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The Role of Mechanical Properties in Low-Stress

Fatigue Crack Propagation


J. P. H I C K E R S O N , JR. A N D R.W. HERTZBERG

An e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m e c h a n i c a l


p r o p e r t i e s and low s t r e s s fatigue c r a c k p r o p a g a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n was focused on the " f a t i g u e " o r
" r e v e r s e d p l a s t i c z o n e " at the c r a c k tip, s i n c e it was felt that m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s i n this r e -
gion were of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e in the c r a c k propagation p r o c e s s . An effort was made to s i m -
ulate this r e g i o n through fully r e v e r s e d s t r a i n - c y c l i n g t e s t s on t e n s i l e s p e c i m e n s . M e c h a n i c a l
p r o p e r t i e s o b t a i n e d from a n u m b e r of m a t e r i a l s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r s t r a i n cycling w e r e c o r r e -
lated with c r a c k p r o p a g a t i o n data f r o m the s a m e m a t e r i a l s . E v i d e n c e indicated that while
monotonic t e n s i l e p r o p e r t i e s a r e i n a d e q u a t e for c o r r e l a t i o n p u r p o s e s , the cyclic s t r a i n - h a r d -
ening coefficient, the cyclic yield s t r e n g t h , and the e l a s t i c m o d u l u s a p p e a r to be i m p o r t a n t
p a r a m e t e r s . T h i s was felt to be a n i n d i c a t i o n of the i m p o r t a n c e of s t r a i n cycling in the r e -
v e r s e d p l a s t i c zone in influencing the r a t e - g o v e r n i n g m e c h a n i s m s in fatigue c r a c k growth.

A p r o b l e m of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the m a t e r i a l s 3) While the f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g the v a l u e s of A and


e n g i n e e r is the s e l e c t i o n of m e t a l s and a l l o y s to r e s i s t m a r e not well defined, e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s
fatigue c r a c k p r o p a g a t i o n . When adequate data is that i n c r e a s e s in the e l a s t i c m o d u l u s , E , tend to de-
lacking o r a new a l l o y m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d , few g u i d e - c r e a s e the v a l u e of A and thus d e c r e a s e growth rate
l i n e s a r e a v a i l a b l e to aid in making a sound choice at e q u i v a l e n t K l e v e l s .
a m o n g candidate m a t e r i a l s . This is p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e 4) T o m k i n s has shown s t r a i n c y c l i n g data to be
when the a p p l i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s low s t r e s s fatigue. i m p o r t a n t in p r e d i c t i n g c r a c k growth r a t e s in p l a s t i c
T h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e also of little help in fatigue.
s e p a r a t i n g o r r a n k i n g a l l o y s on the b a s i s of fatigue 5) The i n a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t the effect of m e c h a n i c a l
r e s i s t a n c e , s i n c e the m a t e r i a l p a r a m e t e r s c o n t r o l l i n g p r o p e r t i e s on growth r a t e at low s t r e s s e s r e p r e s e n t s
c r a c k propagation a r e not well u n d e r s t o o d . T h i s lack one of the b i g g e s t difficulties in a n t i c i p a t i n g fatigue
of a g r e e m e n t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f u n d a m e n t a l s properties.
of fatigue c r a c k p r o p a g a t i o n has led to a p r o l i f e r a t i o n A f t e r studying the m o d e l s r e f e r e n c e d above, the
of t h e o r e t i c a l laws a n d equations for c r a c k growth. ~-x~ a u t h o r s have concluded that a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the d i s -
Of t h e s e , only T o m k i n s ' r e s u l t s a p p e a r u s e f u l f o r p r e - c r e p a n c y between t h e o r i z e d and r e a l c r a c k growth b e -
dicting a b r o a d r a n g e of data, and here only i n the havior lies in a conceptual o m i s s i o n found in m o s t
r a n g e of g r o s s p l a s t i c c y c l i n g . This is not to say that m o d e l s . T h i s o m i s s i o n is the f a i l u r e to include a
t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s to fatigue a r e without zone d i r e c t l y ahead of the c r a c k tip that u n d e r g o e s
v a l u e , for indeed, a n u m b e r of p e r t i n e n t c o n c l u s i o n s both t e n s i l e and c o m p r e s s i v e y i e l d i n g with each cycle.
can be drawn from t h e s e s t u d i e s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g Such a zone has been p r e d i c t e d by P a r i s 12 and J o h n -
c r a c k growth rate o b s e r v a t i o n s : son, 13 and p a r t i a l l y v e r i f i e d by e x p e r i m e n t s of E l b e r . 14
1) The o v e r w h e l m i n g a m o u n t of e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i - P h y s i c a l l y speaking, such a zone would lie d i r e c t l y
dence and m o s t t h e o r e t i c a l laws show the I r w i n s t r e s s ahead of the c r a c k tip, s u r r o u n d e d by the l a r g e r t e n -
i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r , K , to be a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o r r e l a t i o n s i l e p l a s t i c zone f o r m e d d u r i n g m a x i m u m cyclic
p a r a m e t e r for c r a c k growth rate s t u d i e s . s t r e s s i n g . F i g . 1 s c h e m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s its loca-
2) Most l o w - s t r e s s growth rate data and t h e o r e t i c a l tion and a p p r o x i m a t e size r e l a t i o n s h i p to the m o r e
laws support the power r e l a t i o n s h i p s u g g e s t e d by f a m i l i a r t e n s i l e p l a s t i c zone. P a r i s has e s t i m a t e d
Paris relating growth per cycle (Aa/AR) and the that the s i z e of this zone should be
range of K, such that
Aa/AN = AAK m rr = ~ \2~o/
where where ao is the n o r m a l u n i a x i a l y i e l d s t r e s s . This
AK : Kmax - Kmin m a k e s the r e v e r s e d plastic zone in z e r o - t e n s i o n fatigue
o n e - f o u r t h the size of the t e n s i l e p l a s t i c zone as p r e -
Kmax is the m a x i m u m value of K d u r i n g one cycle dicted by I r w i n :
Kmin is the m i n i m u m value of K d u r i n g one c y c l e
A, m are material constants r y = g - f \ ~o /

J. P. HICKERSON,JR., formerly Research Assistant, Department of E v e n though t h e s e r e g i o n s m a y be a s s m a l l as a few


Metallurgy and Materials Science, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa., is thousandths of a n inch in s i z e , t h e i r m a t e r i a l p r o p e r -
now Staff Member, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex. R.W. t i e s and b e h a v i o r should be of g r e a t c o n s e q u e n c e to the
HERTZBERG is Associate Professor of Metallurgyand Materials Sci- c r a c k growth p r o c e s s . C a l c u l a t i o n s b a s e d on e x p e r i -
ence, Lehigh University. m e n t a l data indicate that a given i n f i n i t e s i m a l l i g a m e n t
Manuscript submitted April 29, 1971. of m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y ahead of the a d v a n c i n g c r a c k

METALLURGICALTRANSACTIONS VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972-179


Elastic Region
Table I. Chemical Composition and Grain Size Measurements
for the Alloys Studied

Plastic Z o ~ Material Composition, Wt Pet


Average
Gram Diameter, mm

Cu-4.6S1 4.6Si, balance Cu 0.120 to 0.200


MP35N 19.83Cr, 35.1Ni, 9.12Mo, 0.035 to 0.050
6 0.014C, balance Co
70/30 29.3Zn, 0 02N1, 0.026Fe, 0.03
- i 0.02Pb, 0.01A1, 0.04Sn,
balance Cu
305SS 17.95Cr, 11.65Ni, 0.05C 0.04
Reversed 0.85Mn, 0.69S1, 0.27P,
Plastic Zone 0.015S, 0.3 lMo, 0.29Cu,
0.22Co, balance Fe
2024-T3" 0.50Si, 0.50Fe, 4.4Cu,
0.60Mn, 1.5Mg,O.10Cr,
r'p h 0.25Zn, 0.15 Others
T-1 0.15C, 0.86Mn, 0.55Cr, 0.022?
Fig. 1--Schematic p o r t r a y a l of the g e o m e t r i c a l f e a t u r e s a t the 0.75N1, 0.022S, 0.O14P,
tip of a growing fatigue crack. 0.44Mo, 0.06V, 0.O03B,
0.22Cu, 0.26Si, 75ppm N
spends, depending on material and growth rate, from *Nominalcomposition, mill analysisunavadable.
s e v e r a l h u n d r e d to o v e r t e n t h o u s a n d c y c l e s w i t h i n %Prioraustenite grain size.
the reversed plastic zone before fracture occurs due
to c r a c k g r o w t h . TM
The fact that extensive reversed tensile and com-
p r e s s i v e p l a s t i c y i e l d i n g o c c u r s a h e a d of t h e c r a c k Table II. Engineering Mechanical Properties of the Materials Tested
r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n a s to w h e t h e r n o r m a l t e n s i l e Elastzc Yield Ultmaate
m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s c a n b e e x p e c t e d to c o r r e l a t e Modulus, Strength, Strength, Yield Ultimate
adequately with fatigue crack propagation data. This Material 103 ks1 ks1 ksi Strata, Pct Strain,Pct
i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e s i n c e t h e w e a l t h of e v i d e n c e p u b -
l i s h e d by C o f f i n , 17-19 M o r r o w , 2 ~ a n d o t h e r s 21-23 i n d i - Cu-4.6Si
0pct CW 106 21 60 040 52
c a t e s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s in m e c h a n i c a l b e h a v i o r 27 pct CW 13.5 53 89 0.59 8
occur when reversed plastic deformation such as this 48 pct CW 13.8 74 111 0.74 3
i s a p p l i e d to a m a t e r i a l i n a s t r a i n c y c l i n g t e s t . A n MP35N
i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g of t h e i r r e s e a r c h i s t h a t a f t e r 20 to 0pctCW 33.2 51 125 0.35 55
100 c y c l e s of f u l l y r e v e r s e d p l a s t i c d e f o r m a t i o n , 20 pct CW 35.2 129 156 0.57 23
m e c h a n i c a l r e s p o n s e t e n d s to a p p r o a c h a n e w a n d 40 pct CW 27.9 167 197 0.80 3
relatively stable state which is unchanged by further 70/30
cycling. This is evidenced by a stable mechanical 0 pct CW 16.0 20 52 0.33 50
stress-strain h y s t e r e s i s l o o p p a t t e r n t h a t s h o w s no 82 pct CW 16.0 81 103 0.71 3
f u r t h e r e f f e c t of c y c l i n g o n loop d i m e n s i o n s a n d 305SS
shape. 0 pct CW 28.0 36 81 0.33 50
S i n c e t h e n u m b e r s of c y c l e s s p e n t by m a t e r i a l i n 50 pct CW 28.0 120 147 0.63 2
the reversed plastic zone far exceed those usually ob- 2024-T3 10.6 52 72 0.69 17
served as being necessary for cyclic stabilization in T-1 30.0 108 119 0.56 9
strain cycling tests, it appears that stabilization is
c e r t a i n to o c c u r i n t h e r e v e r s e d p l a s t i c z o n e . T h i s ,
investigators at Lehigh University on materials which
in t u r n , s h o u l d h a v e a d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n t h e c r a c k
were still available for additional testing. This made
propagation process and resulting growth rate. Ex-
it p o s s i b l e to t e s t t h e r e m a i n i n g m a t e r i a l w h i c h w a s
p e r i m e n t a l v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s t h e
from the same heat and in the same thermomechanical
p u r p o s e of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In o r d e r to a c h i e v e
condition as the original material tested in fatigue.
t h i s g o a l , t h e b e h a v i o r of t e s t s p e c i m e n s a f t e r f u l l y
These alloys, their identification, and the original in-
reversed tension-compression cycling was studied in
vestigators are as follows:
a n a t t e m p t to m a c r o s c o p i c a l l y s i m u l a t e b e h a v i o r of
material in the reversed plastic zone at a fatigue 1) M a t e r i a l s f a t i g u e t e s t e d b y W e b e r :
crack tip. A n n e a l e d 7 0 / 3 0 b r a s s (0 p c t CW 7 0 / 3 0 ) .
7 0 / 3 0 b r a s s 82 p c t r e d u c e d b y c o l d - r o l l i n g (82
pct CW 70/30).
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
A n n e a l e d 305 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l (0 p c t CW 305 SS).
T h e a i m of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k w a s to o b t a i n a 305 s t a i n l e s s 50 p c t r e d u c e d b y c o l d - r o l l i n g (50
w i d e r a n g e of f a t i g u e c r a c k g r o w t h r a t e a n d m e c h a n i - p c t CW 305 SS).
cal property data that could be tested against the pre- 2) M a t e r i a l f a t i g u e t e s t e d b y H e r t z b e r g : 2s
c e d i n g a s s u m p t i o n . A c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y of c r a c k 2024-T3 aluminum alloy in the mill-treated-and-
growth rate data had been previously obtained by other aged condition. (2024-T3).

180-VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972 METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS


A a )n an+ 1 -- a n - 1

~,, 32 AKn= d.nAO"~d'~nn In o r d e r to a s s e s s how well the fatigue data s a t i s -


E / fied the r e q u i r e m e n t of l i m i t e d p l a s t i c i t y o v e r its
E r a n g e of v a l u e s , c a l c u l a t i o n s of p l a s t i c zone s i z e were
/ Aa made for each c r a c k length m e a s u r e m e n t a c c o r d i n g
I / to the method suggested by I r w i n z~ which included a
I.- _ an_+L 9 AN p l a s t i c i t y a d j u s t m e n t for c r a c k length:
(..9 /
/
Z
LLI
_1
/ , ./":max
O'o /
5 \ Oo /
/
31 - an /e T h e s e w e r e then c o m p a r e d to the s i z e of the un-
",d /
b r o k e n l i g a m e n t width ahead of the c r a c k . It was felt
(D an-1 9
/ that when the ratio of ry to u n b r o k e n l i g a m e n t was less
<
r'Y /
t.) /
9 / I I ,.J
/ ~1 cI +
zl z I zd I
I I
3C i i t ,
9 10 11 12 13 H
n;
KILOCYCLES
Fig. 2--Illustration of the m e t h o d s u s e d to analyze the r a w
c r a c k propagation data.

3) M a t e r i a l f a t i g u e - t e s t e d by N o r d b e r g and H e r t z - 2.00O
b e r g : 26
T - 1 s t e e l (United States Steel patented alloy) in
the m i l l - t r e a t e d condition ( T - l ) .
The c o m p o s i t i o n s and t e n s i l e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e s e
a l l o y s a r e shown in T a b l e s I and II.
Two additional m a t e r i a l s were also t e s t e d by the
a u t h o r s , each in t h r e e conditions of cold work:
i) Annealed Multiphase alloy MP35N (a DuPont
Company patented alloy, hereafter referred to as 2.000
0 pct CW MP35N when in this condition).
MP35N alloy reduced 20 pct by cold-rolling (20
pct CW MP35N).
1 ~6DIA DRILL
MP35N alloy reduced 40 pct by cold-rolling (40
pct CW MP35N). Fig. 3 - - P l a n a r d i m e n s i o n s of the s t r a i n c y c l i n g s p e c i m e n s .
2) Annealed Cu-4.6 Si alloy (0 pct CW Cu-4.6 Si).
Cu-4.6 Si reduced 27 pct by cold-rolling (27 pct
CW Cu-4.6 Si)
Cu-4.6 Si reduced 48 pct by cold-rolling (48 pct
CW Cu-4.6 Si).
The compositions and tensile properties of these
alloys also appear in Tables I and II. These, together
2
with the materials mentioned above, provided six dif-
ferent alloys and a total of twelve different conditions z
of mechanical properties.
Fatigue testing was performed on precracked sheets TIME
cycled in tension-tension sinusoidal loading. Center
cracked and single-edge-notched specimen designs o
were used. Mean loads were controlled at 55 pct of
the maximum load.
To obtain c r a c k growth rate data, c r a c k length o.. -2 ~
m e a s u r e m e n t s were m a d e at i n t e r v a l s of 0.20 to 0.60
m m of new c r a c k growth with a t r a v e l i n g t e l e s c o p e .
At the s a m e t i m e the total n u m b e r of load c y c l e s was ~ block 1 d b,ock2d
r e c o r d e d , allowing c a l c u l a t i o n s of growth r a t e to be
m a d e a c c o r d i n g to the equation given below and as Fig. 4--Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the type of load h i s t o r y
i l l u s t r a t e d in Fig. 2. u s e d in the i n c r e m e n t a l s t e p test.

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS VO LUM E 3, JANUA RY 1972-181


than 0.3 the condition of l i m i t e d p l a s t i c i t y p r o b a b l y cycle was +0.16 pct providing a m a x i m u m s t r a i n
applied well. The f o r m and shape of e x p e r i m e n t a l data r a n g e of • pct. A m i n i m u m of five blocks of c y c l e s
tended to r e i n f o r c e this c o n c l u s i o n . In s u c c e e d i n g (100 cycles) were p e r f o r m e d on each s p e c i m e n . Con-
data plots this r a n g e of data is indicated a s b e i n g that tinuous r e c o r d i n g s of the l o a d - s t r a i n h y s t e r e s i s loops
e n c l o s e d between the b r a c k e t s with a r r o w s . g e n e r a t e d by each s p e c i m e n i n d i c a t e d that in most
The other i m p o r t a n t phase of testing c o n s i s t e d of ob- c a s e s this was m o r e than s u f f i c i e n t to produce a s t a b l e
t a i n i n g t e n s i l e data f r o m s p e c i m e n s a f t e r s t r a i n cycling cyclic s t a t e . Following s t r a i n c y c l i n g a s t a n d a r d t e n -
and produced a s t a b i l i z e d m e c h a n i c a l s t a t e . The s p e c - sile t e s t was p e r f o r m e d on each s p e c i m e n to provide
i m e n design used is shown in Fig. 3. B e c a u s e a l l of the n e c e s s a r y m e c h a n i c a l data. A m i n i m u m of two
the m a t e r i a l s w e r e in the f o r m of sheet 0.070 to 0.250 s p e c i m e n s of each m a t e r i a l w e r e t e s t e d in this f a s h -
in. thick, it was n e c e s s a r y to support the s t r a i n cycling ion, with good r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y b e i n g obtained.
s p e c i m e n s in such a m a n n e r as to p r e v e n t b u c k l i n g B e c a u s e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s dictated the
d u r i n g the c o m p r e s s i o n h a l f - c y c l e . This c o n s t r a i n t s t r a i n c y c l i n g p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d above, the a u t h o r s
p r e v e n t e d the d i r e c t u s e of s t r a i n cycling h y s t e r e s i s w e r e not able to s t r i c t l y a d h e r e to c u s t o m a r y methods
loop data for c a l c u l a t i n g cyclic m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s for d e t e r m i n i n g cyclic m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . It was
a s d e s c r i b e d by M o r r o w 20 and i n s t e a d d i c t a t e d the felt, h o w e v e r , that a close a p p r o x i m a t i o n of t r u e cyclic
u s e of a t e n s i l e test a f t e r s t r a i n cycling. b e h a v i o r was obtained. This viewpoint is supported by
The s t r a i n cycling p r o c e d u r e used s i m u l a t e d that M o r r o w ' s o b s e r v a t i o n 2~ that the cyclic s t r e s s - s t r a i n
d e s c r i b e d by L a n d g r a f , M o r r o w , and Endo 22 a s a n i n - c u r v e for a m a t e r i a l as obtained by the a u t h o r s '
c r e m e n t a l step t e s t . A s c h e m a t i c p o r t r a y a l of the method is v e r y s i m i l a r to that defined by h y s t e r e s i s
l o a d - t i m e h i s t o r y for such a test is shown in F i g . 4. loop m e a s u r e m e n t s .
E a c h block of c y c l e s c o n s i s t e d of 10 c y c l e s of a s c e n d -
ing s t r a i n r a n g e followed by 10 cycles of d e s c e n d i n g
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
s t r a i n range. The i n c r e m e n t of s t r a i n b e t w e e n each
The results of fatigue testing appear in Fig. 5. While
in s o m e cases the data tends to be weakly sigmoidal,
1(}3

18
3

6
6
' I ' ' 1 I ' I ' ' I ''1

! it is noted that over the range of growth rates tested


an exponential relation of the form
aa /aN = A~: m

gives a good description of the overall position and


inclination of the data. The lines through the data
points represent a least squares linear regression
3 analysis of all the data portrayed. The values of the
constants A and m in the growth rate equation relating
i1)

6
% ' I ' ' I I ' i ' ' i ''I
C 3 6
v

-6 3
10 4.1
z 6
$<] 3

6
3
7"
g, U
~>~

C
6
3

v 3
, I,,I I , [ , ,I,,I ,

z
AK ( ksi ~ ) 6
3
Fig. 5--(a) Fatigue crack propagation data of alloy 0 pct CW
Cu-4.6 Si; (b) fatigue crack propagation data of alloy 27 pct
CW Cu-4.6 Si; (c) fatigue crack propagation data of alloy 48

4
pct CW Cu-4.6 Si; (d) fatigue crack propagation data of alloy 6
0 pet CW MP35N; (e) fatigue crack propagation data of alloy
20 pct CW MP35N; {f) fatigue crack propagation data of alloy 3
40 pct CW MP35N; (g) fatigue crack propagation data of
alloy24 0 pet CW 70/30; (h) fatigue crack propagation data of , I,,I , I , , I , I I ,
alloy24 82 pct CW 70/30; (i) fatigue crack propagation data of
alloy24 0 pct CW 305SS; (j) fatigue crack propagation data of
alloy24 50 pct CW 305SS; (k) fatigue crack propagation data of ~K ( ksi i4-~. )
alloy25 2024-T3; (1) fatigue crack propagation data of alloy2~
T-1. (b)

182-VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972 METALLURGICALTRANSACTIONS


to the data line in e a c h f i g u r e a r e g i v e n in T a b l e III. Th e g r o w t h r a t e data f r o m the 48 pct CW C u - 4 . 6 Si
It is of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to note the v a r i a t i o n in rn showed the g r e a t e s t d e v i a t i o n f r o m the r e s u l t s de -
with m a t e r i a l and condition of cold w o r k , s i n c e s o m e s c r i b e d a b o v e . While any g i v e n s p e c i m e n of this m a -
theories predict a fixed v a l u e of m , independent of t e r i a l p r o d u c e d data c o n s i s t e n t with the above d e s c r i p -
all variables. tion, data f r o m one s p e c i m e n f e l l w e l l below that of the

1()3 I ~ I ' '1 I


' I ' I I ' i , ' i , ,t , ,]
6
3 /

6
3
-.
9 I1)
U t.)

% t 9
<.. 6 o

r-
v
,I, oh

v .3

o
Z
Z
W ~

<~
"-z -
4.1 e 3.4 "

~, I I , I ,, I,,I , ,
10

AK ( k s i iv/TE.) AK ( ksi i~E.)


(c)

-3
' I''1 I ' I ' '1''1 10 ' I ' I I ' I ' ' I ' ' I '
6 6
3
4

6 6
3 f ~ 3
7 t.)

1056i
u 6 r-
o l

g 3 3

<l

1J
e
2 ~_J3.1

~1,,I
[•O i I , , I ,,l~o , I,,I
> 70
I
§
, I
Vo
, , I,,I |

AK ( ksi i,/TE. ) AK ( ksi iriS-. )

Fig. 5--Continued (e)

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS V O L U M E 3, J A N U A R Y 1 9 7 2 - 1 8 3
o t h e r s in growth r a t e . The cause of this d e v i a t i o n was c y c l i n g a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in Fig. 6 w h e r e they a r e c o m -
not d e t e r m i n e d , although o t h e r a n o m a l i e s to be d e - p a r e d with the i n i t i a l , u n c y c l e d s t a t e of each m a t e r i a l .
s c r i b e d l a t e r w e r e a l s o o b s e r v e d in this p a r t i c u l a r A s u m m a r y of p e r t i n e n t data a p p e a r s in T a b l e s IV and
material. V. It was o b s e r v e d that a l l m a t e r i a l s except the 48 pct
The r e s u l t s of m e c h a n i c a l t e s t i n g a f t e r s t r a i n CW C u - 4 . 6 Si tended to r e a c h a r e l a t i v e l y stable

-3

I,/ 7
I I ' ' I ' ' I ' 10 ' I ' ' I I ' I ' ' I ' 'I ' '
6 6
3

-4
10
6 @

3 3
U

u 65 65
>.,,
d 6 9~ 6
)- C
3

z 1<
r~
<3
6
B
7'
167 6 7 _
6 4.8 6
3 3

1# I
§
, I
~'o
, I,,I
-b %
, I , ,I I , I , , i , ,i , ,
>5 § "o ~o%
AK ( ks] z~K ( ksi
(g) 0.n

103 ' I ''1 I ~ I ' I ''1 ' I''I I ' I 'I ''I
C
3

#
6 6

3 B
L;

% l O~
>" 6 i-

v
c 3

#
Z
z 6

<~
< #- "-4 -7 _//~2.8
10
6 3.8 6
3

1~)8 , I,,I -8
10 I,,I I , I , ,I,,I
~ 1o § ~'o --'0% ~%
AK ( k s i i,J~. ) AK ( ksi i#~7.)
Fig. 5--Continued (~) (f

184-VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972 METALLURGICALTEANSACTIONS


1CC,
Table III. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Law Constants

Material Number Code LogA m

Cu-4.6Si
&
~o| "~ "" "" 0 pct CW 1 -22.0 3.8
27 pct CW 2 -23.4 41
48 pct CW 3 -23.1 4.1
MP35N

IJ
1167 1;6 1;5 1;4 @3
0 pct CW
20 pct CW
40 pct CW
4
5
6
-21 2
-20 4
-19.4
3.4
3.3
31
Aa/AN (In/cycle) 70/30
0 pct CW 7 -25 6 4.8
(k)
82 pct CW 8 -20.4 37
305SS
@31 ' I''I I 0pctCW 9 -219 38
50 pct CW 10 -17 7 28
2024-T3 11 -21.9 40
T-I 12 -190 3I
2. 7075-T6
4340, 1000~ Temper
13
14
-21 0
-19 4
40
32
811 Tt 15 3 8-4 1
8NI, 10NI,
3 HY130, HYI50 16 2.3
o~
-G 1~5 where k is a material constant and n' is the cyclic
e strain-hardening coefficient as defined by a tensile
c- test after the strain cycling history described earlier.
"-- 3 This was not possible with the original uncycled ma-
# t e r i a l s . T h e v a l u e s of n ' s h o w n i n T a b l e IV r e p r e s e n t
values obtained by fitting a least-squares line through
:7 g e v e n l y s p a c e d d a t a p o i n t s o n t h e c y c l i c flow c u r v e s
o v e r a p l a s t i c s t r a i n r e g i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e
s t r a i n c y c l i n g h i s t o r y (0.4 to 4 . 0 p c t p l a s t i c s t r a i n ) .
157 +,
DATA CORRE LATION
3.2 S i n c e it w a s o b s e r v e d earlier that the Paris relation
&alAN : AAK m
I# %% p r o v i d e d a g o o d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e g r o w t h r a t e
data, a correlation was sought between the constants
AK ( ksi ~ )
A and m and material properties. Before this was
(Z)
d o n e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
Fig. 5--Continued the constants A and m was tested. The result is shown
in Fig. 7, indicating a functional relationship may
cyclic state after 20 to 60 cycles. While changes in
exist between A and m and the properties that deter-
hysteresis loop size and shape were often observed
mine the values of these two constants.
until cycling was complete, these tended to be very
Since theoretical growth rate laws suggest a num-
minor, indicating that the greatest transient changes
ber of possible relationships between growth rate
were complete.
parameters and material properties, correlation with
I n t h e c a s e of t h e 48 p e t C u - 4 . 6 Si, s p e c i m e n f r a c -
experimental data was first sought on this basis.
ture interrupted strain cycling after approximately
Specifically, those growth rate equations referenced
45 c y c l e s b e f o r e a s t a b l e c y c l i c s t a t e c o u l d b e
earlier were tested by plotting data for the mechani-
a c h i e v e d . T h e d a t a g i v e n f o r 48 p e t CW C u - 4 . 6 Si i n
cal property parameters suggested by each equation
F i g . 6(a) a n d T a b l e IV t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e s to m e c h a n i c a l
against values of A and m given in Table III. The
p r o p e r t i e s a f t e r 40 c y c l e s , a n d n o t i n a f u l l y s t a b i l i z e d
resuRing graphs produced no meaningful trends, im-
condition.
plying that present growth rate theories are inade-
A m o s t n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t of s t r a i n c y c l i n g w a s t h e
quate to predict the effect of mechanical properties
t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s l i n e a r log s t r e s s - l o g s t r a i n b e h a v i o r
on low stress fatigue.
after strain cycling. This was particularly true within
Since present theories produced inadequate results,
t h e r a n g e of s t r a i n s i n w h i c h c y c l i n g w a s p e r f o r m e d
other possible correlations were sought. Since it had
(less than 4:pet). Within this region stress-strain be-
previously been observed that materials with high
havior could be satisfactorily described by a power
elastic moduli had better resistance to crack growth,
h a r d e n i n g law s u c h a s
it was felt that perhaps A should be inversely propor-
a = k E n' tional to E. A number of theories predict this, and it

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972-185


is to be s u s p e c t e d s i n c e lIE is a m e a s u r e of the c a -
Cu- 4.6 S.i pacity of the m a t e r i a l to s t o r e e l a s t i c e n e r g y when
200 - - MONOTONIC s t r e s s e d . A d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n A and E was
..... CYCLIC not o b t a i n e d , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t i n g o t h e r m a t e r i a l
160 p r o p e r t i e s w e r e i n v o l v ed .
130

I00 ~ ~ 200 - 7 0 / 3 0 BRASS


_ - MONOTONIC
80 ~ .,, ,.. ~ , , . ' ~ 160 CYCLIC

,o ~ ,oo- ~',.~'~ __~___-~


80 "~"

"0 "IS i I , i il I I , , I ~ 401 .... ""


- o o o_ o o_
9% .% % % .%

TRUE PLASTIC STRAIN (i"/;i. ) .


(a) 20
% ! ,
% % 0 . 0 eo
I ~ ~ ;,-"I'- I i , I
%
200~.~ .-
TRUE PLASTIC STRAIN
(c)
(in/in)
,o.,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.
,~o " ~ z
~ _..._,/ ...........
2OO

IOO 16o

80, 130

t
%
60 ~ IOO

8O
40- MP35 N
MONOTONIC
..... CYCLIC %

2o n I , nnnl I J , I
9Oo+ %% % % 305 SS
- - MONOTONIC
...... CYCLIC
TRUE PLASTIC STRAIN (in/in}"
(b) 2o , , I ,,,,I I , , I
% % % % o.%
Fig. 6--(a) C o m p a r i s o n o f m o n o t o n i c and c y c l i c t e n s i l e data
Cu-4.6 Si; (b) Comparison of monotonic and cyclic t e n s i l e
data MP35N; (c) c o m p a r i s o n of monotonic and cyclic tensile
data 70/30; (d) c o m p a r i s o n of monotonic and cyclic tensile TRUE PLASTIC STRAIN (in/in)
data 305SS; (e) c o m p a r i s o n of monotonic and cyclic tensile
data T-1 and 2024-T3. (d)

186-VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972 METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS


200 Table V. Ratio of True Stress-True Strain Properties
After Strain Cycling to Those Before

160
Example:Y.S.(after)/Y.S.(before)

Yield Ultimate Ultzmate


130
Material Strength Ratio Strength Ratio Strain Ratio
Cu-4.6Si
I00 0 pct CW 1.00 0.94 0.84
27 pct CW 1 00 1 02 0.88
80 48 pct CW 0 95 1.00 1.00
MP35N
0 pct CW 1.78 0.95 0,66
20 pct CW 0.82 0,98 0.95
40 pct CW 0.72 1.02 4,33

~q 70/30
0 pct CW 1 75 0.91 0.63
40
82 pct CW 0.83 0.94 1.67
305SS
MONOTONIC
0 pct CW 1.64 1.01 0.85'
..... CYCLIC , 50 pct CW 0.84 1.00 6 50
2024-T3 1.31 0.94 0.25
T-I 0.69 0,97 t. 11
200 I I I = =ill I t I I
"00~ QOo~" ~ ~ o.%

-28
TRUE PLASTIC STRAIN (in/I/n/
/
Fig. 6--Continued (e)
/ /Q/
/ /
0c~ -24
Table IV. True Stress-True Strain Properties After Strain Cycling J / /
//
Cychc
Yield Ultimate Yield UlUmate Strata
Strength, Strength, Strain, Strain, Hardening -20
Material ksz ksi Pct Pct Coefficmnt

Cu-4.6Si //(~ //
0 pct CW 21 90 0.40 36 0.20 / /
27 pct CW 53 98 0.59 7 0.13 /
48 pct CW 71 114 0.71 3 0.21" -16
/
MP35N
i i I
0 pct CW 91 185 0.47 29 0.06
2 3 4 5
20 pct CW 108 188 0.50 20 0.10
40 pct CW 123 183 0.64 13 0.14 m
70/30 Fig. 7--Apparent c o r r e l a t i o n of values of A and m in the
0 pct Cw 35 55 0.42 26 0.08 growth rate relation.
82 pct CW 69 100 0.63 5 0.11
305SS
0 pct CW 59 133 0.41 35 0.05 g e n e r a l o f t r e n d s . T h e s e r e s u l t s , a s s h o w n in F i g . 8
50 pct CW 103 157 0.56 13 0.11 i n d i c a t e a p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y of
2024-T3 69 79 0.84 4 0.07
1
T-1 75 114 0.45 10 0.10 Acc En'
7075-T6 75 - 0.91 - 0.11
4340, 1000~ Temper 110 - 0,60 - 0,14
T h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y d a t a s h o w n in t h e f i g u r e s a n d
*Valuedoes not correspondto a stable cyclicstate. r e f e r e n c e d in T a b l e III w e r e t a k e n f r o m a l l p u b l i s h e d
d a t a t h a t c o u l d b e f o u n d . 9'2~ Since both fatigue
and strain cycling data rarely exist for the same
It w a s f e l t t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e v e r s e d p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l , t h e a m o u n t of s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n
d e f o r m a t i o n a t t h e c r a c k t i p s h o u l d b e r e f l e c t e d in t h e i s n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d . It s h o u l d a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t
p a r a m e t e r s A a n d m . A c c o r d i n g l y , v a l u e s of c y c l i c no s t r a i n - c y c l i n g d a t a e x i s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i c s t e e l
mechanical properties were studied for this possibility. a l l o y s r e f e r e n c e d by B a r s o m ( d a t a p o i n t 16),32 a l -
P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w a s g i v e n to c y c l i c s t r a i n - h a r d - t h o u g h it w a s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e o t h e r m a t e r i a l s m e n -
e n i n g , s i n c e t h i s p r o c e s s , a s m e a s u r e d by n ' , r e l a t e s tioned. Existing evidence for similar steels suggests
d i r e c t l y to p l a s t i c b e h a v i o r a n d u l t i m a t e e l o n g a t i o n . t h a t v a l u e s o f n ' f o r t h e s t e e l s in R e f . 16 s h o u l d lie
Combining E and n' and plotting the product against b e t w e e n 0.13 a n d 0 . 1 7 , w h i l e e x p e c t e d v a l u e s of cr~
c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e s of A p r o d u c e d o n l y t h e m o s t s h o u l d r a n g e f r o m 100,000 to 150,000 p s i . 2~ These

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972-187


28
m
(~)x, \
5
24 \\ @',\
\ \\
| - \
- \ "3:'
4
2O
. |
I
16
".0 \ \ @ o\8
\@
16
iz , , , I , , , I , , , I , , , I 2 I I I I ~1
0 I 2 5 4 0 1 2 3 4 5

En' x I0 -6 En' x 106 psi


Fig. 8--Corretation of the growth rate parameter, A, and the Fig. 9--Correlation between the growth rate parameter, m,
product En'. and the product En'.

r a n g e s were then u s e d to e s t a b l i s h the expected


r a n g e of data for t h e s e m a t e r i a l s .
6
S i m i l a r , but m o r e c o n c l u s i v e evidence was o b t a i n e d
in c o r r e l a t i n g m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s with the slope of
the growth rate c u r v e , rn. T h e s e data a p p e a r in Fig. 9 n
and r e p r e s e n t the b e s t a p p a r e n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n 5 "--
m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and c r a c k growth r a t e p a r a m - (Z)-.,
e t e r s . Once a g a i n , a n i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p e a r s
l i k e l y , such that i n c r e a s i n g En' tends to d e c r e a s e the
v a l u e of m . A s i m i l a r r e s u l t is obtained when rn is
plotted a g a i n s t E n ' ~ , as shown in Fig. 10.
F i g s . 7 through 10 show the best r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d
in a t t e m p t s to c o r r e l a t e fatigue data and m e c h a n i c a l
p r o p e r t i e s . While a n u m b e r of other c o m b i n a t i o n s of 3 \ @-\
m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , including those s u g g e s t e d by
T o m k i n s , were t e s t e d a g a i n s t v a l u e s of A and m , the
r e s u l t s were u n s u c c e s s f u l . ( 16 . . . . . .
l I I I "~ I --I- - 9
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
DISCUSSION
1~0 )2
Since p r e s e n t t h e o r i e s of fatigue do not p r e d i c t the Eden' x (psi
r e s u l t s obtained, it is a p p a r e n t that some d e f i c i e n c i e s Fig. 10--Correlation between the growth rate parameter, m,
e x i s t in p r e s e n t c o n c e p t s of the c r a c k growth p r o c e s s . and the product En'~.
F i g s . 8 through 10 L'idicate that cyclic m e c h a n i c a l
p r o p e r t i e s have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on c r a c k growth
r a t e s . This r e s u l t can only be justified for low s t r e s s the f i g u r e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y that o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s not
fatigue by a d m i t t i n g the p r e s e n c e of a r e v e r s e d p l a s t i c a p p e a r i n g in the c o r r e l a t i o n s also c o n t r i b u t e to v a l u e s
zone at the c r a c k tip in which c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n of A and m is also v e r y r e a l . It s e e m s , however, that
c y c l i n g o c c u r s . T h i s a s p e c t is m i s s i n g f r o m m o s t the g r e a t e s t influence is e x e r t e d by those p r o p e r t i e s
t h e o r i e s and p r o b a b l y is the c a u s e of the i n c o n s i s t e n - E , n ' , and cr~ p r e s e n t e d in the f i g u r e s .
cies in t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s of c r a c k growth r a t e s . One r e s u l t of i n t e r e s t is the effect that A and rn
As for the data c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r , have on fatigue life. It was o b s e r v e d in Fig. 7 that as
s e v e r a l points need to be c o n s i d e r e d in t h e i r i n t e r - rn i n c r e a s e d , log A tended to b e c o m e m o r e n e g a t i v e .
p r e t a t i o n . F i r s t , although b r o a d t r e n d s a r e s e e n to This p r e d i c t s a tendency of growth r a t e c u r v e s to
e x i s t , varying d e g r e e s of s c a t t e r a p p e a r in F i g s . 7 rotate about a c r o s s o v e r point as A and m a r e changed.
through 10. Likely c a u s e s for this a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l An e x a m p l e of this is i l l u s t r a t e d in Fig. 11, where the
effects, and the a d m i t t e d n e c e s s i t y of m o d e l i n g local effect of cold work on growth r a t e c u r v e s is shown.
c r a c k tip cycling to l a r g e s c a l e s t r a i n c y c l i n g s p e c i - The o u t c o m e of this o b s e r v a t i o n is that p r e d i c t i n g
m e n s . It also s e e m s likely that the v a l u e s of the changes in fatigue life from the p r e s e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s
growth rate c o n s t a n t s , A and rn, depend on m o r e c o m - a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y obvious. Since the n u m b e r of
plex t e r m s than the s i m p l e c o m b i n a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d in cycles to f a i l u r e is r e p r e s e n t e d by the i n t e g r a t i o n of
188-VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972 METALLURGICALTRANSACTIONS
1) S i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t s of s t r a i n c y c l i n g o c c u r a t the
t i p of a g r o w i n g f a t i g u e c r a c k .
z 2) T h e e f f e c t of s t r a i n c y c l i n g in t h i s r e v e r s e d p l a s -
tic z o n e i s to a l t e r m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , a n d t h u s
affect propagation processes.
3) S t a b l e , s t r a i n - c y c l e d m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s b e s t
d e s c r i b e m a t e r i a l in t h e r e v e r s e d p l a s t i c z o n e o f t h o s e
alloys considered.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial


s u p p o r t o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n u n d e r NSF
G r a n t G K - 1 2 2 5 a n d t h e U. S. A t o m i c E n e r g y C o m m i s -
s i o n . The M P 3 5 N alloy was p r o v i d e d by Dr. S t e w a r t
G. F l e t c h e r of the L a t r o b e St e e l C o m p a n y while the
C u - 4 . 6 Si a l l o y w a s s u p p l i e d b y D r . W i l l i a m R . O p i e
of A m e r i c a n M e t a l C l i m a x , I n c .

RE FERENCES
//
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METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS VOLUME 3, JANUARY 1972-189