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SUMO. Japan's spectacularnational sport, continues to maintain ia popularity despite the inroads made in recent years by baseball. Millions continue to be enthralled by the flfteen-day championship matches now held six times a year in Japan's major cities' The tournament halls are filled to capacity every day ald nationwide televisingnow enablesanyone to see Sumo. adding further stimulus to the popularity of the sport. sportseditor for the EnglishJanguage Mr. Sargeant, .lsohi Evening -llews, realised that there were many foreigners who would enjoy Sumo more if they knew more of the essential facts about it. Utilizing his knowledge and fust-hand information on the sport' he produced this book to meet this need. Written in the humorous, easy-to-read fashion with which the many readersof his sports column will be pleas' antly familiar, Mr. Sargeant has also given us a picture of the excitement of the sport, as well as ls6hnical aspects that are apt to escapethe uninitiated eye. The professional Sumo wrestler is very much in the public eye, his activities, both in and out of the ring, being followed with eager interest by millions of fans via press,radio, and television. Here we are taken into the wrestler's life behind the scenesat a in tournament, at the gruelling training sessions the various gymnasiums, and, in delightfully informal accounts, in moments of recreation and relaxation at home. Not neglectedare the rich pageantry and histori.:. (continued insideback cover) on
Couer designbY M. Kuwata

SUMO

t\

The title and author's name are presented on the rcver in Japan€se characters.

SUN,[O
the sport dnd the traditiort

w l. A. SARGEANT

CHARLES E. TUTTLE COMPANY Tolcyo,JaPan Fnttlanil, Vermont

Reprercntatiues For ContfuettalExrope: Boxrnroors, fNc., Zaricb For tbe British Ishr PnrNrrcr-Her-r, INrnnNATroNAL, INc., London For Australasia: Boor ril7rsr(Ausrner-re)Prr. Lro. 104-108Sassex Street,S-1dne1 2000

Table of Contents
P*lified fu tbe CharletE. Tuttle Companl,lrc. of Ratland, Vermont dt Tok1o,lapan ntith editorial ofrcesat Sildo l-chone, 2-6, Bunkyo-ka,Toklo @ 1959 b1 tbe Cltarlet E. Tutth Companl, Inc. arder the BerneConaention All rightr reserued and tlte UniuersalCop.ltrightConention Library of Congress CatalogCard No. 59-599t StandardBook No. 0-8048-1084-2 International First printing, 1959 Eigltnentb printing, 1985 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I 9 10 11 L2 13 14 15 In Days Gone By Born Sumoists The Road to Stardom Grand Tournaments Sumo Ranking " PsychologicalWarfare " The Techniquesof Sumo Grand Champions Pageantry The Referee The Honorable ]udges So Clean and Gentlcmanly Sumo Nomenclatue " Off Duty " Thc Charm of Sumo

7 t2 t6 23 26 32 36 47 56 65 69 72 76 84 88

Printed in Japan

CHAPTER 1
ILLASTRATIONS

t 2 3-4
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Tokitsukazc, prcsident of the fapan Sumo Association Preliminary to a bout Sumo in action Chiyo-no-yamaperforming the dohyo-iri Tochinishiki performing the dohyo-iri Sumo in action Sumo throws A former grand champion in action Former grand champions performng dohyo-iri Grand Champion Waka-no-hanaand friends Sumo in action Bow-twirling ceremony

6

7-lo 11 L2 L3-t4 15-16 17-20 2L

L7 18 t9 20 37 38-40 42-43 )/ 58-60 77 78-79 80

ffiffi

In Days Gone BY

Thc West has its "sport of kings'" fapan, in Sumq has her "sport of emperors." Tokyo's famous mecca of Sumq the Kuramae Kokugi Hall, has a conspicuousroyal box. When Emperor Hirohito takes his seat that untherc, gazing in loving admiration on the colorful spectacle following age-old tradition' With a folds bcfore him, hc is but difierence, however. Nowadays the empcror goes to Sumo; in the old days Sumo went to him. Even in ancient times the imperial court, thc story goes,resounded with the stamping of the feet of {16 $rrmo giants, and down the years the empcrors as well as the great warriorlords who rulcd ]apan during the Middlc Ages havc been ardent devoteesof this manly sport. The first recorded and perhapsmost famous bout of xll time was one that astonishedand delighted the eyesof thc Emperor Suiiin a few yearsbefore the opening of thc Christian era. Nomi-nesukune frame, was a formidable opponcnq but with his seven-foot-ten-inch rival, Taema-ne.kehaya,altet a Homeric struggle that seemed his interminable and thrilled the hearts of the empcror and his court,

8

Sumo:

Sport and Tradition

In Days Gone By

9

fnally dealt him such a hefty and well-placed kick that he felled him e1 the spot. This was quite in keeping with what went on in those blood-thirsty days but, needlessto say, in this more refined Atomic age, violence of that sort is completely taboo. With its imperial beginnings, Sumo certainly started out on the right side of tle tracks, but, curiously enough, the very first grand tournament, or basho,was held in a temple compound, and temple and shrine grounds continued to be one of the favorite sitesfor bouts through the cenruries. These religious and imperial ties probably account to a large extent for Sumo's being adorned with so much pageantryeventoday. ProfessionalSumo is said to have originated in the sixteenth century under the overlordshipof the famous Oda Nobunaga; but its colorful history of men of valor, real and legendary, dates back further. We are told that about elevenhundred years ago there was a muscle-mannamed Hajikami living in Omi, the present Shiga Prefecture, who was so strong that the ordinary run-of-themill wrestler could not handle him. He alwayswon hands down and took all the fun out of the sport, so one resourcefulrefereeat a contestin Osaka'sSumiyoshiShrine obtaineda coil of thick rope, or shimenaata,and tied it around Hajikami's middle. To even things up, it was announcedthat any man who could succeed in touching the rope would be declared the winner. This, of course, added some spice to the proceedings, but even at that Hajikami remainedundefeated. It is thanks to him that great white hawsers still adorn the midrifrs of the grand champions,or yoftozuna, even today (seePlates5, 6, 12 & 13). Ironically enough,however,Hajikami was not proclaimed first grand champion. That honor was rcserved for another Sumo grcat, Akashi Shiga-no-suke,a figure

shrouded in mystery of whom there is actually no precise record availablc. It seemsthat in the early part of the seventeenthcentury a great tournament was held at the imperial court in Kyoto. Akashi, the son of a samurai, defcated Nio Nidaya, of Nagasaki, to win the tourncy and becomc the first official yoftozt4na in the history of Sumo. He rcputedly stood ovcr eight feet tall and weighed over four hundred pounds, but tle figures arc not oficial, and he has no doubt grown in stature with every passing generation. Not long after copping the title, he came up to Edo, as Tokyo was then called, and appearedat the Sasa-dera, temple in Yotsuya,on the occasionof the a first grand tournamentever held in the presentcapital of fapan. We are on much firmer ground when we come to Tanikaze Kajino-suke,the fourth grand champion and possiblythe greatestof them all. Thc son of a poor farmer of the Tohoku region in the north, he was born in 1749 and hailed from the neighborhood of Sendai, in Miyagi Prefecture. During a period of eight years in the ring he piled up the amazing record of 183 wins, 12 losses, and 25 tiesn in a total of 220 bouts. That gives him an average of 938. His achievementof going through sixty-six bouts without a defeat has beenbettercdonly by Futabayama's sixry-nine. In contrastto some of his legendary predecessors, Tanikaze was a merc six feet two inches in height, and his 3,14pounds put him in about rhe same classas the modern pot-bellied Kagamisato He finally succumkd, not to an opponent in the ring but to an attack of influenza and died n 17% at the age of fony-six. A fapanesesaying has it that "There neverwas the equal of Tanikaze,beforeor since." His name means "wind of the valley." The next star in the ranks of the great was Raiden Tame-emon,

u

his amazing techniqueseemed be of come out on top but thrice.but in fifteen tilts with to his arch-rival Hitachiyama. was an all-time great' After attaining maftu-uchi (inside-the-curtain)rank he lost only eight times in eighteen tournaments. The oppositesort of record was set up by the twelfth yoftozuna. in at tipped the scales 335 pounds. |immaku. Hitachino avail. Visitors to the Sumo Museum at the Kuramae Kokugi Hall may seethe top hat and walking stick that Hitachiyama sported when he went to the States. who carried on for ovet twenty seasons. in the mid nineteenth century' He was actually thirty-nine yearsof age when he attained the rank of grand champion. but was inferior in weight. With all those night games there'Il be no more like Ty Cobb or Eddie Collins.and he carried on long after that. and he managedto yama walked away wittr seven matches. the with his five feet six inches.that kind of stayingpower is out of thc question. In 1907he visited the United fapanese States where he was presented to "Teddy" Roosevelt. with six big tourneysa year. he was accompaniedby the present Dewa-no-umi. the nineteenth yoftozuna. but men like Terukuni.IO Sport and Tradition In Days Gone By 11 who wrestled at the end of the a 370-poundsix-foot-three-incher and the beginning of the nineteenth century. being a measly320 pounds' Hitachiyama.and the rest were ties. Thesedays. He might indeed of was truly a srupendous prototype of the modern Sumo man. he took with him an apron.or ozefti. Bouts betweenthese two are said to have been really terrific. who in 1944at the age of twenty-four becamethe youngestgrand champion on record. l l i . one might consider Tanikaze. In throwing a few bouquets. The only man who could get away with that sort Nomi-no-sukune. His eighteenth seven greatest feat was to win no lessthan twenty-fivetournaments. It's like baseball. their daily ceremonialentry into the arena. distinction of of them in succession. such as all Sumo wrestlerswear at the dohyo-iri. Hitachiyama.Ume-ga-tani up a wonderful winning averageof -920. and Futabayama(Plate 1).the two great wrestlersof Coming to comparatively the Meiji era were without a doubt Totaro Ume-ga-taniII (1878chalked 1927)andHitachiyamaTaniemon (187+1922). of whom more anon' to be Sumo'sgreat trio. should not be forgotten.slot for seventeen he never elevatedto the rank of grand champion because roughed it up too much.until recently head of the fapan Sumo Association. Hitachiyama towered two inches abovehim. It was studded with diamonds and was worth millions. greatest modern Sumo. Naturally. being the first be callpd the wrestler ever to go abroad.spread over nine years' He personage the period. But none has ever been gracedwith one like Hitachiyama's. of stufi was the before-mentioned modern times.Raiden holds the dubious yearslhe was remaining in the champion. Ume-ga-tani.

for There are quite a number of reasons Sumo'spopularity with the country boys. fills the bill perfectly. boystake up the cheapest course. All that is required is a simple ring of to and a loin+loth. fapan'smain island.that the rural areashave enjoyed much less frequent contact with Western influences. nonetheless farming villagesof the north and the fishing villages). and Nagoya. In many parts sees (particularly true in the case of the of the country. ball. that so many of fapan's Incidentally. Futabayama-now retired and. Con- . may be said to be well The ]apanese if to the sport of Sumo. areasthroughout the the trudging through which strengthens hips-a vital part of every wrestler'sanatomy. at the extremenorthern tip of Honshu. non-hip-developing plains. grand championshail from Hokkaido or the northeastern long winter under a blanket of deep snow. He is the son of a Tokyo umbrella-maker. The rustic Sumo ring often takes the place of the urban baseballdiamond. Undoubtedlyin suchgreat centersof populationas Tokyo.CHAPTER 2 Born Sumoists L3 sport they can find. The samething may be said of youthsfrom the mountains. The farmers in the north eke out a bare living. The greatest sumoistof modern times. Z & 10). and glove than one practicingthe land'sancientand traditional sport. in southwest |apan. too. They have little money to spend on their sons' pastimes.Tochinishiki (see Of the threereigning grand champions Plates6.and the great Japanese provincial tours never touch theseremote areas. however. under the name of Tokitsukaze. adapted Born Sumoists It is a hotly debatablequestion whether or not baseballhas supplanted Sumo as the national sport of fapan. Chiyo-no-yama Hokkaido and Waka-no-hana(Plates8. Osaka. the sonsof fishermenoften turn out to be good wrestlers. The remaining two are from the (Plate 5) from the northern island of snowy north. The reasonis that the fapancse. In rowing. and the latter. their Another reasonis economic. of course. it is unnecessary add. race as a whole. was born and brought up in a city. The life of the city slicker is evidently not conduciveto the production of a great wrestler. Thus. the reverse is to be found. the hips come into much play. 15 & 16) from Aomori.one sees more youthswith bat. it is no mere coincidence districts. the sequently. In many districts feudalism is still rife. only one. A similar proportion may be found among the lower-ranking grapplers. one being. It is natural that they should be able to developstronger hips than the lads who walk only on the flat. apparentif one but scratches professional baseballsquadsin the surface. need not be studdedwith diamonds. |ust somethingto sparethe sensitivities of the country maidens. Sumo. crop failures are not uncommon. the land is poor. head of the fapan Sumo Association-is a fisherman'sson from the Kyushu prefectureof Oita.

Generations of squattingon the tatami (straw mats usedto cover the floor) instead of sitting on chairs have perhaps more than anything else developed the fapanesetype of body.14 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Born Sumoists 15 I may be permitted to use such an ungraceful term. There was no limitation on height. But this. and dairy products. ranks with the Sumo giants of all time. towered to a height of six feet 6ve inchcs and fuctuated in weight between360 and 430 pounds. He slimmed down from well over 400 pounds. is said to have reached seven feet five inches. are rather "low in the water. should perhapsbe taken with a big grain of salt. It makesa man so much more difrcult to topple. Ouchiyama. is producing a taller and more massivebreed. who retired early in 1958. He steppedinto the'ring at closeto 390 pounds and tipped the beam at six feet four inches.caused death of an opponentin the the ring. that they have been endowed by Mother Nature with long bodies and short legs. . And that's not all. There can be little doubt that with the gradual improvement in fapanesephysique will go on rising. like most facts about this gentleman. of course. This la4 who got as far as scftiuaftc (junior champion) in the 1920's. Since May. maybe. The fapan Sumo Association doubt heaveda sigh of relief no when this behemothretired iust before World War IL As for height. a vcritable colossus. figur:s don't lie. At the end of the Meiii era (around 1910) the requirementwas a minimum weight of a little over 132 pounds. accidentallyof course. who flourishedin the seventeenth century. it's an enthralling question. with such monsters as Dewa-ga-take in thc field. The first grand champion. Anyway. 1957. thesestandards The clephantine Odachi. bread. together with a greater use of chairs. He was so strong that certain of the regular sixty-eightholds were barred to him after he had." By this I mean. He was a staggering if sevenfeet three inches and would have been worth his weight in gold to any basketballteam. In Sumo the point of balance or fulcrum must be as low as possible. the modern "Eiffel Tower" is the prognathous demoted champion. By the beginning of the Showaperiod (1926) the standardhad risen to about 160pounds and a lad had to be at least five feet five inches in height before he could be accepted.the standard of height has been five feet seven inches and of weight 166 pounds. In this connection it is of interest to note that an improved diet through the increasedintake of meat. But way back in the 1820's there was a wrestler boasting the picruresquename of Ozora (big sky) who really was a sky-scraper. Akashi. thc heaviest ever. of A consequence this has been a gradual raising of the standard required of Sumo novices. who can lay claim to six feet sevenand one-half inches.

There are aboutfifteen of thesegyms scattered throughout Ryogoku. for 6rst he must prove himself. Taro's gym is locatedin the Ryogoku areaof Tokyo. is a hefty lad. One day. at fourteen he already tips the scalesat 165 pounds. presi dent of thc Japan S umo A ssoci ati on. beforehe knows where he is. Here he will live in.of course. a retired Sumo great. where are to be found by far the greaternumber of theseinstirutions. he can throw all his comrades with ease.for it was in this quarter that the great tournamentswere formerly held. They l Tue P nrsrorrr : Tokrtsukazc i cx-grancl champi on Futabayarna). . in the course of a provincial tour. i s s how n i n Japaneseatti re standi ng at the entrance of the gy m or trai ni ng quarters of w hi ch he i s the master . There's no matching him for miles around. a group of noted wrestlersfrom Tokyo reaches the neighboring town. Inquiries are made and. The word is passedaround that a boy called Taro is somerhing out of the ordinary. with his food and pocket money provided by the master of the gym. a farmer's son.A grand champion in the making. He will be given no salary. at the arenanow known as the Kokusai (International) Stadium.CHAPTER 3 The Road to Stardom Taro. he is whisked up to the capital and installedas an apprenticein one of the great Sumo gyms. a number of years. as everyoneagrees.

.vi th a qui ck tw rst of the body i o the l eft sends hi s opponent S hi mi zugaw a spi nni ng out of the arcna before he hi msel f fal l s. S nrr < r n r . r v h i c h p r ece clcsa b o u t. w eari ng knee s upporter. .n o . \.n o-umr." T h e r e feree may b: g l i mp scd in th c r e a r .# ^ . T h e y cr o u ch .vi th f is t s f irr n l y p l a n t e d i n t h e sa n cl. th e vi cti m of T a ma . b ch in d T a m a .5 4 e % .o to sh i.N a o s H r T h e two r vr e stle r s h e r e a r e e n g a g e d i n : s hilliri-n a o s h i . .h .a . r . 2. di gs i n w i th hi s heel s on the edg e of the ri ng and r. T n s M r cHr y r .rnr : In thi s tacti c the man underneath. i n thi s casc K oto-ga-hama. U rrcrr.stu d yin g e a ch o th e r in te n tl y. wh ich m ay be rransl a r e d " p u llin g h im d o wn .q r r r N ! : L yin g like a pol e-axed s t e er is th e b u r ly T o kitsu ya m a . r e g u la te s the proc eecl in g s .u m i' s h ifti. i n t l t e r e a r with fa n u p r a ise d .lii 3. 4 . T he re f e r e e .

And what do the women do. but including the whole hierarchy of Sumo-dom right up to the champions and grand champions themselves. Taro and his fellow-neophytes rise at the crack of dawn and. in return for which they see to it that he gets to know the ropes.No . in what may frankly be described as a feudalistic set-up.n o . in spite of recent attempts at democratization. most of them apprentices iike himself. there are no women. Nothing of the sort! There is no breakfast.c. for he has to fetch and carry for his elders. The young hopeful has a hard life in front of him as he starts out on the road to fame.q tt. R e f e r e e is a t e xtr cm e lcft. Taro's is one of the larger gyms so he finds himself a member of a squad of some seventy or eighty wrestlers. The youngsterstumble out of the sack around five or six-before the streets are aired-clean up the ring. The seniors put thc roungsters through their paces.r ' a m a ( ccttt er. a total of approximately one thousand wrestlers. Sumo-dom is strictly stag.y. you may ask I The answer is simple. G n. lie abed a little later. In the 6rst place he is. Among his other multifarious duties wiil be scrubbing the backs of his superiorsin the bath. They house. The master of the gym is mostly in attendance . and doing all the cooking and the cleaning up of the establishmerrt. start off the day by downing a hearty breakfast. a1l told. Ch iyo . and so on and so forth.The Road to Stardom zL plain frame houses containing are nothing much to look at-just little more than the training ring itself and a large communal eatery. but they too are usually on the scene by eight at the latest. l x n C H r r r p t o r C u tyo . Their elders. and get going with their warming-up exercises.r e d )is sh o r ' vn a t th e d o /t1 ' o . His status is not unlike that of a fag at an English public school.ir i r vith his t ac h i m o c l t i ( l e f l h o l d in g th e swo r d a n d tsu yu lttr ti or at t endan i ( r i g h t ) . as be6ts their rank. combing and fixing up their hair-do when training is over. apart from the master's wife: 5. tip them ofi as to their faults. it might be thought. rv it h a r m s o u t s t r c t c l .

from the common pot of stew.even the married wrestlersoften prefer to move back into the gym for greater convenience. for greater easeof mind. a Sumo training school has recently to been established. and if a lad can't stand the pace. it all becamenecessary build a hall capableof accommodating the to . by name.for them wine and women iust don't exist. Still.possiblyten can affbrd to take unto himselfa wife. The meal over. of course. in his absence duty is delegatedto the top-ranking wrestlers. Thesewere held in ]anuary and May. Perhaps. after which they can immersethemselves the and then. if a boy can'tor won't learn. The entire forenoon is devotedto various forms of training and they practicebouts-and all the while not a bite of food. tournament was held a year. at Morning training done. An<l they wrestledonly 6ve days. Spartans are indeed.he simply drops out. Sasa-dera.with their well be imagined energyusedup and no money to burn. at long last.too. Grand Tournaments The basho or grand tournamentsare the World Seriesof Sumo' Currently there are stagedsix grand tournamentsa year-the New Year tournament.By this time the length of a tournament had increasedto ten days. It's rough all right but Taro will not be bullied. Iives from those of their predecessors in line with the gradual defeudalizationof the sport. tie summer and autumn tournamentsin Tokyo. and it could hardly be called one official. for this regime. Then. it was a beginning' It was not until around the end of the Edo period (1868) that the one tourney becametwo.he won't get on. the fuly tournament in Nagoya. That was way back in the Kanseiera (1789-1800). Tokyo's first arenawas.however. This is no life for a weakling. That is punishmentenough. the spring tournament in Osaka. tbe Wlren Taro approaches dizzy heightsof stardom. help themselves and Taro and his mateshavethe restof the day to themselves it can that they make it a day of rest. a former capital Only of )apan. is though it may sometimes but not brutal. not militaristic.but then they have to be.the Taros of the future will lead somewhatdifferent for. a temple. as interest in the sport mounted. indeed. welcometub and rub their manifold bruises. as in the caseof Kyoto. there'snothing elsefor it.the lads have to wait on their seniors in the mid-daymeal.and to reside in his own home. It was in the precinctsof a temple on the outskirtsof the ancientcity of Kyoto. in Tokyo.feudalistic seem.ZZ Sumo: Sport and Tradition CHAPTER 4 this but to keep a watchful eye on the proceedings. If the lads wanted to kick over the tracesthey wouldn't have the wherewithal. Incidentally. During a big tournament.held in Tokyo.for too many wives would clutter up the gym. The two last-namedare recent additions' These ioustingshave a long history-and few would ever guess where the first one on record was held. The life is tough. be attendedby scrubsfrom the variousgyms. he is allowed years later. and the November tournament down in Kyushu at the city of Fukuoka.

a Magna Chartalike screed written in hundredsof quaint Chinesecharacters. And then. Around it ere placed a number of thick coils of straw forming a circle fifteen fieet diameter. to cap it all.making three in all. signifying the seasons the year. The ring is two feet high and eighteenfeet squareat the base. His name will not even appear on the official ranking list of the |apan Sumo Association. were found to interfere rith the view of the sport and were replacedby tassels. From the four cornersof the awning of the ring of :rc suspended four huge tassels. These. Tte ring the Tokyo novicefinds himself in is laid o:utwith.in 1948Osakawas given its first big tournament. Tokyo was handedan additional tournament in the autumn ot 1953. speciallybrought in from neighboring Chiba Prefecture. that is. Fukuoka was accordedthe honor of putting on the big show from 1957and Nagoya from 1958. The remark is sometimes passed that we modernsare sissies. They startedout with five-daytourneys. as if to make it all the harder. A novice will make no more than a feeting appearance the in great ring on the occasion his 6rst tournamenr. And for a very good reason. and for the first time Sumo had a home worthy of its long history. Until 1952four large colored poles spported the awning.and. later went up to ten days.. He will merely of "drop in for a cup of coffee" on the 6rst day only beforea handful of spectators and then retire for the remainder of the proceedings. . so in the forty-secondyear of Meiji (1909) the spacious Ryogoku Kokugi Hall (the presenrKokusai Stadium) was opened. And then. though.24 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Ctrand Tournaments z5 fans. Things are just getting tougher and tougher for the lads.They can make more dough. would just love a Sumo tournaScotsman A real. raftida carth. in daysof yore.white on the west.had to work only about tweoty daysa year.fifteen-day tournaments were instituted.But this can certainly not be applied to the sumoists. for he could settle himself comfortably in his seat at six in rlc morning and still be there at six in the evening.it will be microscopic but will gradually loom large ashe attainsthe dizzy heightsof stardom. and red on the south.The awning is now suspended from thc roof of the hall by meansof cables. as will be explainedlater on. black on the on oonh. As his techniquedevelops ad he puts on weight. in ancicnt times. When as it doesappear. It is incontestable a man has to be that plenty tough to be pulled and pushedand flung around like a sack of coals for fifteen days on end. Talk about gcning one'smoney'sworth! There has never been anything quite ELc it.which. All nice and soft to fall on-after the right kind of in tnining. rith a blue tassel the eastside. dyed-in-the-wool ocot. as we have seen. They don't really mind. One may think it's all pretty rough on the grapplerswho. in the fourteenthyear of Showa (1939). however. he will emergemore and more frequentlyad later and later in the day.

Seftiwafte perhaps. Tyros have their hair fixed in a plain top k-not or chon-mage. is advance at snail'space..the former composedof about men I. rungs il all he can show is a three-twelve droppedsix or seven record will probably lift a man but a single rung An eight-seven scoreboot him down one.immediately below the top-ranking ma\a-uchi men. starts wrestling early in the afternoon. Following the 6nal iu-ryo tilt come the "Grand March of the Gladiators" and the "Triumphal Entry of the Grand Champions.San-yaftu forty-five wrestlersnumberedmae-gashira ozefti (champion) and seftiwafte. secondgrade.CHAPTER 5 tiumo Ranking 27 The martu-achigroup is sub-divided into mae-gashira(literally.the ceremonial over." All wrestlerswear their hair done up in a queue.twelve-three the spring 15 elevatedttom rnae-gashira to torunamentmay well find himself probably be 9 mae-gashira for the summer tourney. as it concernsSumo'shighly exclusive maftu-uchi group.first grade. 'before the head") and san-yaftu. As the day rolls on. the top-rankerscommenceto take each other on. Higher than that a wrestler cannot may be translated.3. say. Progress fairly rapid on the lower and the but the higher one gets the rarer the air becomes. etc. higher and higher ranking sumoists make their appearance." in later to be described detail. and a seven-eight Ascending the Sumo ladder is. .A tournamentstartswith the striplingsin the early take morn." and ftomusubl"junior cham- Sumo Ranking A grand Sumo tournamentresembles drama which opensquietly. Nor should it be thought that this is all mere aflectationor tradition. yoftozana(grand champion). if one is not actuallydriven back. go. "junior champion.and one may or recognizethe approximaterank of a man by the elaborateness simplicity of the queue. re further divided into ftotnusubi. Excitementmountsas. And he'll mark.olsed. That is. as may be imagined. somewhat is like climbing the Himalayas. He is standingon Sumo'sEverest.while the top rankers (san-yaftu) afiect the fashiontermed o-icho-mage. a word or two as to ranking. a the suspense beinggraduallybuilt up asthe play unfoldsitself until the climax is reached. the stageuntil finally the grand champions coin-was their pay) It is with theia-ry. The top-knot acts as a bufier between the wrestler and the 0oor of the ring when he is brought to earth with such a thwack likely to be split in two. pion.o(ten ryo-an old fapanese wrestlersthat the interest of by far the greater part of the fans begins to be ar.2. slopes. They merit interestinasmuchas their bouts are the first to be given much notice in the vernacularsportspapers. that his skull seems Wrestlersare boostedor busted accordingto their achievements. This group of around fifty grapplers. in A man who has a won-lostrecord of. But first.

means "I'd rather have dumplings than pretty flowers. and of all sports Sumois rhe mostdignified. or prize for skill. It's Sumodom'slastgreatchallenge. with all his regalia and all rhe ceremonial splendor that attends his entry on the stage is certainly very much like a king. The winner of a tournament-the man with the best wonlost record-receives. for With the laudableobjectof saving the best bouts-those berween two grand championsor betweengrand champion and championfor the end of the tournament. There's one consolation. the gentlemen who arrange the programsfind it necessary the 6rst two or three days or so to on pit the ftomusabi and the top mae-gashiramen against the grand champions. first to the left. Black magic I Not at all. three consolation prizes. a large trophy given by Pan American World of Airways. out of pure kindness of heart. end up with a mediocrerecord. but before actually taking it the wrestler makes three passesover it rvith his hand. An interesting postrvar innovation at each tournament has been the presentation.The resultis.be dethroned." which is preciselywhat it is. then to the right. incidentally.z8 Sport and Tradition Sumo Ranking 29 For this is what usually happenswhen a young hopeful attains the heightsof ftornusubi the first time. The victor receiveshis prize from the referee as they both squat. It is estimated that only one wrestlerin five hundred makes ozeki. in the form of shields. This trophy is returned by the victor at a ceremony that takes place on the opening day of the following rournamenr and is replaced by a smaller replica which he may have for keeps. Ozcfti means "grear barrier.and fall back again down the scale. sometimes as many as seven or eight yobidashi or announcers walk around the ring each carrying a large banner." Or. the gino-sho. Promotion. the envelope does not contain currency or a check. that rtomusabl rankersalmost inevitablyget off to a bad start. He shouldnot. of course. the h:uge shihai or Emperor's Cup. It is simply a catalog from which he may .always a yoftozuna. many feel. the grand champion. cheek by fowl. "appreciation should be shown in a more practical manner. There is a well-known /apanese saying. and the ftanto.slto or prize for fighting spirit. and finally to the center. An outstandingexceprion was Annenyama. Well. It may. that there is somethingmonarchicalabout the whole thing. Once a yoftozuna. He is merely giving thanks to heaven. That would be much roo undignified.made by an American gentleman in formal |apaneseattire and speaking impeccable/apanese. No. for the sake of advertisementor. which roughly rranslated. though.after the bouts are over on the final day. They are the shuftun-sho." So. who knows. who won the 1957 SummerChampionshipimmediately after being promoted to ftomusubi.of course.Lessthan half the ozefti makeyoftozuna. previous to a bout. rvish to announce that they are awarding a prize to the winner of the bout. is not the only reward of which a successfulwrestler may be proud. and man in turn. in other words. These bear the names of various companieswhich.horvever poor his record. or prize for outstanding achievement given to the grappler who upsets the most grand champions and cirampions. A grand championalone can never be demoted. argued be that the sacrosanct statusof the yoftozuna is thoroughly undemocratic. are awarded at each tournament. for a man has to have a number of first-class tournament performances tuckedin his belt beforehe'snamedgrand champion. earth. Ancient and modern. hana yori dango. Nor is that all. In addition to the Emperor's Cup for the winner.

Mae-no-yama (7-8) (Figures in brackets show the wrestler's wonlost record in the summer tournament. and West men do not necessarily the east aisle and the other half down the west). Izuminada 20. Wakabayama (8-7) . Narutoumi 7. half of the wrestlers coming down 3.. Kiyoenami 18. Osegawa 12.30 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Sumo Ranking West continued: Llaegashira 13.. It should be noted that the East Seftiuaftc Tokitsuyama . Fuku-no-umi 22. At times.. Ouchiyama 2. Odachi 12. Mitsuneyama (9-6) 7.. Miyanishiki . . Wakahaguro SeftiuafteTama-no-umi Komasubi Annenyama . 1957. Ozefti Yoshibayama Asashio .1957 ) West Yoftozuna Kagamisato .Y os hi -no-mi ne(2-10) (6-9) 18.Shionishiki 75...H i yodoshi (8-7) (8-7) (7-8) (7-8) (8-7) (8-i) (11-4) (11-4) (5-10) East continued: Maegashira 13. Kuninobori l6. .Yasome 17. 14.. fications are for convenience' sake. Hajimayama (10-5) (8-7) (ll-4) (7-8) (8-7) . Naruyama KomusubiTsuru-ga-mine (5-10) (12-3) (5-10) (2-13) Maegashira 1.Fusanishiki 21. Wakasegawa (3-12) (5-10) (0-2) (7-8) 6. 14. Daitenryu 11. Hoshikabuto (5-10) 5. . Araiwa (8-7) (W) 11. Shimanishiki (5-10) 8. Dewanishiki 3. . Maegashira Kotogahama l.. a wrestler is unable to continue until the end of the tournament. Futatsuryu 10. Dewaminato 9. Shinobuyama (G9) 6. Iwakaze (7-8) (G9) (9-6) (4-11) clash in the ring.. . 10. . Takanishiki T 6. But thoseseven eight banners to or may be worth seventyor eighty thousandyen in all to the winner. In the above record the wonlost scores that do not The two classitotal fifteen represent such cases. Shimizugawa (10-5) 4.. Kamiyuyama (6-9) 20. Orochigata (7-8) (8-7) (4-11) East ( r0-5) (5-6) Yokozuna Tochinishiki Chiio-no-yama (e-6) (11-4) (7-8) (I3-2) Ozefti Waka-no-hana Matsunobori ( 12-3) (absent) (11-4) (8-7) (0-6) 23. Hirosegawa 15. Ohikari 8. Tochihikari 2. . Hirakagawa (absent) .A z umaumi 31 (8-7) (8-7) (9-6) (5-10) select whateverhe happens like.O-no-ura 19.. Kita-no-nada 5. due to sickness injuries sustained during a bout. Kaminishiki 21. u u . l T.the 6gure on the left indicating the number of matches won. . A Typical Ranking List of the Leading Sumo Wrestlers (Summer. Tokinishiki 9. Wakamaeda (5-10) 4. Komusubi Annenyama. Koi-no-se 19. Yoshiiyama 22. with a thirteen-two or record was the winner.

of course.the contestants down almostwith their noses the sand. It is.an expert observer can figure out whether or not he has a plan of campaign ell nice and clear-cutiu his head. the time-keeper judges) nods to one of the young attendants (one of the black-robed sitting by tle water pail. The first is technical. and fix each other with piercingglances. but haveto get on with 6eir bout right away. The refereekeepsa watchful eye on and instructhem. He can tell when the man is still trying to make up his mind how to proceedand can distinguish a grapplerwho is brimful of confidence and quite composed from one who is all tenseand jittery. perhaps. by the wresders thcmselves. pound the floor with their fists (Plate 2).the latter merits prior discussion. In the courseof this ritual. and For the ia-ryo-wrestlers ranking immediately below mafta-achi is -the time allotted for shiftiri-naoshi only three minutes. the shiftiri-naoshifollows a set pattern. Like a grand champion'striumphal entry. . 'Why don't they cut out all that stuff l" is regarded as the very marrow of the art by those in the know and. A man who knows precisely what he is going to do. He in his turn standsup and nods to the contestants to the referee. distance scatterit. it should be noted. And if the obscrver is able to do it. for instance. indeed.and the third psychological. The whole thing.during which period the rivals march back and forth bctwecn the center of the ring and "salt @rner" about four or five times.CHAPTER 6 'Psychological Warhre " 33 "Psychological Warfare " A Sumo wrestler'smake-up consistsof three parts. you may be guite sure thc wrestlers themselves can. This basicelementof Sumo. Naturally.For it is during theseseeminglygrotesque posrurings that the grapplersscekto read what is in eachotler's mindsto discover whether the other man appearslikely to spring at once to the attack or to await his rival's onrush. By taking a good peek at a wrestler'sface as he makes his way cach time to the center of the ring in the preliminaries.which very likely causes many Westcrners to lose interest in the sport at the very outset and to mutter. And the vcry young wrestlers who perform in the early hours to empty benches don't go through the motions at all.the most difficult part of Sumofor a non-Orientalto appreciate. It requiresplenty of practice. to spot all this.is limited to four minutes. they aim to fool cach othcr. may trick the other fellow into thinking that hc doesn't.the second simple reasonthat a Sumo bout gets under way with psychological warfare. When time is up. which is known as the shiftiri' in get naoshi. the rivals pick up a handful of purifying salt. Following an initial flexing of musclesand stamping of feet at the edgeof the ring. meanwhile barking out words of encouragement tion. and squat down facing eachother at a resPecdul in the center of the arena. For the physical. to be describedlater.

as somepeopledo. in the latter a tilt is lost if any part of the body above(and inciuding) the knee hits the dirt. The author himself. .for the wrestler who is up first can. flipped. It seldom occurs. it might be said that the tachi-ai is per seventy-five cent of Sumo. In this sense.only once saw the hair pulled. A bout may be won either pl eiecting one'sopponentfrom the ring or by downing him inside the arena." A man who is late in the tachi'ai usually goesdown to defeat.the refereecrouches and the rivals spring toward eachother. Nor yet in the head. If he can muster sufficientinterest in it he will no longer complain. And the karare chop. certain things that are taboo in Sumo. In the former caseit spellsdefeat if so much as a toe is over the edge.for a man may be thrown.of course. may be termed a warming-up. to whip up the requisiteamount of excitementin his charges. lastly.pulled. tapped. the shiftiri is to give the wrestlersan opup portunity gradually to work themselves to the right pitch of it excitement.ourse of many years of Sumo-viewing. Hairqulling and eye-pokingare frowned upon. by any means. and often catchinghim off balance.known as ftimari-te. pushed. There are.34 Sumo: SPort and Tradition ' Psychological Warfare " 35 The secondpurpose of. There are. Not surprising. \-iolation of any one of the aboveembargoes would ensureautomatic Cefeat. naturally. For this is not all-in wrestling. after a Some wrestlersare noted for staging wonderful recoveries bad tachi-ai. Similarly. And the winner may achieve his obiective by any one of sixty-eight recognizedtechniques. in the . that Sumo is all froth and no beer. of course.etc.for "thrice armed is he who gets his blow in first. It has been said that pitching is seventy-five per cent of baseball. caremust be exercised as not to lay foul hands so grappler'sattire that sweePs on the n ae-tatemitsa-that part of the iown at right anglesto the belly-bandand coversthe vital organs. for instance. This is called the tachi-ai or the initial clash. Kabuki-typeeiaculaof the referee's tions. The word is almost impossibleto translate. And. as a rule. It is forbidden to strike whack a man with the fists. givesthe word. tr'restlerRikidozan (an ex-Sumoman) is also prohibited. The preliminariesover. exceptions. direct the putting his opponenton the defensive courseof a bout as he pleases. however. It is job. Nor may a $restler kick his opponentin the belly or the chest. Grand Champion Tochinishiki. as are slapping the ears and grasping the throat. either down or out.. The shiftiri-naoshiis weII worth more than a little study by the Sumo enthusiast. No more than tlat. popularizedby the famous pro.a sledge-hammer deliveredwith the side of the hand. by giving out a series shrill. down.

. powerful arms of his. The slapping maneuver. After all. His strength lies in those long. Certain wrestlersinvariably prefer not to do so. A great number of true connoisseurs the art will turn up their nosesat the latter. If they do.the preliminary posturing. leading modern exponentof this type of Sumo is Plate 10). armory. They like to slap their opponenttoward the edgeof the ring push him out (see and then.CHAPTER 7 The Techniques of Sumo Broadly speaking.is a mostvaluableweaponin a wrestler's him to polish off his man in double-quicktime. They like the men to grapple. It enables A Sumo tournamentlastsfifteen davsand is an immensedrain on a . when they'vegot him right ofi balance. the bout is likely to last longer and provide more thrills.rprorv TocstN rsnrxr: through the ceremoni al moti ons of rhe dohyo-i ri . the customerwants value for money. By the end of the shiftiri-naoshi. GnrN o C nar. it may be said that there are two types of Sumo--that in which the wrestlerscome to grips and that in which of they do not. standi ng on the cdge of ri ng. the wrestlerhas-or should have-made up his mind whether he wishes to come to grips or not. although not sopopularwith the fans. 'l l goes Tochi n i s hi k i 6. B ehi nd hi m may be gl i mpsed the sw ord hel d by hts tac hi moc hi ot sw ordbearer. The Grand Champion Chiyo-no-yama(Plate 5).which is known as ttuppari.

.. A N uN usuA L TH R ow : Q urc k as l i ghrni ng.rr-N ecp: The then cham pi on W ak a-no-hana sends K i ta-no'nada spraw l i ng w i th an ui l l ate' nage or upper hand throw . e. H e takes hi s opponent by the arm and si mul taneousl y tri ps hi m.d a sh . No te t he int en t n e s s o f t h e r e f er e e a s h e wa tch e s th e r iva ls' fe e t.r i v a l . z H r a v r .7.n o . T: e. the hand that i s outs i de hi s opponent's hand. 9.h o is kn o wn a s tsu r .h a n a.c. . s t raight o l T t h e g r o u n d a n d h o ists h im b o d ily o u t o f th e ring.r r o ! : G r an d Ch a m p r o n T o ch in ish iki ( r ig h t ) lif t s his a r c h . 8. U w . Oi rampi on Waka-no-hana (re ar) depos i ts Tok i ni shi ki i n the sand w i th a rare throw k now n as yobi -modoshi . n o r v Gr a n d Ch a m p io n Wa ka . the throw i s ac hi ev ed bv W ak ano-hana's " upper " hand. Th i s t y p e o f h e a v e . t. W ak a-no-hana more or less has the monopoly of this throw.

s of Sumo 4L he fellow'sphysique. . For those who do not wish to grapple. Many a fan has been caught napping by a hatafti-ftomi. t o d r i v e t h e l o s e r to wa r d th e e d g e o f th e a r e n a . slapping is not the only maneuver. Then there'sashi-tori. T h is fin a l p u sh. roar and ask for more. Another quick maneuveris ftetaguri. So he simply stepsto one side and giveshis rival a hefty smack on the back as he fies past. but that's what really takes do. preferred by men like 10. The average to very few go on for over a minute. When they is about10 seconds. it's more or less second ffat. A further advantageof the slapping method is that there is less likelihood of leg injuries. Televiewers must have noticed the tremendousnumber of supporters adorning the knees.hatafti-ftomi which usually requires no more than a secondto execute. Now for the grappling typcs of Sumo. He simply grabs his rival by the leg and has him hopping around the ring until he finally toppleshim over.copyright held by the crafty Dewaminato. Slapping savesa lot of trouble for a man who has passed thirty. r s p r e c e d e d b y a se r ie s o f h e a r ty sla p s o r t s ilppar. can get through a bout in one minimum. the behemoths'biggest bugbear. What happensis that a by man senses the look in his opponent'seyesjust before clinching that the latter is intent on getting the darned thing over quickly. If. Time required. There is. he kicks his legs from under him.o a s n r : G r a n d ch a m p io n T o ch in ish iki ( r ig h t) is s hown pu s h i n g I w a k a z e ou t o f th e r in g . for which Wakabayamaholds the patent. O s nr . the customers it out of a wrestler. however. As his opponent rushesin. which is about the absolute time requiredfor a match equivaient a day'srest.one second.The Technique. for example. or os hi-d a s h i .the weakestpoint of a sumoist.It's all over in a jidy. It is interesting to note that in recent tourneysGrand Champion Tochinishiki book and become Chiyo-no-yama's hastaken a leaf out of stablemate a really proficient slapper.

Suvo rHRows. tfaki-otoshi M Sukui-nage Hiki-otoshi Am i uc hi Kirikaeshi Katasukashi Tsuri-dashi Uwate-nagc Hatakikomi Yorikiri Ketaguri A b i s e -t a o s h i ( ">\ N i m a i g cri Shitatc-dashinage Uttchar i Shitate. The wrestler wearing the black band represents the wlnner.hi nc r i Okuri-dashi Uwate-y4gura /1$ Sotogakc "lFr.thesebeing the \imari-te and the shijahaile. Here arc some of ihose better known throws in use in the Sumo /olyo todav.ll.. smaller groups of the recognized techniques have been evolved. out of which. In Sumo there are numberlessvariations of throws.yagura G y ak u.'NK *&v p-N] f*\ 4# Uchigake Nodowa-zeme Kubi-nage Kom atas uk ui Sabaori Shitate-nage Koshi-nage Uwate-dashinage Watashikomi Kote-nage Oshi-dashi Tsuki-otoshi r suKl-oasnl .

of course. With the immense. so as not to afiord their opponenta securegrip. hoists his rival up ovcr his stomachand. The beautiful iluate-nage(seePlate 8) and shitate-nage throws are by which lighter men. 17 & l8). with the former on top.is of the utmost importance. the "under" to that which is inside it.is "not cricket. This tactic.hana. and migi-yotsa. such as Grand Champion Waka-no. The former may be translated the "upper-hand throw. and conversely for the right-hander to thrust his right arm inside the other's left. which a leg is wound in outside the opponent's-with the sameresult. Now comesthe jockeyingfor positionpreparatoryto the heave-ho. A skilllul wrestler bides his time until he can catch his rival off balance and then launches attack. in which victor and van_ quished go hurtling out of the ring together. himself following a tenth of a second later. In the uuatenage the throw is executedwith the outside hand. Coming now to tacticsaimed at dumping a man inside the ring. known asyori-ftiri (seePlate 11). The next thing is to get a firm grip on the other. then run him around till he's off balance and finally hoist him high in the air and clean out of the ring. Then there's the miraculous uttchari (see Plate 3). toward the rim of the arena and gently march him out. dyed_in_the_wool fan. For grappling purposes. thesefattiesnaturally prefer to take the fullest advantage their weight and to come to grips of with their opponent as soon as possiblq. This is something truly Herculean. A more thril_ ling variant is yori-taoshi (seePlate 16). with a quick turn.tsari dashi (see Plate 7).t 44 Sumo: Sport and Tradition The Techniques of Sumo 45 former grand champions Yoshibayama(see plates 12 &. The wily. he will suddenlythrust a limb betweenhis rival's legs and upset him with a neat trip. or right-handers. using their tremendous weight. Timing. Choosinghis moment to a nicety.h. There are also some wrestlerswho are open to criticism for repeatedly having their bellyband looselytied. digs in on the edge of the ring. Others favor the soto-gafte. The man who can get his arms into a good position beforehis opponentdoesso enjoysa very big advantage.poi. on the point of being toppled out. it can be noted that some wrestlers are adept at using their legs to trip an opponent. is the most common of all. wrestlersmay be divided into two categories. fact and quickly tighten things up. His maanshi is always an extremely difrcult thing to grab hold of. long-bodied Koto_ga-hama is a noted exponentof_these maneuvers. The latter will try ro prevent this either by squirming about or by keeping the lower part of his body at a very safe distance. They grasp their opponent'smawashi firmly with both hands. This occurs when a man.employing his favorite achi-gafte(seePlate 18). In contrastto the lighter wrestlers. More often than not quite a lot of maneuvering takes place and several fruitless attempts are made at a throw . who delight rhe genuine.s maanshi or belly-band (see Plates7. in this as in all Sumo moves. One such is Koto-ga-hama.porbellied men rhe favorite tactic is gradually to edge the opponent. hidari-yotsu. his Wrestlers like the huge Champion Matsunobori (see Plate 19) and ex-junior champion Tokitsuyama (seePlate 4) are fond of.13) and Kagamisato (Plate 14)." The "upper" refers to the hand that is outside the other man's arm." But a sharp refereewill . This." the latter the "under-hand throw.or left_ handers. flings him out. in the shitate-nagc with the inside hand. The whole idea_and this is what a televiewershould watch out for-is for the southpaw to get his left or stronger arm inside the other man's right. often overthrow much heavier opponents.

He was a stand-out even as a youth and was told by a prowling news-hawk that he would go far if hc would only step up to the capital and place his feet on the first rung of the Sumo ladder. pulled pushed. The number is by no means arbiuary. the year following the outbreak of the Pacific War. giant spiderlike Chiyo-no-yama (Plate 5).46 Sumo: Sport and Tradition CHAPTER 8 before an opponent is finally caught ofl balanceand fung down. depending on exactly how a man is thrown. But therc are countlessvariations. there's nothing in the rules of Sumo to p(event it. Chiyo no-yama enrolled in the large gym nrn by Dewa-no-umi. There have been two only in the past. Or. tfte son of a fishcrman-farmer. and so or5 either down or out. To describethem all would require a volume in itself. thcre may cven be as many as five. As early as the fall ot 1949hc was already ozefti and had grabbed his first tourney championship.kicked. The abovedescription includes someof the throws most commonly seen. Chiyo-no-yama'sprogress was rapid. Grand Champions Therc arc three grand champions in the Year of Grace. He followed up this initial uiumph . I\1942.attempted suicide. the tragic figure whq weighed down by the heavy burden of responsibility tlrrown onto his shouldersas head of the fapan Sumo Association at a critical stage in its history in 1957. again. slapped. 1958. who was born in Hokkaido in L9?6. there may be two again. The senior grand champion is the tremendously tall. ex-grand champion Tsune-nehana.

at Osaka in the spring. giving Tochi the shock of his life.created grand champion. forfeit his crown.have imagined that his successive triumphs would at once have secured him promotion to the covetedrank of yortozuna. they just carry on until they are old enough to retire. was he he born and brought up in Tokyo. Tournament followed tournament as he saw his rivals repeatedlysnatch the prize from his grasp. is a city man. the prize for the most skillful wrestler. perhaps. The sensitive Chiyo-no-yama was in the end driven to suggesting that he abdicate. The son of an umbrella-maker. however. nine times. when still only twenty-fiveyearsof age." On his way to the top Tochinishiki was awarded the gino-sho.Chiyo-no-yama was persuaded reconsiderhis decision. he is a master of strategy. the That somethingis just plain guts. The council of selectors.Unlike his two colleagues. however. 1955for his fourth triumph. to He did sq and finally. His speedis phenomenal. Then. Chiyo-neyamais surpassed only by Grand Champion Tochinishiki. One would. however. hc tbrew his rival by the neck. but the "Big Spider" registered his sixth and latestsuccess New Year's.he turns the tables to on his opponentand emerges triumphant. are hard men to please. or the master-craftsman. a record. Then again there was an interval of six meetswithout a win. as if by a miracle. Many a time in the courseof a long. The phrase"brains rather than brawn" or may well be applied to this masterwrestler. drawn-out bout he seems be a goner.who meet to discuss questionsof elevationand demotion after each tourney. his name was in the spodight again when he capturedthe New Year's championship of. Finalln with an almost superhuman efiort. And then somethinghappened. A year younger than his friend Chiyo-no-yama-the two belong to the samegroup of gyms and so never clash in the ring-Tochinishiki relies on skill as much as on weight to down his opponents. The big man's revival was consolidated a victory in the followby ing tourney. in contrast to ex-grand champions Kagamisato'sand Yoshibaynna's 320. 1950). For some unexplainablereason he began to slip. does not record that the tneijin's father amassed a fortune. With six successes at in all to his credit. using the throw known as rtabi-nage. The tall youngsterhad to wait until the year 1951. History. . Such a thing had never occurredbefore. He has. after twelve tourneys without a grain of comfort. and start from the bottom agah. And Tochinishiki hasit in a high degree. Grand championsare never demoted. He is a mere (l) 250 pounds. The secondgrand champion. Taken by surprise. tournament a won by Tochinishiki. A casein point was the tilt on the last day of the summer tournamentof 1955. huge Ouchiyama suddenly came to life.the grand champion made a bad start but hung on grimly. After his great success in the summer tournament of that year he was finally. It was preposterous. Tochinishiki (seePlates 6 & l0) is often known as rnciiin.and he can vary his tactics to suit the occasion his opponent. 1957. On this occasionthe usually lethargic.put on quite a lot of weight sincebeing named grand champion and is beginning to developa "pot. But somethingmore than skill is neededif such a comparativelysmall man is to scale heights.48 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Grand Champions 49 with a secondvictory in the very next tournament (spring. when he gathered in the trophy with a magnificent record of fourteen wins and one defeat. With all the rain fapan gets oe would think umbrella-making should be a profitable business.for his reward. Here is a man who will never admit defeat.

He entered the Nisho-no-seki gym. however. The peoplewere for him.lgl4. figure in the whole of fapanese He first saw the light of day in 1928in Aomori. attet a tlvo-year interval.announcedhis retirement midway *rough the tourney. at every tournament.1956. his sixth in the autumn of 1957.50 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Grand Champions 51 Tochinishiki has a record of sevenchampionshipsgained in all. then a callow youth of eighteen.Waka-no-hanaslipped in.resulting in his elevationto grand champion.Greats The records of the currently active grand champions. wresier's stew. a child of four.1958. who was scaldedto death when he overturneda steamingpot of cltanfto-nabe.tuafte. Three tourneys later came his fifth victory. came down from the north to try his fortune in the Sumo ring. It was in 1946. Thereafter. In fact. the following year. He lost his only son. Waka later transferred to the Hanakago gym in the same group' He grew in strength and skill and finally got as high as ozefti at New Year's. he developeda habit of sweeping all before him for ten days or so and then collapsinglike a pricked balloon. including the paunchy ex-grand champion Kagamisato. with a poor record. in the autumn. he was their hero. is by far the most popular of the three. the prefectureat the extremenorthern end of Honshu.who retired at tle close of the New Year's tournament of 1958.rrears. a prefecture that has produced any number of fine sumoists. who had appeared personallyin the movie. 8 & 9). the year after the termination of the rvar. when he was riding high with elevenwins and no defeatsand threatening to repeat his summer's success and assure himself of promotion to yoftozana. They waited anxiously for him to come through. at New Year's. Some Ex. It is recordedthat the noted Rikidozan' now a gnrntand-groaner but then Waka-no-hana's senior in Nisho-no-seki. by which time and the secondin the spring of triumphs followed in the summer and he was ozefti. a yearfull of joys and sorrows. The youngest and latest grand champion. and Grand Champion Kagamisatoat the end of it. did come through. Successive autumn ot. Amid all the excitement. Waka-no-hana (see Plates7. be it would scarcely going too far to say that he is the most poPular sport. They are instrumental in smacking the nonsense now tfie closest of friends. The Waka-no-hanaStory. who has no of .and seventh in the summer of. At first he found the going rough. that Waka-no-hana. graced in pre-war days by the illustrious Grand Champion Tamanishiki. won his secondchampionshipand becamethe 45th yoftozuxa. It beganto seemthat the highesthonor in Sumo-domwould elude him. in one of the most sensational tournamentsof recent he . so rough in fact that he grew despondentof ever making out and actually contemplatedsuicide as a way out. the main island. In the summer of the sameyear he won his first championship. It was a most eventful yearfor him. Grand Champion Yoshibayama. And then. almost pale into insignificance when compared with thc stupendous achievements Futabayama (the present Tokitsukaze). in the summer of. was out of the lad. 1955. The first was in the fall tourney of 1952.he was suddenly taken ill and was hospitalized. when he was still sefti.1958. Then.

List of Grand Akashi Maruyama Ayagawa Tanikaze Onogawa Ao-nematsu Inazuma Shiranui I Hide-no-yama Unryu Shiranui II Jimmaku Kimenzan Sakaigawa Ume-ga-taniI Nishi-no-umi I Konishiki Ozutsu Hitachiyama Ume-ga-taniII Champions lTth century t7r2-t749 1700-? 1750-1795 1758-1805 L79r-r85r 1795-1877 1801-1854 1808-1862 1823-1891 t825-r879 1829-1903 1826-1871 1843-1889 t845-1928 1855-1908 1867-1914 1870-1918 187+1922 r878-1927 . 17th. or junior to champion. a feat without parallel in the long history of Sumo. Futabayama. Another championships. withdrew from Sumo circles because fall of 1953. Other outstanding records were those of Tachiyama (nine championships)at the end of the Meiii and the beginning of the and Taisho eras(1910-1916) of Tochigiyama (the presentKasugano. Tsune-no-hana(later Dewa-no-umi) was another great performer. whose in death. 5th. llth. who racked rrp nine championshipsin the Taisho era between l9l7 and 1925. Haguroyama (th. whose final actually fought at one period triumph camein the war year of 1943. master of the gym to which Tochnishiki belongs). 7th. l6th. Tamanishiki. And what is even more remarkable is that he went through the entire five tournaments without once going down to defeat. 3rd. who emergedon whose last the winning side in six tournaments. triumph was in the over the then-prevailingfeudalistic conditions and of dissatisfaction joined the ranks of the "grunt 'n groan" pro-wrestlers. 12th.and then proceeded take the next four ia a row (the first two when he was champion). present Tatsunami) took six starting in l9at4and winding up in 1952. He followed the noted Rikidozan. l4th. 19th. This 370-pounder. Znd. This magnificent wrestler notched his first in the summer of 1936as a seftiuafta.triumphed seventimes between l93I and 1936. 18th. was the first step in the de-feudalizationof the ancient sport. who ran out victorious ten times betweenthe years 1923 ar. Complete 1st. 9th.due to appendicitis. 10th. following the retirement of the great Futabayama. who reachedseftianfte rank before seceding There can be little doubt that the secessions Rikidozan and of Azumafuji. embracing both the Taisho and Showa eras. 8th. l5th. together with that of lesserlights. In the seventiethbout the (later yoftozuna) d grand championwas finally topple by sertiwafte Aki-no-umi. In more recent times. 4th. 6th. 20th.d 1930. 1938at the early age of thirty-five came as a staggeringblow to Sumo-dom.52 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Grand Champions )J lessthan twelve triumphs to his name. 13th. colorful figtire was Grand Champion Azumafuji. as many as sixty-nine bouts without a single loss.

28th. 3lst.all operateSumo gyms and the thirty-ninth. 38rh. 39rh.54 List of Grand Champions continued: Sumo: Sport and Tradition 2Lst 22nd. Tsune-no-hana umi). 37th. 25th. the thirty-first.Tochigiyama (under (Note: The twenty-seventh (Dewa-nothe name of Kasugano). €mnd Champions 55 33rd. 41st. 34th. 35th. 24th. the thirty-fifth. 45th. 42nd. the thirty-sixth. 44th. 26th. 36th.) grand champion. Wakashima Tachiyama Okido Otori Nishi-noumi II Onishiki I Tochigiyama Onishiki II Miyagiyama Nishi-no-umi III Tsune-no-hana Tamanishiki Musashiyama Minanogawa Futabayama Haguroyama Aki-no-umi Terukuni Maedayama Azumafufi Chiyo-no-yama Kagamisato Yoshibayama Tochinishiki Waka-no-hana r87Gr943 1877-1941 t877-t9r6 18871880-1931 1855-1908 t892r89l-r94r 1895-t943 1890-1933 T896_ 19011938 19091903r9t2t9I+ T9L+ l9l% t9t+ l92lT92G 1922t92L)19251928- Haguroyama (Tatsunami). Maedayama for the training of wrestlers. Futabayama(Tokitsukaze). ?3rd. dre thirty-eighth. 40th. 29th. 54n(I. 30th. 43rd. 27th. Terukuni (Araiso) (Takasago). .

This is only natural when one considers Sumo's original tie-up with religion-the 6rst tournament was held in the grounds of a temple-and also the fact that the wrestlersregularly performed at court and before the great daimyq or feudal lords. The great medieval processions take placeannually in Kyoto and Nikko are but two that examples.CHAPTER 9 / Pageantry Pageantryand ceremony invariably play a prominent role in the life of countries like |apan and Britain with a long history and tradition. Possiblynowhere elsein the world do colorful festivalsabound in every corner of the land as they do in fapan. this takesplace every day of each fifteen-day tournament. in all sport. And Sumo is no exception. Y onr-xrnr: E x-Grand C hampi on Y os hi bay ama (ri gtrt) bv marn strength forces i ri s opponent W ak ahaguro out of the rrng. It i s the gcnti est w ay of w ^r)i l urg. Termed the dohyo-iri. and other dignitaries. It is crammed full of pageantry. Then there is Kabuki with all its gorgeouscolor. to It may be no exaggeration saythat. Around three-thirtv in the afternoonwhen the minor 12. there is no more brilliant spectacle than the triumphal entry of the grand champions. l n yori -fti ri both w restl ers u rrai l y l i ni s h up on thei r feet. .

: Y oshi bayama crouches and extends hi s pal ms at the dohyo-iri. . In the rear at left is the referee. E x-Gn. Note the huge knot (behind) of the grand champi on's tsana.13.rN n C nauproN Y os nraey ev A .

S h in to . Amid thunderous applause from the fans. 6.000 (or about $800). The aprons are. The wrestlers. apparel I How on earth. you may wonder. in nine cases out of ten. and they say some wrestlers have so many of them they can wear a diflerent one each day of the tournament and then have some left over. next step up into the ring and form a circle round it. you can no doubt make out the wrestler's name. 12. which have been going on since early morning' have been safely tucked away.ir i. Ex -G n a N o C s r l .Pageantry 6l bouts. They are clad in beautifully embroidered (see Plates 5. aprons of multiftesho-mauashi colored brocade. K a g a m isa to is a b o u t to cla p h r s h a n d s. or announcer. The remaining half of the top-rankers then march down the opposite aisle and go through identical motions in the arena. 14 & 20). 14. go through an amusing little routine in which they saucily hitch up their aprons half an inch or sq and then withdraw by the same route as they came.style p a p e r str e a m e r s a n d ce rem onial a p r o n . and one half of the top-ranking maftu-uchi wrestlers stride in Indian file down the aisle leading to the ring. This impressive spectacle might well be called the "Grand March of the Gladiators " Now comes the piece de rdsistance. of every design you can imagine. or referee-of whom more anon-follows a clapper-beating announcer down the '&. clap their hands in unison. r l r o N Kr cAM r sAT o : We a r in g th e tr a d iti o nal t s un d o r h a w s e r . If your eyes are sharp enough and you can read the fapanese writing on them. orre of t he c o n v e n t i o n a l f e a r u r e s o f th e d o h yo . the yobidashi. given by patrons. 13 & 15). A good-quality apron wiil run up to as much as Y300. steps into the arena and beats his clappers. 13. the ceremonial entry of the grand champions. a superbly gowned little gyoji (see Plates 5.7. . can they afford such magnificent The answer is. about twenty in all. Every self-respecting wrestler has his patron-and very often his patroness as well. they can't. the ring is carefully swept.

symbolically. tenth wrtozuna) and the shiranai (first performed by Shiranui. Bow Ceremony An interesting little yumitori-shifti. Beforethey hoist themselves into the arena.Sumo: Sport and Tradition Pageantry 63 aisle. From this rope (tsuna) is derived rhe name yo\ozana (meaning "side rope"). bows once more.that the wrestler has no weapon concealed." Going back to religion (or is it superstitionl) again.or attendanl Then the great man himself and finally. The great man. Most striking is the massive rope or hawser that encircleshim below his magnificently juting stomach (see Plates5. and Waka-no-hanafollow the unrya style.let us glanceat one of tle greatmen's apparel. hdd a great Sumo tournament at Azuchi Castle. As he balances himself on one leg and brings the other down with a loud thump to the ground. even more gorgeousthan thoseof the lesserlights. the extending of the arms. Tochinishiki. Then comes the moment all the thousandsof children in the audiencehave been waiting for hour upon hour. What's as the differencel Well. Chiyo-no-yama. squats down and then. Spear-headed the diminutive referee. bringing up the rear. the youngstersset up a roar of approval that threatens to raise the roof. A fapanese to a shrine. Its history is as follows: In the third year of the Tensho era (1575) the great warrior-lord. Oda Nobunaga. When all have gone through againbeatshis clappers attract the gods' to the ritual the announcer is attention and the breath-takingspectacle over. And the tie stampingof the feet symbolizes stampingof everythingthat is evil into the ground.the grand championretiresto the edgeof the ring. flanked by his retainers. They follow a fixed form and there can be no adJibbing. his place to be taken by the remaining grand championsin turn. eighth yortozuna). It appearsat first glanceto havelittle to do with Sumo. four participantsin the by all ceremony step up into the ring.15 & 16). Actually. or paperstreamers. The handiwork of the young wrestlers who wait on him hand and foot. it appearsto weigh anything up to sixteentons. The grand champion'sfancy apron is. hanging from the rope afford evidence Sumo's of religious associations. The motions the grand champion goes through may be split up into three classifications-the clapping of the hands. It is tied at the back in a picturesque bow. of course. 6. L4. or bow-rwirling ceremony follows the concluding bout each day (see Plate 2l). to celebratehis victory in battle. after rising and bowing to the gallern marches like the monarch he is to the center of the arena. he is pure and will fight clean. his tachimoclti. In other words. in what is now known as Shiga . Next comesthe grand champion'stsuyaharai. they are identical with those seen at the entranceto a Shinto shrine. The white zig-zaggohci. All this done. the unryu is described being "defensive" and the shiranui:tt might give offense to call it "offensive""aggressive.or sword-bearer.known as the anryu (originated in the nineteenthcentury by Unryu. The extendingof the arms and the turning up of the palms is to show. and withdraws.the clapping of the handsis said to be for the purposeof attractingthe attention doesthis habitually when he pays a visit of the gods. 13. there are two styles. and the stamping of the feet. The present-day grand champions. It is the symbol of his lofty status.

it is claimed.that is usedin the ceremonytoday. T\e yumitori-shifti may be said to round o{f the day's proceedingsnicely.and the show is now given daily by a hand-picked wrestler.64 Sumo: Sport and Tradition CHAPTER 10 Prefecture. the very samebow. of course. Notices went out all over the country to the eflect that the winning wrestler would be given the colossal prize of five hundred ftofta (l ftorta equals 4.not until he at brings down on his head the wrath of the fans by giving a decision againstthe home team. eggs. 5. Therreticalln he is supposed efface to the in himself while at the same time maintaining control of the game He is not a part of the spectacle all. In both case they are more often the object of derision and abusethan of respect In the worst eveht they may evenbecomethe target of a barrageof rotten fiuit. Otayama. That is to say. L2 & I4). or other missiles. One Ganzaemonwon the tourney and. 4. for in thosedays everythingwas reckonedin terms of ftoftu. .he holds the centerof the stagewith all the spotlightsturned on.96bushels)of rice. was presentedby the great lord with a bow.7. To conjure up a vision of this colorful characterone must first of all obliterate all pre-conceivedideas of what a referee or umpire should be and jettison all one's Occidental notions. in addition to the rice. And to commemoratethis historic occasionthe winner of each tournament was given the privilege of performing the yumitori-shifti after the final bout on the last day. referee soccer. The "men in the blue suits" who officiatein baseball somewha are more conspicuous than their soccercounterpartsbut the common view is to regard them in the light of a necessary evil. Take. for example. Yet it is no {nore than the Sumo arbiter deserves. A change was made kL 1952. then. who has made the bow routine his special line. The Referee It may be considered strange that a mere referee should grab a whole chapter for himself.He is unique (seePlates2.

Following the dohyo-iri it is his duty to read out from large sheets paper. It will provide a clue to their rank. It is simply not done. no catcallsif nor bylhe wrestlersthemselves. very simply in the lower grades. in which one of the two rivals is alwaysa grand champion. This is the tradition which has been followed from time immemorial. they dressaccordingto their until at the top they are in then graduaily ascending gorgeousness a blazeof color. of . The referees. as they go through their four minutes of shiftiri-naoslti. In the wake of the announcer. right down to officiatebarefoot. facesthem-if they are televiewing that is-that means the equivalent of "play ball!" A refereetakeschargeof boutsfeaturing wrestlersholding a rank corresponding his own. written by himself with a brush in large Chinese characters." The wrestlers know when time is up. Look at the tasselon the fans they carry. Then they step up into the ring and. great Bill Klem. The styleis traditional and has at leastthe virtue of penetratingto every nook and corner of the vast amphitheater. And. And the unfortunate loser doesnot argue or with venom flashing in his eyesshake his 6st in the arbiter's face. And like the grapplersthemselves. All they have to do is to keep their eyes the refereeand his fan. The youngestreferees Their seniorswear white tabi. The ring is consideredsacrosanct' or of a barrage of fruit. bawls out somethingto work up their excitemen he and finally instructsthem that "time is up" and that they had better "git rasslin'. refereealso calls out the names the of the wrestlerswho are to clash in the next bout. When he squatsright down and the on fan. and the offender-if such an extremely improbable event ever occurredto lynchedby the crowd or sentenced six months in the penitentiary. calls'em ashe sees There is no booing. their work over. blue and white' and blue. They start out at the tender age of thirteen or fourteen by officiating at the bouts held betweenthe novicesvery early in the morning. rank. For instance. A refereeis only human.he headsthe triumphal march of the grand championsdown the aisle preparatoryto their daily dohyo-iriritual. But. vegetables. the lowest. not only becaus the referee barks "Time!" but becausethey are also apprised of the fact by a young fellow who jumps up for this purposebehind the placewhere the purifying salt is kept.ot only) is the highest.and sandals. at which he is anything but a mere bit player. the following day's main bouts. referee-in-chiet maroon. and only the top man himself is entitled to to handle the very last tilt of the day. which previouslyhas beenfacing sideways. red and white. known as gyoii. he is not only seer5 but very much heard. Then. funereal black. which he disof plays to each side of the ring in turn. teen-age they go to schoollike any other kid. calledout in the peculiarhigh-pitched are tonesof a Kabuki actor. have a ranking. a popular wrestleris not declaredthe winner. is regardedwith supreme respect.66 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Tlre Referee 67 The refereein Sumq on the other hand. or socks. It has to be heard to be believed. Imperial purple (for the tate-gyoii. He retires. either of Kimura or Shikimori. are all given the family name Sumo referees. to the showers. is splendor alwaysver)/much in A seniorreferee all his brocaded in the Sumo picture. that anytling in the nature dairy products would be looked upon as an outrage.followed by purple and white. The namesof the wrestlers. he howeverhe may call them-and like baseball's by 'em-his decisionis never challenged the fans. so gracefully. He takeschargeof aboutthreematches beforebeing replacedby a colleague. "But how is the audience to knowl" It's quite simple. There are lots of what might be termed closeplays.

he has steppedan eighth of an inch outside the arena and is thus the loser. who ranks each haul in a and the seniorreferee.he is demotedand stepsdown the ladder a rung. sometimes makes a mistake. Question-who went out first? It happens occasion on that one behemothis fung beautifully out of the ring while his opponent remains inside it. Seated intervals at aroundthe ring are five rtensa-yafta. The Honorable |udges Anyone who has evcr sat through a Sumo tournament will doubtIcss agree that there are times whcn it would take the wisdom of a Solomon to decide the winner of a bout. judges. miss he sometimesdoes. The refcrcc really has to keep his eyes skinned so as not to miss thesefine points. But nq before sending his rival seemingly to his doom.Kimura Sho-no-suke. Plus specialallowancesfor each tournament. hurtle through space. I-nesuke. If he makestwq however. referees who brandish Mention was made earlier of the teen-age their fans sometime beforethe sun is up. thirty thousand. Clad in the traditional or ceremonial attire of the haori.a thicker black skirt. second. as was pointed out in the previous chapter. a loose black robe flopping over thc haftama. that justice prevails and the palm is awarded to the right man. Fifty-five years a referee that's / one that will be very hard to beat. from Two gigantic bodies take ofi more or less simultaneously the arena. white goatee. corresponding in total of seventythousandyen a month. To ensure. Sumo has its court of appeals.68 Sumo: Sport and Tradition CHAPTER 11 course and.of the shrill voice and . At the other end of the scaleis the venerableShikimori I-no-suke.therefore. like even the best of politicians.and land with a thud somewhere in the vicinity of the front row of spectators. Referees rank to san-yafta wrestlers get forty-five thousanil and those correspondingto maftu-uchimen. But "to crr is human" and. of Questions salary are always interesting. his record. apparendy a certain winner.who is over seventy. The haoi bearstle family crest .

to whom a final appealwould of be made. The answerto that one is that there are none. eachNew Year-though there A total of twelvejudgesare selected is nothing arbitrary about this number. the other on the west. and is also presidentof the JapanSumo Association. Many of them are masters the gyms where the wrestlersdo their training. to comeup for air. or pow-wow. They are honorable. but not necessarily ex-grand of championsor ex-champions. One of the judges actsas timekeeper.as it were.the five judges hoist themselves of their seats and into the ring and thrash out the moot point. This means that the bout must be fought all over again. What's that about favoritismI No dice-there are too many judges. A decisionto stagea toriaaoshi is invariwith prolonged applauseby the ably greeted.but not honorary. For instance Futabayama.Sumo's greatestmodern wrestler. But with the recentdemocratization the sport. who once went through sixty-nine bouts without a defeat.until the summer of.to wipe off the sweat. In the early morning however. They have. He awaits. at times no doubt in fearful trepidation. Now a word or two as to the identity of the judgesand the method they are all former of their appointment. cashcustomers. on the eastsideof the ring.by the way. if even after that one man finds it impossible win and the other to lose. the other membersof the panel acceptthe view nearestthe spot where the of the judge who chancedto be seated so. tlis omce was thought to be too autocraticand has been thrown to the winds. now calls himself Tokitsukaze.for obvious reasons. all wrestlers at leastrnarta-uchi rank.just as there are teen-age referees in wrestlersand teen-age the early tilts. a rcri-naoshitakes place. he runs his own gym.ttrerefollows what is known as a mono-ii. sort of Lord Chief |ustice.And. This is one job where age definitely gets the nod.70 Sumo: Sport and Tradition The flonorable ]udges 7l Should the refereebe in doubt and appealto the panel or should he err in his decision with a resulting protest from one or more of the judges. are paid for their work just Iike anybodyelse. But this very rarely happens.the judgeswash their handsof to the whole thing and call it a day and a draw. In addition to his duties as a judge. The timekeepermotions cornersto have to tle refereeand the rivals departto their respective their belly-bands tightened. the best wrestlers do not always for of make the bestjudges. The honorable iudges.the outcome. But not necessarily and wrestlerswere at the if the thing was so closethat no agreementcan be reachedon the winner. They bear different names from thosethey had in the dayswhen they were activein the ring. They like to get a bit more for their money. As might be expected. A timekeeperis indispensable. complete with gesticulations indicate what they think has taken place. 1957there used to be a a rtensa-cho. crucial moment. following two intervening tilts and a chance the bout is re-staged gladiators to regain their energies given the by-this-time-exhausted in the dressing-room.and to slaketheir thirst with water. The reader may be wondering whether there are any teen-age judges. Tokitsukaze is a busy man. the number of judges is limited to f!vo. .not only to determine when the wrestlersshall get down to work but also decidewhen a bout shall be temporarily halted in the event of no decisionbeing reached. judges. Incidentally. The to refereehimself plays no part in thesedeliberations. Should no decisionbe reachedeven after this secondinstallment. favoriiism is out'of the question. out When this occurs. one encounters. For naturally they cannot go on puffing and blowing at each other endlessln all to no avail. As often as not.

the great young hopeful. although some spectatorsmay be running away with the false idea that it's somethingstrongerthan just Adam's ale the grapplers rke at the ringside beforeand after a contest. It is interesting to note the various styles of salt-scattering. it is believed. among whom Annenyama. The wrestlersdon't drink the water. A whole bale of it. From time to time. The rinsing of the mouth is a must.and spills on the floor of the arenathat one realizes what tremendousstressis laid in the world of Sumo on purification. It can in origin. The same type of thing may be seen at the entrance to a Shinto shrine. Two large pails are kept in opposite cornersof the ring. Others. should any of . Indeed. Quite mystifying to the purification of the ring. almost contemptuously. they say. To return to the ring.wooden clappersare beatenby the announcerbefore the ceremony of the dohyo-iri and also prior to the concluding bout of the day.curiously enough. the arena is also given a sprinkling of water. should bleed from time to time. Now to turn to the water.the first tournament ever was held in a temple compound. throw it joyously high in the air. it has been noted." It certainly is in Sumo. In addition to the thorough salting it undergoesfrom morning to evening it is carefully swept and smootheddown at frequent intervals. Religious this believeit. out of them the water is ladled with wooden dippers. With so much slapping going on it is natural that a nose for instance. this water business nothing more than a purification rite. not after. that's all it is.its object is the well be imagined that if a wrestler should ever forget to do his salt- scatteringhe would considerthat his luck was out and that he would inevitably lose his match. And certainwrestlers it should be added. have white zig-zag gohei hangng from the rope that encircles their waist. ritual. like the salt routine. The grand champions. of course. beforea bout. often by the wrestlers ttremselves.So Clean and Gentlemanly 73 So Clean and Gentlemanly "Cleanlinessr"runs an old saying. To call the attention of the gods. So much for the godliness. Make no mistake about that. And. is an outstanding cxample. But it is on the when blood is drawn. the idea is to start out clean and pure. They merely rinse their mouths and immediately is ryit it out. This takesplace. arc even more particular.is useduP in a coupleof days. " is next to godliness. for. So much for the salt.and one can well 'Westerner. They meticulously wipe underneaththe armpitswith tissuepaper. The cleanliness first of all. To take. Some wrestlers fing it down in a more or less pcrfunctory manner. quite acci rcmewhat infrequent occasions dentally of course.in fact. Any piece of foreign matter is tossedout. Yes. at any rate.to and ostentatiously removeany offensiveperspiration. as we have seen. the scattering of salt in the ring by the wrestlers that plays such a prominent part in the pre-boutproceedings. Originalln Sumo may be said to have been a form of entertainment offered to the gods. follows asnaturally asnight follows day.

fust anotherindication of the shrinelike atmospherethat surrounds the ring. As previouslymentionedin the chaptertitled "The Referee" the sameremark may be applied to Sumo. It is a well-known Oriental trait not to betray one'sinner feelings -hence referencesto the so-called"Oriental mask. Now for anotherfeatureof Sumo that is to be found in very few other sports.the ideal of cleanliness doesnot extend as far as the auditorium. Undoubtedly the religious angle has very much to do with it.or at any rate to the samedegree. The wresders is nowheremore in evidence are seldom stirred to anger-foul tactics are extremely rare-but would never be aware even i. Reference made is particularly to its gentlemanlycharacter. On reaching the schoolgatesas they are leavingto rerurn home the girls turn around and bow to the schoolas a gestureof respect. Actually. That is the gentlemanly thing for a winner to do. the contestants once at withdraw until the messhas been cleanedup.f they were so stirred. rather than making an unseemlydashfor the showers. player or a professional wrestler helping an op Imagine a soccer ground after he has felled him! Yet that is ponent up from the in exactlywhat happens Sumq wherc the helping hand is invariably cxtcndedto a fallen rival. The foul section is scraped and scrdped again. a wrestler is handed a dipperful of water by the winner of the previous tilt. it's a steaminghot bath he enjoysafter his labors. the spectators of it. after steppingup into the ring for his match. The same custom is still observedat certain girls'high schoolsin |apan. It is consideredextremely bad form to question in any way a decision made by tie referee in the former game or by the umpire in the latter. In this respect resembles it the typically British sports of rugby football and cricket. sweptand smoothed overand over and then inspected until no doubt at all remains that everything is in order and the bout may be resumed. Again. This is no simple matter. such as may be seen on the soccer6eld or the baseballdiamond. of unfortunately.74 Sumo: Sport and Tradition So Clean and Gentlemanly 75 the blood fall and defile the sacredring. is unthinkable. Sumo being just as much a rite as it is a sport." And this trait than in the Sumo ring. It is also regardedas good etiqucttefor a wrestler to bow in the and to direction of the ring on his arrival from the dressing-room do likewiseprior to his return. . either. It is in no sense carping criticism that it has to be noted that. In Sumo a display of temper.

CHAPTER 13 n - l-J n-. Then.or gym. or capacMiss. or Harriet in fapan has the suffix san to tacked on to his or her name.and added the suffixyama or mountain. SadajiAkiyoshi. (No. the peerless Futabayama(Plate 1). Sumo Nomenclature rs i i . (pronouncedae{i). of his own. for instance. more. For. it means "two leaves.at leastin their professional ity. Also. A rrrn rse oey's gour: The new grand champi on. . like stagefolk. Not so with the wrestlers. in common with many aspects of the sport. being referred to as Chiyo-no-yama-seki a wrestler in the courseof his career bears at least three names. He was born.Chiyo-nc. for his Sumomonicker. he took the name of his patron.. .when he retired from active competition Tokitsukaze and setup a heya. for a man may decide on a change in the and sometimes belief that therebyhe may win the favor of Lady Luck. (Y 6 yYi. way down south in Oita Prefecture(Kyushu). Futaba is not Scotch for football. a rceremony reserved for grand ri amoi ons onl v. Futaba.") Finally. Dick. his name became 16. the big grapplersare extremely superstitious. corresponding our Mr.. Il anked by hi s attc ndants rrrformi ng the dol tyo-i ri . The ordinary Tom. is somethingout of this world. To takc the caseof the greatestwrestler of the age. The nomenclatureof Sumo. Wak a-no-hana and fri ends..qN n C uavproN Wara-uo-naN n : N ew l y promote d Grand C hampi on Waka-no-hana. Mrs. Gn.yama(Plate 5). They are labeledse{2.

bantl .r a o s n r : In yo r i. Y o n r . ". " : K o t o . 19. r r : tut'/ t i-gnlg t h r o r v t o c l c f e a t Iu ' a ka ze .srr:D Th e hugc C harnpi on : l l atsunobori i l cft) i s pushccl out of the arc na by K oto-sa-hama. rvho has takcn 6rn hol c l of hi s ri val 's btl l r. In th is th r o \\' K( ) to ga-ham a ha s i n s c r t e c l h i s l e ft le g b etwe en th e lcg s o f h is opponent an d t h e n t o p p l e d h im o ve r .g a . th e m a n o n to p b e in g th e w tnncf. Uc ur-c .1 7 . A rr.. H e r e H i r o s e g a r va is se e n to p p lin g T a ka n ish iki.ta o sh l b o th r vr e stle r s g o headl o n g o u i o l t h e r in g .ruyi )'tH oL. 20.h a m a io n tcp ) u se s h is fa vo r ite 18.ga-harna' s heav i l y banrl agecl l cft shoul cl cr. . S r xl r-srcr: : In thi s throw W ak abav ama (ri ght-l sxi r-rgs N aruvama ncatl y round and then dcposrts hi m on the i l oor. N otc K oto .aewiLa ".

as with yama.in Shikoku. too. the wrestler'sgoal is the its rank of yoftozuna. former name of Tokushima Prefecrure. means "ascent symbolizingthe climb up the Sumoladder of success. So much for the sufExes most frequently found in Sumo-dom. Nobori. For a giant wrestler nothing could be more apt than to stick yama on to the end of his name. It means the "brocade" and is derived from the gorgeousceremonial brocade apronsthe wresderswear when they stagetheir daily paradearound the arena. is "dragon.Sumo Nomenclature 8L :l.*r 21 Y urt r r o n t . " Rya. as in Matsunobori (seePlate 18). is commoq meaning "tide. Someof them seemmeaningless first. This secondnamechange occurs when a wrestler quits the ring and his topknot is shorn off by the master of his gym. which sometimespresents much more of a problem. at until you tumble to the fact that they are proper names. found in a number of names." One often comesacross suffix nishifti after a name.:li*rt. Prominent nishifti-tagged men are Grand Champion Tochinishiki (see Plate 3 & 11). Shio. its very size makes it fitting for use in Sumo. Narutoumi comes. Umi. Tokinishiki and Miyanishiki." It may be said to denotethe ebb and flow of a wrestler'sfortunes in the arena. Certain suf6xes constantlyrecur in Sumo nomenclature. however. seenin Futatsuryu and Daitenryu. which is ofi the coastof Awa. means "the sea". Naruto is the name of |apan's most famous whirlpool. The name Asashiomeans"morning tide. and also Shionishiki. (ftaze-pronounced "kazay"-s1sx15 "wind"). Now for the fore portion of the names. most the common being yama and gatua. wh ich is h e ld a t th e co n clu sio n of c ac h d a y ' s b o u t s a t a g r a n d to u r n a m e n t." calculatedto strike fear into the heart of a rival. . Take Narutoumi for instance. And garua or river is surely appropriate in that after many windings and tribulations it finally reaches goal.s n t r r : O t a ya r n a is h cr c p er fo r m in g th e yu m i' tori-s hif t i o r b o w c e r e m o n y.

by the way. He has taken a slight liberty here. hama means "harbor" and the ga is merely a connectinglink. Shinobu.a wrestler takes his name from the gym Ih many cases. presently a TV commentator. Matsunobori's Matsudo. Wakahaguroand Wakamaedaalso derive their namesfrom their masters." and the latter. 18 & 19) and Annenyama. a native of Tochigi Prefecture." Waka ("young") is a member of tht Hanakago or "basket of flowers" gym.in Chiba Prefecture. But a bad streakbrought tearsof shameto his cycs." Tama-no-umi II belongs to the gym once operatedby the late great Grand Champion Tamanishiki. "Ya big bum" has no |apanese equivalentat leastso far as Sumois concerned. they don't. however. "village of tie Mirrorr" ftagami denoting "mirror. . and Haruna. in Fukushima Prefecture. up north in Iwate Prefecrure. ftanii. It is of interestto note that the no in the middle of his name may be written in ftanii (Chinese or characters) in the ftauftana syllabary. The pudgy and popular ex-champion Mitsuneyama.so he changed it to the ftataftana "no. And Champion Matsu is the 6rst part of the name of his home town. originally came from Gumma Prefecture. to which he belongs. Thc former comesfrom Kotohira. Other proper names are contained in Koto. "light. Tochinishiki and Tochihikari are obviouslydis ciples of ex-grand champion Tochigiyama. in Shikoku. Waka-nohana means "flower of youth." Recentlyhe switchedback again. which boasts the mitsu or "three" famed peaks of Myogi. Tarna. betweenHonshu and Shikoku.ga-hama (see Plates 3. or shrine. Annen is the gentleman's surnameand all he did was to add yama. means"treasure. like Tokitsuyama or Tokinishiki." Picturesque the handlesadoptedby Grand Champion Chiyoare no-yamaand ex-grand champion Kagamisato. had some connection with a miya." Kagamisato's mentor was cx-junior champion Kagamiiwa. Akagi.82 Sumo: Sport and Tradition Sumo Nomencliature 83 not from Awa but from the island of Awaii. Tochi means"horse chestnut" and hiftari. you might think. was born and raised in the city of Miyako. ex-grand champions Haguroyama and Maedayama resPectively. then it may safely be assumedthat he's a Tokitsukazeman. Theseare the colorful namesthe world of Sumo gives its heroes And what of the fansl What names do they call them? The answeris. And Miyanishiki who. If his name begins with Tofti. Originally Tama had it in the same as Tama-no-umi I. The former name means"mountain of a thousand eras.where he first saw the light of day.whose name since his retirement has been Kasugano. it is from him that Kagami took hic name. though brought up in Tokyo. Shinobuyamatook his name from Mt.

Your Sumo champion should not be confusedwith a professional pug in the Western world.the rank of grand champion. rises. in nine casesout of ten. who are thc lower-ranking maftu-uchi. They have neither the time nor rhe wherewithal to step out of line. or having mysterious rendezvous with ladies of gentle birth. The latter frequently becomesthe darling of some particular-or should one say not so particularlsocialset.elongated.or rather $alary under tle ncw (1957) system. 85 'Off Duty" Everything about the Sumo ring is most exotic-the very appearanceof the wrestlers. as a rule. the young apprentices. mae-gashira grade.and so on and so forth.novices. As they proceed up the ladder their allowance. then.prognathousex-championOuchiyama is secondto none. with an occasional visit to a movie theateror a pachinfto (pinball) parlor. there are those who have foresworn the demon rum. of Who could be so churlish as to blame them? Coming to wine-in the broad senseof the term-rumor has it that the demoted. Naturally. Maftu-uchi wrestlers get forty-five thousandyen a month. lowly upbringing. For. quite naturally.are still strangersto tle bonds of mauimony. of course. expectthe private lives of the grapplers themselves be equally exotic. Not bad. and. The breath of scandalis soon abroad. it's what one can pick up on the side that really counts. To begin with. are just plain country fellows when they start out and remain so. although ex-grand champion Yoshibayamacan give him quite a good run for his money. He is lionized. even when they have reached their destination. Most Sumo men.scrubs. and it's a sure thing his wife is happy. therefore. he soonembarkson a life of luxury that ill becomeshis.the ceremonial. the more so because usually the wife herselfdoesn't drink. As in most circlesin fapan. One might. and dates with movie stars or glamorousfashion models. Televiewers must also have noticed elegant geisha scatteredhere and there in the crowd at a Sumo tournament. is in no country more than in |apan do inebriated husbandspresent sucha problem.tyros-call them what you willhave only a very meageramount of pocket money to spend. training is neglected. and his name quickly forgotten.CHAPTER 14 "Off r)uty. however. to surrounded by a bevy of fawning geisha. Theseladiesare among the most enthusiastic all fans. and sleeping. The majority of wrestlers of. with the great men holding court.bouts are lost. the wrestlersreciprocate. Fan ciubs are built up around many of the leading wrestlers. and when they do the tab is picked up for the most part by their patrons. On the other hand. .but not enough by any manner of meansto play around with.they like to step out. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Their life consistsof little other than training.and they help to boost a grappler's salary. eating.the posturing. The handsome Shinobuyama one.

And they always have a perfect alibi. vegetables are all tossedin and sugar and soy sauceadded. As a consequenc Waka sworeofr. over himself and was scaldedto death. Tochinishiki is a great believer in the value of sleep and his wife reports that he even embarrasses by snoring at the her movies. upset a steaming pot of. eggs. however. the ever-popular hero of the movie The llafta-no-hana Story rn which he himself played the leading role. he invariably wakes up the tot to give bad form.eat more than you or I. Ozefti can lay claim to a hundred and ten thousanda month. chanfto-nabe. highly desirablein a wrestler.with whisky a very poor third and the others also-rans. who is six feet four inches tall a and. with thoselong arms of his. The reader may be curious to know what goes into wrestlers'stew. |ust about every thing. of course. wrestler' or stew. the yoftozana. it is claimed. was the lates to take to himself a wife. resembles giant spider. like Chiyo-noyama's the daughter of a restaurateur.at the moment of writing. Above the mae-gashiramen are the top-ranking san-yaftu. while the men at the top of the tree. The caloric conten must be tremendous.86 Sumo: Sport and Tradition "Off Dutyn 87 Most Sumo men. the daughter of a restaurateur. Grand Champion Waka-no. and when. a fouryear-old boy. They have. at the moment of writing.chanftofor several months. . also drink more. Fish. They have not. been blesse with offspring. The championsstill are enjoying single blessedness the hirsute Asashio and. among them. just as they weigh more and. She is as short as to he is long. A word or two now as to the big money-earners. "Oh. we're just drinking to put on weight. Grand Champion Chiyo-noyama. one small daughter. on the average. Papa returns to the nest with the usual present as a peaceoffering. for they can claim. after drinking. drinks moderately. thus weakeninghimsel to such an extent that his form plummeted. Tochi. As with all wresders. as a matter of fact. fowl. Tochinishiki. left the ranks of the bachelors comparatively late. The Tokyo-born grand champion. the affair was arrangedthrough the good offices of a go-between. He led his bride.he of the bullish mien. This is considered and wife have not had a singlequarrel sincethey were wed. but a lot of them prefer the local brew. at the advanced age of thirty-two. was dealt a cruel blow when his only son. but.Koto-gahama. to thc altar when he was trventy-nine." As to what they drink. bring along a suitcaseand cart away a hundred and fifty tlousand. beer'sa steadyfavorite. so it is not surprising that all three of the present grand championsare living in double harness.hana. husband it to her. ftornusubi and seftiwaftewalk away with a monthly pay check amounting to seventy thousand yen.is married an Osaka girl. With this kind of money they can aflord to marry. Champion Matsunobori. meat. sak€.

The ceremonial lends a dignity to the proceedings which is surely one of tfie principal sourcesof its charm. he may find himself muttering "thrillingr" "wonderful. he might very well li feel inclined to leave it at that. and the pageantry. makc a feeble attempt at imitation with the silken gowns thcy afiect as tley appear in the ring.inevitably.it doesmean for of something. Ah. What a goodJookerl Could be she's a geisha or something. Together with its color and dignity one should notc the cleanliness of Sumq clcanlinessin both its literal and figurative senses Boxing. One is to cultivate an interest in the goings-onand uy to figure out what it all means. His epithet by now should bc "interesting" at least. How can he sparc the time? Looks like an artist of some sort. it is true. But Sumo has the tremendous advantage of a long tradition.be tempted to give it a second * I I look oi a third he would probably change the label. Thcre is nothing like it in boxing or in Wcstern-type wresding. even"spectacular. all uaces of it are at once removed. maybe after taking a picture or t\ilo l for his album. shouldn'r bc surprisedif she was the light of lovc of one of the wrestlers. In comparing Sumo with allied sports onc can see at once why it has. But first he has a barrier to clear." might become.'terrific. he's there everyday. The other way is to study the audience. must be from some newspaper or other. Take the color. There are two possible ways of handling this siruation.would be the 6rst epithet to come to a Westerner's mind after his first viewing of Sumo. course.quite a showt" And finalln if the thing gets a hold on him. the men are not going through their routine merely to kill time. without such digniry the label "grotesque" might with justice be applied. "colorful" perhaps. televicwers might check their watchcs and give themselvesexactly four minutes." even . his face smearedwith blood and resembling a piece of raw meat. Or perhaps . That girl in ftimono in the third row. a srumbling-blockthat foils a large percentage non-Orientals. which makes all the ceremonial seem not a whit out of place. for instance... Or. and a of boxer. And. That's how long thc wre$tlers are allowed for their preliminaries. as it undoubtedly can to all-in wrestling. however.' If hc reachesthis exalted stage.he will know wherein the charm of Sumo lies. a much wider appeal. he's making sketches.CHAPTER 15 The Charm of Sumo 89 The Charm of Sumo "Grotesque. is a most repulsive sight Blood is seldom drawn in Sumo. Should he. That fellow in the beret. The grunt and groaners. tle Western viewer can sit back comfortably and begin to enjoy the time-honored art. always there. few would denn is dirty in both senses the word. As for . and always alone. "Bizarre" it or or "exotic"."one fancies. Having by this time cleared the hurdle. lacking the patienceof the Oriental. if evcr it should bc.namely the preliminary shiftiriof the naoshi (Plate 2) that precedes bouts.

constitutesthe sporCs But what.with a few rare exceptions'to however. with the referee'sdecision. wrestlersof higher and still higher rank are matcheduntil the show reaches climax toits ward evening with the appearance the grand championsthemof selves. As often as not the issueis in doubt until the very last day. Sumo is not for them. are the final for pulsating moments." All this. It should be remembered. Without a doubt there are pervertedpeople who are not content unlessa certain amount of dirt is thrown into their sport. Sumo men. the participantsin this sport. are in ninety-nine casesout of a hundred the sons of poor farmers or all fishermen. or even pick up a chair and use it as a weapon.he is beatenby "lousy necesis refereeing"or "dirty tactics. The interestmounts day by day as candidates honorsdrop out one by one until a mere handful are for left in contention. . on the other hand. come from what one might term good families. In p<iintedcontrastis what goeson at an all-in wrestling bout.which makes their extreme courtesyand gentleness the more remarkable.90 Sumo: Sport and Tradition The Charm of Sumo 9L fair plan it may be said to be the keynote of fapan's traditional sportl there is no hitting below the belt. These.howeverroughly he may be slapped or flung about. in Britain at least. after hours of suspense the fans. A day's wrestling at a grand tournament openswith the novicesin the early morning. in the opinion of its devotees. where they can have all the dirt they want. then. The sameapplies. greatestcharm is the element of drama containedin it. A Sumowrestler is a good loserwho never betraysdissatisfaction. The loser seldomgoesdown beforea superioropponent. the Kimigayo. considered can get along very well sary to whet the appetiteof the fans. The drama ends with the presenta tion to the victor of the Emperor's Cup and the championship flag and with the playing of the stirring national anthem. And he is courteous toward his opponent. In the caseof boxing. And it is not only a single day but the entire fifteen-daytournament that is packedwith drama. where it is no uncommon thing for the defeatedgrunt and groaner the to take his beatingwith suchbad graceas to chase victor outside the ring and rain blows on him thick and fast. they would be well advisedto stick to pro wrestling. Sumo without it. as the afternoonwears on. that most of rugby football. which comesto a closewith a bout betweentwo grand championsas a fitting finale. of course. tle "I wuz robbed" attitude is too well-known to merit comment. whether in word or deed.

82 Chiyo-no-yama.54. 4l Awa. tournaaents.Index Akagi. ll.63.76. 86.92 Ashi-tori. 87 Chiba. 63 Antmaf. 13. 41. 1749. wresdcrs'stew. 52. ring ccrcmony.54 Dohyo-ii.5l-52. ll Collins. 27 Fukuoka. 13. Aki-no-umi.53 8. 28.82 Azuchi Castle. 30-31. 56 Daitenryu.14 Dewaminato. Mt.56-64. 85-86 Edo period. fcudal lord.73.89 Chan\o-nabc.93.10.67 Drama. 9. 41 Dewa-no-umi (Tsunc-no-hana). top-knot. 36.54 Anncnyama. Eddic.52. 52-54 Cobb.8l-82. 13. 11 Basho. 82.51.50 Asashio. Ty.uji. 47. 15. 12.71. 8l Dcwa-ga-take. 90-91 Drinking.26.9 Ceremonial. 25. 30.92 Aomori.54. 56-59. 23-24 Fukushima.63.92 Chon-magc. 8-9r 23-25 at al Baseball. 82 Futabayama (Tokitsukaze). 30. 81 Awa1i.76 . 82 Akashi Shiga-no-sukc. 23 Edo (Tokyo)..65 Daimyo.96. t1.

65-68 )/ Kcta-gari. 85. Hata\i-ftomi.23-24 Naruto. Gohei. 90 74-7 prize for skill.53 Taboos.23-24.l 0 .. Emperor.54 Taema-no-kchaya. 81-83 N omi -no-sukune 7. 14 Oda N obunaga. 69 16. hi. 8l Narutoumi. 70 Kcnsa-yafti. 30. 7 Taisho cra. 92 Ozora.7 Sumo Museum. 85'92 Shionishiki. 9. 10 Raftida eatth. 27-28.82. 21-22. paper stream. 86. 8l-82 Nagasaki. 24. 64 Ouchiyama.50. 23. 86.85 hi.67. 24. Mawashi.ers. 82 Gyoji. Haori.83 9. 25 Odachi. 56 Nio Nidaya.66 Rikidozan.29. 69 Klem.76 Omi . 1 6. 92 O-icho-magc. 16. reterce. 7 Ky ot o. 10. 85 O z e fti. 34. Kansai era. weight standards. 46 Kimigayo. 66 Hanakagogym. 82 Komasabi. 9 Nagoya.35 M aft*-uc L0. 49.57. 23 Kanto-sho. 92 M ae-gas Mac-tatcmits*. l0 R yogoku..52 Jimmaku.33.72 Gumma. 56 Hitachiyama. 82 30. Index Mono-ii. 29. 82.l0 Sumo ring.86. hira. 72-73 S an-yaftu.27 Kimura referecs. 10.42. 82 70 Roosevelt (" Teddy "). 26-31. 72-7i 29 Raiden.71 Meals. 14 Kotohira. Mt.92 Scndai.49 Gino-sho.53 Migi-yots*. 9 Nisho-no-seki gym. 61. 82 Kagamiiwa.29 P'trification.63 Ohi kan. 27-28.45 t 5.27-28.82 Matsunobori.92 30. 47.86.54.judges. 85 Sc\i-waftc.36Haguroyama (Tatsunami). 29 Karate. L2. 87. 50 Nomenclature. 26. 35 Tachi-ai. 10. 14 27. 8 Kita-no-nada. ceremonial aprons. 30. champions. 50. winning holds.24 95 Ganzaemon. 44.92 Koto-ga-hama.8l-82. lormal coat.belly-band.45. 34 Tachimochi. 8. judges' pow-wow. Myogi. 15. 88 Shikoku. national anthem.2L-22. 23 S crubs. Shi ftiri-naos 32-34. Iwate.48 Otayama. 63 45 Shitate-nage. 92 Ha\ama. 85 Salt-scattering. 32. formal skirt.68 . P ri zes. Bill. 8 Osaka. 30. stylish top-knot. 76.11.25 Ranking.29. 15 Pan American Airwqs. 33 Mitsuneyama.10-l l.9 Shihai. Shinobuyama.64 Gentlemanliness. 66. outstanding achiev Shuftun-sho. 58 Tachiyama. 1l Hirohito.94 Futatsuryu.45 Suiiin. 53 Shiranuistyle. 82 Matsudo. 27 Oita. Emperor's Cup. 35. 81 Nikko. 9l 83 Hai-do.52. 12. 52 . 53 (Takasago). 49 Kuramae Kokugi Hall.30. 33. 83 Miyanishiki.87 Meiji cra. S asa-dera.86 9. Mt.68 Hajikami. 8..14. ment prize. 8l Index Kagamisato. 8l-82 Shinobu. S al ari es. 4l Kimari-tc. 29 Soto-ga\c. 5. 54. 49-51. 52. 62. 13.83 Kokusai (International) Stadium.68 Shikimori rcferees.27.81 Shiranui I.92 |apan Sumo Association.. 82 Hidari-yotsa.26. Emperor. 13.45. 7. 44 l t -ryo.47 Maedayama 55. 13.chief judge.ptize for fighting spirit.44. 42 Kabi-nage. 53 Shiranui II. 34. 83 Hokkaido. 35 Kcnsa-cho.21.92 66.82 Miyako.Mt.69-71 Kesho-mauashi.24 Haruna. 4l Height. junior champions.36.

45 Ume-ga-taniII.29.96-97 . 45 Index Other TUT BOOKS available: BACHELOR'S HAWAII by Boyede Mente Wakabayama.scc Macdayama Tamanishiki.54 Tochigiyama (Kasugano). 13.92 Tokinishiki.30.92 Tokushima.48-50. 13. 54. 30. 30.58 Unryr stylc.nslated b! KennethStrong CALABASHES AND KINGS: An Introduction Hawaii by Stanley D.26.41. 36 Tilri-dash?.81 Tori-naoshi.54.82 Tama-no-umiI.45.70 Ttaining. 42. 49.83. 28.41 Wakahaguro. 42 Yoshibayama. 2l-22 Tunc-no-hana. LAND by Atice Morse Earle DINING IN SPAIN by Gerrie Beene and Lourd.58.92 Wakamaeda.92 Yobi-das announcer.rmitori-s ki. scc Haguroyama Tcchniqucs. 30. 81-82 Tokitsuyama. 54. bow ceremony. 42 Yori-taoshi.50. 30.92 Waka-no-hana. grand champions. 54. 30. 82. 34. 13.11. 30. 30.9.53 Tatsunami.92 Tanikaze. 63. 63 Tcrukuni.41-46 Tensho era.92 Yori-ftiri. 11.92 Y. 82 52.83. 57. 86. 45 Uutatc-nagc.83. Leon Picon by CURIOUS PUNISHMENTS by Alice Morse Earle OF BYGONE DAYS CUSTOMS AND FASHIONS IN OLD NEW ENG. 82 Tama-no-umill. 63. 53.63hi 64 BACHELOR'S JAPAN by Bojte d. 47-55. 63. Yoftozuna. 58 Uchi-gaftc.91-92.J2. Tochihikari.eMente BACHELOR'S MEXICO by Boye de Mente A BOOK OF NEW ENGLAND LEGENDS AND FOLK LORE by SamuelAdams Drake TI{E BUDDHA TREE by Furnio Nipa. 8530. 45 Ts*yuharai. 14.87. translated.eb Side of Vietnam by Tony CONFUCIUS SAY fu Leo Shaw THE COUNTERFEITER and Other Stories by Yasushi Inoue.51. 10.36.50-51.63 Uttchai.scc Dcwa-no-umi Tsappari.58.82. Porteus CHINA COLLECTING Earle to IN AMERICA by Alice Morse CHINESE COOKING MADE EASY hy RosyTwng CHOI OI!: The tighter Zid. 45.82 Tochinishiki. tra.53 Unryu. 8-ll.96 Takasago.es Miranda King . 72 hi.

" "Polish Up Your English" and the co-authorship of a number of English textbooks As an ardent and observant Sumo fan himself. He is a long-time resident of Japan. For behind the ritual po' sturing and gesturingthat seemto constitute a major portion of the Sumo contest and lead up to the sud den head-on clashingof two gigantic figures. I I I t t J. SARGEANT's name is already a familiar one both to those enthusiastic sport fans and student of the English languagewho read his newspapercol' umns. Sargeant finished his education at Cambridge Uni' versity. Japan . and Waseda University.therelies a world of picturesque meaning and time-honored tradition that. Born in Lancaster.is bound to enhance the appeal of the sport to the non-Japanes readerand sportslover.( continued ) from insidefront cover of cal associations Sumo. Black and white photographic plates and line drawings provide illustrations ol Sumo's various aspects. taking part in educationa activities which included teaching English at the former Imperial Naval Academy. in 1903. Mr. He is presently lecturer in English at Tokyo University. having lived here since 1934. Vermont & Tokyo. Sargeant is well qualified to present us with the vivid closeups in his column "Sumo As I See It" and in this book. Sargeant Up Your English. A.Previinclude "Brush ously publishedworks by Mr. the Tokyo Foreign Language School. England. Mr. Tuttle Company Rutland. properly understood. Charles E. Other activities prominent in his busy life include that of Sports Editor for the Asahi Evening News and writer of the popular languagecolumn "Brusb Up Your English" for the same newspaper.

." -Today's Japan ".. this is a useful book." -Air Force Times ". its pageantry.julltlTHt *FflRT THt TftR $5. its charm. . . for those of us who know even less. ideal for the armchair enthusiast who finds himself almost hypnotized in front of his television set during the six annual tournaments but wishes he knew a little more about what he is seeing. . 'the sport of emperors' in Japan. its techniques. its history.ABA/NACS GAMES "This is the book the foreign fan of sumo (Japanese wrestling) has been waiting for . . . . it is a necessaryone'" Daily News -Mainichi "Sumo is probably Japan's most spectacular spectator sport. . The difficult climb from a salaryless apprentice to grand champion is described by the author with many behind-the-scenes highlights..$5 sessions at scenes. recrea"n iilllii|iililiillllltii llililillllil uilf#" ar.ili rsBN 0-8048-1084-2 . Said to be the only English-languagework on the subject. . The reader is also given interesting sidelights as to the significance of the pageantry of the six 15-day qournaments held throughout the year.. or a tsuri-dasii from a tottari or tsuppari. Sumo is enjoying today increasing popularity in Japarr and abroad. Dating back to before the Christian Era. . This book not only explains this strange sport but also tells of the little known facets of the wrestler's Life hehinrl t]le reaxa"n and''r. dates back beyond the Christian era. . . ." Advertiser -Honolulu "For those of us who know just enough about Sumo to know the difference between tlrc shimenawa and the o-icho-mage.i"11[ij'$1nrur nnT iliiil'. . thetraining $ i'. its nomenclature. it explains the exciting sport. an authoritative book has been published solely for Western readers. For the first time." -Navy Times "Sumo.

siuMO the r tradition ffi Ar-4- A J.A.V-2+> lE .

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