih Muslim 10/56, Kitab al-rida', bab istihbab nikah al-bikr:

The Prophet said: “This world is just temporary conveniences, and the best comfort in this world is a“righteous
woman“
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10:
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The prophet honored women:

Al-Tirmidhi no. 3978

The Prophet said: “A woman acts for the people," i.e. she gives protection on behalf of the Muslims.
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11:

Prophet Muhammad taught kindness, care and respect toward women in general

Riyodh Al-Saliheen, Nizamuddin, New Delhi, India, n.d., p. 139

The Prophet said: "I commend you to be kind to women”


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12:

Man's treatment of his wife is a measure of the perfection of his faith as in the hadith where the Prophet said:
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Riyad as-Salihin, Chapter 34, Nr. 278

The Prophet said: “The most perfect of the believers in their belief are those with the best manners, and the best
of you are those who are best with their wives.”
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13:

The qu’ran describes men and women as “awliyya” of each other. The arabic word “awliyya” means: helpers,
supporters, friends and protectors

Soerah 9:71

The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil:
they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah
pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.
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Aftab Hussein comments:

Taubah 9:71 mentions “believing men (mu’minun)” and “believing women (mu’minat)” as being awliyya over
each other. Revealed in 8 Hijrah towards the end of the Prophet’s life, Surah al-Taubah 9:71 sums up the spirit of
equality and mutuality that the Qur’an preaches in the relationship between men and women.

To enjoin the right and forbid the wrong is primarily the duty of the State, which is in a position to discharge it
effectively. The verse makes women as much protecting friends of men as men are of women. It further orders
women to discharge the duty of enjoining good and forbidding wrong which can be discharged effectively by the
ulil amr (person in authority) who symbolises the State. The verse paves the way for women to become the
repository of State authority, including the authority of the Head of the State

Source:

Hussein, Aftab (1991) , Status of Women in Islam, Lahore: Law Publishing Company, Page. 228
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14:

The Prophet commaned men to treat their wifes well:

Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 11, Number 2139

What do you say (command) about our wives ? He replied: "Give them food what you have for yourself, and
clothe them by which you clothe yourself, and do not beat them, and do not revile them.
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15:

Women in islam have been given the right to become Mufti and Qadhi, and the right to teach men. These rights
are not given to women in Christianity. The bible in “1 Timothy 2:11-12” and in “1 Corinthians 14:34-35”
clearly forbids women to teach men, or to have a position of authority over men in public life. The fact that islam
has given women the right to teach men, can be seen from the authentic sunnah of our beloved Prophet
Muhammad who allowed women to teach men, and to answer their question. The prophet’s wife Aisha was a
famous muslim scholar, who teached both men and women:

Jala-ul-Afham by Ibn Qaiyem and Ibn Sa’ad, Vol.2, p.26

Arwa Bin Zubair says, "I did not find anyone more proficient (than Aisha) in the knowledge of the Holy Quran,
the Commandments of Halal (lawful) and Haram (prohibited), Ilmul-Ansab and Arabic poetry. That is why, even
senior companions of the Prophet used to consult Aisha in resolving intricate issued".
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Another example can be found in the Muslim woman “Rabi’ah Bint Mu’awwad” who teached famous Sahaba of
the prophet, like the famous companion and cousin of the Prophet Abdullah Ibn Abbas:

Rabi’ah Bint Mu’awwad:

She was a great scholar of fiqh. The intellectual scholars of Madina like Abdullah ibn Abbas, Abdallah ibn
Umar, Salman ibn Yasar, Abbad ibn Walid and Nafi’ use to go to her to learn from her.

Source:

tahdhib at tahdhib, vol.12, page 444


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Women as Mufti and Qadhi

Interpretation of revelation was free of gender restrictions. A woman’s legal opinion (fatwa) was just as valid
and morally binding as the legal opinion of a man. Thus a woman could legitimately be a mufti, a legal expert
whose task it was to communicate legal rules to non-specialists including, at times, judges and other holders of
political power. There was complete agreement among Sunni jurists that women could be mufti. It was as a
result of the law’s acceptance of women as mufti, moreover, that al-Tabari was led to argue that a woman could
be a judge in all areas of the law.

Source:

Fadel, Mohammad (1997) , “ Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in Medieval Sunni Legal
Thought.”.,.pages.189,.190.&.200
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Read also:

http://www.islamfortoday.com/womenscholars.htm
http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/womens_education.htm

16:

The prophet as our role model on “how to treat our wifes”

Hadith - Sahih Al-Bukhari 7.117 Narrated 'Aisha, r.a.

The eleventh one said, "My husband is Abu Zar and what is Abu Zar (i.e., what should I say about him)? He has
given me many ornaments and my ears are heavily loaded with them and my arms have become fat (i.e., I have
become fat). And he has pleased me, and I have become so happy that I feel proud of myself. He found me with
my family who were mere owners of sheep and living in poverty, and brought me to a respected family having
horses and camels and threshing and purifying grain. Whatever I say, he does not rebuke or insult me. When I
sleep, I sleep till late in the morning, and when I drink water (or milk), I drink my fill."

....'Aisha then said: Allah's Apostle SAAWS said to me, "I am to you as Abu Zar was to his wife Um Zar."
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17:

A man should never hate his wife:

Riyad As saliheen, chapter 34, nr 275.

Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A believing
man should not hate a believing woman. If he dislikes something in her character, he should be pleased with
some other ¬ or another¬ trait of hers."
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18:

Muslim women have the same right for sexual intercourse as their husbands:

Sahih Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127

The Prophet gave to one of his companions who hardly slept at night with his wife the next comment: “Your
body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you."
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The wife's rights include a right to companionship from her husband and fulfillment of her sexual needs. Shayk
Gibril Fouad Haddad comments on this hadith: ” this unanimously means cohabitation.”

Tafsir al-Qurtubi for 2:178


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“She has over him the same right of sexual cohabitation he has over her” k
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19:

The Prophet even cared so much for women’s pleasure and feelings, that he forbade sexual intercourse before
foreplay with ones wife. This sort of understanding for women’s need and feelings can’t be found in the bible.

Al-Tibb al-Nabawi, 183, from Jabir ibn Abd Allah:

“the Messenger of Allah forbade from engaging in sexual intercourse before foreplay.” K k
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20:

Women are honored in Islam.

The Prophet said: "Three things from your world have been made beloved to me: Women, perfume, and prayer
the comfort of my eyes"

Source:

Ahamd Ibn Hanbal, 3:128,199,285; al-Nasa'i', Kitab `ishrat an-nisa', p.16


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A scholar explained that: “ Tib (perfume) is mentioned after nisa" (woman) because the breath of life,
procreativity, is in woman.”

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf comments:

When the Prophet says he loved women, what he's saying is that he loved the qualities that women posessed.
Women by their nature possess qualities that are beloved to Allah, while as men they have to learn those
qualities their difficult to learn. One of them is Rahma (mercy) most women have Rahma and the womb is the
source of Rahma according to the hadith, in this world. So women by nature have Rahma while as a man it's
something that he has to really strive and work on to get. Another thing is women tend to be by nature humble -
there is more humility in women - women are less tend to boast. This is known even in academia! Men tend to
be more proud of their work and to make sure everybody knows what they have achieved. One of the scholars of
Andalusia said that the meaning of that hadith was the greatest manifestation of Allah's attributes is in women.
There are more divine qualities in a woman then their are in a man.
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A hadith in al-Bukhari describes how during the Muslim conquest of Mecca a woman was running about in the
hot sun, searching for her child. She found him, and clutched him to her breast, saying, "My son, my son!" The
Prophet's Companions saw this, and wept. The Prophet was delighted to see their mercy, and said, "Do you
wonder at this woman's mercy (rahmah) for her child? By Him in Whose hand is my soul, on the Day of
Judgment, Allah shall show more rahmah toward His believing servant than this woman has shown to her son."

This story is the perfect example of the Rahma (mercy) women posses, something which men not have like
women. The prophet loved women, he admired and loved their mercy and characteristics. Allah’s creation of the
female is perfect and special.

In Muhyî al-Dîn ibn al-‘Arabî’s classic book Fusûs al-hikam (Bezels of Wisdom), the last bezel is on the wisdom
of Prophet Muhammad when he said "Three things from your world have been made beloved to me: women, and
perfume, and prayer the comfort of my eyes." For Man, the vision of God can be seen in Woman: "the most
complete and perfect contemplation of Reality".

Source:

Fusûs al-hikam
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The famous muslim scholar Rumi wrote: “Woman is the radiance of God “

Source:

Masnavi, I:2437
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We can see that the authentic view of women in islam is beautifull and full of honor and love for women !