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Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov't. agencies and their contractors; Critical technology; Feb 1964. Other requests shall be referred to Army Materiel Command, Attn: AMCRDTV, WAshington, D.C. 20315 Alexandria, VA.
AUTHORITY
USAMC ltr, 22 Jul 1971
THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED
AMC PAMPHLET
AMCP 106252
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
OF MATERIEL
GUNS SERIES GUN TUBES
os t.:' '.  • , .
HANDBOOK ENGINEERING DESIGN
#2 UNCIJSSIF IED STANT~ nub to special export . i S.. oument S subject.ttý]" to foreioe
ldo( "Thi Ina each trai or for1cn lot: onalS nay be xade my baterie goVern1Cnts
onlY with prior Appro ,Attn: At conu 20315
o:warshingYton atC,
HEADQUARTERS, U.
ý.ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND
FEBRUARY 1964
/13
ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK SERIES
&"gin .... ...... , ifJa.... t: tnla i 4nA ftindmiental data to
supplement experience in assisting engineers in the evolution of new designs which will meet tacticsl and technical
needs while also embodying satisfactory producibility and maintainability. Listed below are the Handbooks which have been published or submitted for publication. Handbooks with publication dates prior to I August 1962 were published as 20series Ordnance Corps pamphlets. AMC Circular ýW0"8. 19 RODP 20138 was redesignated AMCP July 1963, redesignated those publications as 706series AMC pamphlets (i.e., 706138). All new, reprinted, or revised Handbooks are being published as 706series AMC pamphlets. General and Miscellaneous Subjects Number 106 107 108 110 ill lIZ 113 114 134 135 136 137 138 139 170(C) 252 270 290(C) 331 355 Title Elements of Armament Engineering, Part One, Sources of Energy Elements of Armament Engineering, Part Two, Ballistics Elements of Armament Engineering, Part Three., Weapon Systems and Components Experimental Statistics, Section 1, Basic Concept@ and Analysis of Measurement Data Experimental Statistics, Section 2, Analysis of Enumerative and Classificatory Data Experimental Statistics, Section 3, Planningand Aralysis of Comparative Experiments Experimental Statistics, Section 4, Special Topics Experimental Slatistics, Section 5, Tables Maintenance Engineering Guide for Ordnance Design Inventions, Patents, and Related Matters Servomechanisms, Section 1, Theory Servomechanisms, Section 3r Measurement and Signal Converters ^...,p ification Servomechanisms, Sectior, 1 Servomechanisms, Section 4. Power Elements and System Design Armor and Its Application to Vehicles (U) Gun Tubes (Guns Series) Propellant Actuated Devices WarheadsGeneral (U) Compensating Elements (Fire Control Series) The Automotive Assembly (Automotive Series) Ballistic Missile Seri*@ Number 241(5aD) 282 284(C) 286 Title Weapon System Effectivcness (U) Propulsion and Propellants Trajectories (U) Structures
Ballistics Series 140 Trajectories, Differential Effects, and Data for Projectiles 160(s) Elements of Terminal Ballistics, Part One, Introduction, Kill Mechanisms, and Vulnerability (U) 161(5) Elaments of Terminal Ballistics, Part Two, Collection and Analysis of Data Concerning Targets (U) 16Z(SRD) Elements of Terminal Ballistics, Part Three, Application to Missile and Space Targets (U) Carriages 340 341 34Z 343 344 345 346 347 Material* 301 302 303 305 306 307 308 309 310 3L1 a Mounts Series Carriages and MountsGeneral Cradls Recoil Systems Top Carriages Bottom Carriages Equilibrators Elevating Mechanl•ms Traversing Mechanisms Handbooks Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Copper and Copper Alloys Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys Titanium and Titanium Alloys Adhesives Gask.et Materials (Nonmetallic) Glass Plastics Rubber and RubberLike Materials Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Metals rotchnics Series Part Two, Safety, Procedures and Glossary P~rt Three, Properties of Material in Pyrotechnic Compositions
Ammunition and Explosives Series 175 Solid Propellants, Part One 176(C) Solid Propellants, Part Two (U) 177 Properties of Explosives of Military Interest, Section 1 178(C) Properties of Explosives of Military Interest, Section 2 (U) l10 Fuses, General and Mechanical 211(C) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, P&rt One (U) 212(5) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, Part Two (U) 213(S) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, Part Three (U) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, Part Four (U) 215(C) Fuses. Proximity, Electrical, Part Five (U) 244 Section 1, Artillery AmmunitionGeneral, with Table of Contents. Glossary and
"214(S)
Military 186 187
Used
245(C) 246
"247(C)
248 249(C)
Index for Series Section 2, Design for Terminal Effects (U) Section 3, Design for Control of Flight Characteristice Section 4, Design for Projection (U) Section 5, Inspection Aspects of Artillery Ammunition Design Section 6. Manufacture of Metallic Components of Artillery Ammunition (U)
SurfacetoAir Missile Series u9fa Part. One. System Intesration 292 Part Two, Weapon Control 293 Part Twore. Computers 294(3) Part Ihoure Mie, le Armament (U) 295(5) Part Five, Countermeasures (U) 296 Part Six, Structures and Power Sources 297(S) Part Seven, Sample Problem (U)
L,
(AMCRD) FOR THE COMMANDER: OFFICIAL: SELWYN D. fr DIST. D. JR. Gun Tubes. C.AVAiH'I 28 February 1964 AMCP 706252. Ad in strative Office DISTRIBUTION: Special ..S. . L)ALO UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND L. IJ 'C A fN I HEADQUARTERS WASHINGTON Z5. SMITH. id iP U AL SP.. Major General. is published for the information and guidance of all concerned. USA Chief of Staff Chief. OPITSI1h 1DN. forming part of the Guns Series of the Army Materiel Command Engineering Design Handbook Series.
Contractors should submit such requisitions or requests to their contracting uificers. for the Engineering Handbook Office of Duke University. i~ E 1A iN . Agencies of the Department of Defense. which (as a group) constitutes the Engineering Design Handbook Series. The Guns Series is under the technical guidance and coordination of a special committee with representation from Frankford Arsenal of the Munitions Command. Chambersburg. North Carolina 27706.PREFACE This handbook is the first of a planned series on Guns. Duke Station. having need for Handbooks. Philadelphia. It is part of a group of handbooks covering the engineering principles and fundamental data needed in the development of Army materiel. Letterkenny Army Depot. Ja n This handbook was prepared by The Franklin Institute. Comments and suggestions on this handbook are welcome and should be addressed to Army Research OfficeDurham. Anthony Muzicka of Watervliet Arsenal. This handbook presents information on the fundamental operating principles and design of gun tubes. Chairman of this committee is Mr. Pennsylvania. and Springfield Armory and Watervliet Arsenal of the Weapons Command. Durham. Box CM. may submit requisitions or official requests directly to Equipment Manual Field Cffice (7). prime contractor to the Army Research OfficeDurham. Pennsylvania.
. 1.......TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE . Quasi TwoPiece Tube . Projectile Effects ....... D.. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 ......... 2....... CArruu 3..... Mechanical Loading .................................. Vibration ......... 1.................. ............... 1.. LIST OF SYMBOLS ..... Recoil Forces ..... 1 1 I CHAR 2.......... D. Small Arms Tubes ...... ............... Functions . 3....... INTRODUCTION .............. Breech Ring Attachment ........... ........... C.. .................. Recoilless Tube .... .... REGIONS OF THE GUN TUBE ...... ....... Cn•rrxa 1................. B... Bore .. LIST OF TABLES ...................... Expendable Tubes ....... 4.. . Types of Guns ............ A... B... ............ A.... FIRING PHENOMENA AFFECTING GUN TUBES 8 8 8 8 9 9 A..................... ................ ........ ..... Monobloo Tube ................................................... A......... Propellant Gas Pressure ...... Scope and Purpose ..... Revolver Type Tube ...... CHAPrm 4............ . 2 2 2 3 3 .. ............... B..... Chamber .... C................. .... Muzzle ....... TYPES OF GUN TUBES .................... . ........................ 2.......... Jacketed Tubes .... 2..... .... ...... C. ........... . ........................ Artillery Tubes ................ v vii viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ...
................. .. Chamber GeometryRecoilless Guns ... Interior Ballistics Curves ... ..... Design Objectives ........ ...... Dimensional Changes .. 2........... Bore Length ...........................Off ... Vibration Correction Measures . Chamber Slope .............................. ............... 30 30 30 30 Ill 1. 13 13 13 13 13 . ... .. 3.. 1.......... 1......... Heating .......................... Nozzle Design......... 1... ........ Nozzle Pressure Distribution .... Recoilless Guns ....... . 2.... Vibration Calculations .. Cooling Methods ....... 17 17 18 18 19 19 .............. ..... ....... 4.... Recoil Balancing ................. CHAPTIR 0............... F.... 3....... Rotating Band Properties ........... Erosion .... 3........................ Low Heat Input .............. Large Tube Masses .......... WAYS OF MINIMIZING HARMFUL EFFECTS TO GUN TUBES . Forcing Cone Slope .......... ... Bore .......... Thermal Stresses . ...... ....................... . C... . 1.......... ............................... . .. Liners and Plating ... 3....... Chamber Requirements ... 4. 9 9 11 i1 12 12 12 1........... 3...................... ................ 2.......... .............. Temperature Distribution ................ ................. ?   l  l   l  l  l  ......... 2. 1... ................ E................ .. 4... Causes . Low Erosion Measures .. A.. ........................ . ... 1.. ....... ..... 2.... 19 19 21 22 * ....... 2...................... Boundary Layer Cooling ......... ................... .....TABLE OF CONTENTS(continued) Pap B.... CHAPTER 5. C........ Rifling ......... A...... Bore Diameter ........ High Strength Materials . GUN TUBE DESIGN .......... Parameters. Mechanical Design . Coolants ... • 22 22 22 23 24 24 24 26 26 27 28 28 Cartridge Case Fit .... k.... 3.. Nozsle Shape .... .. B..... 2.......... 2............ B.... ............ C.... Region Affected .... . D... .
.......... Liner Design ..... .. B.. 5.... M.......................... Design Pressures .... .. 74 75 7................... Strain Compensation . 4...... 9. Titanium Alloy ..... .. 2..... ... . . .......... Special Applications for Tube Analyses ......... Rifling Torque Stresses ... SAMPLE PROBLEMS ..... Monobloc Tube... Quasi TwoPiece Tube .. 30 31 ..... 6...... 3. Muzzle Attachments .. Corrosion Inhibitors . Inspection ... 3....... ..... ........ . 1.... .............. .... Autofreitaged Tube ....... 2...... . ....... 2.. .... .................. Steel ..... A. .... ............ B.. Artillery ........... CHAPTER 8............ R iding .. 44 45 45 45 60 11...... CHAPTEII 7.. 10...... Jacketed Tube.. Manufacturing Procedures ... 1...... 1.. 1..... ...... ..................... .... . A........ ... I....... ............. 6.... . S1... ...... Equivalent Stress .... Chromium ... .......... ... Pressure Stresses .. 8.... 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 66 66 68 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 . . ....... . ................. Regular Tube ..... ..... ................. .. Inertia of Recoil Stresses ..... . Gun Tube Materials ..................... ......... Stress Compensating Measures 12.... Shrinkage Stresses . Rifling Torque Transmitters . 2................... 4................ ... Stress Concentration ..................................... ... Rifling Twist . 2... ............................... 5...... Strength Requirements . Mechanical Features .. Artillery .. MAINTENANCE . Tube With Two Jackets ................... Aluminum ... Threads ........ .. .. .... ..... .. Profile ... K...... J......... L... ....... ... ...... ... Thermal Stresss ....... Determination of Thickness of Tube Walls . 41 7.. 3........ ........ ... . Tube With Single Jacket .5 75 76 76 76 78 .................. 38 38 39 40 40 41 3........... .. ..... H............... Iv .... 2...... Stellite ....TABLE OF CONTENTS(continued) G ........ Rtihng Torque ............... ...... ............ 30 1........ Plastics .. 3.......................
.. Temperature Distribution Across Tube Wall Temperature Along Outer Surface of Caliber ............. Thermal Stresses ...... .... . * D............. ................. ... Nozzle PressureArea Ratio Curve....... 3............. .. 4.................. 99 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fig. Shrink Fit s me . ...... Progressive Engraving .. ....... ............. Jacketed Tube .... S3...... I .. Chamber With Pertinent Dimensions ....... ......... .. DispersionFrequency Ratio Curve .... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .. ..... ...... ... ... ...... GLOSSARY .............. ...........30 Tube ......... CaseChamber StressStrain Curves ......................... Small Arms Barrel With Combined Pressure and ..... Chambers of Various Tube Types . 2.... Quasi TwoPiece Tube ............ .. 8mall Arms Barrel With Shrink Fitted Liner and Cap 1.... ................................................. .... ...... .. Thermal Stresses . ..... .... M10 Propellant ....... Schematic of Recoilless Gun .. Pressure RatioArea Ratio Curve .... . ... REFERENCES ............. Propellant Gas Pressure Stresses ..TABLE OF CONTENTS. Nozzle .................................... Lines of Constant Dimensionless Recoil ........... Forcing Cone Study ...........9 10 11 14 14 15 20 20 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 27 27 28 . 84 87 91 94 d ........ Shrink Fit Pressure ..... Interior Ballistics of Caliber .. ................... Recoilless Gun ............. .... .......... Nozzle Entrance Geometry . ......... 2. ....... ....... Recoilless Gun Tube .. .... Typical Gun Tube Showing Regions . ............................(continued) Page U............ E... 2...... Shrink Fit Pressure Stresses ....... Gun Tube Showing Subdivisions ........................ M/I Diagram of Gun Tube .... Page 2 4 6 6 6 6 6 9... ... ................... Combined Stresses .. 3.. Types of Rifling Contour ............. Gun Tube ......... ........ V ""Mow L .. ..... . No..... . Chamber .... Pressure Stresses ..30 Gun ..... 1........... .............. ...... Nozzle Shape&Schematic . .. Revolver Type Tube Showing Separate Chamber With Round Gatling Gun Tubes .......... 81 81 82 82•i 83 83 83 83 84 84 ........................................ . .......... ...... ......... Thermal Cracks on Bore Surface ... .............. ......... .... .. .
....................... ..... 34 35 35 37 43 44 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 53 55 56 57 58 59 64 64 65 65 66 67 67 68 69 69 70 70 75 77 81 83 v1 .... Rifling Torque Curves for Caliber . ...... .. Effects of Temperature on Tensile Strength of Typical Steels for .. I I.............. Wall RatioPressure Factor Curves for Multilayer Tubes ........ Effects of Aging Processes on Tensile Strength of Titanium at Various ...................... ........0 and CrMoV ......... .... Interrupted Threads ............ .......... . Standard Rifling Profiles ..... .. s. Monobloc Artillery Tube ...000 psi................... Torque Curves for 37 mm Gun ........ Toroidal External Loads ....... Nozzle With General Dimensions .....................30 Barrel ......... Steel ............ .... Page 31 32 ............................................ Effects of Temperature on Tensile Strength of Titanium Alloy ...... Gunner's Quadrant Flats ................ Conical Section Loading ........ Toroidal Internal Moment Center ... .... 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 6S 64 Groovetore itentioon8 ........ ........ .. ..... Toroidal Section Loading .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS(continued) Fig........... Thread Profile Types ......000 psi........ Effects of Tempering Temperature on Tensile Strength of SAE 4150 .............. ...... Design Data..........000 psi . Equivalent Stress as a Function of Wall Ratio and Temperature Distance for an Internal Pressure of 40.. ............ Effects on Rifling Torque by Varying Exit Angle . Design PressureTravel Curve ..... Equivalent Stress as a Function of Wall Ratio and Temperature .... Recoilless Tubes . . Rifling Force Diagram .... Typical Recoilless Gun Pressure Design Curves ...................... . Equivalent Stress as a Function of Wall Ratio and Temperature Distance for an Internal Pressure of 10.... Temperatures ..... Schematic of Tube With Liner ........ Jacketed Artillery Tube ..........000 psi ............... Distance for an Internal Pressure of 60......... Thermal Stress Distribution Across Tube Wall . Distance for an Internal Pressure of 50..... . Gimbal Ring Loading ........ No..000 psi Equivalent Stress as a Function of Wall Ratio and Temperature Distance for an Internal Pressure of 30.......... ...... ............. ..... Equivalent Stress as a Function of Wall Ratio and Temperature ................... . .......... ... Effects of Temperature on Tensile Strength of SAE 41..... Equivalent Stress as a Function of Wall Ratio and Temperature ........ Design Data.... ...... ....... ....... Threaded Joint ............... ............ .... Tipped Parabola ... Tangential Stress of Shrink Fitted Tube . ......................... Steels ................... Rifling Torque Reactions ...... Distance for an Internal Pressure of 20........ Physical Properties of Steel ...........................................000 psi ... .............. ........ ........................... Threaded Joint With Butted End ..... ...
. Pae 15 16 16 17 17 18 24 36 45 50 68 69 70 71 71 72 72 73 76 76 77 77 79 83 92 vii ................ Static Condition ..................... Minimum Mechanical Property Requirements of Titanium Alloys Properties of Representative Gun Tube Materials . .LIST OF TABLES Table No...... ....... 100 mm Tube . ................... Natural Frequency Parameters.......... Design Data of Actual Monobloc Tube .......... ESP Calculations for Single Jacketed................. .... Surface Finishes of Gun Tubes.. ........ Ratios of Equivalent Stresses . ........ Area Moments for Dynamic Condition . Forcing Cone Slopes .... Rifling Torque Calculations for Exponential Rifling ...... M/I Calculations for Dynamic Condition .. Design Data of Actual Autofrettaged Tube .................... ....... Wall RatioPressure Ratio Chart for Monobloc Gun Tubes .... ............ ..... ............ Reduction of Area and Impact Requirements ..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 M/I Calculations for Static Condition ................... h ........ ... 9 Combined Shrink Fit and Pressure Stresses (lb/in ) .. . RMS .. Thermal Coefficient of Linear Expansion of Stellite 21 ..... Mechanical Properties of Stellite 21 ..... .. Dynamic Condition.... Natural Frequency Parameters........ Nozzle Stresses ......... ............ Design Data of Theoretical Autofrettaged Tube ..................... ........... Area Moments for Static Condition ........ ....... Heat Transfer Coefficients............. ..... Chemical Requirements of teel ...... Design Data of Theoretical Monobloc Tube .. ................
M. depth of keyway = area moment of inertia. kinetic energy = constant in rifling torque equation for constant twist f axial length of rifling curve. A. inside diameter of jacket = bore diameter = inside diameter = mean diameter. CMP area of nozzle = nozzle throat area = nozzle area at distance x from the throat = change in nozzle throat area .. general expression for design pressure = pressure at point A of equivalent bore = chamber pressure. Ab A.i SViii . shear modulus . general expression for area nozzle approach area bore area chamber area nozzle exit area original nozzle throat area. reservoir pressure F. &A4 b C d. propellant potential = equivalent modulus of elasticity = modulus of elasticity of ring = elastic strength pressure = equivalent stress factor . AF G h I J k k. p.force increment . LAI. N p PA p pt p. p p. E E. pi p. D. at Mach No. true computed Rressure = autofrettage pressure = propellant gas pressure = maximum propellant gas pressure = internal pressure = computed design pressure. length of key. ..general expression for force.. LiD. general expression for flexural rigidity = outside diameter of liner. F F. projected F. ESP I.. pressure induced by shrink fit = design pressuic at nozzle throat. A. A. n n.. specific impetus. p F. general expression = area polar moment of inertia = radius of gyration of projectile .exponent defining rifling curve = twist of rifling stated in calibers per turn = induced force normal to rifling curve = constant in equation for increasing twist rifling.specified momentum of recoiling mass = required change in momentum .LIST OF SYMBOLS U = a. = =  = = distance from origin of coordinate axes to origin of rifling curveý 'mer radius.. = diameter varying from D. aD... M M. general expression for diameter. length of engaged thread. pA required maximum length of chamber = general expression for moment = mass of projectile = recoiling mass.. Ai.nozzle force . = unit load on breechblock thread . mean diameter. vi. = cradle key load induced by rifling torque = thread load. mandrel diameter = outside diameter = nominal clearance between bore and projectile = modulus of elasticity.twice distance from origin of rifling to point of maximum pressure. A A.depth of rifling groove. pitch = allowable pressure 4 N. momentum of recoiling mass . thrust at nozzle throat. length of increment length of diverging cone load factor  D D. D. based on PIMP = external or outside pressure.natural frequency = firing rate .length of nozzle cone L. M. =.acceleration of gravity = number of rifling grooves. outer radius weight of propellant charge = computed maximum pressure = depth of thread K K. nozzle thrust = pro~vllant gas force . L L' L L. to D. I p. linear acceleration of projectile maximum projectile acceleration area of section.high temperature strength reduction factor A.
= time of propellant gas period = temperature at inner wall surface = temperature at outer wall surface = required wall thickness = rifling torque.. dynamic force of beam increment . = factor of safety S= time.. W. axial length of rifling in bore . angl of twist of rifling. X equivalent of combined region = ratio of specific heats = total deflection. O.. A a p a.. Vt V. pi PIMP = permissible individual maximum pressure PMMP . = frequency ratio RMP = rated maximum pressure a = constant in equation for increasing twist rifling . = radius of nozzle throat R = radius of pendulum. tangential unit strain = slope of wall. a. T T.permissible mean maximum pressure r . i. Ob.LIST OF SYMBOLS(continued) p. V. V V. 1. = radius of nozzle exit r. = radius of nozzle approach area r.nozzle divergence angle correction factor = axial stress factor = tangential stress factor = coefficient of friction = Poisson's ratio = polar radius of gyration = principal stress in axial direction . x 0. W W W Wi W. = length of free run SA = distance from breech of equivalent chamber to A So = distance from breech of equivalent chainber to base of projectile S.weight of propellant charge. total shrink interference. = axial thermal stress = bearing stress = equivalent stress =.. general expression fir deflection.. allowable equivalent stress = = fillet bending stress = principal stress in radial direction . W. Ct C. angular displacement of . q. general expression for radius r. general expression for angular deflection = included angle of nozzle = angular velocity of projectile = angular acceleration of projectile .deflection on jacket = deflection on liner = = deflection of mandrel = deflection of ring due to shrink fit = deflection of tube = loading density. corrected wall ratio = wall ratio of finished tube = = wall ratio of jacket = wall ratio of liner = weight of projectile = weight of recoiling mass = weight of tube = axial length of rifling curve. W. 5 .radial pressure stress . projectile. nozzle pressure at point x rvuruu i i X.. linear amplitude of pendulum Y a ag ly a 6. r. 6 6 .. projectile radius. density of steel ..f h' m iior mont. thickness. wall ratio. T. A A. temperature at any point in wall S . half angle of diverging cone exit angle of rifling slope of conical surface of chamber. 6.. bore radius R.radial shrink fit stress = radial thermal stress = principal stress in tangential direction = tangential stress produced by moment = tangelitial pressure stress l. . 6. = ratio of effective stresses R. period of pendulum = rifling torque component due to pressure = rifling torque component due to velocity = total temperature gradient = projectile velocity at any point in bore = muzzle velocity = = recoil velocity = propellant bag space = nozzle entrance volume = final gun volume = chamber volume = weight. t. A.• nerinheral distance of rifling around bore = yield stingth = coefficient of linear expansion. general expression for relative radial deflection = required interference between tube and mandrel = maximum bag density of propellant =...radius at any point in tube wall. = axial stress caused by pressure =o. AT v V. .
6 = torsional stess.allowable tensile stress . ratio.critical speed..tangential stress produced by radial deflection .LIST OF SYMBOLS(continued) tangentiai shrinK ft stress tangential thermal stress . recoil momentum to projectile momentum '.yield strength of material = T iU. 2 •. Q t x1 . direct shear stress = allowable shear stress = mass moment of inertia of projectilc = thrust factor .
the tube bears the label of the weapon. closed at the breech and open at the muzzle. coilless guns are those of any caliber whose recoil forces are neutralized by the reaction of propellant gas escaping rearward. make specific classification difficult. Re. and recoilless. such as the 37 mm. C.. It is intended to present various problems facing the tube designer and in this light discusses the present approach in tube design. it provides space for 1! . In rifled tubes the rifling imparts the necessary rotation for projectile stability. FUNCTIONS the complete round. The tube is the primary component of a gun. it restrains the propellant gas in all directions except that of projectile travel. B. Tubes are placed in three general clasmes. howitzers and it rtars. single fire. especially in small arms terminology. In recoilless guns part of the gas impetus is directed rearward to counteract recoil. It is used in its general application without limitation 'as to caliber. and embraces the terms gun barrel or barrel frequently employed. that part which discharges the projectile. thus directing the impetus of the gas against the projectile. Before firing.villess gun in which the breech also has controlled openings. i. A few automatic weapons of caliber larger than 30 mrm. such as guns. 2. except in a . namely: artillery. Generally. is used throughout this handbook to designate the principal part of a gun.e. guns which generally do not exceed 30 mm in caliber. This handbook should prove helpful in familiarizing new personnel with the many phases of tube design and also should be a useful reference for the experienced. During firing. SCOPE AND PURPOSE 1I The term gun tube. The material in this handbook discusses procedures for the design of the various types of gun tubes. In brief. Vigilante and the 90 mm Skysweeper. or simply tube. The tube determines the initial activities of the projectile. the mission of the tube is to direct the projectile toward the target with a specified velocity. TYPES OF GUNS 3. Artillery includes guns of over 30 mm in bore diameter. Basically it is a tubular pressure vessel. Small arms include automatic and semiautomatic. small arms.I CHAPTnLR 1 INTRODUCTION A. The azimuth and elevation determine the direction of flight.
for tubes firing fixed and sernifixed ammunition. Parts b. 2a). Engraving of the rotating band occurs here. but must recover sufficiently after firing to assure easy case extraction. In recoilless guns the rear opening or nozzle provides for reeoillemness. seal in the propellant gases. 2 * . (Fig. This feature is not always found in heavy artillery tube may be attached directly to the rear of the chamber wall or to a modified breech ring. the centering cylinder for artillery or the neck for small arms. These elements are attached to the tube so that the re BREECH FIGUIlIR 1. as in recoilless weapons. The remainder of the round rests in the chamber. c. the force of the breechblock may actually collapse the case slightly in this region to obviate the likelihood of axial failure of the case. *!. the rear opening or breech through which the ammunition is loaded. The forcing cone is a conical frustum whose slope extends through the origin of rifling and intersects the bore surface.~*~****** . the preengraved band also rests in the bore. Artillery tubes using separate loading ammunition have the inner chamber wall cylindrical or conical. bullet seat. is integral with the bore and consists of the chamber body.\ CHAPTER 2 REGIONS OF THE GUN TUBE 4. This collapsing action is called crushup and contributes to easy case extraction. A breech ring supports the breechblock. If conical. .**. of Figure 2 show complete rounds positioned in various tube chambers. A. and e. which. the part of the projectile forward of the rotating band or its equivalent is located in the bore. The nozzle unit of a recoilless cylinder or neck. except for revolver type guns. Its counterpart in some small arms is the receiver which houses the bolt. After loading but prior to firing. sired along the tapers including those in which a definite longitudinal interference is desired at the first shoulder. the clearances be the front portion or bore through which the projectile travels when the round is fired. The main and largest compartment.. the inner surface may be the extension of the forcing cone. Figure I is a typical tube showing the regions applicable to conventional guh tubes. A gun tube may be divided into four regions: tubes. J most mortars are muzzle loaded and have permanently closed chambers. the first shoulder. the rear portion or chamber which houses the roand before firing. since the cartridge case walls. This is particularly true in small arms where small clearances are de 5. and in the case of recoilless ammunition. During loading. d. and the forcing cone. CHAMBER tween chamber and cartridge case and the slopes of the chamber walls are critical. by the nozzle unit. the chamber body. by expanding. B]EECH RING ATTACHMINT the second shoulder. It is just large enough to receive the rotating band or the neck of the cartridge case. Exceptions do prevail with respect to the functions of these regions particularly with breech opening and loading technique. For example. B.*. The breech ring is threaded to the outside of the chamber wall. On the other hand. houses the propellant and igniter. the minimum diameter of either contour being limited to the maximum diameter of the forcing cone. and the 'front opening or muzzle from which the projectile emerges. Typical Gun Tube Showing Regions. The section immediately to the rear of the bullet seat is called the centering 6. The chamber is closed by a breechblock or bolt or.
at the base which is pressed into the rifling by the propellant gas pressure.'ai  . BORE 7. rotating band. Blast deflectors do not apply severe loads to the tube. The larger bore diameter exposed a larger pressure area to the propellant gases thereby increasing the projectile acceleration. the band or jacket is forced into the rifling. This design concept. tube and breech assembly act as a unit in transmitting the resultant force to the . Rifling consists of splines which spiral along the bore surface. choke bore is applied to a short distance at the muzzle to control the area of spread. Either jacket.i"' sultant gas force applied to them may be transmitted bands are bands of relatively soft material which to the tube. or shot pattern. MUZZLE 10. Another method uses rifling to impart the rotation. and to serve as a seal to prevent propellant gases from escaping past the projectile. has been adopted to compensate for the anticipated erosion. This concept was proved impractical and now has no more than historical significance. The raised portions are called lands. 8. or mechanically attached to the projectile. it was discovered that spinning the projectile about the flight axis increased accuracy. spaced far enough apart to form an effective wheelbase. it turns with the rifling at an angular velocity proportional to the linear velocity and to the tangent of the angle of twist. Thus. the bore is provided with a shallow taper along its entire length. bonded.. the spaces between them are called grooves. the base of the projectile as it traveled along the tapered bore. In shotguns. or sabot is necessary to transmit to the projectile the angular accelerating force induced by the rifling. SC. of rifling. One method utilizes the behavior of air impinging on canted fins attached to projectiles such as projectiles fired from smooth bore mortars. or it may have a variable angle of twist conforming to some exponential expression. D. or origin. or sabot. either by accident or design. Eventually. A more logical use of the tapered bore is that practiced in small arms. Some mortar projectiles have a flaired skirt. better known as choke bore. The bands. The spiral may have a constant angle of twist. just as the projectile starts to move. Contact with the rifling is assured by having the diameter of the jacket of a bullet or the rotating band of a larger projectile at least equal to the groove diameter. Early firearms were smooth bore and inherently inaccurate. Then. Rotating are welded.e. Several methods have been introduced to achieve this rotation. blast deflectors. Tapered bores (squeeze bores) have been used in the past as a mealis to increase muzzle velocity. muzzle brakes develop large forces which usually are transmitted to the tube by a threaded attachment near the muzzle. However.. rotating bands are preengraved to eliminate the large engraving forces which are undesirable in this type weapon.ly. and muzzle brakes. The muzzle end of the tube serves as the attachment for front sights. The bore is formed by the inner surface of a circular cylinder. In order to decrease its diameter slightly as the muzzle is approached. i. were squeezed inward toward. a helix. The projectile relied on two rotating bands having oversized diameters to keep it centered and in contact with the rifling. It is the accelerating tube for the projectile. 9. ') 3 S ~ . An oversize bore at the chamber was gradually tapered to a much smaller diameter near the muzzle. As the projectile moves through the bore.strueture supporting the tfube. For recoilless guns. This process is called engraving and takes place at the beginning.nr . Jackets may be considered as bands which Cover the hulletRs nompleta.
Chamrsbr of Various Tube Typea. 4 .(c) CAMBERSNOWIGSCOMONENT I PROPLLANT 7BORR (h) ~ RSCABRCNANN0IE ~ ~ ~ ~ SML ~ ~ ON KN (c) SARTLLEARYS CHAMBER CONTAINING FIXED ROUN~D 44) ARTILLERY CHAMBER CONTAINING SEPARATELY LOADED ROUND FIGURE 2.
. T•he are equally spaced around the axi of the rotating drum and are so indexed that each one. . Mortars are usually emplaced manually and are often transported manually.) The jackets do not extend to the muzzle where pressures are low but are only long enough to provide the builtup tube with wall thicknesses required by the pressure along the bore... its tendency to droop and whip exceseively. in its capability of a high rate of fire while subjecting the individual tubes . Revolver Type Tub. Liners may prolong tube life by being made of material which is highly resistant to erosion. square in crm section. becomes aligned with the bore when the drum stops for the round to be fired. small arms tubes. and ad. However. It has two primary componments... . the several tubes af the Gatling type gun (Fig. mortar tube requirements are similar to those of recoilless the liner. lined tube. . In this respect. is similar to other tubes. . and recoilless tubes. . i. was wrapped under tension on a central tube thereby inducing an initial compressive strew in the tube. each with its own chamber and bore. or may not. vaneCs in inspection methods. artillery tubes. have a replaceable liner. Liners may be assembled by shrink fit or they may be a loose fit... therefore low weight is essential.CHAPTER 3 TYPES OF GUN TUBES 11. the same effect realized from shrink fitting. although operating s a unit similar to the revolver type. the barrel and the drum. in this respect. A.. 2. 6). Gun tubes are generally classified according to weapon. Most of the shrink fitted type serve throughout the life of the tube. or builtup. Jacketed Tubes 13. Quasi TwoPiece Tube The quasi twopiece tube (Fig... including its unreinforced forward end. .e. Monobloc Tube 12.. in sequence.. concentric tubes not of the same length. In contrast. Monobloc tubes are also used for mortars. . have all contributed to the replacement of the wirewrapped tube by the present jacketed type. . . . is still referred to as may number four. The advantage of this type lie. A variant is the lined tube which deviates only slightly in principle from the true monobloc because the liner is usually not a major contributor of strength to the tube wall. Another small anm barrel is the revolver type sketched in Figure 5.. SMALL ARMS TURNS 14... The drum is the chamber housing. The length is determined by the ability to maintain proper clearances while the liner is being inserted into the tube. The jacketed. 1.... am integral. Each is subdivided according to method of construction although a particular construction need not be conflned to any one weapon type. as are the quasi twopiece and the revolver type tubes. a one piece. The barrel contains the forcing cone and bore and. Formerly. monobloc and jacketed. precludes the escape of propellant gases between drum and tube. 2... 4 . an adjunct of artillery. the inside tube. Loose fitting liners prolong tube life by being replaceable in the field. jacketed tubes included the wirewrapped type. A seal. 4) is particularly adapted to a machine gun. B. type (Figure 3) is constructed of two or more close fitting. .. am complete ecoventional tubes. (It may. Assembly is usually by shrink fit. The units are assembled permanently by a combination of threads and shrink fits to become. The cap eontaim the chainber. The true monobloc tube (Figure 1) is made of one piece of material. virtually. carried by each chamber.. ARTILLERY TUBES 1. improvement in manufacturing techniques. They may extend along the full length of the bore or for only a short distance at and beyond the origin of rifling where erosions most severe. Small arms tubes may be monobloe or they may be made of two or more components.. five or six. . . .. Although the jackets are not fulllength. It is made of one piece so that the chambers which tubes.. It consists o two units: a lined tube and a cap. Artillery tubes fall into two categories. . The wire.
Cuttf. F IGUIM. I'~ICUL1IE 7. Tubee. U.OUTER JACKET INNER JACKET FIGiURE~3. Jackt.'ed Tube. (JunPec I Gtea~tt'eeGun Tubes. .
I to a relatively low rate. The experiment showed that several rounds could he. It is quickly realized. This suggests that the tube could be designed to. that a limitedlife. one of the parts furnishing this rigidity. C. cost. to minimize manufacturing cornplexities. usually yted and shealed toite ha ru y by sonic type of threaded joint. therefore. machining operations. A truly expendable weapon might 7) ()1 7 . The ring supporting the tube. has been omitted from Figure 6. however. tubes with integral chambers are currently employed with the nozzle being a separate cornl!ponent ponet fastened and sealed to the chamber. However.. namely. RECOILLESS TUBE 15. that.) are made in changing little orextendedlife reducing There appears to be from no gain in usage. and variations in performance.. inconsistencies of material composition. The chief argument for expendability is the saving of weapon weight. monobloc construction is preferred for recoilless tubes. that such a design criterion would not be practicable because 4f the natinr• of mrehanieal properties of materials. resulting in greater mobility and easier handling. lightweight tube capable of firing several full caliber rounds can be developed. complexity. etc. a limitedlife tube. W 16. Expendable tubes are not a type in the same sense of the preceding ones but may be considered a unique type in terms of application or service. It should be recognized that even in these early experiments. volume. fired from each 'ube before the rifling was stripped to the point of not providing sufficient spin stability. the poiutr of failure. or very close to. at the muzzle. 7) is desirable from the viewpoint of low weight and simplicity. A onepiece tube (Fig. individual tubes derive considerable rigidity from the assemlly and therefore can be made as light as induced stresses.50 aluminum tubes. the use of a finstablized or possibly a preengraved projectile would have resulted in improved useful life.. and handling abuse will permit. and then discarded. The real gains accruing to the weapon (reduction in weight. le considered as being one which would he fired only ont'e. the use of reasonableness of going from one to a few shots ya ytmwsdmntae i nepnal experiment involving caliber . K . If practical. It may be concluded. This leads to consideration of another possibility in the concept of expendability. The design criteria differs only to the the extent.
repeated application of such hand pressures will ultimately damage the bore. High rates of fire accelerate the deterioration. must be considered deleterious. Spalling is the outgrowth of cracks starting in the fillets of the rifling grooves and propagating beneath the land. Any phenomenon which reduces accuracy or velocity life. URCHANICAL LOADING the rifling torque to the projectile and seal or obturate the propellant gases to minimize leakage past the projectile. They transmit 8 . To be effective. a matter of milliseconds. not as severe a consequence to •t 18. Unfortunately their intensity can not be predicted accurately. deterioration becomes evident. therefore compensating measures can be incorporated in dosign concepts with considerable confidence. mainly because the band is likely to wear to reduce the interference and because the tube walls become thinner farther on and offer less resistance to dilation. appreciable resistance is offered by the rifling to the rotating band. The band pressure is higher on the rifling lands than on the bottom of the grooves simply because more material is displaced by the lands. A. Cornpensating measures taken during the design stage will minimize many of these ill effects. Accuracy is directly affected by any change or irregularity in the angular or linear velocity of the projectile as it leaves the muzzle of the gun. and inertia forces. With the exception of rotating band pressure. Band pressures may reach considerable proportions and can cause damage to the tube. The radial force when distributed uniformly over the band surface becomes the rotating band pressure. Both functions are performed effectively after the bands arc engraved into the rifling. Rotating band pressure has a tendency to flatten rifling lands. However. stress concentrations due to rifling and stresses due to other phenomena such as heat should not be treated lightly. When two such cracks from opposite sides join. Maximum pressures appear at the origin of rifling and grow smaller as the projectile moves along the bore. the propellant gas pressure is the predominant influence in the design of the gun tube. Band pressures progress along the tube with the projectile and although they may b very large. This swaging effect will happen only if the bearing strength of the bore material is exceeded. after firing a large number of rounds. Standard procedures for computing wall thicknesses and accompanying stresses are available and are usually sufficient for good tube design. a. the area of application is local and small. rapidly applied pressures. the land becomes a floating spline and is then extremely vulnerable to rotating band action. Little effort is then needed to remove it completely from the bore. the tube is subjected to extremely high temperatures. and the pressure is present for such a short time that immediate damage is not always apparent. The ballistic cycle of a gun is extremely short. Small. From the structural viewpoint. During this short period. Although. 21. by causing damage or wear in the tube. This resistance is in the nature of a radial force around the periphery and its frictional counterpart. the effects of mechanical loadings are more predietable than those of heat and erosion. Rotating Band Pressure 20.CHAPTER 4 FIRING PHENOMENA AFFECTING GUN TUBES 17. Since engraving is somewhat of a swpging operation. Others are less pronounced but are cumulative in nature and eventually will prove harmful. This progressive stress damage finally results in tube rupture or in the spalling of rifling lands. 19. imperceptible cracks will develop first and then steadily grow larger as firing continues. But. Useful life of the tube depends on its ability to withstand the rigors of firing and still maintain the desired muzzle velocity. The adverse effects of some are immediately apparent. However. Normally a small number of rounds will cause little measurable deterioration. the gun tube must be accurate. Rotating bands or their equivalent perform two functions when the round is fired.
I
the tube life as spalling, tho working depth of the rifling is decreased accompanied by a proportionn decrease in its effectiveness. b, Rifting Torque 22. Rifling torque is another loading condition closely associated with gas pressure. It varies directly as the gas pressure and as a function of the rifling curve. Absolute values of this torque can be large but ordinarily the gun tube is so rigid that the induced torsional stress is inconsequential. However, provision must be made in the mounts for absorbing the torque. 3. Recoil Forces 23. Pxccoil forces as such are almost incidental to tube design. !n single "ecoil systems, their effects never exceed the axial stresses due to propellant gas pressures. In double recoil systems, the inertia forces created by secondary recoil accelerations bend the tube, but secondary recoil occurs after the p jectile leaves the tube thus its influence and t of the propellant gas pressure cannot combine. Alone, the stresses due to secondary recoil arn not critical but should be condato rmplete the design to buteshigtiould bwhich ' egoLow 4. Vibration 24. The rapidly applied and released loads to which subject are o viraions which may prover harmful either y edcin Fe. structurally by filue cauin pertinaly causing failure or operationally by reducing accuracy. There are several sources for these vibra= tions. Propellant gas and rotating band pressures induce dilative vibrations which produce ringing sounds and may contribute to muzzle cracking. The balloting of a projectile may be another source. Tube whip is another. It is the term designating the normal to the longitudinal axii which is attributed to the moment developed by the collateral but directly opposite the propellant gas force and the iiidueed inertial force of the recoiling mass. Another contributor to tube whip, at least a theoretical one, is the tendency of the propellant gases and projectile to straighten the tube of the curvature brought about by bending under its own weight. 25. Generally, the effects on accuracy caused by vibrations in the heavy, tubes of slowfire weapons fall within acceptable limits. These vibrations, affecting only the round being fired, damp out before the next round is fired. Rapidfire guns are more Sseriously affected. The rate of fire is high enough \ ,ooW ft moms NN

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FIGURE 8.
Temperature Distribution Across Tube Wall.
that the vibrations initiated in firing each round a tth e outi sufficint en round ar s nthu da d out s en bresnteng rouend thus each round may be a resonating influence. Structurally, the tube and mounting should be so designed that vibrations are damped out. This is particularly true for tubes of the recoilless type must be light for mobility and handling ease. weight requirements demand designs of optimum structural efficiency thereby rendering the tube more susceptible to some forces which would otherwise be harmless. A rigorous approach is therefore needed for optimum design,, This does not mean that more liberties can be taken with heavy tubes, They too must be designed for maximum structural efficiency. However, their bulk may be sufficient to absorb the disturbances created by vibrations.
/
B. HEATING 1. Thermal Stresses 26. The burning propellant releases a tremendous amount of heat in the bore. Much of it is absorbed by the tube. The bore surface, being adjacent to the source, receives the brunt of it. If the heat were applied gradually and a reasonable temperature gradient appears through the tube wall, the induced thermal stresses, being compressive in the inner portion, would he analogous to autofrettage and, therefore, beneficial. This, in effect, is what happens in the tube of a rapid fire gun. During prolonged firing, the temperature at the bore surface may reach 20060F, whereas that at the other surface will be only 1400"F. The temperature distribution across the wall is logarithmic (see Fig. 8), lending credence to the assumption that heat transfer
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TM maw 410 FIGURE 9. TernperatbreAlcng 0 t',r Surface of Caliber .0 Tube. the wall it constant after reaching the steady state condition, the basis for thermal stress calculations of gun tubes. Thermal stresses may be considerable but compensating pressure stresses are available to confine them to the noncritical range. Thermal stresses still prevail after pressures cease but to a lesser extent 1,ecause bore temperatures drop as soon as hot gases begin to disappear. Since temperatures vary along the tube length (Fig. 9), the gradient too will vary, not only according to the heat input itself but also according to variations in wall thi,%ness. Although the heat input is less at the thin wall regions, the ratio of heat input to wall mass is larger than at the thicker wall regions, thereby increasing the thin wall temperatures. The higher wall ternperatures do not necessarily mean higher thermal stresses. The heat follows a shorter path in thin wallo, consequently the tempersture distribution will show less variation across the wall than for thick walls. Although thermal stresses are reduced by pressure atresses in a hot gun tube since the thermal tangential stress is compressive near the bore surface and tensile near the outside surface, the converse of thermal stresses reducing pressure stresses should not become a design criterion. The helpful stress pattern depends upon a large negative temperature gradient from the bore surface outward which..will exist as long as firing is continued. however, if firing is temporarily ceased, the temperature will rapidly tend to equalize throughout the tube and the whole tube may be at a high temperature level, thereby reducing the yield strength of the metal. If firing is now resumed, the tangential thermal stress will be psitive for a short time even near the bore surface, and thus will not lower the pressure indueed stress, Therefore, thermal stresses should not be depended upon to help compensate for a reduced yield strength in the tube material when at elevated temperatures.* Stated in Conelusions of Reference 1. References are listed at the end of this handbook, 10
27. Rate of fires as well as total rounds fired play an important role in the heat transfer across the •uv wai, A steady state Condition exists for every Ltdt schedule. For instance, the maximum ternperature of 1400F on the outer surface of a cal .30 machine gun tube is reached after firing 7 bursts 125 rounds each in 14 seconds at a rate of one burst per minute. Adhering t0 this schedule, continued firing will not increase the tube temperature. Before the steady state condition is reached, rate of fire has an appreciable effect on the temperature gradient. According to Figure 8, the bce surface temperature increases with the rate of fire, but at some distance removed from the bore surface, the temperature after 50 rounds is higher for the slower firing rates. This illustrates that time of heat application is an essential parameter in thermal stress considerations. 28. Thermal activity is responsible for another type stress, one confined to a thin layer of tube at the bore surface. No accurate method is available for computing this stress. Its effect is not immediately apparent but cracks will eventually appear on the surface and grow deeper as firing progresses. Figure 10 shows these thermal cracks. Two theories explein this phenomena. The first is metallurgical in nature; the second is mechanical. Both are based on metal contracting after cooling. 29. When a gun is fired, propellant gases heat the bore surface beyond temperatures of 14000 to 1500%F, the transition temperature range of austenite. After the hot gases leave the bore, the relatively cool metal adjacent to the surface and air in the tube quickly cool the bore layer to transform it to martensite. Austenite and martensite have different crystalline structures and, therefore, have different volumes, austenite having the larger. Upon cooling, the accompanying shrinking induces high stresses. If these stresses exceed the tensile strength of the material, cracks will appear. 30. From the mechanical point of view, if heat at high temperatures is applied for only a short time, a large temperature gradient develops through the tube wall and creates a corresponding compressive stress on the bore surface. When this stress exceeds the yield strength it causes plastic flow. The material at the bore surface having no other escape, moves inward. Upon cooling, the compressive stresses are relieved and the material attempts to return to its original position. However, only tangential and axial
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....
i
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FIGURE 10. Thermal Crackh on Bore Surface.
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stresses are available to pull the metal back. The new radial growth is proportional to Poisson's ratio, a displacement considerably less than that of the compressive activity which displaced it originally, Effectively, there is not sufficient material to cornpensate for the elongations created by the newly induced tangential and axial tensile stresses. Hence, when these stresses exceed the tensile strength, surface cracks appear. 2. Dimensional Changes 2., Dimensional changes aprolonged Dimensional changes are alo a source of con31 t cern to the designer. Solar radiation can cause the top of the tube to become hotter than the bottom, The resulting longitudinal differential expansion will bow the tube downward to be accompanied by a slight reduction in angle of elevation and, therefore, a shortening in range. Conversely, a coolant such as rain will lower temperatures on top and cause the hot tube to bend upward with an accompanying reduction in accuracy. Dilation of the bore caused by elevated temperatures may also reduce accuracy simply by increasing the clearance between bore surface and projectile to permit gas leakage and to create a greater tendency toward balloting. A likely cause of malfunction due to unequal dimensional changes concerns cartridge cases. The clearance between unfired case and chamber is large enough to permit easy loading. On firing, the propellant gas
pressure expands the case and presses it tightly against the chamber wall. After the pressures ceases, the case recovers from the distortion sufficiently to provide ready extraction. The difference in thermal coefficients of expansion of case and chamber wall must be considered to avoid cancelation of the recovery tendencies of the case by this factor. 3. CookOff* 32. A phenomenon which plagues gunners during firing is cookoff. Cookoff is the defiagration or detonation of ammunition caused by the absorption of heat from its environment. Usually it consists of the accidental and spontaneous discharge of, or explosion in, a gun or firearm caused by an overheated chamber or barrel igniting a fuse, propellant charge, or bursting charge. Cookoff is confined mostly to automatic guns and to mortars. Muzzleloaded mortars when hot have a tendency to fire the propelling charge before the round reaches the breech; sometimes even before it drops cornpletely through the muzzle. The danger in automatic weapons stems from the live round left in the chamber to start the next burst. 33. When cookoff occurs, the consequences may be disastrous. The propellant, its primer, or any of
* Reference
2.
11
I v
The rotating hao"'I ha. Erosion is literally the wearing away of the This phenomenon is called gas wash. no method has been devised for designing a tube that is safe from this complex heattransfer problem.. introduced at the muzzle. This proportion occurs only when relatively coolburning propellants are used. However. for the damaging effects sustained by the projectile at the origin can never be completely undone by corrective measures. the other contributing causes diminish considerably... the danger in slowfire weapons should be negligible for these need not be kept loaded for any appreciable time. more. 12 . by melting an extremely thin layer of the bore surface. For example. . with a subsequent lower rate of erosion.3OSION 1.. 34. . the first is induced by gas wash.. bo re sur fac e and o f a ll ph e n o me n a un fa vora b le t o long tube life. In acceptance. friction. In contrast. Further. The approach is necessarily empirical. if projectile cuokoff txocurs in battery.hr.. iTheh actual rcause d t thei ac. some constituents of the propellant gases may combine with the metal at the bore surface. $ Reference 3. i. ce a d of z e r o n s e v b n of r e celerated muzyle erosion has never been determined. The region at the origin of rifling suffers most from eros'ion. lant gases. Although propellant gases move faster farther along the tube and should be more erosive than at the origin of rifling. with round in chamber and all weapon components in their firing positions. 2. engraving takes place here. may crack and peel off under the action of rotating bands and propel. it moy be considered secondary.e. cookoff was eliminated when the chambertobarrel seal was redesigned to remove the heat sink (see Figure 5). Temperatures are highest. primary danger is to personnel and equipment in line of fire.. In this instance.. M39. C. the explosion may damage the carrier or injure the crew. and frictional forces are highest. all high rateoffire weapons must be tested to make certain that the cookoff threshold of their ammunition is not exceeded. Caus 35. because of high heat. and gas wash contribute approximately onethird each to the total wear*. Erosion is primarily a physical activity although chemical action can increase its rate.. Although cookoff is a safety hazard of some importance. the second by ordinary sliding friction. it is the worst offender. probably a nitride and therefore brittle. after the need for corrective measures is determined. projectile passes out of the barrel. The newly formed compound. When the charge consists of hotburning propellants. Regions Affecte4 36. Here the factors conducive to high erosion rates are most destructive. However. severe damage is almost certain.. the erosion induced by the gases is so great that wear due to other causes becomes relatively insignificant. The abrasive effects of propellant gases and rotating bands are the most damaging. The rate increases again at the muszle but not nearly as much as at the eorigin mu rifling. . page 599. Tests have shown that engraving. Also. If it is the vroDellant within a round in hattrrv f. The gun undoubtedly will be rendered inoperative. in the 20 mm revolver gun. thus making it easier for the gases and band to carry off the material.the explosive components in a round may ignite. and attempts made to introduce corrective measures if needed.. or if in the ram or loading position in a small arms weapon.. Intense heat also contributes indirectly to erosion. The gases impinging at high velocities on the bore surface sweep away some of the metal..
Structural failures due to vibrations are infrequent and highly unpredictable. MECHANICAL DESIGN namely. This is particularly true for muzzle cracking due to dilative vibrations. 1. particularly steel. W = _ __ . A. Size or shape of tube wall can contribute nothing toward this end thus. 3. should be eliminated or moderated at the source. hence its stiffness.pnge 156. The attractive feature of high strength materials. is the ability to withstand other destructive agents to an acceptable degree. Failure attributed to these forces renders the tube beyond salvage regardless of its resistance to heat and erosion. corrective measures are usually adopted only after iailure occurs. a compromise may have to be made. It is not good design practice to compromise strength in a gun tube.firing rate. A gun tube should have all the physical properties required for efficiency and durability. in. High Strength Materials 37. t Reference 8. However. An overall thicker wall or a gradual thickenipg at the muzzle to form a muzzle bell will increase tube strength. ) 40. one must be aware that tubes are inherently weaker at the muzzle because of the open end effects awd failure here may be due to normally applied pressures.4 in/sect dynamic forne of each beam increment. Calculations for the natural frequency are based on the Stodola Method of Calculating Critical Speeds of Multimasa Systemst. Vibration Calculations 39.F1 F CHAPTER 5 WAYS OF MINIMIZING HARMFUL EFFECTS TO GUN TUBES There are a number of measures which may be incorporated either in tube design or in the ammunition to eliminate completely or reduce the effectiveness of those firing phenomena which shorten tube life. Accuracy dispersions due to tube vibrations have been measured and correlated with the natural frequency of the tube and the firing rate of the gun*. reducing the resistance against one adverse phenomenon in order to retain the effectiveness against another.deflection of beam increment. placing the burden entirely on the projectile designer. > 3. The vibrations which disturb accuracy are corrected by a change in tube maw or shape. i critical speed. From the viewpoint of economy. attempts should be made to direct the frequency ratio toward a value approaching one of the minima in the curve of Figure 11. cycles per sec (1c) adverse effects of balloting but activity of this nature * Reference 4. Generally Fwhere g  (lb) acceleration of gravity. Even if these properties are less than adequate. if the size of the tube. the tube is designed for a natural frequency so that R. A heavier tube may also absorb the (la) I. 386. rounds/sec To avoid large dispersions. rad/sec The critical speed may be written in terms of natural frequency. precludes a frequency ratio of this magnitude. lbn w . Figure 11. A tube should always be strong enough to support its loads including pressure and inertia forces. shows how dispersion varies with the frequency ratio of the tube which is expressed as Rwhere . Vibration Correction Measures 38. 2. the projectile. Since some of the ideal physical properties may not be congruous. corrective measures discussed earlier in the chapter are available to overcome the deficiency. 13 .5 or.
.785 in' ZM+ A 1 s+ AL7 2 3653 lb/in The tube being steel.SdA L = under its own weight. thus the analysis is for a solid bar. The effect of the bore is assumed negligible.0 lb ! . Subdivide each section into lengths of 4 inches and compute the deflection at the center of each of the nine inerements. For the analysis.72 lb W. Now calculate the area moment of the M/I curve.2455 + 609 + 589 FIGURIE 12. Then determine the deflection curve. ..W.. The example shown below follows the areamoment method.W6. The calculations are arranged in Table 2. length of each increment a . 1. is obtained for the beam bending 41o W.W.. w is usually selected as unity and the deflection.. The moments of the area are found at the midspan of each increment as indicated numerically in Figure 13.. . each section representing a uniformly applied load.Wt. divide the tube into a convenient number of sections. 5' 1 64 .. DisperaionFreqiuencyRatio Curve. 1019UPIlCY NATO.46 in4 2. The M/I curve represents a new loading the load on each increment being trapezoidal. B.condition.4 . . 14 . " WN. assume Figure 12 to represent a gun tube. 8 ! where L .283 lb/in'.7W . For the example.2. The tube is considered a cantilever abeam loaded dynamically by vibratory motion. L . .2 49 in ' . density of steel Calculations of M/I at each station on the beam as indicated in Figure 13 are arranged in Table 1. the weight of each increment is . 1 W!. consisting of three cylindrical sections of equal length: A. Gnia 7'Ov Showin• 8111mi'iionas. 36 in. For the first approximation.. long.v 2. 41. The moments of the simulated beam are taken from left to right. Showing the calculations for Station 6.0'  " d' = . C. Area moments of inertia of the sections are I M W.of 4 a FIGURE 1I.  Ed ' ý  S1 .I/ \/\ *1 lIlOlIll A.4 in. y. 4 d'.
(X) 40( ) 4.).37280 lb/in The actual deflection at any Astation ZM n EMA 2 critical speed is Mu IW V MY'J WJ~.0 45.('(tio u . ! (llb11) (llb11 .  fi 9 X 10•ibin'.A .16 17.72 of 2.% ' NOTE TP NUMlNRS RIO ARE VALU FOR I PARENTHESES THE SECOND Pt"XiMATON CALCULATIONS HIq' i I II f FIGURE 13. M W q. V W g . U.9 X 106 lbin" From Equation lb. "a.56 gKi 3. modulus of Plasticity 2 g .10 7. .w e igh t o f e a c h ine r te .moment arm of total shear at right e(id of section = X(a/V + AX Xj.X) 16 ..14 5.28 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.1 105 1M 2120 208 310 ) 16 04 144 142 228 338 280 :378 4W0 .lbin. the first approximation for the Z MA4 ZM7A + MAL .4 in/see dynamic loading based Now repeat the ( oi w.8 56.0 2.10 7.72 11. 0 2.72 fg 3.0 24.0 ed 2. .."4.. etns ( o it d (eln 'd a t. M/I Diagram of Gun Tube.0 8. (1 ll1 (in) "W a b) 4! d 0 f h i 2.20100 + 17180 .72 21.0 65.182. Al/I CALCULATIONS FORL STATIC CONI)ITION.4 X 3053 640 + 1930 + 14610 17180 lb/in ZWly? .  49.alculationsthis time with the n Thus the summation of the area momnents at t he st a t i on Now compute the items necessary to find the natural frequeney and arrange them in Table 3. Stiu ! T. m duus f easI it 20 X 10W lb/in.but ..380.6 70.141 0 8. total moint at station.  1. /1 200 323 ad/see where S.. Ax M .104 200 86.44 14.72 d re 2.in.0 6.50 hi 3.98 X 647 1..14 5.0 30.tio n tl 'at4 .t (11)(I) TABLE 1.00 5.1 4.0 34. ak.E where wer 2.0 he 2.0 10.56 01 4 AX ( a IV ]bin) (lbfil) AAle 1I n•) .0 4. c te r of A v( .4 7 W Table 4 will be similar to Table 1.26 X 10.03 X 621 + 2.0 85..14 7.en = the shear at the right end of section ('olilntiuting to the moment at the station being (considered moment arm of distributed weight for each . IV XI.is+ r 0 7oA + sOXAG ZWy.
A ZA qAL rA.02 3.56 5.05 1.001287 00694 AD=27 2. AAi A.t.72 2. Expressed in terms of natural 1. (lb/in) 0 2460 1840 1980 1580 990 860 520 180 SEA 1.715 .1 29.52 3.04 3.6 This differs from w.07 3.21 4.____. .14 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 ZMA (11)/in) 0 3730 9820 14610 19680 23380 25830 27970 29080 (lb/in) 950 6910 12240 17180 21660 24680 26950 28000 29270 (lb/in) 950 7860 20100 37280 5940 83590 110540 139140 168410 A.11 MA 3. The deflection at each station due to the dynamic loading is fornd according to Equation 2. The calculations of the area moments of the M11 curve in Figure 13 are listed in Table 5. X 10' ZWy .04 3.02 .3 X 10' lbin. AA q a (in) 0 (in) 0 stati(b/in) 9 933 (lb/in') 81s i (lb/in') (in) 1.. by less than 2% and is therefore considered to be a sufficiently close figure for the natural frequency.47 .0 2.60 7.e natural frequency parameters are listed in Table 6.0 2.0 1.2 22.60 9.1____ 20 rounds/second From Equation la. V1 W Wv.84 (lbin') 67.98 1.03 1. NATURAL FREQUENCY PARAMETERkS.___4 For a gun firing 1200 rounds per minute 1200 930 ____ .3 46.TABLE 2.02 2. TABLE 3.64 7. the frequency ratio is 0 ( ) 16 .5 eycles/seoond 5 a 7 8 . STATIC CONDITION.04 1.50 3.7r2 (lbin) 11.0 X 10' lbin' From Equation lb.49.0 2. The deflection aim •'.97 11. SEA  area to the immediate left of the station area to the immediate right of the station represents the total simulated shear at the preceding station moment of the area to the immediate left of the station moment of the area to the immediate right of the preceding station moment of the simulated total shear at the preceding station MA area moment ZWY.0 3.0048 .50 2.0o288 (Ib) 2.60 1.00382 .07 1.02 i 8 7 6 4 3 2 1 Station 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 707 no 621 413 285 248 104 24 qA L (lb/in) 950 720 580 640 430 280 200 110 30 6M9 647 511 327 287 168 56  933 2465 3683 4921 5648 6457 6992 7264 rA.265 . 2w " .190. the second approximation of this critical speed is j frequency  V"IW  317 rad/sec St4tation 1 2 3 4 Wyl? X 10' (in) .72 3.00203 .98 3.___0______. AREA MOMENTS FOR STATIC COND)ITION.o08 .
52 Checking this value on the curve (Figure 11) shows Checkingminimum that it falls on a minimum dispersion portion of the curve and may be acceptable.94 .72 7.38 12. If not.11 1. However.59 2.67 . and conversely.98 3.0 53.02 2. (lb/in') (lb/in') 811 679 626 713 513 383 354 156 37.06 2.05 1.0 (Lb.22 2. 811 2235 3474 4905 6029 6832 738 7M 4A.26 23. The tube can be kept relatively cool by rapid heat dissipation or by insulation of the bore surface.88 1.98 1. 20 performed for each modification until a trend is established. This would require that the tube be made stiffer (and heavier) to increase its natural frequency if the firing rate of 750 rounds per minute is to be retained.49 .3 52.06 (lbin) 0 12. A& Ai .W M Ml/I S.89 11.9 50.07 3. B.26 .03 .5 rAn.08 3. Heat effects the tube adversely.2 129 176 227 279 332 (Ib/inl) 25 96 204 187 2980 382 290 356 422 g h i 0 3. COOLING MKETHOD8 1. With the aid of Figure 11. A/11 1V.5 qA& (lb/in')  q (in) 1.9 39.5 is preferred. frequency ratio greater than 3. Xx.56 0. Large Tube Kamme 42. Most methods ame ineffective during prolonged firing although some do provide S ) Station TABLE 8. the tube is modified to change its stiffness and firing tests are S505 f.in) 6.25 2.13 5.14 Z'A 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Station 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (Ib/in) 819 693 613 728 58m 379 372 167 42 (lb/in) 0 2240 1850 2140 1850 2170 1200 756 256 (lb/in) 0 3240 8940 13900 19600 24100 27330 308o0 31980 (lb/in) g19 6170 11400 16770 21960 25750 28900 31260 32260 (lb/in) 819 69 1i400 35200 57100 82900 11180 141000 17300M .5 22.8 31.99 13. cooling effects are beneficial.99 3.03 (lb) (in) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (in) 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 (lbin) 6. AREA MOMENTS FOR DYNAMIC CONDITION. Firing tests eventually determine whether the dispersion caused by tube vibration is acceptable.98 1.tu a 1) C d e N0 oa ab be ed de ef fg gh hi (lh) 3.. 1.TABLE 4.02 1.5 49.13 2.99 1.18 4. =Zv 1 CALCULATIONS FOR DYNAMIC CONDITION.9 86.07 1.08 2.34 0.01 r a (in) 0 (in) 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 745 613 718 611 420 400 246 85.78 9.32 12. this trend readily predicts the tube stiffness necessary for dispersion.6 45.26 5.01 3. a Ar aW.02 .12 4.11 MA 3.
So long as water is present. The use of a coolant helps to increase the permisuible duration of sustained firing but arrangements for their application are too awkward to be practical. DYNAMIC CONDITION. the acitivity associated with smears does not constitute any part of tube design but rather one associated with prevenrive maintenance. tWYu X 10' (Ib) (lbin) 2. Boundary Layer Cooling 45.e. the rate of heat transfer is higher than for film boiling with its insulated film of vapor between the fluid and outer barrel surface. That this method of cooling offers any veritable advantage in prolonging tube life is 4100635 3. one involving ammunition.000028 3.29 2. transpiration cooling does involve tube design. can be maintained.36 3. regardles of tube wall strength. If nucleate boiling. a weapon still finding some favor in the field is the early concept of a water cooled 1O to a type of construction referred to as a jacketed liner.72 9. However.25 10. Coolants 43. continued firing becomes dangerous. In this version.00121 2.00605 W.78 5.. Another application of coolant involves water 2 3 * a 6 7 8 .08 cc of 80.60 29. The high thermal conductivity of the jacket is expeeted to keep the barrel cooler than if it were made entirely of steel. The same viewpoint can be applied some compensating features. Gun steels begin to lose strength above 6007F.10 Wyl X 10' (lbin') 73.86 3.. Boundary layer cooling introduces the practice of insulating the bore surface from the heat of the propellant gases.58 3.6 M000241 9 . i. the other involving tube design.00286 .0 2. This is a oneshot function. 3.86 . This process de.0 2. the time lost reduces the rate of fire. NATURAL FREQUEMCY PARAMETERS. But. station 1 (in) .86 48. A wall thicker than needed for a tube in which thermal stresses are not present will be stressed correspondingly lower. Tests show that 0.00197 .. Two difficulties remain: one is to make a suitable capsule that will neither leak nor affect the ballistics too much.000 centistokes silicone oil reduces the heat input into a 20 mm barrel by 60 percent*. of normal slow fire activity. Two techniques have been investigated. Heavy tubes or light tubes with cooling fins will reach steady state later than plain light tubes. . ice . However. the forced convection process. One of these. i. a task which is not practical. One of these involves large tube masses acting as heat sinks.72 7. the tank forms a cooling system with no provision for a continuous incoming flow of cool water. at any given firing rate. . A plunger. their alloys do not have the heat conducting capacity of the parent metal and actually approach that of steel. active boiling. as well as one of required strength.26 . . The tank is vented to prevent high steam pressures.e. This type of construction has thin steel liners reinforced by thicker jackets of copper or aluminum. Transfer of the heat to the air surrounding the tube is a slower process but. sliding in the recess.. crushes the capsule when the round is fired and squeezes the oil outward upon the bore surface.72 2. the other is the tremendous difficulty of retrofit. Weight and bulk of a circulating system built to sustain the inertia forces of recoil become more burdensome than the advantage of cooling warrants.10 questionable. . However..00493 . On the other hand. The latest appication of this cooling concept has a small plastic capsule of silicone oil located in a recess in the base of the projectile. has fluid flowing through a jacket or tank surrounding the barrel. neither copper nor aluminum is acceptable structurally because of low strength.41. Heat is conducted rapidly from the bore surface into the tube mass. to a value where a lower yield point can be tolerated.0 2.. . 44. 2.. The first or smear technique provides a protective bore coating. pag 120. the oil deposit being carried off by the next round. If the yield strength at steady state temperature approaches the firing stresses. thus forfeiting the only advantage that this structure can offer.86 7.21 each spray injected into the bore after duriT g round or spraying short burst. However. surfame tomperatlreo can he held to reasonable limits. Although considerably stronger.98 1. The solution here then is to select a material not subject to damage by heat.0•3M . probably to tha.. the bore surface can not escape the deterioration attributed to other sources. adapting it to existing materiel.72 2. • Reference 2. the tube eventually reaches a steady state condition. .20 machiine gun.'4R TABLE 6. The forced convection equipment makes a good laboratory apparatus but is hardly acceptable for the field.75 22.
. and although the principle of transpiration cooling has merit. dimensional stability during temperature changes. any means of curbing its destructiveness will help. A cool burning propellant has a flame temperature of less than 2000 *K whereas hot burning ones may reach as high as 3600*K. and imperviousness to aging characteristics during long periods of storage. some by welding. i. but these involve projectiles and propellants rather than gun tubes and further discussion on these items is not within the scope of this handbook. The metals above show about eC(ual tendencies toward erosion and tube hie. The lower temperature also aids in reducing gas wash and other types of erosion. leviate this condition by varying the design of the rifling itself. Band width too is critical but band is somewhat more significant. and many plastics fall into this category. The bore erodes most severely at and near the origin of rifling. the lands and grooves may be sharply rec. Experimental fixing data on rifling profiles are lacking but by inspection it appears that engraving reistance and band pressures would increase as the profile varies from rectangular to circular grooves because band material displaced during engraving increases.. The erosion caused by rotating band action can be checked to some extent by selectivity in design and materials. will reduce erosion. tangular in one extreme or the grooves may be cir. the sintered liner does not have the strength to survive the severe punishment to which it is subjected during 'firing. there is considerable leeway in selecting the crosssectional contour of the rifling. f S. and should have low coppering tendencies. 19  ~ j4 . This can be done within limits by employing cool burning rather than hot burning propellants. some problems still remain including the inability of most plastics to meet rotating band requirements such as retention during projectile flight. thereby increasing its engraving resistance and erosion tendencies. In the development of new weapon systems. with little leeway extended toward modification of these parameters.ariations to ease the engraving process and to reduce band pressures. the tube designer should cooperate with the projectile designer to incorporate the most compatible design features in rotating band and rifling. should leave little or no metallic deposit on the bore surface. 4. Rifling 50. gilding metal (brass). 2. offer an appreciable advantage over the higher temperatures inasmuch as tube strength will decrease at a slower rate than if it were subjected to hot burning propellants during sustained firing. Howcver. indexing difilculties while loading. others by mechanical means.. Materials ihould be easily engraved. the various cooling methods above. One method involves the removal or restraint of phenomena responsible for erosion. have low abrasive and good bearing propertihs. Conventionally.e. Banding methods are available which circumvent work hardening. This operation work hardens the metal. 47. Low Heat Input 46. Heat being one of these.. The optimum band diameter is just large enough for adequate obturation but not so large that excessive engraving effort is needed or high band pressures develop. metal bands are swaged into peripheml grooves called band seats. 49.. and the added cost cannot be tolerated. it does.. Methods other than cooling are available for moderrating erosion.• ) pends on a porous tube liner of sintered metal to cul JV. . 14).e. LOW SO MASdiameter C. 1. Many attempts have been made to discover techniques or material capable of resisting erosion. The best means for retaining relatively cool equipment during firing is to hold the amount of heat generated to a minimum. Rotating Band Properties 48. Plastics avoid most fabrication problems by being molded directly into the band seat. The use of preengraved bands in recoilless weapons eliminates both engraving effort and band pressure whereas. Attempts have been made to al.A r *. and to reduce rifling torque. Some plastics have exhibited excellent ability in retarding erosion. However. Under this circumstance. Soft materials including copper. pure iron. Depth of rifling and width of groove are usually determined from the dynamics of the projectile while in the bore. eular segments in the other (Fig. introducing some 7. For instance. Tihe big problem Is work hardening developed during the assembly of band to projectile. if effective. i. Band contour and size directly affect engraving. Two major disadvantages are an intricate injection system is required to maintain even flow on the bore surface during the time that the highly transient gas pressure is present and still not supply an overabundance of fluid between rounds.LOW ZROSION MASURES . Although even 2000*K is higher than desirable. in other weapons.nuid uwder pressure to the bore suriace where it forms a protective coating.
This may not be serious in highly charged rounds but when condi as a cutting tool. The location of $he origin remains unchanged but the rifling is without twist for a short distance. F. Type• of Rifling Contour. To minimize the damage to rotating bands caused by free run or wear. . Low torq u e ittelf will not inhibit erosion but it does delay rotational activity until reached.LLIP•. machining off the top band surface. as in recoilless weapons. Low"M TIST "INamf v~M 53. Pores#ae Engraving. therefore. Or. Variation in the rifling curves are sometimes used to lower erosion rates. Another means of compensating for delayed peak pressures resulting from low engraving resistance is the use of faster burning propellants. 51. a length of increasing twist leads to the final angle at a short distance from the muzzle from which point the rifling assumes uniform twist. problem. The slope of forcing cone and rifling at the If the rifling twist is uniform. A larger propellant charge will restore the velocity but at reduced efficiency. generally requiring fairly high propellant gas forces. On the other hand. The force diagram is equivalent to that of a wedge. the theoretical instantaneously acquired angular velocity during engraving creates a torsional impact which may cause rotating band failure. Then. reaching the desired burning rate may be delayed. Furthc rmore when it first reaches the rifling of a worn isun the band barely touches the lands and the shallow contact is not sufficient to. the susceptibility to large stress concentration suggests large fillets and a trend toward rounded contours. the relatively slow rate of band pressure rise is another favorable characteristic of a gentle forcing cone slope. This type is so named because it reduces the rifling torque near the origin of rifling where erosion is most severe. delays travel in the bore to maintain the design density of loading until burning rate and gas pressure are optimum for maximum efficiency. Ease of engraving is not always an asset.e. Currently. it has free run. The problem is to find a rifling capable of minimizing the abuse. a worn gun or a revolver type weapon presents a difficult . Since the total amount of band material displaced is independent of slope.. The niechatnics of riflinig eurves and rifling torque arc discussed later in Chapter 6. carry the load. the projectile begin to move before the rifling is engaged. the gentler the slope. Most are concerned with 20 04ttlaft f ken& S* idwftIel awsead FIGURE 15. reducing rifling tor(ue at the origin. 54. the less resistence offered to translation. usually a length of about one inch in small arms. wlth rifllhig and rotating band mating perfectly to impart torque to the projectile. FIGURE 14. increasing twist rifling is confined to small arms but the practice should MMW A w . Engraving. The rifling here racy act origin has a decided influence on engraving force. final band pressure too is independent although its rate of increase will vary with slope. Either method relieves the band of the rifling torque at the origin where most of the damage takes place and does no worse at the muzzle where constant twist is retained. if feasible. 52. hence engraving. perhaps the contact is light enough and the slope shallow enough that the rifling swages the band rather than engraves it. consequently. A new gun with constant twist rifling prenejts no problem. 2 . wear compensating rifling is introduced. and peak pressure will appear farther along the bore with the added possibility of not realizing maximum values of pressure and velocity..LA I. Engraving is cumplete. If engraving resistance is materially reduced.. muzzle velocities may be too low. tions are marginal such as in low zone firing. However. A rapidly applied load creates higher stresses than one applied more slowly. In these. i. In a variate application the rifling curve starts at the origin also with a zero angle of twist. the undamaged rifling farther along the bore is interference between band and rifling increases.
. t h.. Being restricted to short lengths is only a minor disadvantage because rifling erodes fastest in the region adjacent to the origin. in itself. Liners are far more satisfactory but assembly difficulties limit their length. . is plated.. comprises the bore adjacent to the chamber. Wear compensating rifling decreases the shock after free run which is experienced in revolver type guns and in worn guns of uniform twist.. . 57. . ndimrnnQ T1'0. For the benefits gained. particularly at the muzzle where it can bo severe. 3. 55. Present practice exploits the advantageh offered by both plating and liner by applying each to different sections of the bore. The most effective means of moderating erosion entails the use of materials which resist wear. the effective band material remaining must be capable of transmitting the induced torque. high strength Nfel gorvm n. .. .not be ab)andoned for larger gu tunbes if favorable characteristi(.. have good thermal properties to resist heat.. containing forcing cone and a short length of rifling. A disadvantage which may prove serious involves the rotating band whose width and therefore load carrying capacity is limited by the continuous engraving produced by the changing slope of the rifling.. .. M1920 Mill an(ý the 12 in. After being engraved...s can he Usedl to advantave... particularly near the origin of rifling. . The gradual restriction thus compensates for erosion. the price is a higher torque farther along the tube which. However. ".. . rotating band. . the increased life derived from high strength steel is not enough to class it as a low erosion material. The liner. M loco guns. Liners and Plating 56. and must be chemically inert.. heat resistant material such as chromium reduces erosion and helps keep the tube clear but it still is not totally satisfactory. . an obvious need whereas the accompanying hardncss decreases the susceptibility to wear although this advantage applies only to guns firing relatively slowly. 21 . In this respect. . Loads on rifling. those materials which are erosion resistant seldom have sufficielnt strength. Unfortunately. Inerea. Plating the bore surfaces with a hard. is not necessarily a serious dLjadvantage. Figure 4 shows a liner assembly.. comprising the parent nietal of the tube. ... The thickness of the plating gradually increases from the front end of the liner to the muzzle to realize the shallow taper of the choke bore.. It is not impervious to gas wash and has a tendency to chip and spall.sinLv twist rifling has been used successfully in some large guns such as the 14 in. . to retain the original physical properties. Figure 15 shows the results of this progressive engraving. steel tubes with plated or lined surfaces have increased the durability to the extent where the special effort in manufacturing has become worthwhile. These materials must be hard so as to resist abrasive activity.. . .. It permits the use of free run without rifling or with rifling of zero height at the origin and continuin~g in a very gradual slope until it reaches the normal height of land at the bore. For rapid firing guns. The remaining length of bore. and fuze are thereby cased.
TIME TRAVEL(I1. The tube designer is primarily interested in the pressuretravel and velocitytravel curves. If desired. the chamber is designed accordingly so that no. size and shape of the projectile plus its muzzle velocity and spin. The interior ballistics information is ordinarily available as pressuretime and pressuretravel curves from which the velocitytime and velocitytravel curves are easily derived. . The conservative approach is acceptable since its effect is to introduce a small safety factor. However.E FIGURE 16. SO where pA . INTERIOR BALLISTICS CURVES 59. If the gun is to fire existing ammunition.2 gas pressure along the tube can be calculated by Equation 3. 22 . i chamber pressure distance from breech of equialent chamber to point A aS. It is his task to design a tube sufficiently strong and durable to meet the ballistic requirements and to design adequate attachments for sights.weight of propellant charge W. muzzle brakes and flash hiders. a recoil braie rod and cradle adapters. B.30 Oun. the actual propellant 0 0.TRAVEL PRESSORE TIME L S~ i ~4 VEL*OCITY . the pressure here is chamber pressure. The tube designcr takes over after all ammunition and interior ballistics data become available. . They establish the weight. breech ring or receiver.4 • 0 ISO 2 PIRiSURE TRAVCL 1VELOCITY . It is obtained by extending the actual bore rearward which establishes a new breech location. CHAMBER RKQUIREMENTS (30. it yields conservative resurts since actual pressures along the tube are lower.W. (sA'l P pA X1 2W. Establishment of the basic performance requirements for a gun tube belongs to the ballistician and the ammunition designer.6 0.pressure at point A of bore p. C.distance from breech of equivalent chamber to base of projectile SO .weight of projectile The equivalent chamber is a hypothetical chamber of bore diameter having the actual chamber volume. .6 0.Iii CHAPTER 6 GUN TUBE DESIGN A. W. and where required. difficulty should arise in loading the round or extracting the case whether IO 142 j PROA!CTILE TRAVELTIME (rume) 0. .SA for maximum pressure at A W. Interior BaUistic of Cajiber . Chambers are designed to be compatible with the ammunition and ballistic data. Typical examples of all four curves are shown in Figure 16.) 11OJECTOL. DESIGN OBJECTIVES 58. If used as a design prasmeter.
xlx.. 17b) develops. cases may pull apart.. . a resultant clearance.reeasStrain Curmea. . . is less than the initial clearance. . . . will not return to o but to r. which is beyond the strain corresponding to the yield strength of the case..Smust be assumed that the chamber reovr cm Srcvr NO "CLO corn sures ohriethe chamber too would be stressed beyond its yield strength and therefore improperly designed. claiming the case and rendering the extraction difficult. ox.ng stress is indicated by y. . The accompanying lower stress and strain shifts 0 toward the ordinate so that x. (Fig. . will fall to the left of x. . Clearance between case and chamber should be sufficient for easy loading but the space should not be so large as to permit excessive plastic deformation or rupture. tests must be made on a prototype to assure proper action. Chamber slope and clearance aid both activities.* The case... . The correspond. 1.. Cartridge Came Fit 61. . In thin tubes where weight is critical.. 23 . . . . . any early difficulty in handling or firing should be resolved by the ballistician. for a small permanent set (ox. rigorous analyses are necessary to provide adequate strength without excess weight. "a . Not only should the chamber be designed to control density of loading. cartridge case brass is 40. but also its interior should be so shaped as to promote the most effective gas flow from chamber to bore. being too thin to contain the gas pressures. In the meantime. IHowever. case ciastic flowback (xx) must be a minimum.000 lb/in'.. (Fig. Table 26. . .. If this clearance is too large. ..ft" W. .). delaying extraction in slowfire guns but jamming automatic weapons. .. ox.. If ox.. . If crushup demands too much of the available energy. It its expansion. being stressed beyond its yield strength. . propellant gas pressure expands the case to the chamber wall. making the case free for extraction. the ammunition designer. 63. or automatic. Small initial clearances are also helpful. "M&P (0) CbmM. ox. .. =R . . semiautomatic.. The shape of the chamber for fixed and semifixed ammunition is somewhat more critical than that for the separately loaded type. . . . . The mechanics of case recovery is derponstrated by the stressstrain curves of Figure 17. As the gas pressure falls to zero. . ..aN* NO.. Sufficient residual energy must be available in the moving breechblock or bolt to perform this function. . . which is found by drawing a line through y parallel to the modulus eya. As the case itself is not strong enough to withstand the pressure of the chamber must be designed to prevent excessive dilation.. is available. The total case expansion is represented by the distance. otherwise some measures must be taken to compensate for discontinuities.ji . . . . 17a). Dimensional relationships are established to provide automatic small arms with longitudinal interference between case and chamber and invite crushup. the chamber is deepened to relieve the Reference 6... as detailed below. 62. . The amount of required energy is not predictable. . . . Assume that the initial clearance equalt the strain. Here both processes of loading the round and of extracting the cartridge case must be considered.. . Assuming the same case and pressure for both curves... . .. . . Usually chamber geometry is such that it is compatible with the remaining tube structure.. By observation. the logical way to prevent interference caused by excessive dilation of the case is to increase the chamber wall thickness or to reduce temperatures in the chamber region thereby maintaining small clearances between case and chamber.. . the elastic flow back. If the ammunition is newly designed and not finalized. Longitudinal clearance is also involved in loading procedures. will expand beyond the initial clearance to the dilated inner wail of the chamber.  • :•. If ox.. on the stressstrain curves. . this activity is manual or mechanical.. The yield strength of quarter hard 7030 S'. thereby ensuring the clearance necessary for extraction. . .. x to x. whether single shot. the case. This is readily done in heavy tubes by arbitrarily extending the large outside chamber diameter beyond the origin of rifling region. MM .. . CaseChamber . . . and the tube designer to their mutual satisfaction. When the round is fired.. . . an interference xx.. . . is greater than the initial clearance. the chamber will recover totally from FIGURE 17.. Figure 17b obviously is based on a thinner chaenber wall. hence. ..
040 0. A chamber slope tany uf theme tapers may be itged if both hav aw'ad chmbe thesam nomnaltaper. Chamber sdope in an added precaution to ensur readly extraction. The prebent trend in design is toward the conical shapet.040 0. Figures l~a.C 4.26W0 0. J8 MAMMIN Gun (hIL.0064 to 0.010 inch being currently used. Some leeway can be exrei~nd for ehamher slope which~ iR dP. have been collected to study the behavior of different chamber shapes but more work is needed before optimum shapes can be finalized for general requirements alone*.Mn11Rftrfttfl by 10 contemporary guns' havirng diametral tapers varying from 0.035 in/in. a nominal interference is detemindo by allowing metaltometal contact for a minimum asm and a maximum chamber. ft ". for some reason. 11. In som desins. Diamnetral taper is also referred to as included taper inch (TPI). Theoretical and experimental datr. and 10b illustrate the two types. freeing the came for extraction TABLE 7. Forcing Cone Slop.200 0.30 MadW= Gum C61.20 W&b (3s.1367 0.~ ~/ 0" T. lIme radi at the first and second shoulders are tsaamt to the straight lines but their locations are determined fromn the points of intersection of tAMe lines. The interferences between band and forcing cone are purposely eyaggerated in order to demonstrate clearly the dimensions which control the length of free run. A double taper forcing cone (Fig. Present practies does not provide crushup in artillery. A steep taper reduces this travel thereby providing a short free run and holding the impact velocity to moderate speeds.13. Great variety is found in the slopes of forcing cone angles. Chmber tePSchamber 64. the slightest motion of the case will break the contact. 2.1514 0. the case retains contact with the chamber after propellant su disappear. These vary from 0.1000 . This provides enaliup for all conditions except the ane where the contacting surfaces just meet. Chambet GeometryTRecofl~ess Guns 66. 10o) embodies the favorable aspects of both. FORCING CONE SLOPES..100 37 tmnGun MWA 75 mm Gun M3 76 mlm Gun MIA2 900mm Gun MJAI 105 mm Gun M3T4 120OrmmGun M1 155 mm Gun M2 0.3350 ineluded TPI.040 to 0.(chodwWilk Pv"aDnli8 * inteufereunce. the second dioulder in the chamber of many artillery tubes extends directly to the forcing cone or is tofly abount. according to existing hmaneum awe not comrlated with chamber usie. 7Ub ares conform to their counterparts 43 the cartridge case but. It has the ability to meet the gas flow requirement which stipulates that the * Reeene1 t Reference 8. 65.33 0.082 0. A shallow taper permits a relatively long projectile travel before rotating band contacts forcinv cone which increases the length of free run to invite a high impact vel'xity.2036 0. PlOVER I&. Ftgur 18 ahows the detals of a chamiber incluftn th longitwudbW d~imesuions to the bolt or breach t where the base of the cartridge ease bean against it. umost of which are dictated by the size and shape of the ams. To addition. the short distance Ivifore rontact is made and the giadlual engraving by the rifling.080 0. TWOe Included TPI in/iln Tube Inciluded TPI ilk/in Ca.3350 0. a nomina cleamance of 0. ADpertinent dimensions are shown.2000 0. T"7ýw 3.8 JOMe 20 ann Usabiue Gun 30ornnm iaebisnh 47 anrnMachinesGm 24 0. Table 7 shows the included taper per inch of the forcing cones of a number of small arms and artillery guns.. j an 7 ________per without further interference.
ftlb/lb r...radius of nousle a&proaeh area..bore radius This volume is acceptable if it meets the requirev. II'. A.loading density ments ..cleuidgpd design dat%for cabrvlm n ~ P dude muzzle energy. . .ROTATING BAND 2~ ~e. The body is considerably larger than the other two. The chamber has three sections consisting When the chamber is a ronical fruiintwi whom. . . I 4 assigned design data armVj(:+. conical chambers having a much lower ratio. (4c) eprel h rpl (4d) Asmn httemnmco~cinlwho Assuellng thatrte misteunimum o te osetale throat m proelan isthesults.. . 'Reference 9. 27. can be tolerated accetabl withaccptale esutsarea.. ... . 48 nozzle.T A = maximum beg density of propellant (approximately 0.. the body. rifle recoil momentum to projectile miu?. Figure 20 is a schematic of the interior of aLL recoilless gun tube showing bore.mazzlofepojcitil W. . Thbasaeotesaeocpidy Tebgsae rtesaeocpdb lant package of a round of ammunmition C A.. minor of the nozzle entrance.7 to 2. in effect. from Equation~ 8b momentum R .1).5 for existing chainlý. weight of and volume ~of charge.. deterw = ratio. and the forward rausithboeadstevle fheume du stebrerdutevhneo h bm end leading to the bore.0. Chamber volume is debd eoe termnined from interior ballistic requirements.. . The kinetic energy ebaige. . .specific impetus. an ideal reservoir of infinite volume. of the order of 1. The V P . 4A i.. _______E _________ SORE I 25 FIGURE 20.n) pessure to constant volume *111 (6) $~ALOW AMEconstant The~ .enome hra the required maximum chamber lengthi 67. ftlb/lb (propellant potential) E F . meaning.. propoatile aLw of the the muzzle. 1m'/lb V. or mussle eneary K 2Kr Cw P S . The finite reservoir can closely approximate the ideal by having the chamber approach area adjacent to the nozzle at least four times the throat area or A. 5.. In practice."Equation 4e.(41s) The weight of propellant charge ]I lb* 0 RIFLING GROOVE P  tuRnpoiEc:rgLE 1 (4b) p qN~ILThe *PRI OSTC required cham!~er volume velocity of the gas approaching the nozzle throat should be approximately zero. chamber and * A.... ~ )(1 where F/(y . &Aamaliw of Ronnillaa Gun.= weight of projectile A.
The nozzle entrance is part of the is extremely short.r being the upper limit. Ao/A. one being dependent on the other. This influence is represented by the divergence angle correction factor 4(1 I coo a) ~40 . 21). two remaining dimensions of the nozzle are specified for a given type of nozzle.. or gas drag. The divergence angle influences the component of balancing forces created by the velocity thrust of the nozzle gases. . and if A. chamber. A. For a given nozzle geometry. um" . After a has been established..15*. such as projectile friction.jr(ab + at _____()  ab ' '  br' sin..nozzle approach area A. Equation So may now be corrected to _A A. The recoilless rifle is a gun which overcomes recoil forces by utilising part of the propellant gases to produce a force in the forward direction. Parameters 7. The volume of the nozzle entrance is the solid of refolution generated by rotating about the xaxis an arc of the fourth quadrant of a circle whose center is at y . .bore area (known) A. The arc begins at x . These .. where half angle of the diverging cone.b (see Fig.. The criteria assigned to the parameters are based on rocket theory. Thus. (3) the divergence angle of the nozzle cone..esign oi a recoilless rifle is based on four interrelated parameters: (1) the ratio of rifle bore area to nozzle throat area. (4 ) The total chamber volume less nozzle and bore entrance volumes determines the chamber length.nozzle throat area Since a significant portion of the balancing force of a recoilless rifle is caused by the reaction of escaping gases on the cone of the nozzle. Other parameters to be considered are * 26 S. and impulses due to other factors. . the divergence angle of the cone. 72. / D. 1.nozzle exit area A..cos 2a (Be) ..70.. . .a with x . engraving resistance. and (4) expansion ratio of nozzle cone. RZCOILLU8 GUNS 69. A does not deviate sufficiently from unity to warrant any analysis beyond that provided by Equation 5a. length and exit radius.45 (d) However.empirical a n data are: A1. the divergence angle is less than 15 angle). The rearward end of the chamber opens into a convergingdiverging nozzle which allows the passage of a fraction of the propellant gas and its associated momentum to the rear. for values of a . is significant. . A generous radius of the order of one inch sweeps through the throat and becomes tangent to the nozzle surface to establish a smooth flow path.. The volume of this solid of revolution is V.2 where (5b) (included FIGURE 21. Nozule EntranceGeometry. (2) t~h.. ratio of nozzle approach area to throat area. the orifice cross section is adjusted until the net pressure forces are of the proper magnitude to neutralize each other. It 68. NOZZLE D0SIGN. . namely./A. A. serving merely as a smooth junction between chamber body and nozzle throat. but final nozzle dimensions are adjusted for a given weapon design on the basis of empirical data obtained from balancing r b  FI N experiments (se paragraph 78). the rearward momentum of the gases which issue from the nozzle is utilized to counteract the equivalent forces imparting forward momentum to the projectile.Y 1... the third parameter. . Thie .0 and extends to x .14 if A 5: 1.
is known.appropriate to Figure 23 and from the curve of the momentum ratio.I' Lf 4k ) DsvS4ý 1*. 24a) is of optimum design in the sense that it is the simplest and lightest. locate A./A . p. FIGURE 24.0 Rewil. when entered on the pressure ratioarea ratio curve of Figure 22.Ito Ila lo 1. is detenmined from Equation 6b. .* Then. .0 s0 40 so FIGURE 22. This is most important because low weight is usually . Preuure RotieArea RWio Cume..stagnation pressure (pressure at A.. tan a (5g) A. .*Maitc. 27 (FIGURE 23./A. 2. Lino# of Conking Dimentimsili .p.chamber pressure The approach area to throat area ratio. Nozzle Shape 73. indicates p./A. A. .  (50 The length of the nozzle cone 1. the exit area the corresponding r. w. is readily computed.. This value. Neale Shap. Now refer the ratio A~p. A central orifice nozzle (Fig./p. (56) The radius of the exit area *Reference 10.. leading to nozzle) p. Since A1/A.(AA)A.0 1'* &o .. .
sme difficulty is presented in providing for ready access to the round for firing.....*) FIGURE 25. in the rearward direction... The number of kidney shaped channels are determined by the available qace for the required throat area..AreaRatio Curme. . However.. . Attachment of nozzle to chamber depends on oading method.. included angle.... During the development of the nozzle.... 74. This aeoebllty can be achieved either by attaching a Sfiring line...NeOt ARI AMA A K..Mm..... a number of problema are associated with this type. If the gun is a muzzle loading type. . perfection is not sought since variations in performance are always present and slight variations from round to round are unavoidable.. 75... It does not permit torque compensation. In fact. 24b). .. Although the included angle of this cone is theoretically satisfactory to 30°. This arrangement is merely a modified central orifice type nozzle whose basic throat and exit areas must be adjusted to comnpenste for the bar interference. It has the advantage of having a solid center for houint the firing device. i. However. .... ..e. The bar breech derives its name from the bar where .. In the long run. nozzle shape depends on required throat area. It also has the tendency to develop cracks in the webs between the orifices... an acceptable compromise can be reached between weight. .. 3. . This "typerequires a pig tail firing line.. S'. a small angle such as this means a long nozzle and more weight. to have the initial recoil at as high a level as can be tolerated.... . N=z14e Prmaur.nozzle area at z .. the nozzle can be. .... an included angle of 140 provides a good starting point.. . Another asset is its adaptsbility to rifling torque compensation by canting the nozzle sections or chamnels.... for maximum nozzle life. Another type noule is kidney shaped (Fig.. .chamber pressure p..... To summarize.1  segmented nozzle of 8 pieces held by a cireumferential spring..... ... Symmetry is essential.... . to A. . or by housing a centrally looated firing device such as that found 76. In the recoilless weapon field. .... and whether weight and torque compensation are partioularly critial. . . Recoil Balancing 78.. ...nozzle throat area A.. the nozzle and chamber can be integral.. It dilates for the round to be loaded by the radial displacement of the segments. Hence. smaller angles are desirable to prevent detachment of flow. ATM. MIO P!• "* a critical design criterion.. .. diverging from A. . An ideal nozzle would maintain the weapon motionless during the firing cycle. The curve is plotted for the solutions of Equation 5h where y for MI0 propellant is 1.Y/ " A. . ... therefore yielding less uniform ballistic performance than is obtained from gum having other type nozzles. Its dihadvantags are complexity and extra weight.. .'  L1 & '' (5h) which is entered across the nozzle exit and houses the firing device.. N breech loading type. the progressive wear in the tube and nozzle will aggravate these variations. Furthermore.. be a part of the breech door.. 24c). The pressure in the nozzle is controlled by the type propellant and the nozzle parameters. . However.. As the Rererence n. recoil is defined as the momentum of the weapon which is derived from the residual impulse between gun tube and nozzle. . A AREA""a 1AVA11 . Nozzle Pressure Distribution 77. making it the most costly of all types to produce. .. By readjusting the angle and length. ..pressure in nozzle at x 4. . If it is a A . Normally it loses more unburned propellant through the nozzle. With the aid of the curve in Figure 25 the pressure at any point in the nozzle for M 10 propellant may be obtained. commonly called a pig tail... S. . hinged. . The nozzle is usually conical."I Amt OMI AN OUZLF. . . a slight amount of recoil is tolerated.• 1.24.... the type firing mechanisn.. cartridge ease geometry. A ! in a bar breech type nozzle (Fig. some recoil is deliberately planned since it is desirable... and nozzle effectiveness. A new concept uses ...
the remaining sharp cornemr or dihman determined from the effects on the gunner or on the mount.UVAL I1Ile M T(g) T9 where g . = weight of suspended mass after firing x . (6d) where A.acceleration of gravity ' =' period of pendulum W. the equations associated with recoil may be stated in terms of momentum. Recoil is usually specified as an impulse. .w quent developmental firing tests will indicate the degree of enlargement to meet the specified recoil. . MILR45511). (6a) Firing tests performed with the recoilless rifle suspended as a pendulum provide the data for computing the projectile and recoil momentum of Equation 6a and hence. It is important to note that when the required amount of material is removed from the throat f the nozzle. ) S . or to destroy his aim by disturbing his stability or cause him to flinch. although in some designs it is necessary to exercise care in determining the location of the throat (minimum cross section for gas flow). the effects on structural strength can be absorbed by designing the mount accordingly. Expressed as an equation M. amplitude of pendulum swing and period are measured. Thus: 2¶I .mental data obtained for this gun during the balaneing process.original nozzle throat am AA .0 lbsec (rearward). the effect of recoil on the gunner will be reflected in physiological effects of excessive rearward recoil. Experience with conventional weapons leads him to expect rearward recoil of reasonable intensity and he will accept it. Hence.A.differential time of application of P.. action and reaction being equal and opposite. Newly designed nozzles should have the throat restricted more than necesary in the tast gun to assure a substantial rearward recoil.nd is most commonly used. M... where M. A more precise relationship becomes available for the individual gun after interpreting the experi.Mv. for.. The recoil should not be so severe as to injure him. thereby forming the relationship: AA. . These measurements are used to determine projectile momenturm and recoil momentum of the suspended mass.. On a mount. 79. The procedure for computing the change in throat area is based on the change in momentum necessary to be compatible with the specified recoil momentum.linear amplitude of pendulum swing Recoilless weapons with fixed vents can be adjusted to the desired recoil balance by increashig the throat area to decrease rearward recoil or by decreasing the nozzle length to increae rearward recoil.. = M. tz . For shoulder fired weapons. AM. The former method is simpler .required change in momentum Small changes in recoil momentum ame approxio mately directly proportional to nozzle throat area.indicated change in throat area Since this relationship is approximate. M. Muzzle velocity. but forward recoil will be disconcerting. f F. the stability of the system dictates the rearward and forward limits of recoil. + where F. Sub. Since impulse and momentum have the same dimensions. 9. The weapon is freely suspended and fired. variables such as propellant gas pressure and chambernoshe configuration may yield even wider deviatkas.. dt . When these limits have been established. effects on his stability. Equation Od should be used as a guide only. recoil balancing.nozzle throat wears.''lu *U. .MI.specified momentum of recoiling mom AM.. . On this basis. momentum. the limit specified for the 90 mm M67 rifle (Military Specification. rearward recoil diminishes to zero and ultimately forward motion occurs. Usually. and psychological effects of forward recoil. di nozzle force mass of projectile momentum of recoiling mass time of propellant gas period . Limited tests have indicated that the impulse should not exceed 3. . the momentum of the recoiling mass plus the impulse of that generated by the nozzle equals the projectile momentum.. the effects of recoil forces involve stability and strength of structure including attachments such as the mounting trunnions of the gun.
it decreases as wall thickness decreases. the maximum differential between bore and outer surface is 6 0 0F at the point of maximum outer temperature. compatibb with the particular use of the weapon. ratios../Vo.0 varying to one of 450 F for a wall ratio of 1. RIFLING 1. temperatures here can only be approximated.maximum projectile acceleration . An example is the 57 mm recoilless rifle. One method of estimating sctiý the temperature gradient at 600OF for a wall ratio of 2. Where V1/V7 equals the ratio of final sun volume to ehamhmr vlhnw. Although the tube designer specifies surface finishes and tolerances. In the absence of such data p .tinuitics should be carefully blended into the original entrance radius and the divergent conical surface.zometric efficiency 82. Consequently. Although temperatures on the outer surface and through the tube can be readily measured.0. For a given projectile. a shoulder fired weapon. This approximation becomes more difficult and less reliable when temperatures must be predicted for a new design since no accurate method is available for computing them. The temperature distribution along the tube and across the wall induces thermal stresses which may become appreciable.5. which provides for recoil balancing by use of replaceable throat rings... being of softer material than the rifling. .ý (7b) •ap. An approximate length can be determined provided several data are known. The length of the bore is determined with the aid of interior ballistics. instrumentation to measure the temperature on the immediate bore surface has still to be perfected. 2. but it is for machine gun type barrels. . F T F. a propellant charge is designed which will impart the required velocity within a distance. The mating lands are the load transmitting members and should be designed so that both rifling and band can support the induced (  The maxinman propellant gas pressure e Ma. Smaller tubes have smaller tolerances. The nominal bore diameter is determined by the combined effort of ballistician and projectile designer in meeting the terminal ballistic requirements of the projectile. Bore Diameter 80. p is determined from empirical data from test gun firings. usually 0. The rotating band. Rifling and rotating band are intimately associated because of their respective functionsthat of imparting torque to the projectile and that of transmitting this torque. OitO 1. This method is used in recoilless rifle design. will require wider lands.projectile mass pie. If the ballistics of an established round of ammunition meet the requirements of a proposed gun. the rifling grooves will be wider than the lands. Although no method. bore length. has been established for oa .kinetic energy of projectile (Equation 4a) . The corresponding bore surface temperature is assumed to be 20007F. Temperature estimation therefore depends on good judgement and experience. T!MPERATUR! DISTRIDUTION u. muzzle. K6.002 inch on practically all tubes of 20 mm or larger. The temperature distribution curve shows a higher temperature beyond the liner. 14 will decrease. either theoretical or empirical. i.30 machine gun lined barrel. Thermal stress is not a design criterion for tubes of slowfire weapons. Adjustments that can be made in the field to compensate for changes in recoil due to nozzle wear are desirable.. From the point of maximum temperature to the. Failure to do so will seriously affect nozzle performance. Bore Length 81.0015 inch. In a caliber . K M. 2.e. M The bore length (7a) SK. For hiahpr ratios. Consequently. Profile 83.6 is a reasonable approximation for guns with expansion tangential load after engraving.30 . then the bore length is made to coincide with the travel distance to the point corresponding to the desired muzule velocity on the velocitytravel curve. This demonstrates the insulating effect of the linertube intersurface since the bore temperatures of the liner are at least as high as the bore temperatures beyond.bore area . Figure 9 shows the variation along the outer surface. The temperature gradient across the wall is assumed constant at 600°F along the tube from the breech to the point of maximum temperature. u . practice has set a plus tolerance of 0. V. Assuming that the data are A a.A.
and generaiiy saris3 factory in practice.1571 in. are constants. Some option may be exercised in determining the rifling parameters of groove number and size since present weapons have demonstrated that deviations from any rifling pattern can be successfully applied. 0. this practice is no longer necessary. G8D6 (8a) 0. Close collaboration with the projectile designer should yield rifling and rotating band with a high degree of compatibility. The twist of rifling is usually expressed in  31 . Z . A determining the ratio of groove to land width. because of their empirical status. not an exact procedure. Ltandard forms should be tried first.0. OroaveBore Reaiion". The number of grooves in present guns varies approximately as bore diameter but still fie precise method for determining the number can be based on this information.02 10 0. For a ready reference. such wi howitzers and recoilless guns. the standard rifling may not be adequate.2 go o.94 70 0 .m mundabie. Eight grooves per inch of bore diameter seems to be an appropriate value for the equivalent pitch. Weapons having low propellant gas pressure and low muzzle velocitles. the practice is to select the standard rifling profile for that caliber. the groove width.2356 in. The rotational velocity of the projectile..0. The depth of groove is the third parameter involving the physical aspects of rifling. But the tube designer is &lso concerned with the rifling characteristics throughout the tube and therefore is also given the interior ballistics curves. the various parameters of standard riflivg profiles are provided in Figure 27. thereby calling for a 'aodifled profile. and efficiency. Since the product 8Db will not always be a whole number. Here again present rifling offers only a guide..o If the 3 to 2 ratio and the pitch are maintained. 2. Generally the smaller bores have groove depths exceeding this dimension whereas for large bores the groove depths are slightly less. the values of b and w will be modified accordingly. varies directly with the tangent tf the developed rifling curve. b . Since two primary requirements of exterior ballistics are the values at the muzzle of velocity and spin rate. other profiles must be tried. in. Ole I 90 66 _0 OF I 84. a nominal groove depth of h A .0 oo 06 140 30  where G =  number of grooves (to the nearest whole number) bore diameter. conditions.41. may need only half this depth but hypervelocity weapons may need considerably more. if found wanting. Many points do not fall on these curves but the trend is general. or groove width. durability.. Based on present dimensions. Heretofore the number of grooves has been restrieted to multiples of 3 or 4 to assure proper land or groove alignment for 3 or 4 tipped star gages. No such trend is available for either land as a unit. Rifling Twist 85. Rather than vary depth of rifling to correspond to the particular type tube. For a new to.01Db (8b) a 4 6 1 0 1 1 i ow 0419 (14 FIGURE 26. Even so. but they have been successful in many guns and have become an excellent initial design. then. Now that air gages are available. Figure 26 has the curves of groove depth and number of grooves of present rifling plotted with bore diameter as the abscissa. and the land width w . Since rifling and rotating bands work is in keeping with accepted practice. it may be more feasible to vary the band width to provide the same compensation. the tube designer is given the required exit angle of the rifling or the bullet spin. considerable atteption should be directed toward the band design before any rifling form ig finalized.Abe. For guns which depart drastically from what is considered normal ballistic. The standard profiles may not be optimum in strength. or bullet spin. a m'o ý..
004 .15 .200 f'4.015 .004.030 C  n.015 .004 .140 O.000 14IN 16.000 3.1571 .2413 249M . whereas in incmrasig twist.02 .2868 .02 .18AM . nilorm and increasing.01 .lO0 8.004 .02 .02 .004 ..134 4.160 132. Ielvamhzl. 0. 32 .1978 .134 4.015 .574 4. .01 .01 .618 2.2945 .004 .7IN 6IN SIMM &IN 240MM 10IN M2O000 12IN 14.2108 .208 4.600 4.013 .15 .015 .4M7 1.449 10.02 .200 8.1473 Ai5 .1..0 .280 AG .284 3.00 80MMS 90MM  105UMt I05MM* 105MM 106MMO 4.240 10.008 .006 .18 .004 .02 .1730 .004 .008 .00 ..02 .015 .004 .2016 .100 6.1978 .220 .0t00 16IN .50 9.208 4.34 .098 .offles.120 1444 .36 36 36 :..e.004 . this angle varies in accordance for the rifling curve is Y= X W.700 0.134 4. There are two types of rifling twist.2168 . the bore length measured in terms of calibers in which the rifling makes one complete turn.AM09 10.080 3.cunistant determined from the exit angle N 7.81N 4.024 . i.90 3.497 1.02 . (9a) with an exponentiAl curve. .2108 .2314 .(S .623 4.15 .573 40MM 87MM 76MM 3IN 2. The general equation n exponent which defines the rifling curve p .1M .62 MM CAL .1795 .15 .205 .3142 w .010 3.002 ..2350 .002 .008 .16 .calibers per turn.2108 .01 .015 .194 4.1740 .15 ..01 .02 .015 .008 M00 '(X)8 TYPE B b .069 .16 .216 1.817 1.224 4.015 .1860 . the rifling wa a comstant angle from origin to muzzle.8 32 42 48 48 04 68 72 84 92 96 D.181 G 9 16 12 16 24 28 28 32 32 . In uniform twist.000 9.1912 .205 .008 .W 3.5 TYPE A BORE 20MM 30MM 37MM 0.707 1.135 .2611) 2019 .790 6.2093 .543 4.244 2.015 . 8?W'4dard ffifing V.2090 . t~eltmrFIGURE .343 3.004 .000 6.04 .02 .015 .1744 r .015 t 27.134 4.
tan a. a is the angle formed by the tangent to the rifling curve and the xaxis which is parallel to the bore axis. In other words.. is found hy differentiating Equation 9a. eir(9D dx 3.I . Rfling ForceDp xm .tan a (9b) where tan a is the slope of the developed rifling curve.erinheral disttncve of riflinty ArnhiduI hwr (Eqlation I I) The coinstant. Rifling Torque* 86..linear velocity of projectile.axial length of rifling curve v IM. . where . p. .2 The torque on the projectile induced by the rifling Is hr d• d tan a T4÷# (10) of da1 X (Og) where 0 projectilear maw moment of hert angular aeeeleratio of prieetile When the required twist of rifling at the muzzle is expressed in calibers per turn.induced force normal to rifling curve . i[ I I II I I I I I.. .frictional force parallel to rMling curve . N I"N R 0 a .. (R 33 . 4 ..exit angle of the rifling tand) Consequently. (gh) ta t an EquationsOf and Og may be writteu tan a x(9i) .__e de R .polar radius of gyration of projectile Al. (9c) F(ItURE 28.w d' 0 (12) dt where he v .. the general equation may be written t an e) (of •g and from the slope and change in slope of the riflirg curve. . dx" dy pnz"'' . .mass of projectile From Figure 28.. The angular velocity or spin rate f5..p . . Mefr. . . . . The rifling torque i6derived from the propellant gas pressure applied to the base of the projectile based on datu. Equation Ob becomes Pwhre = tan a. Figure 28 is a diagram of the dynarics involved. . At the end of increasing twist rifling where a becomes the exit angle... . For constant twist rifling.angular displacement of projectile .total axial length of the portion of the rifling curve which follows the assigned equation a. made available on the nielianics of rifling in 'The material presented by Springfield Armory.A Equation 12 (13)t I "ence 12. n. n = I and p . bore radius .angle of twist  n AxN dx c  coefficient of friction tan a tan1 an%('f' 1) tan ax 0. yiRO (11) tan a tan! n :I 1(j) ft.radius of projectile.
is a small quantity and because the value of (R'/p' .propellant gaa pressure Rewrite Equation 15a by substituting the values for obtained from Equation 16a after the acceleration.) LIEWTHCuresfor 7mmn Gun. For uniform twist rifling. in Figure 28. d tan a/dx is zero. rifling torque may also be expressed as T . in that equation has been expressed in terms of the values of Equation 16b. Substituting the expresuion for 5 in Equation 14 into Equation 10. M .1) for a homogeneous cylinder is equal to unity.(1 p l d'x & T P x S(atan wherepA dx. Thus tan . as before. In the denominator.The angular aceeleratili k C.P ( a  A . as both p and tan a are small quantities. byIt is possible relatively. dtn* (1v4) M tan a)R d tana dI a . tan a. Equation 17 therefore reduces to its approximate equivalent a L (18) R d.N in a M IN co a (T (16b) a t (1A) 74000ON' 0 10 to 30 40 so so 70 so 90 ! 34 FIGURE 29. a. tan a) can be considered to be nearly equal to I (1 unity. and Equation 18 reduces to R T . d'N dt dz di . some of the expressions. . and their product would therefore be insignificant. .N(ccs a . tan' a is also an insignificant quantity. Torq me Of MPLIG fin. T .linear acceleration of the projectile. 17 evaluating. S d(v tan a) di B di 1 ~R 1 dxLdA dz di A fibore area p.M By observation.a tan a + V dA) (15a) R' +t' (17) to simplify considerably Equation 87. . .p sin a)R (15b) Solved for the land force by equating the torques of Equations 1a and 15b N p a tana + v Linear acceleRto a i o _d tan dt_ J (16a) inear accelertion is equal to the net forward force divided by the mass or the difference between the gas pressure force and two resisting force components indicated in Figure 28. 2 The expression1A tan a(R /p' _ 1) can be neglected. the rifling torque becomes S.
has unduly high torques to compensate for these corresponding low values. except p. where K. .arbitrary distance 1 axis to origin of rifling curve. Effecj on Rfling Torque by Vary* Bxi Angle. the variable z will always have a value greater than zero and an infinite torque is avoided. 0 N FIGURE 31. the origin of the coordinate axes and the rifling do not coincide (Fig. 35 .duced.a + x. Since all quantities on the right hand side of the equation.. + y. The ideal is a curve approaching constant torque such as that of y . i. The advantage of increasing twist rifling is demonstrated in Figure 29. an infinite torque applied instantaneously at the origin.e. Although the remaining curves show less torque at one extremity. It is the quadratic parabola whose axis of symmetry is rotated from the perpendicular axis*. 31).1 40 as so FIGURE 30. i point of tangency on the abscisua. may still be in. at least in theory. This tipped parabola is so coxistructed that the origin of the coordinate axes lies to the left of thle Reference 13. Eight calibers is a reasonable value for a.0 0 i a go o I 1 0 LCWMTOF INFLOWJif. Here a series of curves of computed rifling torques for a 37 mm gun show the distribution along the barrel. Thus. A curve is available which eliminates the infinite torque. ) 88. The effects on rifling torque by varying the exit angle for a'constant and an increasing twist rifling are illustrated in Figure 30. The curve may be written as (20a) ax 1/.'Ab tan a)/R. either at origin of rifling or at the muzzle. the other end.p or (20b) y ps . + sxz The constants a and p are obtained by substituting known values of the first derivative of Equation 20b.pz•'". are constant for a given gun. Equation 19a may be written (19b) T i K~p. na where from origin of coordinate a . They fulfill the purpose of increasing twist rifling by reducing the torque near the origin of rifling where it is most damaging. As mentioned earlier. some increasing twist rifling with free run have.2pul/. These are w xa and when I .. The curves also demonstrate that just any increasing twist rifling is not the sole answer as higher than necessary torques. Tipped Parabola. is a constant whose value is (.
. b a  .i 19. e. quadratic sbok with one inch free run a. .2 14.4 6.5 6.0 20.8 8.3 0.16 7.30 Ibrrel whose interior a ei aurv nuM arn appear in Figure 16. m(ltan ap 5 8 2tn~o T. distane o projectile travel in bore 0.• 4 opea ue 0uted 0.0o 7.7 20.50 0.2 23.9 16.9 12.84 5f4 8. W(ik)ia" •070 1 13 14 0 0 0. the torque con.1 1815 20.10 2.0 47.1M Git e.TABLE & RIFLING TORQUE CALCULATIONS FOR EXPONENTIAL RIFLINO.1 (ftl/we') 0 009 1.5 7.5 20.0 13.7 21.1038 0.08 2..4 8.11p B a.7 8.2t 2.2 21. y =f px With no free run.00G6 0.6 6.M.9 8. To simplify the tTbulation procedure.15 in..6 13.0 21.s 10f5 9.7 13. R one the velocity component TT.075 020738 GAE 0.67 7.4 7.9 38. The detailed the torques computed in each 8 only for the exponential curve with no run.2 6s0 3.2 750 14.71 6.1.40 7.1 14.75 7.4 14. Rifling torque curves appear in Figure 32 for all five types.2 21. (22) a: Uniform Twist Rifting.0 13.0 44.9 42.00428 19.1 8.computed ea& rifing at oneinch increments of for travel. 6.0 11.0042 1.80 7.GA577 0.59 7.37 (Ibin) 0 37.0 20.0 18. &aa wt3 OA. bore "Miu 140 grais .8 21.2r 7.2 13. xx From Equations 9b and 9c.4 O1 0.0039 (ppi) 10.6 14.+ A.ing taque.4 14a3 14.3 21.8 11.V' v.25 7.1 14. All exit at an anl of 7 degrees.) 0 7.04 4.4 (1in) 0 3.000 08or 06r0es8 Mow 0.5 0.71 8.ASIS 0.8•11 OASl SAK 006 0.71 OYI0 OAM S12 01 13 .0920 O.107M 0.0044S 0.9 12i 9 12.42 4. L 24 int TW esig dafta we incorporated into Equations 18 Riss Lr••onl sl.1303 0.4 6.1 21.00382 opoAM8 mat the 0.1 (dzil.2 19.5 45.f.M 0.0014 0.97 5.38 4.3 I'17 •g 14 is 1S buibtis O. iealnmth with no •chfreerunand ruL tra. tiped parabos with one inch free run " e expntial wih on Td.7 ! 15 16 17 0 9 S to 0.2 17. .2 OAMM 8.0 21.a de (22s) The total torque now becomes S t i24 V.4 29.0 10.1280 o.4 26.2 8.* is onr tiAm zz for the nofreerun attlbr~eing 'no im 36 See preceding footnote.00402 16.2 1f.00062 0. do toque am c puted for several nree riln cur of a adi.3 12.8 ati.9 6.8 8.9 13i8 13. 'ipplenm t ani 30 and to Hkt• dinformation for Figures 29 d To the method in computing or 19 andcalculations are listed forTable rifling.OM] 1b.dta 00•48vOd tna .01041.14 5.1006• 15. M u ta.8 Ld.00 6.7 19.3 14. In addition to the L R W p allistic curves and the r T.79 3.TR.04 .4 33.6 21.puted from Equation 18 is divided into two cor(The tortea torue nobecomponent t . bor *.3 5.00418 0.1 1. These rfling rth i iaun tonm o t b.7 ""u"v19 20• 21q 22: a.4 10.0 7.o ala 0.4 21.0 8. The torque is (211)) 0. radis of gyration of projectile. projectile weight .05doai.9 6.2 14s 1 14.8 6.51 6.
a Substituting these valueis into Equation 22 T .L  2pz / + 8x2 1.. " /o 9 4 6 Y pal r.. X . .900 psi (From eurve No. i. + 0. Therefore. 0.24 . i ... ".23 in  1 From Equation9c a d t=nAccording to Equation 22 "X. 0.0 in. pz When x .. p. . z From Equation 9b.. 0.24 . tma Us fasa Substituting these values and solving for p .92  7.a + xx.123 0035T d tan a 23 M [(4.4 in a++• d tan a When z...8px + 2. a 10 ma 12 14 YrAVIL t41. 0.(27.128 0 L1.0 . 23i=M dtnx Equation 22 now becomes x 23 From Equation d0 .0 d .4in.II t q:_ 'd 0I II _ 10 a..0 0. Free Run). Rifling Torque Curvee for Caliber.  a . 37 . Free Run). ve lo" . . T25....123 and a taz a . p/ and tn a  T•T (85.lin The increment at 16 inch t mv the detailed calculation. .0 .~.0 in.62x"').. free run. _ . 2. p 0.0 .1.0.. V p.80 BarreL tan p  tan 7' 0. y With 1.7Wi"10' lbin 24 in.=8 X 2R tanat . 0.425 " .93V)10' lbin c: Tipped Parabola (1. .123__ .123.12.25.00064p. d ' dx' a.8pea" + 5.9 X 10' p 1 2. . 8 2z'" P/a. lbin.7Wa6*'")1o. .L From Equation Ob...421 b: Quadratic Parabola (1. with no free run. Hen i selced t sow 16) p'/Výz + ps/a. .51. T . d: Exponential (No Free Run). 1. xx . tan a 0.4 .128 _ y = 8 . from Equation 22.652.0 in.1..) 14 SO a FIGURE 32.123p.
. Free Run) y . . Permissible Individual Maximum Pressure (PIMP) is the pressure which should not be exceeded by the maximum pressure of any individual round under any service condition. Information is now available to obtain the gun tube preoure design curve.L tThe lengraving ope i ian t rotating band and the inertia of the projectile create enough resistance to retard projectile travel thereby maintaining the relatively small volume conducive to rapid burning of the propelling charge which is normally complete shortly after peak pressure is attained.0 in. After free run.4 + 14.PX 1.01053 z°'m. the exponential curve (curve d) has an instantaneous infinite torque which is of little consequence since it reduces to 12 lbin. The various steps in arriving at the pressures employed for the purpose of analyzing gun tubes of slow fire weapons and the definitions of these pressures which appear in the Gun Pressure Codet are: Computed Maximum Pressure (CMP) is the maximum pressure computed from interior balistics equations.. RMP is obtained by increasing the CMP by 2400 psi. in less than 5 microseconds.92P'x. 92. In order that gun tubes be designed in accordance with the developed pressuretravel curve and that a measure of uniformity be adopted.0. Many of these data involve design pressures.* The lower curve in Figure 41 is a typical pressure10.9 X 0. so close to each other that there would he some difficulty in distinguishing them as being separate. y .• ne p r of the . 0. = travel c'urve. re. Methods followed by the interior baWlistician are available in other sources. 3 X 5 . free run. It is obtained by multiplying the RMP by 1.625 X 0. the exponentlai curve with no free run. Equation 22 becomes )10' lbin 90. 15. 0. .20. immediately . 16) .LFrom Equation 9b.v x .00372)10" .after ignition. The two torque curves then continue along the remainder of the bore travel within 3 percent of each other.px.123 dtana dx  1. Fig. 2.16 in 0. x#. The torque curves in Figure 32 indicate that the exponential rifling.. According to Equation 22 T . 1O.the rquation 0. DETERMINATION OF THICKNESS OF TUIB WALL$ 1. .x'"n"+ 5.(80.. . The fundamental data for the design of the gun tube and its breech closure are given by the pressuretravel curve of the propellant gases. .15. With the PIMP established as the new maximum chamber pressure and with the weight of propellant charge unchanged.2&50 ft/sec (From curve No.02 X 10' X 0.7 lbin e: Exponential (1.00372 2.283. .0 in. Design Prenures 01.8p. the continued rapid increase in volume back of the projectile as it travels in the bore causes a rapid diminution of pressure. It is tued as one of the criteria for acceptance of the propellant.0173x""' __  i3'"'s"  mo11 For this rifling curve. The pressure during the first short portion of projectile travel rises very sharply.3 .. 'References 14.123 x tan a F3" Do From E tn .p ' u iI .d tan a .0 75 38 . T .0955 X 12.024 1. o . PIMP is the proof pressure for a weapon and is the basis for its design. . and its preparation is usually one of the concluding steps in a feasibility study for the weapon system.48 X 7. This curve is the plotted results of interior ballistic calculations. Permissible Mean Maximum Pressure (PMMP) is the pressure which should not be exceeded by the average of the maximum pressures developed in a series of rounds fired under any service condition. Rated Maximum Pressure (RMP) is the maximum pressure which should not be exceeded by the average of maximum pressure achieved by firing a group of the specified projectiles at the specified muzzle velocity and at 70F.• .(51. With 1.23 in. .0. agreement is necessary among all tube designers on how the design data should be employed and on terms by which these data are identified. It soon reaches the torque exhibited by its counterpart. Once past the point of peak pressure. developed in the gun to achieve rated muzzle velocity during operation at 70PF.900 + 5. either with or without free run are superior to the others inasmuch as their torques are practically constant after reaching a maximimn. the portion of the curve beyond the previous point of Reference 17.. H.6.
For relatively slow fire artillery weapons it is the elastic limit at 70*F. An exception involving "small arms is discussed later (Section 10s). called ESP. Permissible Individual Maximum Pressure (PIMP)is determined more exactly than for artillery tubes. The methods for computing NOP and PIMP appear later with the detailed discussion on design procedures for Lhe respective tubes. Formerly its value of 0. abic stres is assigned. With the firing data from the test weapon.. It is defined as the pressure which produces an equlvalent stress in the section wall equal to the allowable stress of the gun tube material at 70F. and with the NOP established. Having determined the pressures which will act along the various sections of the gun tube the required wall thicknesses can now be determined L *. Strength Requirements 95. but with wall thicknesses substantially increased over those calculated as being necessary.. For small arms tube design. having the desired interior contour.. a new design pressure curve is plotted. With more experience and additional design data. The allowable stress assigned to a particular tube depends on the nature of its service.it . maximum pressure is recalculated. np~re rg frnm 11ý f maximum pressure back to the breech. These refinements are necessary due to the demand for minimum weight while still retaining safety in firing. The allowable maximum tube temperature is usually made to correspond to a given rate of fire or the allowable maximum temperature is specified and the rate of fire adjusted to it. 94.. ) 39 . 96.. The second is the known degraded yield strength of the tube material at elevated ternperature. the upper limit of the ambient temperature range for recoilless gun operation.. Chamber pressures corresponding to the position of the projectile are used rather than the actual pressure at the base of the projectile.000 psi less than the yield point. In a gun tube of changing cross section there is an ESP corresponding to each type of section. The pressure at any point in the bore by being somewhat lower than in the chamber introduces a small factor of safety for stress computation. The wall thickpess so determined will be minimum and may be increased for handling or machining reasons. a test gun is produced. the elastic strength pressure of a hot tube. pressures for computing wall thickness are obtained from pressuretravel curves already established by firing tests or computed by interior ballisticians. 10 4h. Y.11. For recoilless tubes. As . A sufficient number of rounds are fired to give adequate statistical data for establishing the Normal Operating Pressure (NOP) which is the average of pressures measured in a test barrel firing an established round to produce the rated muzzle velocity with the temperature at 70*F.. This figure must not be greater than the elastic limit of the material at the temperature existing in the material. The tube is designed in accordance with the reduced strength of the material at these elevated temperatures. 2. Note that the PIMP is the effiýetiv. Now it is the gas pressure at a point in the tube which produces an equivalent stress at that point equal to the yield point of the material at the permissible maximum tube temperature. With this gun a propelling charge is established to give the desired muzzle velocity with gun and charge at 70'F. The first is an ESP. Figures 56 and 58 give properties of steels used in gun tubes at all temperatures of interest.4. above which no part shall be stressed. As a convenience in design.ith recoilless and artillery tubes. the maximum design pressure extends back to the breech. a more exact approach is available for the design of prototype recoilless gun tubes. 93. small arms tubes have been assigned an allowable stress of 75. Therefore.. As discussed later in Section l0a. For recoilless gun tube design an additional term is introduced. following the preliminary weapon design. which is defined as being 10.000 psi for approved steels. the term Elastic Strength Pressure (ESP) has been established. Artillery tube designers currently computp the values for PIMP cuive directly without first resorting to the computed pressuretravel curve. Two conditions make this possible. Basically the design approach of recoilless weapons is similar to that for artillery tubes.. computed from the PIMP that is based on the anticipated chamber pressure for firing at 125*F..80 ESP was used to compensate for the degradation of material strength at elevated temperatures.. The NOP then replaces the CMP for final prototype weapon design and the gun tube pressure design curve is revised accordingly. it is necessary to consider the temperature attained in' the tube material and desigid the tube on the basis of the yield point at that temperature. but refinements based on statistical treatment of results of actual firing data are then introduced.
Equivalent Stresn 98.e.. The pressure factor which is the ratio of design pressure to allowable stress has a practical upper limit for single simple tube construction.. . .. . stresses are then inserted in the von MisesHencky equation following the "Strain Energy Theory of Failure" to find the equivalent stress. the tangential stress at any diameter due to the design pressure..•o. is Do(Dý. A.. . Since bore and inside diameter of chamber are fixed.. Gun tubes are subjected to the three principal stresses which are produced by applied pressure. The stressed material remains in the clatic range so long as a.. . The three principal stresses are a. . 'P ) Di) (2a (27a) The maximum radial stress occurs on the inner wall . .axial stress 40 Thew. .... A better estimate may be made of the design through the use of data (if available) relating to the effects of inserting a hot round into a hotter gun whoem tube temperature is at or near the permissible maximum. i..(D.. to D.tangential stress a. . . p. The design pressures are adjusted to fit the individual techniques although the stress calculations are identical. DI(D.. . the inside diameter is the groove diameter. . " " (25) where DA .. The maximum tangential stress occurs at the inner wall P where W D . For any given gun.outside diameter D . the rifling groove diameter is generally considered to be the inside diameter. a. 97. The outside diameter and therefore wall thickness are based on the strength of the tube material.Typical examples of the effect of temperature on strength of recoilless tube material are shown in Figures 57 and 58. .. . . shrink fit.5. . tests have not been conducted to99. the prestressing technique practiced in gun tube manufacture. i. For an open end cylinder. These two design concepts. . . + (24) 4. pressure stresses may be used alone or they may be combined with either or both thermal and shrinkage stresses. . . . .. the only axial stresses related to pressure are those introduced by the recoil acceleration and the frictional forces induced by the projectile. .e.. .. 3.radial stress e. According to Lam4. are later discussed in detail. .. . . thereby introducing a measure of conserva S. the tube designer must resort to one of two alternatives available.inside diameter D. When this limit is exceeded.. .. also a constant.. . . : . and a temperature gradient through the tube wall. or he may use autofrettage.. in tis procedure. .. These conditions are entirely system dependent and generally in the post.. Equation 55c fixes this limit at 0. For rifled tubes. the axial stress reduces the effective stress. It in the bore diameter increased by double the depth of groove.. becomes zero and Equation 23 reduces to .. . outside diameters and material are the two general variables to be determined. The gun could then be designed for the conditlons of equilibrium temperature of gun and round. As later shown in paragraph 107...the wall ratio ) (26) The general radial stress is 1 D. in addition to the simple tube construction. the inside diameter is the bore diameter and therefore is a constant except in the chamber regions..... . . tor design is determined on the basis of the pressure generated by the firing of a hot (+ 125OF) round in a gun that is no hattor. a. having one or more jackets shrunk over the tube. does not exceed the yield strength in tension.+ DM) D'(D D•) .) For stress computations.diameter at any point (varying from D.. He may use multilayer construction. the maximum design pressure must not be greater than half the allowable stress of the tube material. Depending on the design technique.p (27b) Since the tube is not a closed cylinder. Premure Stresse The stresses induced by he propellant gas pressures are considered for all types of guns but application techniques differ for the different types. ..
Further.working stress. a. ' .rifling torque Torsional stresses of this nature are usually low and seldom enter into the stress analysis of the tube.allowable shear stress According to Lamd..internal pressure p. . + 1 ff . (29a) t 102.allowable tensile stress r. The jacketed or builtup tube is constructed of two or more concentric cylinders assembled by shrink fit.. (Equation 29b) and for W in terms of ..design pressure D . where U. The diametral deflection of the liner .ID of liner . The equations for streses and deflections of gun tube walls are based on Lamr's equation for thick walled pressure vessels which can be found in most strength of materials texts. (29b) WD. This procedure provides a close approximation of the final wall ratio which eventually is determined by iterative calculations. .q.OD of ejacket D..2P. . 6.. 29 VW T .  W3 (30b) (300) P where p .total shrink interference between liner and a jacket The wall ratios of tube and liner are derived by equating the stresses at each inner surface and solving for the wall ratio of the builtup tube and expressing this ratio in terms of allowable stress and V. Mmeo I v1 Based on the solution to Problem 202 found on page 328 Baed on Equations 414 and 415.shrink fit pressure W .'V/iVt The jacket wall ratio is W . The shrink fit partly compensates for the nonuniformity of the stresses later induced by the propellant gases. substitute V/W for W. (Equation 29a).I  (32a) I is Poisson's ratio. ID of jacket A .+ design pressure. .  4o. Bisedon Euaton 2 an pae 34 ofRefrmo 18 .2( (31) The quantities to be determined are: D.. .distance from the center to the stress location J = polar moment of inertia of tube cross section W" WL D. The deflection of the " £• \•1 + vi (32b) Et 18.liner wall ratio (inside tube wali ratio) Substitute the expressions for a. A routine procedure based on the maximum shear theory of failure has been developed to determine the wall thickness of tubes with one liner and one jacket provided that similar materials comprise both.ju. d n of Rfornee18. Rifling torque induces torsional stresses in the tube of (28) T7 where c . p OD of liner. where jacket P EL \ W +. Shrinkage Stresses 101. . Tube With One JaceAt The known quantities are: p . TV. .p . in Equation 30a. Thus (2' U.pressure at Dr. Rifling Torque Stresses 100. may be the elastic limit The shrink fit pressure equation is derived by resorting to the Shear Theory of Failure which states that (30a) . __ W. The total deflection due to shrink fit is found by adding those of jacket and liner. page 3125 of Reference t 362 and page 314 of Refereos 18. . .wall ratio of total wall W.) tive design when this comuonent of the stress is omitted from the analysis. then solve for . induced by shrink fit . = all = tangential stress radial stress a. This type construction permits use of thinner walls than a nonprestressed monobloc.. and a. The liner wall ratio is 5.
ienia PmWr" 4) The corresponding stresses on the outer surface of the liner are Bado Equation 23 of Reference 19.W IID The stresses caused by the propellant gae are sthough the tube er moolc wih cobind streeesarethe tosecaued y shrnk it.(35b) At the outer surface of the Jacket. in this case nt 3.. b.where  p. go$ I totoefrthe tube with one jacket. W2. the total If liner U ecomes~iworking defi~tion The wall ratio of the composite tube is based on the stres~s anid the design pressure.(34b) Then (Y D   C (38a) The tangential and radial streases on the inner surface of the jacket are XCS ./ .~ ~ ~1 ~pip ind~uced by shrink tit and ja~ket. and D. the shrink fit pressures require approximnately the same overlap at D.OD of outer jacket D IDofouter jacket. resp4etively. The complete jacketed tube is so constructed 1.mr nuiead teaoeanalysis is repeated to check the modified version...~ (A ~XD 3b (35+aI and(3) ~ p.%re of the smaie material.WI"' (39A) (36b) 30 .ID of liner P~ ~ ~ 2WDc". then via v. W"' .f 1 whr n the number of layers. 0OD of inner jacket inner jacket.Teknown quantities are caclte i/ 3e D e The srn i Te shinkfitpresur isfound from Equation 31. Various values of Equation 37 are plotted in Figure 33. The quantities tbedetermined am:~ D.D1. ~.I If a constant. pressure at Do. is assigned to the squares of these equal wall ratioiR.P4 Wi  (34a) p. 01) of liner D IDof A . go ý 1P (33a) 0 (3) The corresponding stresses on the outer surface of the liner are that the individual layers have equal wall ratios. C. the stresses ane 2 (a)Wij Therefore the individual wall ratios are: Woo  ID. w . The tagniland radial stresses on the inner surface of the liner due to shrink fit are. Half of this pressure is developed at Do and half (0 2 ' a Distributed thusly. tikesis mdfetobring a. induced by shrink fitI I*umue aLiD2.If prncia) tresesremin he esutin eq uivalent stress is computed from Equation 25. respectively. + I A (32c) (37) The tangential and radial stresses on the inner wall of the liner due to shiink fit are.Tube With. Two Jackets 10.AI/D.
_.. onter jacket I. pW (42a) it Olt at# p""~Pa W Pa (48a) (45b) 1". ar.Pat (44b) {) The tangential and radial stresses on the inner surface of the. _.14 'al 0.. Ption.Plost 0 ! pot (3b) The two stresses on the outer surface of the inner jacketratios Jacketachieve Pi 2 W:' + 1less WE* When the maximum equivalent stress of each tube component is not equal to the allowable stress. the two stresses on the outer surface of the tube are O* 'W 7I(4a 0_ (46b) a. Figure 33* shows variations between wall ratios and pressure factors.0S (I al 1 Psi "~LL IATIO W FIGURE. wall and shrink fit pressures may be modified to this objective. Wall 1RatoPoessurePacdor Curve@ for Multidayer V.4" s . 104. .Ws(43a) Wit Finally. . Equivalent stresses slightly than the allowable are acceptable.__ _. The pressure factor is Computed from Equation 37.2) The two stresses on the irwer surface of the inner jacket 0... those only slightly larger are not. 33.
with pressure stresses to determine the tube wall theknes. as a function of the interface fit... The allowable stress may be the yield strength. In W .In r W _ where ( + 1 ?)). . outeo. .m in Equation 37 for any value of Pi > 0... AT W .temper. For example. T 1).  (49b) ... The shrink fit pressure.In (49.80 will renuire the following wall ratios: W . In exrtilery a.. Thermal stresses are usually considered for P .. in the elastic limit./2. 2 1 nW ) W The radial thermal strew at is (4b (4In (48) 4 "(1 op When r a Z..wall ratio Whether the tube is of monobloc or multilayer construetion. or rome other IhAt of practical signifi•nse.b..54 for n  IVW 3.•..Poisson's ratio those tubes subjected to high rats of fire such v A . the elastic limit. the temperature and thermal stresses are computed as though it were one piece.IW W in temperature. Fig. FJ*URE 34. Figure 33 is a guide for det raining which type tonstruction is most practical..total temnperature gradient .P) In W r b [I .. Termal Stresses e t.D. The low rateWhen r .2.rdius at ary point in tube wall "W 2. radius . the monobloc and two layered construetion become the mast practical.. A pmcicial aprIroech to determine the effects of shrink fit in small arms tube design (quasi twopiece lined barrel deign. 7. At the lower end of the pressure factor range. + t.*1i defined as the design pressure divided by the allowaxie stress: v./2. For those tubes which are affected by high te:aperatures.e. The tangential thermal stress at r is EaAT 2(1 . 0.number of layers There is no solution for n . (*Ia) a .577.a okre tubes have sufficient time between rotmds to dissipte the beat so that stresss remain eomp~rsBoAT ONOhiW ) tively undisturbed by the relatively mnall changes " 2(1 . cold worked ..temperature at inner wall surface . is computed first and then applied to the inside cylinder as external preBsure and to the outside cylinder as internal pressure.t. iner :%'Jiuo b r • i..t..a•') b W ( 1 . Fiqure 34 ohowa a typical the'nmal stress S"" ~2(1 . .modulus of elasticity smal arma maehlne guns where large temperature gradients apopear aerow the tube wall.coefficient of linear expansion 105.. any point i 44he wall is expressed as  Tn'W inT b In. .. ) I.2 a i .) : or when r .. a tube with atpressure factor of P.5 for a .. thermal stresses are combined When r . (47) where D..I since W ..P) In W .l •! .2. 44 2 IU~al DiMrio ~butiss Acmoe! Tube Wall.p/a. The choice would be the cold worked or the threelayered tube.0 for n  jietribution arrns n t.b.. 4) is shown later in Paragmpls 133 and 168.turo at outer wall surface . .
is for determining each have balen discussed.97 2.0 p~ercent.60 4. Tab. Assureing the tube w be a closed cylinder is the mosit conservative apo roach since this con riition produce the e h~iiiest axial stress. this for a wall ratio of 1. substantiating the bine beorethe 7 o. RATIOS1 OF EQUIVAL. r wri W. indicateks conservative desigiu. whioh is the inertial force of the reroiling parts.u.25. I).0 In W) (5oa) 2. 107.a 4.3. Furthermore.+ a'. Gainnk fit~ stwesses. larg radii are not ijresent at the junocture between bottom of vrroove and land but allowances for stress concen4mrati are matle bmr using groove diameteviInsteald of bore diameteor for strems analysic and by other compensating features in desig procedures much as low allowable stresses (see paragraph 50). %igned 9. of iming the shorter method of Equation 24 as sufficiently imliable for well detube.0 (53) These stresses.25 1. wildetermine the equivalent stress. When #.' To illustrate.083 2. par.:.800 1. Pressures are read from thle pressuretravel curve which has been prepared according to prevailing interior i4allistic mot. .wj1. lience of generous radii oaereoine the disturbing mR ) a' 0.ressures.e where a discontinuity is present./ Wp ________ 2I When =a.62 3. Strew Concentration 108.. the stresses are low and unlikely to prove bothersome when either isolated or combined with other streames. These axial stressek. ids.8 1. axial PMMUMsressua When r =b.78 1.I 2. radial.003 1.Y the propellant gas force and its reaction.11 4. Figures 35 to 40 are graphs from which an approxi 45 .0 1. The meth.22 5.67 1. Recoil activi'y in single and double recoil systr is introduces axial '%nd bending stresses ia the gun tube. These are comnquialet sressis omptedment between the two methods.n (0) 106. p u/ u. their ratio R. In either cam'.0 1. is 'he equivalent stress of the tangential. rigorouslyj.. . U~rger vail r.is equivalent stress ofthe tangential and radial. principal stressetl and reentrant. Although including axial strch 3 attacks thp problem more. The methods for computing all thci principal stresses are now available.+ 011 a. S.. Although the pressure at the base of the proft 'l~e is lesm th:in th~e chamber pressure.310 904! .. :And axial principal stresses.2(1 P)In W(I of loWWsdcylinder. )~ PW ~~~~in.16 1. Normnally.le 9 shows the effect of includfng the axial Atreas. the differential being accepted as a safety moasure.020 1.  ~ 2(1 ( ~)W 2 1the IV Ir. pressure streies.33 . Special Applications for Tube Anallyse n..~tos give a greater d. 10...790 2.013 1. the tabulated results show a mnaxcimum overdesign of only 7.. systems.57 3. Bending stresss are caused by moments likdulced "§. when reaction and foroe have different lines of actioiu. 12. when substituted in Equation 23. secondary recoil doem not begin un~til gas p. Recoilless tubes obviously are t~ot involved..83 : 2.67 PAW5" 1.' 'igles and reduce the high stresses ldi these it ýgions to more aceeptable figures. Stress oori'entrstlon will appear any place in tlae tu'.ENT STRESSES.ree of agree + 011P VS. and by the inertia force due to the secondary recoil of double rtcc. and thermal stresses.5 1. + V. caused by accelerating forces paralte'l to the bore have little effect or) the equivalent stress.035 1. the latter is used in iesign.The axial thermal streFss at r is TABLE 9.34 2. have dissipated and pressure stzesseii have ceased to exist. Small armns tube design.070 _____I 2W' . This is chamber pressure And has been obtalr~ed by correlating the pressuretime and travdltime data.SalAm SalAm 109.485 .0 10  1 1. I In W) (Mfb) Or. Inertia of Recoil Stre.'oularly for ma. chine gun tubes.. (51) (52) accepted practic. considers thermal and prmsure stresses.
of 20.000 Psi. In Figure 38. Despite the discrepancy between strenghand stress..000 psi. One theory advanced for this seeming paradox is that the short  ~ ao  z 5.8 or 4.50. read up on the 6000 line until it intersects the horizontal 70. 49b..~ 75. an equivalent stress of ap TIIMP201ATUOR O1FR9C ACROSS WALL(OF) ~ proxmatey srenth. when thermal 49%0 WO1 MOMW XLIT *u  SA1  stresses are included. A O . far below the allowable equivalent stress. such as the 14007F experienced on the outer surface of machine gun barrels.700lb/ins 40.. and 50b.00   * ~~~mate wall ratio corresponding to a given equivalent stress can be selected for either a given pressure or atemperature gradient or for both. Explicit information in this field involving gun tube design is lacking. S  W21 4..4hese N'Pvnmpq To . FIGURE 35.000 lb/in2 me ~ ~ * ~  ~  ~  ~  .000 lb/in2 line.00n lb/in2 (54) MAN  MAN wall ratio having an equivalent stress of 70.nlt. The wall ratio at this point is either 1..0  . Equivalent Stre&.. If tube tern ~  f 1201600 . Equivalent Stress as a Yunction of W1all 'ihiclcens Ratio and Temiperature Distance for an Internal l'rewere. when temperatures are extremely high.  ý 1 ballistic cycle places gun tube firing activity in the field of high rate of loading of short duration where the dynamic responses of materials vary considerably from the static responses.. 150. as a Function of Wall Thickneass Ratio and Tcpniperature Distance for an Infernal Pressure1 of 10. However.= p  I&ANLNT PORNFrom AOKA Equations 48b. thereby placing the burden on previous experience which indicates that.I j II I1Y~'~t'IV' 1~/I~/f/~~ ~ pression for the allowable Ucjuival. the allowable equivalent stress must be reduced to the yield strength at these temperatures.. the equivalent stress ambient temperature. stress wider onditirms 01t.W0 02475. From Equations 26b and C~P ..000 lb/in2 and a temperature differential of 600*F. ~ prtrsare relatively low.000 psi.. the gun still fires successfully.~ te yild haf can be tolerated in steels which have been heat treated to a yield strength of 1. the static yield strength becomes less than 20. If tube temperatures are high. ~g. The ex46 FIGURE 36.000 psi.000 lb/in2 for an internal pressure of 40.
0 p4500 s (1.. ~~ ~  ~ ~  .000 rb/of = .59 N = 100.0 ti' V 2(1 a1  Ini W (1vW) 2 100. 52 an~d .07eiemayhn accegrptable...Freaplgvn .700 lb/ in' From Equations 51.4 l'.pe~t~reDitaucefo a h~eru(I~essreof inicTieef ge that iniatewall ratio oflightly sallrthis 1e 2.vk~Srs~ ~aF~cinofWl ~cn~ V '82 10 6950b/i Nc~~~~~EUPLM WS LE  P1149111111Wente1ivndeig1ano . 2 X( 0. Foprar Disamplefra ewn: Pesueo Ratg iv .700 lb/ it? zz 0 l1.50 I 0.Ii InW 77T.7 %X0.o 23. 0070 +a. Ib/inO FromUII Equt.53 and sine there are + 25. eintrolaned . nkon atms inepltd.
a material advantage is achieved if the tube designer FIGURE1' 40. It is impractical to machine a tube to conform accurately to a given pressure distribution. the ratio of ESP/p has been assigned a minimum value of 1. I I 1he designi prvcssu res. portions of it.000 psi. To ensure safe firing. Computation details of the curve are sswMAUN~ aupzINcE 80. Recoilless gun tube dimensions are based on static loading and determined by the same general 0. At this stage.~ 1. whether straight or tapei ed. Eqvip~alent Stress as a Function of Wall Thickness Ratio and ?'sanperature Distance for an Int'rnal Pressure of 9Aa been establiahed by Watervliet Arsenal. 0Thi. The pressure necessary to stress any longitudinal increment of the tube to the elastic limit is called the elastic strength pressure. The ratio of elastic strength pressure to actual design pressure is the factor of safety for that increment. hence. 1.I6F) FlIGURE~ 39. If p is the design pressure and EASP is the elastic strength pressure.6dnl inannn I N .*' c. UML947 Ptass WO 113. Equivalent Stress aa a Fwmcton of Wall ThickrneussRatilo and Teniperaltire Distance for an Internal Preeeure of M0 b. The wall thicknesses of the remaining length of the tube are determined from the maximum value of the cornputed design pressures. whichever is mnaximum at the particular   T . b~come. 0000iu0 TTLCUAKTVS 00N 7060SO00 The maximum pressure coincides with the PIMP at the breech. will he stronger than necessary.  '. The design pressuretravel curve is a composite of two pressuretravel curves of difI ferent shapes. corresponding to thevarious positions. Artill~y tubes are designed on pressurestresses alone. 00 NO0 M0 400 500 000 ?O 350_ 000 IRN1O1w WP311I AMU0 WAL. and thus he in a posit iona to (direct logical revisions if necessary. Recoilless Guns 2 KOCO 0  lLIwdsST  07. ArtillerM 112.10000\_ __?_= =z KO~OOt   O oec location. Thermal stresses not being considered. the equivalent stress is based on the yield strength modified by a small factor of safety. The wall thicknesses along the tube length are governed by a computed design pressuretravel curve h maximum pressure determin'es the tube wall thicknesw from the breech to the point of maxim'urn pressure on the pressuretravel curve. WO  lb/in less than the yield strength in tension.1 TV9K The strength of the tube is based on the elastic limit rif fth0 rnnfnr~l . practice ACROSS ("I WALL not considered relevant here. It represents the values of either curve. p. knows interior ballistics so that he may compute 48 .05. Any pressure on the curve is a true pressure which does not incorporate a factor of safety. familiar with the V vornplctr problem. then ESP must be grcater than p at every section.
. OLlow A UiN  1 10 Is so a 0A1. .0 PK I 4IN b . By applying this theory of failure to the gun tube and substituting the expressions of Equations 26 and 27b for the tangential and radial stresses. the gun tube is considered to be subjected to two principal stresses induced by the propellant gas pressure. and the yield strength.in materials subjected to combined loadings. procedures involved in the design of other tube types. Y. a. V(W' +1) +1 w.50 40   . for a. Failure is indicated by plastic flow which begins when the equivalent stress equals the yield strength of the material.TANC9 PFOWM NI2IL.BANSS IIAO It Ij I . Equation 23 defines the equivalent stress in terms of triaxial principal stresses.IPCH 0VJ 300 SO0 FIGURE 41. The maximum distortionenergy theory of failure has proved to be a realistic design criterion primarily because of the ductile materials used for gun tubes. Design PressureTraelCurve. (For hypotAe*cal gru only) ..... Typical R&coilleee Gun Preeaure Design Curves.2 tp +p + 1) + (55a) Solving for p/Y R W . 16 __ 30 20 1 PRESSURE DEmOS 0 o00 0 WO W DISTANCE FROM V.. whereas Equation 24 defines it in terms of biaxial principal stresses.* In regions free from discontinuities. For practical purposes. .... EXIT 40 W 4 00 3 *) FIGURE 42. This theory defines the equivalent stresses. % go A MIMPU WVM 7TAVlg. 49 . the longitudinal stress is assumed to be zero since the frictional forces of the projectile on the tube are small enough to be negligible..1A )Reference Sp 20... Equation 24 becomes Y2W + 1 s WS + 1 2 y' ... the direct radial compressive stress of Equation 26 and the tangential or hoop tension stress of Equation 271).
0.280 1.096 0.1928 1.360 0.0910 1.0861 0.310 0.0605 1.178 0.134 0.123 0.4628 2. 126 0.108 0.020 0.3131 1.152 0.155 0.082 0.1157 1.191 w 1.1 0.2408 1.6116 5.1339 1.142 0.083 0.136 0.124 0.350 1.2417 1.160 0.0363 1.194 0.140 0. WALL RATIOPItESUIRE PATIO CHART FOR MONOBLOC GUN TUBES. y 0.061 0.151 0.0004 2.081 0.181 0.12l 0.2942 1.044 0..118 0.034 1.069 1.1486 1.1260 1.100 0.520 (1.0838 1.0236 1.122 0..0946 1.158 0.490 0.0674 1.1 w 1.2302 1.092 0.172 0.7850 1.1221 1.014 0.2143 1.0257 i.0662 1.170 0.6599 1.0320 1.10 0.021 0.1782 1.1811 1.071 w 1.0802 1.1724 0.1870 1.179 1.580 F A soS .1392 1.154 1.139 1.064 0.9524 3.5134 3.2368 1.430 0.0.1610 1.109 0.082 0.0225 1.1960 3.0493 1.1352 1.9512 4.0790 1.099 0.041 0.1767 1.2081 1.0995 1.163 0.01267 1.210 0.01 1.7408 1.2127 1.017 0.2335 1.300 0.076 0.2518 1.2701 1.019 1.120 0.1624 1.7824 8.0549 1.480 0.058 0.012 0.0826 1.1541 1.084 1.0122 1.0299 0.0142 1.0428 1.1753 0.146 0.141 0.0537 1.490 1.11.027 101204 1.073 0.420 0.1313 1.410 0.1506 1.0958 1.0352 0.1855 0.110 0.075 1.1500 0.0560 1.2222 1.072 0.066 0.1989 1.192 0.0800 2.1196 1.159 0.1446 1.0885 1.0922 0.059 0.1432 1.1378 1.1419 1.150 0.132 0.390 0.188 0.1032 1.0288 1.164 0.4709 1.031 0.1286 1.085 0.22609 1.024 0.09o 0.077 0.167 0.0934 1.0246 0.070 0.078 0.104 0.1710 0.103 0.500 0.149 1.0639 1.8347 1.1513 1.0342 1.260 0.5976 2.3533 1.0849 1.0461 1.1145 1.C88 0.175 0.5571 1.0697 1.079 1.2253 1.2586 1.0374 1.0450 1.0194 0.270 0.065 0.171 0.174 0.250 0.2552 1.1234 1.1247 1.0897 1.171 0.0564 1.0628 1.1943 1.230 0.1365 1.182 0.1094 1.057 0.130 0.2065 1.197 0.560 0.0873 1.048 0.16 0.2174 1.0430 1.165 0.067 0.7578 2.2190 1.1569 1.0111 y 0.102 0.131 y 0.440 0.0515 1.0417 1.330 0.8720 u 0.101 0.5.046 WWI 0.2004 1.01 1.010 0.098 0.0153 0. 185 2.168o 1.____ TABLE 10.2096 1.1473 1.030 0.013 0.0278 0.133 0.0814 0.045 0.290 1.1052 1.086 0.189 1.080 0.0971 0.2384 1.340 1.2434 1.0732 1.540 0.180 0.2469) 2.137 0.136 1.200 0.060 0.2451 1.0Lo3 1.1825 1.119 0.0983 1.320 0.089 1.107 0.570 0.153 0.1170 1.2310 1.0720 1.1273 1.0779 1.179 0.0472 1.144 0.1638 0.380 0.2485 1.148 0.2351 1.0594 1.2159 1.2206 1.0132 1.3472 2.068 0.026 0.4450 0.0331 1.023 0.106 0.1884 1.5267 1.2112 1.400 0..198 1.116 0.1899 1.1738 1.100 0.1326 1.1405 1.1110 1.074 0.220 0.129 11056 1.087 1.1914 1.0743 0.040 0.028 0.143 0.4205 1.2050 1.1045 0.203W5 1.125 n.470 0.161 0.049 0.0173 1.169 0.0526 1.111 0.039 0.196 0.022 0.037 0.3971 1.088 0.1020 1.1527 0.121 0.177 0.0101 1.460 0.1555 1.0651 1.018 0.1680 1.450 0.6234 1.168 0.145 0.15M3 0.0482 1.029 1.1459 1.1909 0.053 0.01 0.117 0.162 0.1290 1.062 0.0767 w 0.025 0.1107 1.052 0.054 0.038 0.115 0.1958 1.2020 1.055 0.2535 1.166 0.0700 1.184 0.050 0.370 0.086 0.157 .0685 1.1840 1.0163 1.113 0.147 1.3747 1.094 1.042 0.2237 1.063 0.016 0.043 0.250 0.2502 0.240 1.093 0.0395 1.8878 1.2286 1.6989 1.186 0.510 0.1O3 0.0755 1.1183 1.09o 0.195 1.097 0.2400 0.0215 1.0616 1.5892 0.1209 1.1089 1.1605 1.1132 1.0300 1.081 0.105 0.112 0.9457 2.0406 1.086 0.033 0.138 0.185 0.0385 1.1007 1.193 0.1974 1.1082 1.3328 0.0571 1.128 0.550 0.187 0.176 0.
21 !'J(onfideiwe 1 ." The wall ratio obtained from Table 10 must be adjusted to an oomuA apparent." n. . the ESP of the gun (which is not used in design). = S. establish the NOP. factor of safety found to be satisfactory in recoilless e(55) gun design is 1.. • W. the elastic strength pressure when the gun temperature is 70*F. 114. s. If desired. TA = F For final tube design.. . by some coincidence. .or. TV(55) 9. In ..0.0555 (55e) yield strength is obtained from curves similar to those in Figure 57 and the expression ESPA. by definition: ESPh. the degraded 115. The apparent wall ratio is computed from Equation 55e. (560) S'I . determine the standard deviation of NOP from the statistical relationship W Io • where N = number of rounds P . .'. The ESP is generally higher than ESPA. the two are equal. CAIP serves as the basis for preliminary dcsign.e." :at" •a. 20 psi/*F is a recommended approximMtion. wall ratio appar. thereby establishing a minimum wall thickness. Thus.. In the absence of such data. psi PIMP where 1.. . deter. DW... .. bift since the upper level promotes greater safety in the de. i.where D. Unless. . t. This eccentricity is defined by the manufacturing requirement which states that "The wall thickness at any point shall not be less than 90 percent of the wall thickness at a point diametrically opposite. (56d) The minimum outaide diameter is then calhulated from the apparent wall ratio. To calculate PIMP... may be obtained by determining the wall ratio using the expression ESPIY in place of ESP." ./Yh. psi/0 F. bec~omesA. mined from empirical data from test gun firings. *F (usually 12501).. inside diameter of tube (generally considered to be the rifling groove diameter plus the tolerance). ARM A sign.1. The minimum outside diameter becomes D. Maximum pressures. the wall ratio determines the required outside diameter. + where IV = wall ratio p ý internal design pressure.recorded pressure of each of N rounds P = NOP (I W. apparent wall ratio from Equation 5Wc.0555W . . it..factor of safety. R )_P_ ~(5c of eA.05 NOP + 70o) + 3ujop A (56b) ' Values of W for various ratios of piY are listed in Table 10.nt w rai factor allowing for 5 percent tolerance on lot to lot propellant variations pressure change per unit of propellant temperature change. For a specified bore diameter or caliber.15. the wall thickness obtained by subtracting the maximum inside radius to the bottom of the rifling grooves from the minimum outside radius must be further modified by considering the permissible eccentricity between the bore and outer tube surface. the more realistic NOP supersedes the CMP to become the criterion for final prototype tube design. To find the wall ratio.05 Ap/AT 1.8 percent Ievel for the presnure variation./YA is substituted for p/Y. The wall thickness obtained in the above proS1 . upper limit of atmospheric temperature for recoilless gun operation. after becoming available from firing tests..ablishes a 9i9. solviiig for II' a jo. This minimum thickness must be maintained despite any variation that may result from manufacturing tolerances and eccentricities. only the plus variation is t u The vahi. either from Table 1i or to compute it from Equation 56b.. . X PIMP where St .
Past experience indieates that a tomp equal to 3 percent of CMP is suitable for preliminary design. obputain Wfrom// 6..0 i i the. with a Atraight taper. Theoretical design data ineludes the CMP which replaces the NOP in Equation 56. The dimensions arc determined by the same procedure as for the final design but based on theoretically computed or estimated design data rather than the more accurate. this is impractical because of high machining costs and bec. .56b but at this early stage 0 N op is not available from test firings and must therefore be estimated and assigned the value of acmp. In some eases..56: ESPI. Present practice approximates the ideal by joining. Therefore. region where i nice is made for ecccitrivity as Ott. optimum weight (56e) (586f is not a design criterion for test guns. Obtain W from Table 10 corresponding to 7. Wall thickness at the muzzle is calculated on the bsso h rsuec basis of the pressure curve established by the NOP. verstrengt~h barrel joins chamtisr. An analysis of the chamber wall shows that the wall can be made slightly thinner if the three principal stresses rather than the radial and tangential principal stresses are considered.70 F) + AT 3 aep (56g) The ratio ap/AT is the same as in Equation .05 NOP is usually made cylindrical. Convert to apparent wall ratio by Equa. . 3. No allowtration at (is'oi1ti1101titis sti(i 1. The axial stress. the required outer surface at the point of maximum pressure to the minimum surface at the muzzle. However.15 PIMP 4. dimete'r. 116. simulated firings of the theoretical gun are performed on an analog computer to obtain a theoretical pressuretravel curve for preliminary design. A tube conforming precisely to Ihis curve represents optimum design. PMMP RMP + 4 (T. Although the wall is strong enough to contain the pressure. 8.)wranv for st uitd. Additional. using Equation . Obtain CMP from ballistician. g t Table 10. the design of the final prototype tube can be established following the same procedure as oumtlined for the preliminary tube. measured data used in the final design. hencev. the wall thickness is increased to 0. usually to P 52 . for preliminary design..1.'1141. Propellant gas pressure at the muzzle of recoilless guns generally varies from approximately I to J of maximum chumber pressure. results obtained from Equations 56a through. A straight taper is provided from here to the location of the maximum wall thickness at the chamber end. it shouhld h used only of (he wail mor. than (ompl)ensa~tes for nmatufacturin regions unaffetd by stmriss raimsrs. The test weapon from which firing data are established has a much thicker wall than either the preliminary or the final tube in order to provide a tube of unquestionable safety.05 CMP + A (T. in the chamber wall is appreciable. Computer information so obtained has proved accurate to within 5 to 8 percent when compared with experimental data.1. and may be outlined as follows: 1. experimental data become available. J CMP replaces NOP in Equation 56b for determining the equivalent PIMP and eventually the minimum outside diameter at the muzzle... Calculate minimum outside diameter from Equation 56d. tion 55e.. The pr(oedure follows that ior final design. a preliminary design of the tube is made.correspon 6. Calculate ESPh. suhseuiei'tly. I) cedurv' di• i lot Iinake anl.corivent. The wall thickness is derived by arbitrarily increasing the design pres2 CMP. However. a.1yip l•0t4'erilles Iifi wvall ratit) foiind in Taleh. Based on field handling experience.'11at10. The resulting plY sure. it usually is not thick enough to provide the rigidity needed during machining and handling.M H"Ll'rII'I)C: 1. te oreimater. the oWNtsiih.11(ý 011sidW sMl'iUCC Additionai relatiotshaps nuclulnh.: RMP .70°F) AT Before experimental data become available for the final recoilless tube design.* This Reference 21.auge of the necessity for thicker scctions in the muzzle region to prevent mechanical damage.15 inch for a distance of about 1. Matching the pressuretravel curve with a corresponding stress curve produces a tube whose profile is also curved. Calculate PIMP from Equation 56b which becomes 0 PIMP ...5 inches from the muzzle. sim. 1. r. Determine from degraded yield strength of the or estimate the temperature degradation data. After sufficient. 2. 56d will be more accurate since estimated design lata will be largely eliminated and actual values us~t instead.
and the third for the permissible individual maximum pressure (PIMP).Poisson's ratio for tube and ring = P.E10 E.000 psi at 300'F (ESPo).. 12.shear per unit circumference at StaQ 4 tions 4. It is determined by equating the radial interference to the sum of the radial deflections of ring and tube produced by the shrink fit pressure and then solving for that pressure. Ma . and inldicates that. E. . and the other indicates the prelsure which will produce equivalent stresses of 140.t.. 3 .000 psi at 70 0 7 (ESP).4l4 + 6 R. 2. the second for firing at. a typical example of which is shown in Figure 42 for a hypothetical rT 2z' • • rs 0 M  . Its mean radius 1`2+ r El flexural rigidity 1 1 ]''(57c) (57b) and the product r 2 (570 The laminated structure is influenced by the individual properties of Region 2 and the ring. approach applied to the barrel wall also should bh applicd to the chamber wall. E. Gimbal Ring Loading. Their respective moduli of elasticity are modified to be "Reference 22. 2.°F air temperature. 117 D)esign data drawings are prepared for each prototype receilless gun designed. 65 VPr mean radius of ring . 5 .' +12( + S. . ta. i.E. Recoilless tubes with shrunk on attachments such as gimbal rings are subjected to discontinuity strecsses induced by the lamina. . 6A.ilily of (Ilicontinuities introd'cing stress concnUtrations pre RING 4/ TUBEt 1 r'7 vails.t. Q3 . One indicates the pressure which will produce equivalent stresses of 170.&• 04. the first for firing at 70°F air temperature. Gimbal RingRecoilless Tube 118.•)(57e) (57d) Other properties are determined by treating the "two members as an equivalent onepiece structure.wall thickness of ring = radial deflections at Stations 4. thf. Figure 43 shows the laminated structure and the diagram of induced loads and deflections. 5 . Two capability curves are also shown. r2.angular deflections at Stations 4. . Kail is. e g57u E.Et. .. 3 of tube E.shrink fit pressure p.internal pressure p . using the formula 11r (57a) = r+.radial interference between rim and Region 2 a wall thickness of Region 1. dh slightly mrconsre rvativ. slighit and th posiiP(M. . = r. The flexural rigidity for the equivalent region is Bid + Ar.t . 5 . D.* The shrink fit pressure is one of the parameters and is assumed to be uniform over the entire cylindrical contact surface between ring and tube. These two curves illustrate the strength capabilities of the tube at ambient and elevated temperatures.wall thickness of ring and Region 2 of tube combined . .E'1(1 . Three pressuretravel curves are shown. The analysis for the discontinuity stresses is based on a procedure developed for recoilless tubes when these tubes are considered as having thin walls. .argurment is silitantial'd ini pargrraph 107 IIo'vever. Ar t. rl = mean radii Region 1.moment per unit circumference at Stations 4. r 8 9 4 Ad ÷$ CoN19CNION 1 gun.equialent modulus of elasticity of combined section M 4 . ii. r Two other parameters include the general expressions D Et'r os FGUEI o4 4L3.) t 53 . t4 + t~(57h) ? 2~. . are approximate but the error is small enough to be negligible. Definitions of Symbols moduli of elasticity of tube and ring . 5 ra.
. At Station .' + + 20 2 . P'O* (58i) 1 are much easier to handle. m) The third is the radial stress due to internal pressure . and M from the two pairs of simultaneous equations. Station 4 the in Figure 43 will shear and moment radius of the laminated structure increase the inside as represented but the shrink fit pressure will tend to decrease it by othe i tue.ssaeioiiewe o it v (.. The shear and moment values are obtained where At is the distance from the interface of the eq'iating the two expressions for deflections at ring and tube to the point in question and is assumed each side of the discontinuity and solving for Q positive when measured outward from the interface. After the values for shear. it is necessary to substitute the set of values of stress at each of these points into Equation 23 to determine which is critical.(17i)1r(t 2~~'iii.are awkward. fRt ~t 2~t a . equivalent (if thiv by 0 and is dhefined by voiii mul(region is denloted . +.Q..M (57k) (57k) (rr77 and the other is producedoiy the radial dfletion and is given by 2XD.P! . Since the maximum equivalent stress may occur at the inner or the outer surface.t. F or th e E (luiv a l en Se c tion e ' 1i0 t Region 2 and the ring combined." . Similar stresses on the gimbal ring and the portion of the tube which it covers are determined by first _ L. applied to th is re g ion .) D+L + 24.r Tea)). The tangential stress produced by the moment is Since general solution...sr.4) 2#M 5 + Q5 For Region 3 at Station Et2 ~~ 7A 8 Rt'+?. (57i) where (PI. Ohe lhec components of stress may be coniputed..58d) h n tesll e s nn Note that the shrink fit pressure is not.h b o e h icc. at. F1. l. Elt 2#AI• + Q4 finding the following parameters: (57p) 1 H = The two components of the equivalent section funetion as a unit under shear and bending particularly since an initial interference exists between them.l)iiit. (57n) "EI t.+ (. .)2 ankgu~lar (57j) The second is the tangential stress which is made One part is produced by the motip of two partsd ment and is giwen by 0. * negative when compressive.. + . 4M  20 D. the substitution of numerical values will result in equations which U y.. ail III(e t wo deflectionis are foul)I1.. and the tangential stress produced by the radial *  54 . r =Elk 4 at Station p 058b) Pe + Q. The first is the axial stress produced by the tnmleint..D.5. E.(58h) 119. 5" 2 Ee\ + Rj) (t8.  Each region of the tubehis isolated to determine the For Region t 64 and radial deflection at th discontinuities. The axial (M7 s) stress produced by the moment is Sby ~2MD + At)++'+BC (57t. PE. The three components of stress in Regioni 2 and the gimbal ring may now be computed.R. + OMA.ThA. amnatd 8C 2X. + +5r (5g 1258g)+ n.)(IvRl.~M 4 ++R.
Stations I and 2 internal pressure p Ql.. outer suirface of Itube or tinner sm~lfav i. shear.. 111 unit bending moments at..I delo..gou hl :. =T E E. For simplicity.. defined by Equation 57b E = modulus of elasticity M.6is the ('4 ioylI 6. ... D. = flexural rigidity of indicated se. 1. for indicated sections At the outer surface of gimbal ring the radial stress is 0.ctions L.l 12?2 tanl) + L (0d (500) C 1 05 f) The terms D and X are those.  'I'he niean radius of the conical section is assumed to he = 0 + PI) (59a) 0 (. ~7. 1. The compatibility equations bsed on 55 . p(580 1 el t.(p. three expressions whieh appear in the compatibility equations are represented by a particular symbol C C..eference to Figure 44.. cylinider and tube~ f = angjle of collical S•lop~e and at. deflection . pressire and is conputed from I li 4 a uain olat Ihl radial stress surfa.mical SCtil a and at Station 2 % ( (S5ec)ti 120.4.8q) where p. t =valuos defined b)y Equoation 57c. The relative deflection due to internal pressure between conical and cylindrical section at Station 1 g. 8.) ( 5 8 p) h.ce of t ube is E.. since the maximum equivalent stress may * to substitute the set of values of stress at each of these points into Equatlion 23 to determine which is the larger.il ly is 2 . + 7'. .. 2\ i .= (t.) (. e o internal pressure at irFIU a.. by ultimately Ti'strcs~svi at each section are found and showing the compatible relationship of angular and linear deflection of the adjacent sections at the two joints.r. 2 r' Again. of Equations 57b and 57e. iii. the component of the internal pressure on the inner surface of the gimbal ring is computed fro th euatonthe moment. The analysis of the discontinuity stresses created at the end points of a conical section of a chamber follows the procedure discussed below with r. = wall thickness of conical sectioni. E'(6 where 5.( f girnhal rhig this stress is 0.58k) t!LLV2 s('redefec'tioi of the gibilm ring (lic to the shrink fit. = P=r .' vt iolu for J{.. QV unit shear at Stations I atd 2 = mean radius of conical section = mean radius of cylindrical section = mean radius of tube D.
' m56 .J.Q on Ssolved SMat I• I/ FOMEO * +. = wall thickness at. + (c \ which is estimated by assuming a straight line variation of radial deflection over a short distance.gramatically the various components contributing to the analysis which is based on procedures dovoloped for recoilless rifles. Sections 2 and 1. and then inserting the known values. D. M.\ CM. . Figure 45..... / + . . Figure 45 shows dia. = radius of nozzle throat t.+ . rvspe cively. defined by Equation 57l) II . " rnit moments at Stations c and n design pressures at Stations c. Q2 CL  ID__ NDOMA .. 4 . n. 2tRefeienrefrom Formula for s8 of Case 3 on page 269 of Reference 24. Al. and Q2 whieh complete the data needed for the radial deflections Sitations I and 2.. Q1 Q (. sections V Poisson's ratio ! The angular deflevtions at. are (C2 1 Q  The computed data and the given pressure are sufficient to determine the primary stress of Equations 58a to 68d and eventually the equivalent stress of Equation 23. 2_1... o r.s l Ised radial dcon floeetion at Stalions 2 and I..* Shear and moment are determined by equating the expressions for linear and angular deflections at c and n. + I CMA = 0 ___IC .modithis of elasticity moduus o elstiet~yiv. n.. Toroidal Section 121. 591) enee 24. . . pp = design pressure at nozzle throat Q0. mean radii at Stations c. _____ + Definition of Symbols = projected area of nozzle A.E 2 . unit shear at Station c and n .+ tions 5ib and 59e for At and A. A 2 . o a = angle of nozzle slope for defined by Elquation Me7c indicated . O +(c. respectively.. are 0yl~l _ * / _ € . Toroidal Sertion Loading. (030a) 2DN' cos a The angular deflection has a pressure component . Q. The radial deflection at n x M.p. X. Stations c.. + Q. o pV. . The analysis at the toroidal section of the chamber involves pressure stresses and discontinuity stresses induced by shear and bending where cylinder and nozzle join the toroid. 1. Q. ttl ii. Equations 59g to 59j may Ie similtaneously for M.'J'he conipat i filty e. 2X 2X V" '. l 0 from Cases 10 and 11 on page 271 of Refer. =. + I + 0 (C. the points of discontinuity. There* )Drived 23.Combined +6D.59k) FIGURtE' 45. The deflections are found from D 5. t.... = flexural rigidity of sections indicated De.. n.. deflections of nozzle and cylinder are found similarly to those in the gimbal ring inalysis (paragraph 118).
radial deflection CENTER OF The angular deflection o 0 2) (60d) 122.n " to t. here r = radius to any fiber of the ring S= (60e) distance from neutral axis to outer fiber.y.o r. Substituting y. the axial pressure forces are found by resorting to numerical integration. In Figure 46. (60m) 57 .•t fore. The analysis of the toroid itself is based on the assumption that its cross section is rigid and sub FIGURE 40.'AFZ 2 where ff the mean radius of the section. The bending stress for the section shown in Figure 46 the outer fibers so that whr where y  Y . At Station C. for y in Equation 60g and solving for y. the internal unit moment of the section MT = f Le• y! r Ay (60h) axis about which all moments of the toroidal section are taken.r area into increments and then performing the numerical integration. with the line indicative of the mean circumference is the r (60g) Correspondingly.41. 123. The total axial force is the summation of the unit axial pressure force on each increment X. .MT )Yk  of where x. ir'r. The intersection of y. are the and 0. . Before proceeding... the total angulnr deflection •'•'• that the nozzle is conical 'hen assnming I"&yjl Q. Arpp. (60i) •r w .0 The summation of forces must be zero since their Both y. 7'oroidal Internal Moment Center. The angular displacement to radial to a uniform angular analysis follows the procedure developed for a ring whose width is large in comparison with its mean radius.s(4. a constant _ y = distance from the neutral axis to the fiber 0 = angle of rotation The normal differential force on any differential area of a section subjected to bending is AF r . including those contributed by the pressure as well as those induced by the discontinuity. and Stations n distances from the endthe nozzle to x. + h i• ~ ilthe ~ E c' ". and f are found by dividing the irregul•. Divide the inner surface of the toroid into small circular increments (Figure 47). 2N. y is measured from the neutral axis * Page 179 of Reference 25.A = cArAy m Ee r ry 7 (60) r The mean radius of the toroid er A (60k) (60ff) directions on each side of the neutral axis are opposite F = LAP = EOZ MArAy . i ihrdrcinady smaue rmoeo displacement and jected onlydeflections.
by equating its expressions in 6Oe and 60v. Q.+ F. Toroidl ExternalLoad& where AF. one being generated by the angle of rotation.('..0 + f(P"Q EA (60v) Maintaining the assumption that the cross section of the toroid is rigid. (60~t) Ay =M. and moment values at the points of discontinuity.MH + M. o.f. the expression for MI. 6. (60r) (60p) ..F. . the angle of rotation must correspond with the angular deflections at c and n.'. therefore of center of increment to neutral Saxis (60x) Direct substitution for 0. v. is eliminated by equating its expressions in Equations 60a and 60w. where F. the crosssectional areas At the nozzle. +yMQ +y.0v) EA  f1Q) AF. Figure By balancing the axial pressure forces in 47. + M. H. This manipulation provides four equations with four unknowns. Nozzle Stresses e.Q.. [F. and 6.Q. . The other is caused by the resultant radial shear acting at the mean circumference..M. the unit moment on the toroid produced by the axial pressure forces taken about the center of pressure M. of Equation 60h Mr .. Radial deflection.pletes the information necessary to compute shear . distance Ay.P. The radial deflection at each juncture has two cornponents. axial pressure force on nozzle juncture.. + .oar FIGURE 47. M.. Being analogous to pressure in a cylinder. yQ. 0. the axial force at the cylinder joint P.) . M.(60s) to rotate the tlroidai section aa CENTER O )NOTATONP ""'°'T~ T A0O ~~ E Since thc external moment must equal the internal moment. primary stresses may be computed from Equations 58a to 58d and then the equivalent stress of Equation 23. M. .F. Clockwise moments being positive. The total radial deflection combining the effects of rotation and shear at the cylinder where A . M.Z•r ly. The location of the axial pressure center is found ... .pressure at the increment by taking moments of the load increments about the radial axis f"  on the toroid becomes the resultant of the projected radial loads. the effective shear s.'. Q. the radial deflection .)]/2r' (60q) The unit moment due to pressure exerted radially is computed directly by the summation of incremental moments about the neutral axis M Zr AyPY where y. and 5. width of increment 124. A procedure with appropriate formulas has The total moment due to internal pressure been developed to determine the equivalent pressure I [ 58 ."YC M.pressure force on each increment p. y... in Equations 60b and 60d puts these equations in terms of unit moment and shear. +Y. . for which values may be obtained by simultaneous solutions. (60n) Z A1F. . After deflections become available..e . .
l (a.urn the sament table.. (61a) A  _  FIGURE 48. = tangential stress factor q. = equivalent stress 0 . A.ratio of specific heats of propellant gases (known) 17.+ 'F I'.t At any nozzle station.e I and is hawed on the 1ýý Henekyvon Mises strainenergy theory of failure. = thrust at at annozzle station =f F. are available for various values of y'.compliment of nozzle slope (kiown) t( .. 2r + 9 t (610.modified thrust factor = thrust factor at nozzle exit = = A Referring to Equation 56c the OD of the nozzle including the allowable eccentricity D. p/p. x area thru any ea P . Pressure and pressure loading are obtained from gas dynamics of onedimenriona! isentropie flow. nominal wall thickness. A nozzle showing pertinent general dimen. from the gas tabhAt for the appropriate and corresponding A/A.radius at any station r. (ld) n rP (61e) By the adaptation of the Henckyvon Mises Theory. The axial and stress thr. consequently a heavier wall is provided which will survive handling. Then +( )TI+ Similarly / 2 \•' F (61b) p 11 2 p. final (known) x = distance..res.a) st. t Reference 26. meridoa (known) dional kon Now. station to throat. = thrust at thrQat where Mach number is unity = equivalent stress factor =. strength material is much too thin for handling purposes. the equivalent stress factor /(fli1) The required wall thickness normal to the nozzle profile (61g) where Y is the minimum yield strength. The wall thickness normal to the nozzle axis i = t.v. F/F.4ions appears in Figure 48. Reference 27. = nozzle throat radius (known) r. find the ratio F/F. dress for the wall of a nozzle at any position. 2tr sin .. Negative toward exit (known) Y = minimum yield strength a y nozzle slope (known) Y . = axial stress factor i. = nzlthotrdu(kw) radius of curvature of nozzle wall. (61e) . where t.* The equivalent stress considers tangential (hoop) and mor dip."obtain tag Theaxiale tangential stress fae~tors are ./sin 0 (61h) design wall thickness (estimated) =. The effective wall thickness assumes that the nominal wall thickness normal to the nozzle profile 59 . Nozzle With General Dimenw s. is the effective wall thickness based on the allowable eccentricity. stes now becoes The eien (1j) 9 Ordinarily.. = pressure at any nozzle station p = stagnation pressure (known) r . obtain p/p.T..nai Definition of Symbols A = nozzle area at any station. the nozzle wall so obtained for high t Reference 26. Corresponding values of the ratios A/A. The equivalent stresses are then computed for the thicker wall..
) (62a) where P is Poisson's ratio.1) 11..s) + D'(l + v)] (63a) ( ' "For the inner jacket.(p . D .Do p. Shrinkage Stresses. Ttw apparent wall ratio r IV . = J (62f) ID of liner O) of liner. pO D.p. Gun tulbs are high pressure vessels that must be made of high strength material to hold wall thicknesses within reasonable limits.053 (61m) The stresses are bamed on the wall whose a'lowable eccentricity now shows a minimum effective wall thickness of (61n) t' = r(W . page 299. .* .  0. . . For the liner.DP (62d) the aet tual wall ratio IV . (61k) (Olk. poD'ý .) the general expresmion for tangential and radial stresws for internal and external pressures pi and po.. [D3l( . D. D Substituting for t. are . Depending on high tensile strength alone will not always satisfy weight requirements so the designer must resort to other techniques to augment the inherent strength of the tube. ID of inner jacket OD of liner jacket. The tangential strain of a cylinder may be expressed as . D = any diameter. (62c) For this outer jacket. + 0. and o. The equations for determining the interference between cylinders of a three layered tube are derived below.. The techniques involve mechanical procedures. The change in inner jacket OD.. The change in diameter is WDet 6 Dr •A' e.p) D'"I 2 D.)  ! D(62e) Su1bstit'lting for r. • (uj D.I ham incorporated Ohe allhwalph. One such is multilayer construction .. and the tube jacket.v) + D2(1 + v)] (03b) I  vo. p. 126. We find this in the quasi twopiece tube (Figure 4) where the cap is threaded to and shrunk over the tube to serve in the multiple capacity of chamber.(pD. The use of more than three is rare in the gun tube field.D. Jacketed Construction 125. The amount of interference between cylinders of a two layered tube is equal to the total deflection of Equation 32c. p. in Equation 62c. DA . ) (62 b ) The second operation is shrinking the outer jacket over the linerinner jacket composite tibe. The methods for determining wall thickness and shrinkage pressure are presented in Part H3.I.947 W.Reference O ED'. D =]D EL  p". . liner retainer.pd) D D'..ps. p. D( i)+D( Ia) (0)  j 601 [ . Sometimes the nature of the tube struc..pDi + .Dv. ture dictates the method of construction.. ID of outer jacket OD of outer jacket The first operation is shrinking the inner jacket over the liner.2.D•.D' . + 0. For the composite tube. . 'p. = iniide diameter outside diameter D. eccentriity.. Stress Compensating Measures a. [D'(1 . = . The change in its ID ai. v .! .. p. O) 18.ders.v) + D(1 + P)] (03)  [D+ P. .D +  . D.~ ~ . iTni accuruing to itelerenve 14. = p.. The change in OD of the liner is Di . = 0.0.D .pD'.ornprising two or three shrink fitted concentric cylir. nie'(clt ively. D. p. + •. = P).IV + 1. The change in ID is From Lamd's solution for thick walled cylinders. D2 D.. r(p. Di !5 D _< D. p) + where D.D' )[D2(I . p. D o.D2 . 2 D.
. Autofrettage or sclfhooping is a method for prestressing thickwalled cylinders which has been Ssuccessfully applied to gun tubes. the outside of the tube must be prevented from straining beyond the yield point. : =2 . = inside diameter of tube Y . Substituting for r.P. (65a) YIn  6) Pt.a. . the tube will respond elastically and will be safe for any pressure which does not exceed the autofrettage pressure or its equivalent. for p. where. and then for Equation 65c Il.3 f) Hlereafter. = outside diameter of tube D.eomes  127..rtea%. Y In r  "0 A where W.yield strength of material In terms of the elastic strength pressure (ESP). p. is the allowable stress of the material in shear.. the residual stress here is f Y  p° (66d) or. When the stress inducing Sagent. Therefore (66c) C.Autofrettage2 (63e) (6. When r . 2 Reference i8. Since the container induces extemal pressure on the tube.t where r.(P. residual tensile stresses will remain in this region Prestressed in this manner. Tube wall thickness is determined from the allowable stress and the strength of the material. the resultant stress on the outer surface induced by the allowable pressure is 2 I = + p  (5c) By substituting the expressions for a.. and is equal to J(o. according to Equation 25. Clearance between container and and tube should be so arranged that the outer surface of the tube is on the verge of yielding at autorettage pressure. Equation 432. 61 .1.08Y In W. (66) Referenee 28. (64b) Y In D (64a) Y . 1= . When autofrettage is performed by applying a constant hydrostatic pressure along the full length the mstb peof the bore. = p. either hydrostatic pressure or oversized aet eihe hyrotai presse.p . Based on the MaximumShearStress Theory Y 2r. and (66b) aY In r + C where r is the general term for radius and C is a constant of integration. and p.6. a.. + 61. because the recovery from the outer strain is not complete. ouversfizedb mandrel is removed. in terms of diameters D u. When D = DA. the pressure that the tube can sustain.The required interfereines between liner ai inner jacket and t. the internal diameter. Watervliet Arsenal has found experimentally that this pressure in a finished tube is ESP .Y In r. oa. Reference 18. the outer radius. the outer surface will contract an "in effort to recover its original size. the upper limit of the hoop stress is due to the autofrettage pressure. Substituting in Equation O0e. Ptr Y In p. substituting AJ for D.where D. It follows the technique of stressing the inner portion of the wall beyond the elastic region but not exceeding the yield on the outer surface. b1.r. Since the outer surface is stressed to the yield point by the autofrettage pressure. and . thus.6"' + a. The contraction will compress the inner wall to induce mub)stantial compressive stresses.) j_"c (65d) This shows that the tube will be safe for all working pressures which do not exceed p/ 128. Equation 427.). Even the thickest part of the tube should be restrained as a safety measure. whose value is determined from the boundary conditions. the external pressure.. is the wall ratio of the finished tube. both internal and exteral pressures must be included in the analysis.etween the inner and outer jackets are..Au. ptge 39. The autofrettage pressure p. The restraining cylinder is called a container. Meanwhile. .
Light weight being a major design criterion for recoilless tubes.D.. 21E where me AD.ttanwVr. and the tube dilation induced by the propellant gas pressure. 4 . thin walls and high stresses with large bore dilations become axiomatic. .. + D.430D (71a) where 0 . is D 1 W .t Excessive clearance between projectile and bore surface was responsible.) ... Such large bore dilations must he compensated for. When autofrettage is performed with an oversized mandrel.p.002 inch was found satisfactory.ID of tube and nominal diameter of mandrel The deflection of the mandrel D. This clearance comprised the nominal clearance.82. Tube size is determined from Equation 64a and the equivalent autofrettage pressure also from Equation 64a. ýP' . be any reasonable value provided that its stress remains in the elastic range. Accuracy was eventually improved to an acceptable level by providing a small interference between projectile and bore.shear modulus A . When D . (pensation. the mandrel diameter (71d) A + A. 131.p. The effective aut~nfr. the inside diameter of the container is D.4. 62 1 .(1 + •)I (69a) OD of the Where container. Strain Compensation 130. 6. The deflection of the inside diameter of the tube S 4 D. the object is to induce stresses equivalent to those developed by the hydrostatic pressure method. the tolerance.. This was demonstrated by one recoilless gun whose inaccuracy was traced to the balloting of the projectile as it traveled through the tube. [V .. Here rifling diameters are standard in order to seat the projectile.PO D. also from Equation 62c. In practice a nominal interference between front bourrelet and bore of 0. Y . Theoretically. from Equation 66a into Equation 66e. for p. + A. The inner diametral tube and ID of the DA . Reference 28. This development led to thr introduction of strain compensating tubes whose initial interferences compensate for the dilation of the tube resulting from gas pressure. p. t.. the corresponding outer diametral deflection of the tube is . from Equation 02c. (71c) Therefore.P. by substituting the allowable pressure.. Equation 8.D.the nominal deflection of the container. the tensile stress at any point in the tube wall after autofrettage pressure is fully applied )D. for Y. . Reducing clearance and tolerance did not help materially. . (68b) (a) corresponding and. The diametral clearance between tube and container preceding autofrettage is . (70) 129.I The tube wall thicknes:4 is determined fromn Equation 64d. the interference should equal the diametral deflection induced by the propellant gas less the desirable clearance.Y I11 (67) The required interference between tube and mandrel A. 12. and the allowable stress.51 + 6.D. Generally only a very highly stressed tube with corresponding large deflection requires strain cornThe technique of strain compensation as applied to recoilless tubes is fairly new and until t Reference 29. (69e) Therefore. At the rear bourrelet the diametral interferonce necessary to achieve normal projectile action in the bore is computed to be (72) . Substituting for a.desired clearance between bore and projectile during dilation E = modulus of elasticity P = propellant gas pressure = wall thickness The restricted bore is relieved for a short distance at the start.i + (1 b) wall ratio of the container which may where W.
:r'.  . When three tubes art shrunk together. I. Where liners are designed solely for the purpose of prolonging tube life. the rearward flow to the cap is interrupted. 63 . Later. On the other hand artillery tubes have large diameters. thereby inducing the temperature drop which may be observed in Figure 9.am) 132. heat flows from here in either direction. Further benefit is derived from the gap at D. . it must be as one of the constituent members.a')(c' b') (7a) .tn.n. strength is secondary. are arranged so that a positive seal material. a inner radius of assembly b = intermediate radius of assembly c = outer radius of assembly 6 = total radial deflection at intexface.I procedure is practiced at Springfield Armory. '. when the liner of a multilayer tube extends along the full length as shown in Figure 3. Since the hottest region of the tube is near the forward end of the liner. lPractical shrink fit experience determines the compatibility between interference limits and liner length. machine gun has a wall thickness of approximately + bV + + + 1 Q2b'+a' + a. Part C.modulus of elasticity of jacket EL = modulus of elasticity of liner pi . tively. Not only does the liner prolong tube life. izes at B.. ~ . and at C. between liner and tube.. During assembly this clearance may disappear as the liner is inserted. as in small bore tubes.• . Liners in small arms are limited to about 6 inches.  J (73b) where Ej . The practice of assembling the liner by shrink fit limits its length if. E(b' .. the shrink fit pressure is computed first for the interference between the inside and middle layers. Awilehll. the clearance between heated tube and cool liner is also small.. Such liners if made only as thick as required for machining and handling are generally adequate to transmit torque and. For example. The comparatively cool chamber wall relieves two sources of trouble. have the inherent advantage of developing low shrink fit pressures. Referring to Figure 4. subject to the same design requirements as the other members.62 mm j inch.. the ends of the liner and cap. D. the shrink fit pressure becomes ..~ . to etHablish firm (]esign the interference for shrink fit has been established '. J QUASI TWOP!tCI TUD 134. consequently. Available insertion time and hence liner length depends on how soon the heat from the tube expands the liner to a diameter which prevents further travel. resultant stresses throughout the composite wall can be computed by applying the appropriate method.* If T'*. but the shrink fitted memberg increase the strength while the arrangement of the structural components inhibits extreme temperatures at the chamber.1.ieity. The quasi twopiece tube (Figure 4) represents a small arms lined tube which aptly illustrates the advantages of the lined type. diametral interference limits vary from 0. the shrink fit pressure is readily computed. = Poisson's ratio of liner Once the shrink fit pressures become known. A sample calculation demonstrating the procedures appears in Chapter 8.. As it reaches the gap.0002 to 0. 133. ventional clearan(es must he conducted to detiermine whether ecessary. However. as for small arms.i Sprocedures. One. respee... Liners should preferably extend through the total length of the bore but if their lengths are restricted.n. these liners must he strong enough to develop and transmit the rifling torque afnd to withstand the collapsing pressure of shrink fit. However. this composite tube is treated as one homogeneous tube to find the pressure between middle and outer layers of tube.. the liner for the 7. more time is available for assembly to permit the installation of long liners.. firing test using prototypes with conSt . t Reference.Poisson's ratio of jacket pi. page 242. gaps at A and D. For small arms.0012 inch. Shrink fit pressures and stresses arc computed for the maximum'interference to insure against liner collapse. The pressure between or not strain comnmptiwati ii is two tiihpA of likc material is AT' " where i. LINER DESIGN through practice... 25. If 'he mating tubes have different modulii of elav. between cap and liner. clearances due to heat expansion are correspondingly large. they should at least cover the regions of the forcing cone and the first part of the rifled bore where erosion is normally most severe. . being thin and therefore less rigid.
__1.
___............ ______.............
Threads 13:6. Thread(ls varry the;,' load in shear, A v' i
the shear stress •,.n'vs.Ve Method for ('onhJpllt.ing V
Joini Wiih BHdted End. FIO(URIN 49., 'Threr,,ded
ass'imlls the shear area to be formed at. the meani
dliameter of the thru, d. Eliminating the p:pauc lbetween. the threads, only half the length of the engaged threads can he considered, The shear stress lbeomns F
jrD~h
its low tenperature limits thermal expansion and hence clearances between chamber and cartridge case are maintained to limits which preclude ease. rupture. Two, the small heat flow to the chamber deters cookoff tendencies. The gap may be small since the two mernbers affecting the gap D are of the sarme material, therefore, changes in temperature will not disturb it. The difference in linear coefficernts of expansion between steel and liner material require that the gap at the end of the liner be wide enough to compensate for the excess thermal expansion( of the liner, since liner materials generally have the larger coefficient. The gap at amrbient tempeiatures should be L , (aL  a,)L AT where weber L  liner length AT change in temperatures a,,  coefficient of linear expansion of liner a,coefflieient of linear expaision of tube, Present practice hat; AT  1000*F a,  a,  5 X 10 in/in/*F when liner is stellite and tube is steel (74)
(75)
where D. F L = !nean diuneater of thread  force on thread, general expression = length of engaged threads
137. When qui(ik detachable asseniblis b)e(ome necessary, interrupted threads are used. These are Usually ares, buttress, or square threads (Figure 50). The latter two are more often used in small arms. Interrupted threads are made by removing half the thread periphery alternately along a varioua numof segments on the two mating components (Figure 51). After sliding the two pieces together, only a fractional turn (the reciprocal of the number of segments) is needed to realize total engagement. in artillery design, all engaged threads are assumed to be acting whereas in small arms design, a much
more conservative philosophy is adopted by assum
ing that only one thread carries the full load. Shear and bearing stresses determirne the feasibility of the design. 138. In artillery, breech ring is attached to tube
K MgC3IANICAL I'3ATURg$
135. The structural components which help to moderate, support, ad transmit firing loads to the mount, or other supporting structure must have some convenient., functional, and strong means of attachment to the tube. Eslablished methods inelude threaded connections for axially loaded comportents and keys for torsionally !oaded ostes. Screw threads shoild conform Io imified thread standards.* Threads should never be used to align and position a corriponent in an assembly. Wear due to continued takedown and reassembly and local failure at. the entering end will advance the travel of the threaded joint at each tightening. Continued alignment and positioning ate assured by machining off the incomplete thread so that the two mating pieces will mutually 4utt against finished surfaces, and by providing' sleeve contact, as shown in Figure 49. Refer4W'e I0, 64
by interrupted threads. The larger caliber wýapons in the small arms category am similarly attached but complete screw threado (UN) are used for the smaller calibers. The maximum load appearing on these threads is based on the maximum propellant gas pressure and the rear chamber area for separate
Wi VME TREAD
1)
•W4
TRA
(
WI1)
THRAD I
IEsS
FIURBE 50. Thread Profile Types.
loaded ammunition, or the internal area of the base fnr. flvn, omi , im,•itn,, ,, nu'
S,. lk,,n nn~rlr;A
INTERRUPTED THREADS
'..
..... • ,• .. p .....
........ .... ... o. ...... ... X m
 BREECH BLOCK
:
F, = p.r
where
D.
(70)
D, = rear chamber diameter or equivalent F,  thread load por = maximum propellant gas pressure 139. Threaded joints in the chamber of recoilless tubes are designed on the basis of a Watertown Arsenal IAboratory method which assigns the maximunw load on any one thread as one hMf the total load.* Stress concentrations at the root of the threads are emphasized. Four stresses are involved: the di
A PO
rect shear, the direct bearing, the fillet bending,
and the net section tensile stress. The letter two are influenced by concentrations factors which are readily available.t Figure 52 shows the cross section of a chamber joint with an enlarged view of the thread showing dimensions and loads where C  clearance II,  depth of thread D. p, rS = = ; mean diameter of thread pitch of thread walt ihekn~ at olntThe corner radius of fillet and rounded
BREECH RING FIGURE 51. Interrupted Threads.
carried by one thread and concentrated on the mean circumference, the unit load
 2
(77a)
The Jirect Phear stress at the mean diameter Fr pdirect bearing stress
77" d,
2. P, F.(7c F7 
(77b)
i=:wall thieknegs at joint
,w = width of thread at root diameter The total load on the threads is computed from Equation 76. Since half the load is assumed to be • Reference 31. t References 32 and 33.
0",C
2r
The net tensile stress through the wall I.k
2F.
(77d)
IA
DETAIL (al JOINT OvItZZE
1
65
It ,FIGURE
..
M) TREAO DETAIL
52. Threaded Joint.
; ~y 7design philosophy of the idtachments. One of these
CIN 'have provisions, as with other gun tubes, is the gunner's il a 1Ai.• ,)L, m iown Figure 54. iEach tube must ,t . ;1 flats on which to rest the gunner's quadrant during engineering tests. The flats are machined on collars integral with the tube and arv spaced between chamber and trunnions, but located as close to the trunnions as convenient. The surface established by the two fiats must be parallel to the trunnion axis laterally and to the bore axis longitudinally. 3. Muzzle Attachments 142. Muzzle attachments comprise muzzle brakes, flash suppressors or hiders, blast deflectors, and sights. Sights at the muzzle are usually confined to shoulder arms and machine guns and fit into dovetailed slots or are clamped around the tube. Muzzle brakes, flash suppressors and blast defiectors are threaded or clamped to the muzzle. Threads, being the better arrangement, may be the interrupted type. If necessary, the wall thickness at the muzzle is increased to keep the root diameter within the limits commensurate with pressurestrength requirements. Axial loads predominate and are induced by recoil acceleration and propellant gas pressure. L. GUN TUBS MATERIALS 143. Gun tube material must have diversified properties. It must have high strength to withstand the high propellant gas pressures. It must be ductile to be able to respond favorably to the repeated quickly applied and released loads. It must be resistant to the erosive action of hot propellant gases and the abrasive action of rotating bands. These properties must be maintained throughout the temperature range of  05*F to approximately 2000F. The latter temperature is estimated as that of the bore surface after continuous firing of a machine gun. No one material meets all these requirements. If one material has the needed strength, it may be susceptible to erosion; if erosion resistant, it may be too brittle. Combinations in the form of liners and plating overcome these deficiencies to an appreciable extent. 1. Steel 144. Alloy steel is the nearest approach to an ideal gun tube material. Although some materials excel it in erosion resihtance, it responds favorably to erosion activity when subjected to other than sustainec automatic firing. Erosion resistant materials
FIGURE 63. RWi$ng Torque Reaction. where k. is the stress concentration factor. The fillet bending stress is based on cantilever beam analogy. 3 3k, F(77e 2 (77e)
2. Rifling Torque Transmitters 140. To transmit rifling torque effectively from tube to cradle and to prevent the tube frow rotating, cradle and tube are keyed together. The riffing torque reacts on the key and bearing whose moment arm extends from the key to the center of the asumed triangular distributed load on the projected diameter. According to Figure 53, the key load is 8 T 18 d(78) where T is the maximum rifling torque obtained from Equations 18 or 19. The shear stress on the key and the bearing stress on the keyway are, respectively,
SL
iL

(7Oa) (7 (79b)
"h where h  depth of keyway L length of key  thickness of key
141. Recoilless tubes exert, littie or no external forces. Both recoil force and generally rifling torque are balanced by the nozzle discharge. Therefore, supporting structures need only the rigidity and strength necessary to support the weight and hold the gun firmly in firing position. Light clamps or rings around the tube or lugs integral with the chamber provide attachments for the supports. Pas of handling rather than strength becomes the 66
I1
like most other materials. The curves in Figure 55 illustrate the progressive strength decay with temperature rise for SAE 4150 and chromemolyvanadium steels.a gun tubes is not always unfavorable. massivcnes.. T . but apparently the barrel is still strong enough to sustain the high pressures of propellant gases.Me[ SMILUR PeADIUS FI(MUiJU 54. this position assures each blank a uniform exposure to heat and coolant to produce steel of near homogeneous properties. A considerable loss in ultimate and yield strengths develops between 000 and 1300'F. the time interval of load application is short indicating that the strength of the material at elevated temperatures is greater under Tubes made from heavy stock require a high degree of hardenability so that the specified heat treatment can develop the desired properties in the interior without developing excessive hardness on the exterior. Various steels are Table 11 for the different categories of gun tubes. particularly in small arms after sustained firing. 145. Best heat treating results are obtained when the blanks are held verticalli during heating and quenching.•. Extreme hardness should be avoided to prevent brittleness. With sufficient space between them.e requirements of steels generally used for tubes. However.0   dynamic loading than it is under static loading." .• lolsteh 1 0 FI(URE 55 Effects of Tentperature on Tensile Strength of "Reference 34. Steel. Although considerable rest'arch is being conducted in the field of high rateofloading sufficient progress has not been made to understand and incorporate this phenomenon into a design criterion. used either as liners or as plating on the bore surface. lF'igure 56 shows meehanica' properties corresponding to various tempering ternm peratures. However.. duced which function as autofrettage activity... In this respect. undergoes a change in strength at elevated temperatures. SA E 4 1S0 and 'r.MoV Bteela. 146. designatedlists the chemical. increase tube life consi~1erahly. 67 . These stresses actually help relieve pressure stresses since thermal stresses are compressive at the inside surface." The low strengths may be disturbing when one realizes that gun tubes reach these high temperatures. pages 20 vid 30. Decarburization and formation of adherent scale should be avoided. Steels used for artillery and recoilless tubes are similar to those of small arms except that the  1. • ec  . heavy tubes being correlated to low recoil accelerations. some compromise must be reached between tube weight and recoil force. Gutnner's Quadrant Flats. This phenomenon is demonstrated in machine gun barrels heated to temperatures whore strength has decreased by 90%. Alloy steel is unmatched in strength but does not necessarily have the best strengthweight ratio in the tensile strength range needed for gun tubes. Furthermore.. i.  oc atgr of0 gun * tues . Heating should be done in furnaces having controlled atmosphere. because of temperature gradients across the tube wall stresses are in.
Btu/lb/F. in/in/*F.50'• 1.10 9.do not exceed 0.. Titanium is 40 percent lighter than steel.40 0.470.35 0.00 0. ENfects of Tempering Temperature on Tensile Titanimn alloyt. heat transfer coefficient * \   . has favorable qualities particularly for recoilless gun tubes where it has been used successfully.75i .35 0.300.15 0.400. tube blanks are straightened while hot.470. Io. zoefficient of linear expansion h.65 P(Max) 0. phosphorous and sulfur content.55 0.2. Although not subjected to as elevated temperatures during firing as tubes in rapid fire weapons. These are defined as k. pages 218 and 221. .150. and the heat transfer coefficient.200.35 1. * Reference 35.25 0.00 Ni.40 S(Max) 0(Us 0./ (Quanfities ahown in percent) Steel ORDl 1052 ORD !1155 Re'S' 0.55 0.701.. 2. the values shown by the curves are those for SAE 4130 and 4140 steels" and may be considered "as applying to gun steels as well. In conjunction with these curves. X 1     properties  Heat transfer coefficients for various size tubes at various temperatures appear in Table 13.801. Other useful information includes thermal conduetivity.12 t 1.40 0. Differences in which may exist between those shown in the ctuwes and those of gun steels will not be so large as to affect tube design.70 0..410.40 0..35 0. as gun tube material.204).751..00 01080.I TABLE' 11.35 Cr . thermal conductivity k. When necessary. Btu/hr/ft`/*F.150.40 0.04  0. linear coefficient of thermal expansion.40 t. Because all physical property data for gun steels are not available.401.000 psi.054). and a are plotted in Figure 58.000.creasing FIGURE 50.W01. c. specific heat.25 0. Processing the blanks follows a routine similar to that for small arms tubes.50 . it is resistant to most corrosive It is readily shaped and heat treated.200...00 0.30 0.w some I no NNmedia.o1. Curves for k.62 Mn i1. ?110" . Titatium Alloy 14"7. specific heat a.55 0. Some alloys have tensile strengths of over 160. by heating them to temperatures which do not exceed the tempering temperature. CH1EMICAL REQUIRRINMENTS OF STEEL. leveloped spedsficlly for recoilless tubes. Intemperatures to 8W0*F increase toughness.10 0. Figure 57 shows the effects of temperature on two gun steels. Mo € ORD 41fiG OR4D 4150 ItemS* €•oV0.3$b 0.11(0 0. 68 . At ambient temperatures.015 percent thereby reducing the machineability but decreasing the brittleness..16 0.200. Tubular blanks are held upright with empty bores during heating and quenchiug for a uniform application of heat and coolant both internally and externally.5i00. artillery and recoilless tubes nevertheless reach tern peratures at which significant strength reduutians occur. Table 12 lists the required reductions of area at ambient temperature and the Charpy Vnotch impact requirements at 407F for various ranges of yield strength for the modified SAE 4330 steel.tD 4330V (Mod + Silt )0.200.00 0.40 0.40 0.300.201.0500() Si 0.  .\ WP.200.801.30•1. Strength of SAN 41650 Steel. t Reference 37.04 0.ff 0.4"4. Btu/scc/ft 2 / F/in.
Except for recoilless applications.Is 1 a. Titanium also has many limita . The coefficient of sliding friction is high while sliding surfaces gall and seize. 9w. 69 . titanium has poor retention of mechanical properties (Figure 60). Eff~cle of Temperature on Tensile Blrength of Typical Steels for Re~oillese Tubes. 12 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Long 25 23 21 19 17 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 ftlb. and resist lubrication. wear poorly. 27 25 23 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Long 39 38 38 37 37 36 36 3 35 35 35 34 34 34 Min. The effects of aging processes on tensile strength are shown in Figure 59. Corrosion resistance at high temperatures i poor. e. 4330V (Mod + S) Steel l'ercent Rteduction (of Area Average Trai. NO. Not 'iC" only in the origin of rifling region where tempera tures are high and the severe abrasion of engraving c . 18 17 16 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 Long 30 29 29 29 29 28 28 27 27 27 27 26 26 26 Impact value at 40' Average Trans. these deficiencies render titanium practically useless as tube material.I1YU I 0 INFIGURE 58. Single Value Trans. Above 800F. Mechanical properties vary considerably. Single Value Trann. 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Long 21 20 18 16 14 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 The upper limit in each range Isone les than the lower limit In the sueoedlng ranse.180184.g.)  tions.b E 0• t Yield Strength 1000 psi 160 1 170 175 180 185 190 b20 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 TABLE 12. but tensile and yield strengths decrease. Min.1" 140 .gvwe FIUE47. : mks fold.4t... Physical Propertiusof Steel. REDUCTiON OF AREA AND IMPACT REQUIREMENTS. even within lots. while the modulus of elasticity remains practically unaffected. It is a poor thermal conductor and therefore susceptible to high thermal stresses.
29 2.57 5.14 3..66 10.42 10. in nozzles where gas velocities are considerably higher.39 800 8.28 14.83 3.04 10. but also in the rest of the bore the erosion rate is extremely high under normal firing conditions.12 2.60 2.03 11.32 2.62 3.48 2.75 24.41 3.5 2. Temperature Difference from Tube Surface to Air 50 2.10 2.29 3.88 3.63 12. HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS.20 11.00 * Wt.52 2.15 200 3.98 8.72 2.50 10.65 2..65 12.38 9. However.46 12.84 13.06 2.S Uwe . Effect# of Aging Processes on Tensile Strength of Titanium at Various Temrpratures.30 5.65 14.84 1.16 4. Allo.60 6. h*.90 1200 14.40 8.07 5.43 8.70 500 5.64 100 2. W W woo l """o takes place.50 5.70 e1 7. and bore.89 7. facorymetodtubes are worthless.82 2.47 4.98 2.75 3.83 4.93 150 2.28 1100 12.37 700 7.73 900 9.27 2.72 300 3. a0 10 a 'M.*F. any bore surface protection must be provided with liners.93 1.72 5. (For Horisonlla bare ateel tube in atmosphere at 800P) Tube OD (in) 96 1. 36. Recoilless tubes erode at a rate les than either artillery or small arms tubes primarily because engraving action is eliminated by preengraved rotating bands and the propellant gases move at relatively low velocities. I 0 o ni '40 vtih~ YIELD sot 4#I~ lowI1• ail   i  FIGURE 89.57 9.76 2. the protection offered by thin steel liners inhibits rapid erosion thereby converting the otherwise vulnerable titanium nozzle to one as effective as steel..85 2.09 13.99 4.73 9. 148.T5 7.24 2. Effects of Temperature an Strength of Titanium stha A lloy. the advantages ofa titanium outweigh the disadvantages.25 7.33 4.02 3.48 14.89 2.71 1.93 13.13 3.76 6.20 3.21 9.18 4.33 3. 70 a°it .89 8.45 250 3.52 Marmiu pap 179.1'4 "m MSEIPE vinllilll~l %. The adequate erosion and strength properties can be maintained only in the chamber suplingadheen muain FIGURE 60.92 6.83 1000 1.03 1.01 2.38 2.48 600 6.03 400 4.27 12.07 7.05 8.52 6.25 8. Low firing rates also keep temperatures at levels where tensile strength and erosion resistance are maintained. The chemical composition of titanium alloys should be selected and specified to meet physical TABLE 13.76 1. Since no satis factory method for been developed.21 6.lum surfaces wear away rapidly.61 4.11 6.88 4.95 10. Unless given a protective coating of some titanium orapplying adherent coatings has sort.47 3.68 4. For recoilless application.81 12.01 1. titar.41 2.16 2.10 12.
ineluding the specific strength and the ratio of tensile strength to specific gravity. Table 10. 71 . 120.less than the lower limit In the .0 126. Reference 38. Even so. Others are in the experimental stage. ) 4. However.2 29. high strengthweight ratio 3. restricted to special applications such as the expendable tube. 1.190 Mechanical properties are obtained by heat treatment so that the values arranged in Table 14 will correspond with the specified strength limits. These advantages are summarized: 1. offer many advantages that may be applied to gun TABLE 15. By being able to last for several rounds.7 Actual Tensile Str. usable in temperatures as high as 4000 to 600F 4. gr.50) have been tested for expendable weapons. 0. the aluminum tube must be lined or plated with erosion resistant material.000 to is one rs.7 Specific Str. hydrogen.000. "_ ______ impurities tolerated are: carbon. Plastics have poor retention of strength at moderately high temperatures but improve hi this respect when reinforced with fibrous glass. fiberglass reinforced plastics. 81. but are shown as mere approximations of one type of each material. nitrogen. others maintain their strength fairly well to 400*F. Both temperatures are exceeded during extended firing. 0. Ave Yield Strength (0. tubes. hydrogen. consequently discouraging the use of aluminum for gun tubes for any but special cases. Ave Ave Vnotch 0. and oxygen if present in more Siuau TABLE 14. Aluminum 149. in their present state. As gun tube nmaterial. Reference 38. Preengraving may extend its life a little longer but. low specific gravity 6. Aluminum tubes (cal.uch as carbon. The values in Table 15 are not optimum for the various materials. . oxygen 0.000.000. At least one sporting gun currently on the market Las a fiberglass barrel with a steel liner. 3. 30. In general. RP. are in 'the same category as aluminum.e. Specific Gravity op.7 9.0. te slow fire.000.' TS/up. psi 80.01%. aluminum alloy tubes are limited to moderately elevated temperatures and hence. gr. Material FRP Aluminum Mod of Elasticity B X 10' psi 5. high impact strength 5.9 2. provided that steel or other type liners are used to weather the erosive activity of propellant and projectile. 30. PROPERTIES OF REPRESENTATIVE GUN TUBE MATERIALS. 140 14O11 180 10 Iteditction of Area % 29 26 23 21 18 18 Charpy Impact (40°F) ftlb 15 12 11 10 14 12 170 180 190 200 210 8 8 7 7 16 14 13 8 8 7 7 Tuc pper limits.10% offset) Elongation % 1000 psi 120 13. to prolong its life appreciably. t Table 13. Plastics 150.* Table 18t shows the relative properties of several representative gun tube materials. chemically resistant 7. Generaliy the maximum . Note that the plastic material far sur. 28.000. Some of the alloys weaken appreciably at 2007F. 240.ee radnp. plastics.04%. rapid fire. Interstitial impurities .05%. Titanium Steel 4.. psi 152. MINIMUM MECHANICAL PROPERTY ___rT_"_ j o a sew wzinuu one percent promote brittieness and notch fatigue. just a few fired rounds removed the rifling completely from the bore.m0.000. 4 .000. no data are available on their ability to withsti0nd the high temperatures generated by prolonged. nitrogen. They were not durable. aluminum tubes are well suited for the expendable weapon.requirements.8 8.0 16. low cost A review of the various resin types indicates that phenolic resin offers the best properties as gun tube material. relatively high strength 2.inoh mnp12910. i.
llomsm 36.4 1. 5.2 16. OF BRom 1000 l0o 100 UT(8 100D poi i01. The mechanical properties at various temperatures are listed in Table 17.000 psi. cobalt and copper are too low.1 86. t Reference 40.3 36. Chromium 152.0 35.4 38.D0 70400 70400 701000 *dwa. the mechanical properties of Stellite are ideally suited for liners. Its specific strength of 44.0 35.5 49.0 3.9 24. Blank liners are received as tubular castings which are precision machined to fit the tube. 16 hr. This leaves chromium as the only metal that can be electrodepocited and can approach the chemical * efere 39. Stellite 21 has the following chemical composition: 0. •gaw a clearance limitations during shrink fit assembly (ee Chapter 6I.3 39.18 Temp.0 49. TABLE 17.7 23.0 19. Red Aremi % 9. At high temperaturns.229 lb/in and the thermal coefficient of linear expansion over several ranges of temperatures. 2. X. Although Stellite is brittle at ambient temperatures.3 4. cobalt and coppert. tungsten. Although machine gun tubo performance has been imptwed remarkably.8 15. 4W.7 2.8 6. Of the various high temperature resistant masterials tested for small arms tube liners.0 1.4  A R b H D A A 100 1300 180 1600 1700 lo lEMO B: 1350"F.22% C.* x iu pr F eF 7.0 33. The melting points of nickel.0 71.5% Mo 27. nickel.000 psi is better than steel but still far below that of the glass fiber reinforced plastic. Stellite liners am restrited to short legths primarily because of Physical properties available include the density at 3 70*F of 0.72 8.68 8. % 8. 5.1 74.TABLE 16. Stellite has the best prerties.6 42.3 61. tantalum. Of the remainhig. more rounds can be Jired at faster rates than with other materials.7 23.2 5. 0.A 7..0 8. Itange 7F 701500 701600 701800 a X 101 per °F 8.2% Co. Of the various metals plated to the surface of gun bores chromium was found superior to molybdenum.8 19.0 6.8 33.' Form twI Candition A A a Temp. A: am cast.2 74.8% Ni 0. the steel tube cover prevents expansion and reulting failure. Tensile strength ranges from 120.3 79.53% Si passes the nmeA in specific strength. Alloys of molybdenum and tungsten have been deposited on bore surfaces but lowhardness and uncertain adhesion make them inferior to chromium. Stefll 151.3 59.000 pai at 70*F to 33.0 32.2 16.8  Elong. A titanium aHoy is available with tensile strength of 200.2 89.4 5824 63.96 5. only chromium can be electrdeposited readily. experimentation continues. Y'S 10 puI 82. Some art shown in Table 16.66% Mn 62. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STELLITE 21. 6. scarcity of cobalt and difficulty in processing are still major problems. Liner Design).3 69. Stellite liners may not be the final solution..0 C: 1700F. iemp.2 52. 50 hr. Ductility improves with increase in temperature.4% Cr. page 5.0 41. New materials with improved characteristics are now available but are classified and will not be discussed here.70% Fe 0.000 psi at 1800*F. Because of its high melting point and resistance to rosion.3 27. pop1419Lt R 72 .0 25. Stellite 21 (MILC13358) is the liner material curgently being used. THERMAL COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANISION OF fTELLITE 21.0 33.1 E 106 pat 36.3 32.
boring. After initial rough turning and boring. 1 . 154. the operations are unique in their application. sequential order. and broaching arranged in wellestablished. SURFACE FINISHES OF GUN TUBES. Surface finishes and tolerances. are demanding.. high strength and hardness when heated.TABLE 18. MAHTUFACTURINO PROCEDURES 153.* Reference 39. The procedure for manufacturing gun tubes follows normal machine shop activity of tuning. For each machining operation. grinding. Fbishas normally amociated with the various inner and outer surfaces of each tube type are hated in Table 15. RMS. require considerable care in maintaining concentricities and ) i) 73 . particularly in tho bore. Magnetic particle inspaction at various stages of completion exposes any surffce flaws which may be present. high melting point.. These problems are discussed fully elsewhere. because of their large slenderness ratio. before reaming and rifling the bore. ductility when hot or cold. and after proof firing. W Breech ThreadR Sliding 16 1632 16  32 32 Shrink Fit 03 63 and physical properties required for plating gun bores. M. However. Techniquts have been developed which exploit the properties of chromium when applied to gun barrels. no abrupt volume change with temperature. regardless of tho diamnter. This is done optically in small arms.002 in. tools for small arme present problems involving chip clearance and lubrication.. the tube must be properly aligned by indicator to assure the cutting operation running true. straightness is checked with the bore as the reference. Artillery tubes are so inspected before coldworking or shrink fit and aftar final machining. Small arms tubes are mognetieay inspected before machining. Tube blanks for lae bore guna are either rough machine forgings or centrifugal castings. Artillrv Exterior 125250 1lerioillumm Small Arms 63 32 32 32 alignments. Bemuse of their small cutting aW. Inspections and tube traightening follow each series of machining operations to insure the two recuirements. and chemical resistant to propellant gases. and for small bore guns the blanks are solid rolled forging bar stock heat treated to specifications. Gun tubes. honing. Dore Groovwm Chamber 816 1632 32 63250 16 16 32 Tolerance in the bore does not exceed 0. These properties include: erosion resistant.
character. Those of smiall arms are caliber tubes are exposed outer surfaces of large phosphatised. aided or unaided by a borescope. and the lnuy speolling and crushing of the rifling lands are other throughou 1s6. Visual inspection. Plating sarilyehiny butmsybea dullgrsy. followed by star fiseto. The painted. should be freecoppering. 74 . becomes the qualifying trait in those who evaluate the condition of the tube. therefore. not only to insure good machinin and correct sibe is still serviceable. Bore surfaces may be protected by oil or as well as that of effectiveness.of rust erosion. is bore not fouling. Mild nycpeigsvr like mild nuht e dtietl m pede firing is detrimental. diligent inspection of the bore while Maintenance of gun tubes is usually restricted to the preventive processes inasmuch as the tube wall. Otherwise. Inspection is any flaws which may develop. A clean bore is not necesdimmediately after manufacture and after each firing session. barrel life is determined by proof firing and is baued on velocity and turns a dial which indicates the angular dia drop and on loss of accuracy. This limits corrective maintenance to the repair of the bore surface. Where facilities are available. The cylinder is positioned in the bore by a rod attached to it. CORROSION INHIBITORS 155. The rod indicates the bore travel sometimes forrelated with accuracy no specific rules an serviceability exist for field inspection. cannot be repaired for further use. h iwon f~t i157. manufacture when corrosion inhibitors are applied. pitting and scoring permitothe gas by propellant and projectile activity. The location.evc sesnilfo Frequent. Then the ex. leakage which aggravates erosion and reduces muzzle h same at theaet care posed surface must receive the isvelocite with a subsequent lose in range. polished is used primarily as an erosion resistant measure.an n Scratches. regardless of how slight its failure. Plug gaging helps to determine of eriion at the origin of rifling and is e can rextent th talo to check the rodangle but life. A.I I CHAPTER 7 MAINTENANCE placement of the rifling which should correspond in degrees with the computed angle. a process which provides protection oiled. Preventive maintenance begins at the corn pletion . and ex[i c tent of any damage determines whether the tibe Rifi in one of the critical items on the schedule.Tebr adpu ericeisessntalfrom the viewpoint of safety in aigaenehd and The gaingaremethods inspection. Increasing twist rifling has such a small angular displacement adjacent to the origin that starting measurements at the muzzle becomes more practical from the viewpoint of correlating rifling twist with travel. nicks. facturing to detect carried on damaging factors.propellant andplu of dirt. Experience. Ashiny. be computed from Equations 9f or 9i for any position In the bore. grit. It may be measured with a rotating cylinder equipped with radial pins which fit snugly in the grooves and ride on the edges of the lands. These correct sibe angletcatuthdefects must be smooahed even with the original accudac Advancement smtrface and all sharp eedgwt ps IiiPoCTIO of the forcing cone caused by erosion.
in this application.. The re quired wall ratio for any pressure along the bore 158. The problem avoids confusion with existing weapons. Daign Data. ARTILLERY 1. Mouobkc Ar•U4" TuNs. These pressures are the computed diameter establishes the contour of minimum wall thicknesses.. the actu.design p."ssure ACUA Cc~ NO.. providing ample overall strength. This analysis. or e. would also apply the droop. the wall thickness of a regular tube is to determine of chamber at all points for the interior dimensions tube shownoutide and bore and for the pressures along the in Figure 61.05 p. WL.computed pressure. based on PIMP W •wall ratio.WD. _ amf "awo~a If Dý is the inside diameter. are omitted.0.. Table 19 lists the design data of the 'heoretical tube. This structure reinforees the gun tube. the equivalent stress is limited to the elastic limit. is 10. provide the necessary rigidity to minimize rifling other than by adopting the compensating measure of extending the inside diameter to grooves.. Substitute a for Y and increase the pressure to incorporate a factor of safety of 1.. Lonkrtudinal stresses. For pressure stress calculations. No permanent bore enlaigement during firing being permitted. Regular Tube* The equivalent stress in this problem must not exceed the elastic limit. the pitch diameter is assuxred to be the effective outside tube diameter.• .150. of the material which. where wall 1  Q p. then solve for v.05p. The walls of the to be smooth bore this analysis.000 lb/in . Actual wall thicknesses exceed the design thickness everywhere except at the breech end where onehalf inch continuous buttress threads appear over a length of five inches to provide for the attachmei't of the breech ring. the tube is assumed tube are generally made thicker than the minimni n and made of SAE 4150 steel having a yield strength 2 requirements for practical reasons such as: provi& procedures of 160.05. the tube is designed for 105 percent of thd pressure or 1. provide ease of manufacture with cylindrical leghAtulwlticessexedheein or conical surfaces rather than curvatures along the length. ubmitted (81) 0 . The required wall ratios and consequently the outside diameters are found by modifying Equation 55b.. Cr. therefore.l pressure that to a rifled tube have a groove diameter of 100 mm. by Waoervliet Arsenal. The elastle strength pressure (ESP). 16. p1. The 100 mm bore from Table 10. us) FIGURE 61. . A 100 mm gun tube is selected fer the sample may now be computed by Equation 80 or obtained design problem of artillery tubes.CHAPTER 8 SAMPLE PROBLEMS A. .. the outside diameter is D. being negligible. The diameter of the chamber forward of the thread exceeds the thread major diameter so that ample clearance is provided when the tube slides through the recoil mechanism during assenbly.000 lh/in'2 less than the yield strength.. Artillery Tube design compatibility with dimensions of mating corndo not include stress concentrations induced by the portents. This theoretical contour and the actual design pressures discussed in paragraph 112.. For contour are shown in Figure 61. . To ensure safe firing.000 lb/in . The design pressure is the maximum pressure to which any given tube section is subjected under any expected service or test condition. MONOBLOC TUBE.000 lb/in'. 75 . where p/Y is equivalent to p/u.
B. t Subinitted by Watervliet Arsenal.94 3. having a yield strength of Oulmaitted by Watervliet Atonal.0 15. 2. 76 . (150.500 .070 .!.11 .) 15.07 4.358 80800 64000 53700 72400 72400 72400 1.94 3.4 11' ESPI/.01 10.01 2.483 .08 11though Y SAE 4150 steeA. ARTILLE•tY 1. is more conservative.016 1).20 3. and the 1. Equation 29a. JACISTED TUBE. Theoretical wall ratios arc to be determined for the 100 mm.147 126 . tube. the wall thicknesses are for pradtinal considerations.053 3.496 X8l' (p1i) 72400 74400 75000 78000 80100 509D0 p (im•i) 72400 72400 72400 72400 72400 72400 Sf* 1. 'rhe selection of wall ratio here involves trial amid error.105 3. The values for pressurc from the pressuretravel curve arc now substituted for p at suitable intervals along the tube length and the values of In W. After the tube wall ratio is estimated.05 .2 applied to the dsi pressures.000.03 6.94 4. (in. the tube can stustain at any section.94 TABI4. V.24 4.288 1.91 8. The tube outlines with corresponding design pressure data are similar to those of Figure 61. Since the wall Sincreased ratios are known.4 15. AlEquation 37 is based on stresses developed in a closed cylinder.53) .00 4. M )NO(I.4 3.483 . preceding. the expression becomes In Wt .67 3. i.A 100.06 * Based on 1.501 2.94 1).80 4.483 . A factor of safety of 1.058 1.051 1.86 7.145 1.35 140 160 170 10500 8400 700 .) 6. The factor of safety becomes that of Equation 82. IDist.50M 2.175 .) C TUBI. "1.) 0 5 5 14 16 20 1i.433 . de SftTable 21 for vlo e of computed dmign pressure.336 . the expression for natural louxithm of the wall ratio becomes termined.2 factor of misty in included.075 1.431 I W 2.095 1. (in.) 15.00 1.60 2.94 3. The values of W1 are then obtained by reference to a table of natural logarithms..p/144.0 15. by substituting BSP for p. A 100 mm single jacketed tube.94 3.483 . is prescribed by Watervliet Arsenal to allow for some umeertainties in the design procedures which have not been completely identified and'rationalized.) 0. by yielding wall ratios larger than needed. Fmm Breeh (in. (82) 8.94 3.50 2. and a..483 . From Breech (in.50 2.94 3.8 4.) 0 14 16 20 32 40 p* (pod) 72400 72400 72400 72400 72400 6400 p/.94 3. liner with one jacket.217 .02 12.520 .051 .51 9.175 3.94 4. The factors of safety and other design data of the actual autofrettaged tube appear in Table 22. is selected as aS example of a shrink fit type tube construction.17 4.20 5.2 3.06 ). or interpolated from Table 10. Approximate values may be obtained by either Equation 29a or 37.217 1.03 1. Foe  . instead of the customary 1.47 5.94 3.60 2.63 50 90 170 3. D)it.503 2.57 4.00 5.76 3.e.4 15. as shown in Table 21.86 9. prestressed by autofrettage paectes.10 1. Following the same practice as that for the monobloc tube.51 4.94 15.91 .1 ME (82) This and other design data of the actual tube appear in Table 20.79) 4.94 3.266 .4 15.M88 1.534 .000) for Y and leads to the factor of safety of the tube.5 1.08 1. .94 3.94 0. is computed frem Equation 55b. is used in the sample problem.0 2.15 160. it yields wall ratios closer to the required value and hence. I)E1USN I)ATA OF ACITAI. Tube With Single Jahkett 162.05 omnputtd desian preasuIre. The shrink 6' is determined first e.483 . Atatirettag4 Tubs 2.TABLE 19. tho K&JP is readily computed from Equation 64b.21 3. 1.05.000 psi before cold working. 1.57 5. DIESIGN DATA OF I'llEOItIETI(CAI1 MONOBLOC TURE. the wall lii W. If p is substituted for HSP in Equation 64b.539 W0 s0 70 80 g0 50400 39000 32600 26300 22100 100 120 18900 14200 .93 7. the breech end where the wall ratio is critical. (in. 161.I 21).575 1.94 1o (il.94 3. and the required outside diameters calculated by referring to Table 21..
302 1. the liner and jacket wall ratios are se 1.381 2.560 1.94 3.57 4.1. The following are the desiga data at the breech: Di 6.14 ____ I •'' " FIGURE 62.479 . inside diameter p. The expressions and their numerical values for the first trial calculation are D4 .57 4.146 .614 1.000 psi. increase D.264 .94 D.0 in.734 .94 10. The tube shown in Figure 62 is analyzed to learn whether it can suatain the prcssurcs at various locations along its length measured from the breech.05 p . .6 7.0 10.114 1.7.75 1.625 . (in.058 Di (in.36 6.323 163. D Dataseb.479 .50 1.614 1.538 81 = 1.94 3. From (in.78 6.'04 .051 3.10000 140 160 8000 1..94 6.2 3.0 10.94 D.099 1.) D.0 4. DESIGN DATA OF ACTUAL AUTOFRETTAOED TUBE.94 3.46 120800 69000 1.479 .931 7.' 50 5.09 . (psiB) In Wi . s  ma s 1 1o f• 170 7200 • .89 4.501 86600 7200 12. elastic limit According to Equation 37. to 10.427 .174 .400 psi 9 140 ) .04 in.240 1. W1 In Wi 88F P et 9.0 2.1.53 1.900 G9000 2.be.614 1.931 160.75.W.133 1. By designating the elastic strength pressure as the applied pressure (p .13 4. and then solve for ESP. Before proceeding.1.72. collect the complex expressions and condense them into simple terms so the final equations will bU less complicated. the tangential stress at the inner surface of the liner according to Equation 80b becomes W.485 10. According to Equations 2Wb and 29c. on the assumption that the equivalent stress will be equal to the elastic limit.65 .18 .676 .395 1.56 21000 170 1. D.) 6.94 3.0 10.071 1.33 4.ratios of tube and jacket are determined.6.) 6. AJ .75 1.8 4. based TABLE 22. Dist.05 p_ .614 1.538 .) 0 14 103 20 32 induce the maximum equivalent stress.215 .75 6.0  on computed deuign pressure.5 in and W to 1.333 .69 4.479 .724 •ued 3.050 W/ 1.ESP). To confine the outer diameter to nominal dimensions.157 1. From Breech (in.36 6.94 3. PS + I The radial stress (Equation 30c) is  P.) 0 5 14 16 20 .000 69000 2. . ApwilMg Tu. Therefore.21 5 .724 D.46 4. computed design pressure.94 4. to he followed by the calculations for the elastic strength pressure (ESP) for each component. (in.8 4.0 (psi) 83800 (pia) 60 V1" 1.83 .94 3. ID liner W s.750 ..125 .094 .75 1.050 ).94 3.94 3.35 5.795 2.) 9.2 3.94 3.000 lb/in'.84 . EBP Substitute these expressions in Equation 24 and replace at. DESIGN DATA OF THEORETICAL AUTOFRETTAGED TUBE. W 50 90 3.900 48000 116. 9.0 5.323 W WL .323 6900 69000 69M 69•0 69•0 40 61500 50 48000 38000 60 70 31000 80 25M00 90 21000 100 18000 120 13500 . 71.L150.1.17 .22 4.0 in.10.585 101100 69000 1.967 160.94 3.  Breech Dist. (in.94 3.68 150.190 1. 69. .800 3. and D .479 . The next problem i& that of finding the interference necessary for shrink fit and the subsequent elastic strength pressure when this pressure will TABLE 21.94 3.083 2.344 in.
3 69. 1.8. substitute 5.000 psi. computed design pressure. first by solving fc' the shrink fit pressure and then for the shrink "fitinterference. the solution for ESP of the jacket becomes ESP.8d 25 and 28.= x X20."W L .69.364 X 29. .F(. ýL. from Equation..1 The radial stress. inside diameter n . based on the PIVfP S. in Eqtuation 32c. and solving for p. .7..364 Solving for A.1._ s. W < 10 S. OD liner.0. the number of layers p. 84 1. ..2. It becomes available by stressing the jacket to the limit as its most critical section. ..207 + /154i .. according to Equations 25 a...I .6 10".014  7120 psi The tAngential stress at the inner surface of the jacket induced by the elastic strength pressure and the shrink fit pressure is.0.29. the liner is unable to contain an ESP of 72.A + 2AR .4 33Ip 0. The maximum interference is assigned to the analysis involving jacket whereas the minimum interference is confined to the liner analysis.150.014 in G. + V_.94 in. . .525 J . the wall ratio 1 . VJP  P.ESP. factor of safety p .(W'..3.8870 psi IV.003 inch..r.SPw " 1 According to Equation 83 8. Computations at the chamber section are given in this example.64 .. a.H p. ._ )FE • 3w.17n For the liner. . Calculations at other increments along the tube. is E .) . = E E.548 A .6.B1 +I B +4 1 =. W + I W+ + 1 1 . TW .75 X 0.732pI 3. combining the effects of Equations 27a and 27b.94 . Continuing with the numerical value estab1 W ' * 76  .333 C F .L. ID jacket I] lished earlier..000 lb/in'. 11.. The total interference normally ha a spread of 0..003 .400 psi without suffering permanent damage. if needed.CP + F. are made in the same manm.970 _ I 1 1.6 "(83) X 10" ESP. therefore.. D in Equation 85 . . The known design data are .0 in. Only the interference remains to be determined.400 psi a.I w.. . A tube for a heavy artillery gun is used to demonstrate the technique for determining the wall thickness and shrink fit conditions of a multilayered construction.000 psi8 10 ESP Since this pressure stresses the liner to its limit.364T'.1)F8 (85) 164...75 X 0.u5.364 X 0. n U D .851 H . Tube With Two j'ackets 165. . The solution for the elastic strength pressure of the liner is 2 X 8870 X 7..j. + I B MW1 " W ' + I: . . For the second trial.450 .S1p. F (PA) The shrink fit pressure 's obtained by solving for p. a larger wall ratio is indicated.1 W . The calculations for this section and all succeeding sections are arranged in sequence in Table 23.C' +.72.323 p. J .72. 2. .10. elastic limit According to Equation 37. 1 r. 2 .75 inch outside diameter is selected... for 8 in Equation 85 a E 2. a 10. 0. By substituting these expressions in Equation 24 and collecting terms.
64 X 10 .373 1.443 1.0 2.591 .0 11.67 in.16 .40 2.375 1.020 12800 90300 15100 183000 5.375 1.65.017 .967 1.01:.0 11. . 13.•94 7.w.67 .017 .075 4.75 : 8.36 . m.75 in.0 1.63 1.75 .16.243 .10.89 .04 7. . A .1.436 1.167 11.85 .75 in.905 1.0 in.967 1.269 .54 8.32 2.443 1.463 6.143 4.562 1.85 .144.760 psi stress at the inner surface of the inner jacket exceeds the yield strength. .462 .680 .16.109 3.W"' .419 1.w"': .619 1.056 3.(22 1.75 11..007 . ch r e.056 4. stresses at other regions are below the yield.349 1.31.12 8. The tangential and radial stresses due to shrink fit pressure at the various surfaces of the tube are computed by Equations 41a to 46b.997 .571 8. Wl..006 2450 78300 4900 248000 40 1.80 .10.262 .002 2.294 .149 3.680 .5 in. the total shrinkage pressure is _ 72.512 .08 ..304 .75 11.0 2.89 53.75 1930 1.667 1.ESP CALC(ULATIONS FOR SINGLE JACKETED.333 1.P . 1). Poo. From Equation 31. .75 9.088 3.017 .403 .600 0 79 A. 166.419 1. 13. From.64 .M•0o Di i).066 3.13 .017 .36 . 100 MM TUBE.il.424 . From there shrink fit presouret and those induced by the design propellant gat preosure.197 ..040 .320 1.1.01 1.020 12600 88800 14800 160000 5.75 9.0 2.81 in and D.020 9900 77300 11600 85100 11.6a .444 . the t6tal effective 2 X 3300 X lb/in'  2 X 6750 0.61 . the liner at the inner surface are 1.306 5.46 1. .006 1800 73800 3600 228000 5.341 .020 11800 85000 13800 120000 5.010 5700 82300 8200 226000 5.307 4.97 .37 5.10 W. .0 2.734 1.294 .97 4.94 in.133 4.31 3. and W becomes 1.53 11.131.004 200 66500 900 208000 Therefcre.625 2.780 psi p.625 2. the individual wall ratios of liner.030 1.37 5. Increasing the OD to a nominal dimension.905 1. 3A' B' C' F' AB CF G H J PaL ESPL ESP.493 .06 . D.792 1.0 8.001 .975 1. . The effective.0 11.094 3.21 .330 . .630 .67 .285 . According to Equations 39a through 39e. .3 2.197 .28 . Do .81 aud of the inner and outer combinations of tubes are W.349 1.75 1.3 .0 10. W.5.094 1.453 .152 3.403 .97 4.0 10.375 1.80 .2 8.285 . W WL W.025 5.012 1.017 1.71 1. 1. the shrink fit pressure at each interface is Pd.46 1.0 2.262 .907 1. I~~)iiita sine Ai r I B v.67 . the shrink fit pressures are increased and the wall thicknesses of the three layers are modified according to the dimensions below.38) 1.97 4.675 p.181 . inLermediate tube.149 1. . = 1. A B C F 6.296 5.900 4aL 2p According to Equation 40.6.394 W.0 11.056 4.10C 3.042 1.37 .792 1. D.004 600 72400 2400 239000 5.375  I D.292 1.792 2.022 1.020 8900 73400 10400 72400 11.615 .967 1.330 .210 4.15 .287 1. 3.  1.1.23 1. .53 397 .3.003 .520 psi Poo 6W00000.71 . Thus DA . becomes 16.792 1.017 .25 2.425 .69 3.065 1.294 A444 . 15.017 .470 .020 10200 79200 12100 87700 7.14 5.68 1. 1.  2 5stresses 1. .13 .84 .0 2.rTABLE 231.218 1.74 8.023 1.94 7.060 3.001 .942 1.400'1.94 7.84 .438 W.31 2.18 1. D.840 . To reduce the effective stress at the inner surface of the jacket to an aeceptable 'value and also to realize a more efficient tube with respect to stress distribution.242 1.967 1.30 .436 1L344 1.46 1.030 .242 1.349 1.365 5.254 . 0 •5 11 10 at)I l ui 116 O.994 .75 .512 .305 5.044 2.97 .00.571 8.11.40 in.94 8.34) 1.8 8. .341 .50 1.94 7.74 . and outer tube are W•W• .300 psi According to Equations 41a and 41h.
= 1..7100 lb/in' (same as outer surface of liner)1 From Equations 44a and 44b..6750 ..p At the int...100. .400 189• X . the two stresses on the outer su~ ace of the inner jacket are 1 Cr 72..361. the bore surfae. 1 j I72. = 7 • .00 .Mt9 Iblin' a.100 lb/in' arm . + o.72.800 " 4600 0. 0 .e. in terms of the wall ratios.2. .200 lb/in' ur. •6750 × 1.000 lb/in 1 0 0.. + €.900 .. Wo = W .34900 lb/in' 6800 lb/in' •.00 .36 72. " 123..8 .6 . .. 2 X 4.900 lb/in' .20..8 " 123..134. the corresponding radial stress is I W' .5•0 W. . . .39 .000 53.36 .72..3300 0.89 lb/in' w.400 lb/in2 a.99.6800 Inner surface of outer jacket ..89 6750 87a 16.  According to Equations 45a and 45b. 1 144 42.400 lb/in' ..0•l/ J .400 lb/in' 1.500 lb/in' 0. 0.2 fW.+U =020I/n + 19. the tangential and radial stresses at the inner surface of the outer Jacketare 6750 ..500 + 49  76.600 lb/in' "The two streses (Equations 43a and 43b) on the inner surface of the inner :cket are At interface between inner and outer jacket.19.400 .03o. 6750• . ff 49P400 •  95.400 + 0 . Inner surface of liner .48.L W 42. +u..400 x 4.000 lb/in. At.46. We 380 wo 721400 380 .24.230os .ý.• M lb/in' €..500 lb/in' e.80 At the outer surface of the composite tube.00 lb/in' The strews on the outer surface of the tube are found from Equations 46a and 46b. + a.900 .60 42.700 lb/in' 118. a.000 .W• ' .4.8 . •..200 .42.36 46. ' Ero + a. W.89 u.89 lb/in' X . + a.000 .83 If.36 2..400 . + . . i.39 0 39 .0/in/r. 1 Equations 42a and 42b yield the corresponding 2.28.3300 .72.. . 2..80.153. the tangential pressure stress at any surface x ot the composte tube s I W' + WFrom Equation 27a.6M0 26.4600 •..69 100.400 lb/in' Outer surface of liner a..400 .21.=u.000 lb/in' .. .123.. .400 lb/in' Outer surface of inner jacket 100.000 lb/in' for 1.8 " so m " 2..91 f .s1.39 2..900 .6750 X 1.7100 72.0 Aecording to Equation 25. +.O 28.rfae• between liner and inner jacket. .7100 49.r.600 b/e  7100 Inner surface of iuner jacket a  al.80 At the inner 1surface of the liner. in terms of the wall ratios. .000 .153.000 + 34.ssoo 2.0 Combine the shrink fit with the pressure stresses at the various surfaces.
00045 in. According to Equation 24. internal radium (caliber . OR tube. the in6 c .87 X 00 .00025 in. Scedict of Tube WilkUn. S. 086 in 167.30) r.T AD. Poisson's ratio for steel is 0..150 in. the total mean effective stress at each location is: Liner. For brevity. • 850+8000.500 lb/in The critical stresses occur at the inner surfaces Middle Tube. design propellant gas pressure for steel (ler) 30 X 10' psi.800 lb/in' x 10" x 900 AD.375 in Reference 38.•7 3300 29 X 10'(136 .. Shrink Fit Pressure Shrink fit pressure between tube and liner is calculated from Equation 73b..0 .  . PoIsson's ratio of stellite X 106(189 13.20 in . The required interference between liner and inner jacket and between outer and inner jacket are found by solving Equations 63a to 63d.250 in. = 149.500 in. P.75 X 6750 (189(1. interference between tube and ..149.10 186MO/ FIGURE 63. SMALL ARMS BAUREL WITH SAlRINK FITTED + 100(1. IR tube . walidnlldd Arzory.375 in.3) + 280(1. modulus for stellite(acket) 35 X 10 psi.. re• Then Interfiene .5W+2.5 .6711.0. The above diametral clearanees are ample for the shrink fit process.0083 in. .0.Dia AT .149. OR liner. B ubml tted by age 921. modulus between tube and .0.150 in b  From Equation 63f. IR cap .0083 + 0.U... 13.3)] .. • 18901.5 of all three tubes. 1 + U.I00) X 104 X 900 .13 ) ([136(1. the diametral interference between the jackets is s . and E = 29 X 10' lb/in..K tam Uin p+ 8f. W F. S Since both outer diameter of liner and inner diameter ofthe inner jacket decreased under the masigned conditions and diametral interference needed between these two members is. B.0094 + . interference liners caps a8 .11.3) .0 + 0.0 .13.000 psi. " C136(1.8 . a.10(189 .00 Outer surface of tube~ U.75 X 7.0086 .3. ..0 ..3.3)] From Equation 63d. Here the various radii are r. r.0.30. The design data are Hated below.0 +t 0.0094 in.0267 in During assembly.0..i I+ LINER AND CAPt 168. stresses ao computed in one location only. r. From Equation 63c. . when heated to 970F. 29 r.75 X 6750 X 1( 529 . From Equation 63b.0. lbn rI CAPTu I. 1.Dla AT . . OR cap 32.0169 in.189) [189(1. C. Shrink fit stresses are combined with pressure stresses for a shrink fitted small arms tube with stellite liner which is shown schematically in Figure 63. 9 a. I.600 lb/in' (r. From Equation 63a.0173 . . Outer Tube..0. .67 X 7. .0 + 0.0927 in Where a is the mean linear coefficient of thermal expansion for steel through the temperature range of 32'932*F*. . crease in diameter at each interface is boon siabllahd by pratice. 2911.3)) .0086 in. according to Equation 63i 0.0173 in.100) 1 .0 + 0.3) X 330 11.0 _ 0.0.3) 2X 1..8)] . I • *1 . 8. + 100(1.0..i. Poisson's ratio of steel YL .136) .
based on second part of Equation 41a 248.0225 oO\....0625 . Outer Surface of Tube From p. Inner Surface of Cap  7270 ..1406 2 .000 lb/in' From p. based on first put of Equation 44a a. 2 X .800 lb/in' d.000 lbin oe25. .025 + ...0625 .0225 " 10. Pa7 2 X .s 7270 .0527(.. is the same as for the outer surface of the liner.0The 3.1406) Note that this stress exists before the cap is assembled.6720 1406 + ..0625 .1406 . based on first part of Equation 42& +  + ... . t. 1 r.0625 0 " 6720...300 lb/in' The cap is affected only by p.."F.800 lb/in' 82 .000 lb/in' f. 17.1408 727•. .0625 17.0225 e.1406 2X...0625 .625 .1408 26. . Shrink Fit Streues .3 vu / X 101 + _ (...0225)(. M p.. Inner Surface of Liner From p.0625  2 67 2.1406 " 18.1406 + 0 +.0225 "  250 .250.1 MPei . The stress from p.AL in a .. Inner Surface of Tube From P..r.700 lb/li 7270 .• 21..1.1406 .1406 .375 in 1 lb/in' c . . based on second part of Equation 44a .1406 .500 in 30X10'X45XI0"(... Outer Surface of Cap Based on Equation 46a a.0625 .00025 .11..0625 + .. band on first part of Equation 43a bI I 0..r.0225 . based on first part of Equation 41a Zr' We.1406 . Outer Surface of Liner From p.08".50 Sr.. Pressure tkrtsmw formulas for the pressure dtresses are based on Equation 26..250 + ..1406  ... Here the various radii are . From pa..250.0225) . 2 X . .. . 1re~b /J J The shrink fit pressure betwoen tube and cap is determined by considering the linertube assembly a homogeneous unit and solving for the shrink fit pressure by Equation 73a.. From p.0225 ...UOZD ... 2 X .25 . based on second part of Equation 42a get  r !rntL±2t ".. o.. c.  + rr.1406 . based on Equation45  b.0 bI*.. ..7270 pi 2.
0S _____ b...375 in..800 25. temperature drop across total wall 35.0225 d. r.250 . 2 X .0(.2"0 .700 8.1.106.1406 ...50) . go dx R 35.300 17. 1406" 8. radius at interface . The total stress IF ft.o00 _______________________.250 3240 r.300 18.800 0 10.250 . outer radius 14000F. and Equation 34b. *i .800 6.05   8.32. Inner Surface of Liner 4I  32.0625 . COMBINED SHRINK FIT AND PRESSURE STRESSES (lb/In').1408 .0225 .800 16. Interface Between Tube and Cap r. internal radius (caliber .0225 . p..250 + .800 .240 lb/in' 1.p . the shrink fit pressure in IW0'X25 X 10"•(.800 lb/in  6.250..35.00025 in.000 .1406 21.250' . Stresses are computed to determine the total effective stress at the inner surface of the outer tube of a twopiece barrel subjected to propellant gas pressure..250+ . ___ of Strees c. "  S30 + VI 3.800 38.0825) 2X.V=. Poisson's ratio for steel .240 lb/in' tresses.000 26.. SMALL ARMS BARREL WITH COMBINED PRESSURE AND THERMAL STRESSES* 169..0625 32.10 .250 in. Interface Between Liner and Tube r. coefficient of linear expmnsion of steel .250 + . from Equation 34a (in terms of tube radii).000 18. Pd .300 11.300 lb/in' . + 4° i 2s •71 . modulus of steel 7 X 10' in/in/OF.000 0625 ..000 . '. r r.r  = .000 a"'  84. + r• Vi FIGURE 64.000 ..80 8. interference at the interface to Equation 73a.250 + .0 . 83 .0527(. Outer Surface of Cap 2P .000 X .0M625).600 Ib/hin *Submitted by Springfield Armory.0225 0225  38.500 in.300 lb/in' * C 1__ 1 " .300 21. 6.0.400 lb/in' N Ut: • . shrink fit pressure. S of Shrink Fuid Tubo. stresed arecombined foreAccording stresses are combined for each surface and are listed in Table 24 and plotted in Figure 64. 0. from Equa D. Part Liner Tube 1. Tangential r. AT pd R a a.25017.000 14. The design data TABLE 24.0225 .250  lb/in' "0. + 0.. r .  50.. r. ..0225 32.0625) S •The The.a.° " 15.800 10.300 C .500 2. Shrink Fit Pressure Stresses. Propellant Gas Pressure tions 26 and 27a..X .3.. p i+ Cap Outer Inner Outer 10. design propellant gas pressure 30 X 101lb/in'.1406 9100 lb/in'  Surface Inner Outer Inner .140.250 .800 11.1406) 2X .w~.000 psi. and a temperature are gradient through the wall.500 .
0.. 3..120.65.05 CMP + 42( AT  700) + AcAIp = 1.3545 psi PIMP.1. me fmmhmry or a yield strength Ef 195.0492 W . .05 wig be tha fo a preliza graph 114).700lb/in' r. . Applying Equation 56c ..3).2.1.110. vield strmngth at amient temperature (Fig. Material is conventional gun steel Follow the outlined procedure of paragraph 115.175.20D 1b/in! Flrm Equation 49&.1.650 psi 4.700 11.120. preshure at muzzle 1) = 4. DA .33. 57) = 125 0F. 97.093 . Only the computed preiure4mvel curve and the CMP read from it are available.615 in The same procedure is followed to find the wall thickness at the muzzle.4 S.40D + 11..125 + 1100 + 1125 . vo 9100 .5. atmospheric temperature T..288 i( + 1. .3200 .. the axial thermal stress 30 X 7 X 14400 "i.. ____ ESI. indicating that some dimelioalW ohamge.= PHI.1../Y.. of projectile Iravwl ..78).200 .700 Ib/in!  From Equation 5f.jX .32.147 Y 1   .800 lb/in' 6.03Xi1.. Y.A.0555W . . .. the total equivalent stress t.00 .o.)50 13. . .200 lb/in' ESPA. According to Equation 56g SPIMP 3 X 7 X 1400 2(1 ..147 is 1. = G0F.70) 3X0.1. ..693)  1.0555 . .0 32.000 lb/in' at 600F 6.05 X 12.153. sr. 52 and 53.00 lb/in' #.DW.000 lb/inW E8P. .742 in.0.5M0 lb/in" Aocorditg to Equations 51.000 lb/in' is required.5140 psi R.914 X 10*(lb/in')' Thereime. .15..0.500 ib/"in 45. OUR Tau 170.1.5. elevated temperature of tubn..15 PIMP .. From Figure 58.000 !h/in•'.5910 Psi Y.800 + 21. 7. A 120 mm tube is selected for the sample design problem for recotffle tubes..~' 2(1 (I. 2.0515 W..693] m21. 8.3). '1ss omputed wall thickness D.56 . the corresponding value of W for a p/Y . . CMI1 is listed in the design data 2.184 .500 + 20(125 .742 X 1... 1.4.576. at 5 in. bT.184 in.200 lb/in' St. From Equation 56d This equivalent t doe not conform to the diseuson of plmgmph 100. 32.500 psi. Thenmal Strim The temperature variation across the wall is amumed to be logarithmic althourh therp is penture discontinuity at the interface. for preliminary design p.. " 76. M 1.. groove diameter plus tolerance Y ... IMCOILLhI GUN* 1. .000 lb/in' p of CMP In Equation 23. .240 . . According to Equation 55e W.350 psi where 20 PsiiOF AT Acm " 3% 11. . u. ry design (see para "Bheasmaed an l ibmaittd by 11 snkford Arsenal. the radial thermal stress Given design data CMIP d= 12.3.0. According to Equation 48a.17. From Table 10.0. the tangential thermal stress  80 X 7 X 1400h 2(1 .€..
sx .003 in 0.50. 4 and 5 of Figure 43.265 . Gimbal Ring Analysis 171..14 X 48. by interpolation 30 L X 106 lb/i W . The problem requires the stresses at the points of discontinuity.148 .9 X Ur M.425 in r..08M.20 lr . 7246 X6.440 i .5 X 0 2. .33 X 10' lb/in The flexural rigidity equivalet (Equation 57h) D.7245 lb/in' 12(27. sufficiently accurate information becomes available to design a prototype tube according to the method discussed in paragraph 115. .15.18 + 5. .33 D.2.742 X 1.5 X 010' X .0.1.5. 5 . Do D.178 i •in According to Equation 57j 2815(. D = 1214.6. 48'_3 7X 1 .(16.755 Equating the exprwmlom for 04 in EquatkmIs Vim and 57o and substitutin for the known vaula XWa2 N .478 in + 30 X ).Q.9 X 10' lbin Do .  2 X 1.0aM. in tube and ring.0 X 10' lbin From Equation 57c.1..07 X18xi io' 8 . 22 lb/in M. respectively.For a test barrel. .204 E '9 .4.32 X 5.08/in N. 0.14 X1 + .265 D. A steel gimbal ring is shrunk on a titanium .0.2.  Bi " .004 X 10' 1. .Q.4)1 12(2.682 X 10' lbin 1. The bhrink fit The computed pressure (Equation 57a) P. .44 From Equation 57b.0. 2 X 4.1 X 10X07._ 2x o0 ..891 10  18.00 in As stated in paragraph 116 for economy the test barrel is con3tructed with a uniform outside diameter anrd no allowance is made for eccentAcity.1 . a.2.3.5 X 10' lb/in' B.752 in .46 10860 57 2065) + 007(8.52 X 10' tb/in" From Table 10.429 in r.608X10' lb/ih The Xequivalent (Equation 571i) 0. 1W' 9.2. = 0. 2..2. + Q. 5200 I 4D.  . 61.31Q.01102 in .30 X 10' lb/in' rF .re .83 .05 in 2089 6.18..0 62X X .45 + 20.200 psi According to Equations 57d and 57e.148 t 0.7 X 10' lbin . tube of a recoilless gun.9./) "V i Equating the expresilow for 1& Equations 57k and 57n and substitutig for the known values 724 X 5.8h21 2.5 CMP 31.89 4 090 lb/ing ~'4 I(0I 1.530 in p .66) it . . Ibja/j .94/in X.DW .004 in design data follow.21 + 1.5 X 1(r X .13/in X 2.75 2M4 + O 8.22/in X.000  2.75 2M'.9 1. 2.068)IO . The known data defined in paragraph 118 are B .  16. . . assume p Y 105.918 Froma Equations 57f and 57g r 2 E~t.+ 2. .1565 in t 0. After firing the test gun. 4. 1. .
rneasuuvd inward from interface at.29)18.300 lb/in' 8.000 .425 2.478(18.2320 . 7245 X 5. .942Q. tube Region 1. 10' .8 X0.0. + (w s.063) 2.6400 lb/in? A .5•r Ib/in! I .063) 4020 lb/in H =1 218.1 IM0 = 1.94M where 4 510.8 2 . + (a..29 + 0.33 .8 x 0.0286 in 8.5 " X PO X . find the factors of Equations 5e.52 X 10 a= iR [" 1.95 10M Q@2.429 S16.5 X 10 X 0..01192 MB ('7 i r.7 X 178 . v.910 + 5.148 + 32.4 OOomin t.82 Suflfeient d•aU are now available to compute the stresmse in the members according to Equations U8s through ýSp.000 lb/in' at o.148) + 0.01192(2155 .9Mlb/in' 81.0.62 X 0. ..400 lb/in' B W (0.52 X0.52 X 0. at Station 4. + Similarly.8 18.75 + 0. am 6 X 01. ..uY.M ..425 + a.0082)(0.986[7.M. . 7245 lb/in' u.0.0. S" . . 5k 5M.01192 (0. r O. .148 + 0.148 .8 X C 3 0..063(0. from Equations 58b. this deflection is determined separately. .. from Equations 58m and 50k X 10' .."+ IF •I ..8 X 10' 1 2320)] 2.0286 .0.0148 + 32. 16.F+ Equating the expressions for fia in Equations and 57r and substituting the known values .5 lbin/in . 1.29(6500) 1900 + e. .000 2320 lb Analysis of gimbal ring at Station 4.83. ..1(0.. 0 0742% Q.32.134.).01192 ( 020 • 1745[1.Ui9 lb/in M.33 X IN1 •2.0 1 18.33 40W0 X 0.52 X 32.53 + 0.n. p7245 p 75lb/in By Equation 23 = [((.•€ o 0. inner surface 18.0.148 X 0.010 2X 7.3 X 8. 58f and 88g which determine the distribution of loads and moments in the g~bsl ring region. ..  38.0377) .r 298)] . .\ 1 57 p .33 X 6400 2100 lb/in' 81.. Thus.  u..060 + 0..O. . inner surface.)'J Since the derivation of deflections (paragraph 118) did not consider the effects of shrink fit pressure on the gimbal ring deflection.487 X 4..2320)] m600 Wbin' u. At Station 4. .01192(250 .01192 lb/in' From Equation 58i via .'4  2? 2O 210 16.922 Equating th. tube Region 2.  lb/in' S•58k 71 q.752M. a.01117 in 2.4(0.202+ i. Maximum stresses occur at the inner surface and are tensile except for the radial stresses. .200 Before starting the actual stress computation.8 X 10' X 0.au.84. expressions for Os in Equations 57r and 67t and substituting the known values 10.0286 r 61.97) 12 X 2.'+ ~~. + 1. when At measured from the interface is zero.100 lb/in ' 4. = r.4.148)] 2 . nnI I I I I I .86.)..276(0. From Equation 58h 828 X 100 " 0.148 in. . 84. s X 90 X 0.037 ""0.5 X 10' X 0.
100 lb/h? The net tensile stress through the wall according to Equation 77d .005 in.€.. + +4020X 0.0204 4000 lb/in' a.r.8 X 0'61. . momentum of rifle is zero V.  0.V' 6"5i + 700 1 ((I 5 j _ _0 The direct shear stress according to Equation 77b Reference 32. '( K .01192 000234) p 2F. rifle to projectile.(3310 + 690) where ck.03 = 129.k. 423. fillet and corner radii 0. p. lb/in'  2320 + 127)] 173.50 lb.000 .F/(.0286 + 0..0. The known data (paragraph 67) involving the design of the chamber of a 120 mm recoilless rifle are A E F .063)] 2  1745[5.i10 32. ratio of specific heats. loading density 4.29(10.143 in.29 2.) . The bearing stress (Equation 77c) Fu C.17.4 + 2.900 Ib/in' u.9 4260 0.. 2.500 1b/iu' The stresses at Station 5 are obtained similarly.65.100 lb/in' From Equation 58r.(P  2 117.000 ftlb/lb.89 X 6.. bag density of propellant . depth of thread 0. the muzzle energy 1 W.0. ratio of momentums. ::0 ..100 Ib/in' I 2 169.+ 30 X 10 (D0.1.0 3 X 2./lb . the fillet bending stress or.000 lb/in .I  E.35 In'.89X64 .25. Compute the four stresses involved in a threaded joint according to the procedure discussed in paragraph 139.8 4260 0.7245 1. the stress concentration factor. The dimensions and other design data of Figure 52 are F. + aria .. + a.5 gm/cc.070 in. specific impetus 19.016 in.165.3400 Analysis of gimbal ring at Station 4.1) ..60 + 0.. From Equation 58h .600) . 4260 Ib/in. a.01192(2155 10.).. X The total radial stress at the interface I.) 87 . .000 lb/in' + P. projectile weight A . lb/in'. 2 X24260b 34.650 ft/sec.153 in.y .01192 (0. Threads 172. Chamber Volume 0.(8_. .000 lb/in' where .e..167. Chamber a.. 171.Z v.003) 18.1. the propellant charge C 2K( IE 1+ . From Equation 4a.. i.2r a. wall thickness at root of thread 0. bore area .53 '"2320 2. r t 0. pitch 0.075 4 0 . C. t Reference 18.131.1(0.0). c.0.172. . outer surface. muzzle velocity W. ..3k..8 x 10 1 +0..a.1*.3310 lb/in' 1.328.600 . when At measured from the interface is t.44 X 5. .0250 in.46 X 10' ftlb. . unit load on one thread wt C d.. From Equation 77e.2.1/30. clearance 0.3100 lb/in' w.500 lb/in? which is well within the yield strength of 153. . the stress concentration factor. width of thread at root diameter w .y .8t. . _Q 2I5 202. p . 2. b.000 lb/inz (smie as for inner surface) .000 ftlb According to Equation 4b (with w .
475+481n' 475 + i'~ 481 W ~ lbin .+ V~u'6 V.44 in.00252 in V:.ation 4d is C 174.)a rL 17.1.5 X 101lb/*n'. mean radius of tube Z .5 X 104 X 0.9 in E .+ ~ r:) +r: ir•.O in'/lb .= r.  1.7 ýý 11 "b 0. wall thickness of tube = 0.0( in . Poisson's ratio for titanium From Equations 59b and 59c lT 4 Te volume of the frustum according to Equation r + r~r.brsin"' .3.2. wr.028 .. Conical SectionDiscontinuity Stresses (para 2. The propellant bag space determined from Fq'.0 475n'. A.700 ol€ V. the length of the frustum .5 X 8.5 .in ~2 0 475  15640 6.~~ 044 ýI0i .5 in.5 X 0'105 \0 474 8. internal design pressure f.e in.The required chamber volume (Equation 4c) V'.40 in.96 3. wall thickness of chamber .17 X 2.44in The nossle entrance volume increases the chamber volume to V.0. large radius of frustum.891 ~ 98.50 in.1.2.04 X \ W. 3A48 A. V 88 From Equations 57b and 57c E1 D)  12(l16..9 . modulus of elasticity of t~nu alloy titanium lo L .33.87r . small radius of frustum. leugth of conical section p . 17.83 .0. 59f _____12 __ which meets the requirement of Equation 8b. are graph 120) The known data involving the chamber design From Equation From required chamber length 4e.).2'.45 Assuming the main portion of the chamber to be a cuuical frustum and the length of the nozzle entrance to be 0.70 in. ab + atbabVr"n. The volume of the nossle entrance (Equation 4g) V. .5 X 2. bore radius Thus.  At k7 y•\ # 0 0. o•.640 lb/ins.04 RL TO x10'lb 3.'being **1 which meets the requirement of Equation 4c by greater than 596 in'..73) ""1V.1 I.83 .835 in.T 0.44 in.46 = 0. mean radius of chamber A.85 . _670.0  16. .2.sA4 X 1. surface of chamber .Xt.136 + 0. f.15. slope of conics. . mean radius of conical section A.w(2. ti 16.10. i. 12 X 8. the V 17. = 0.0. wall thickness of conical section t. 11.5x 106(0..40 in r .2.25 T6. .22 ~16." where 146T 26. r.8 ...21.40 in. X 12 X 0.0.44 in EL M.35 iu.61 X 10' b .700) . 59e.6 in'/lb 2.54 + 0.396 in' 9. From Equations 59d.0... 4 4 X1.5 X 10' X 0.6 in' Where the dimensions of Figure 21 are a .10' (8.
.652 in. From Equations 57b and 57c 1' .0. .0M.5 15640 X 10.0M1. c = 17 X0.40 145 2 X 1. .5. + 7. the effective strews 112.6Q.") = Vt . mean radius at 0 1.47 X 98700 Do  16.70Q. X .87Q..0.00057 .145 lbin/in The radial deflections are computed from Equations 50k and 59m 15640 X 25 16. p = 15.42i From Equation 60a.60 lb/in' /.018 in .= 4 Rr f.28 X 10' lbin 12(1 .25 165X X0.15*15'.i6.020M4 in Stress computations are shown for the tube where it joins the conical section.20 "o33 i  The tangential bending stress according to Equation 58b r. mean radius at n  8. 16.85 X 0. 444 lbin/in 1080 lb/in M& . design pressure at nozzle throat i '.01576 . Poisson's ratio for titanium.680 lb/in'.2.00138 . . X 1. + 5. . wall thickness at n 0.05 X 10 X 0.15.0.67M. The axial bending stress according to Equation 58a  1.28 X 10 Total tangential stress  0.00274 .50M.50Q.63 X 98700  182 2 X 208 X 98700 0.492 in.i  .8.000 lb/in' 2.2.6M ".. mean radius at C f.16 =16.2. .3. radius of throat 0.45 in.25 "r€ X 0.6M. i.00044 Ba" 16.109) 1. design pressure at n p p.0 5. half angle of nozzle Y . .6M lb/in' 1n0i 0.0 c. •10.16 1136 in 1.51Q. wall thickness at 0 )+  2 X 1.104.(1.5 ' 3(1  0.500 lb/in' The tangential stress derived from the radial deflection from Equation 58c a .  2.0. f.5 X 10" X 0.85 X 16.400 lb/in'.W2 2 4860. " 185 lb/in M.OQ.5 X10' X 0..124 in. design pressure at C 4. + Q.058 X 4. .33r.40 10' F'.)10" 89 . 4.05 .965 1.5.408 X 10 lbIn . + 14.02380 + . Toroidal SectionDiseconinuity Stresses (paraegraph 121) 175.5 X 6..278 in According to Equation  23.01570 in a .01482 + ..92M. design pressure at 0 p.0913 12(1 . . .6M.2. .37Q2 6460 + 7.11Q. = 15.0.1. + 5.640 lb/in'. t .o.) S444 .5×0.612 in.92M1.018M.16 '1( 6.5 X 106 X 0.860 lb/in'. 3.4. + 1. ".20 X 08700  1080 2 X 1.419 in.109) . .160= 1. 3(1 . N5.700 1in = oN + uj = 109.935 in.5 X 10' X W 277 . r.33.675Q2 . wall thickness at C 0.pa° . . .x 0.18M. = 2520 The solution of the four simultaneous equations yields Q.S.00373 .109) E4 12(1 1.000 lb/in' Substituting the known and computed values in Equations 59g to 59j 1.500 lb/in' X.7.8. modulus of elasticity of i u titanium alloy p. . The known data for the toroidal section shown in Figure 45 are E .5 X 106 lb/in'.
f.883 X 1. = 2wr.708 SA Au .500 lb The distance of the center of pressure from the axi4.8) t. The detailed computations are omitted.58M. 1. The increment adjacent to the cylinder.lO + i×4. average nozzle pressure (Reference 19) r.0 in.41 26. . almost equals P is purely coincidental. .F. From Equation 60d  0. 22.A.5 X 10' X 0. +. according to Equation 60n is n The distance from the neutral axs to Station y.o•V where Z..82ý 0. .F. when the nozzle is assumed to be conical F.018M.553 in : 1.03Q. inner radius at Station .0368 .3750 lb The loads on the remaining increments are computed similarly.27500 X 0. A.  I')~2rf' F.125 That f. the are Individed into narrow radial strips The levgth of each strip.83 X 0.674 19.3 M.8 07 1 27..9 X 0.492 \ 18. .09 1. 1.  48M50 X 1. Ar.Q. r r  16.4. Continuing with the numerical integration process.9 X 1200 r. . to be followed by the total effects. according to Equation 60m AF.• .)10' To obtain the dAsip data of the toroidal section. is measured from a sketch drawn to scale (see Figure 46).965 X 1.10 in. .1200 lb/in'. . . 15640 X 17 16. distance between n and 0 (650 + 2.500 lb where p.()p.1 .3. 488.406 X 10* 4.28Qo)10 p.226.010 in _ 1.* Detailed calculations are shown for one increment.652) / ) 0. is Ar " F2.71 X 100 lbin/in The effects of the pressure on the toroid are determined next.p.000lb The total axial force on the nozzle. AV wide. the neutral axis location is given by r Ar 1 .45 0. + 1. The total axial load F. = 0. n100 0 .  2 X 0.From Equation 60b.068in.42 in. exit radius 2.=ZAF.. 2 X 0.2. From Equation e0j. the unit moment in terms of 0 is determined from the stresses on the cross sectional area and according to Equation 60h.5 X 10f X 0.15.031 .323.=516.895 in From Equation 600.100 lbin/in (negative indicates counterclockwise direction) The total moment on the toroid produced by radial pressure forces are computed according to EquaReferenes 27.A1 9in The mean radius according to Equation 60k •. Arp.Q.03M.13 QJ)10" 3.335 lb/in' (obtained from gas tables) The incremental axial force..125 16.828 X 1.(4.5 X 10' X O.0. (4860 X 5. . Ar. •y 51. The pressures are obtained for a as '0 . .. . 9.167 in X y 0. The unit moment at the mean radius produced by the axial loads W. Numerical integration provides the location of neutral axis and mean radius.Q# 2 X 0. Equation 60p F.0 " constant of 1.400 X IV  (7.939M.939M.< The total axial force at the cylinder.2400 X 6.09 in 3. 0 Ay.
96Q. Other known data are 0..004 radian .96Q. + 3.2r Ayp~y. .625Q.809WQ . have been determined in the chamber analysis. 6. = 0. . 3. in Equation 60 Mr .600 lb/in'.580 lb/in M.22. . corresponding exit radius =r.95 in. + 3.26.Am 41 22.4.0358 + (4. Therefore.0.5 in.Ai)Ai . + 0. stagnation pressure 3.2.45 and A. Earlier Mr was found to equal 1.67 In 14*31'.. 0.48 1 AP.625M.625Q."6. Two parameters for the nozzle design of the 120 mm recoilless rifle. .07Q. 0 .3 X 11. + 0. remaining increments SAM.1. .0680+ 3.15 factor of safety.1. throat radius 1.4.13 X 4720 .03 X 4865 .025M. + 0. "(1752 0.419Q.6.508M.585M.585M.. ..0.2800 + M.124Q.585 X 1O'M = (1640 + 0.0. + 0.625M.7.)10"' Equating this deflection to that for the cylinder aný collecting wrines 0.w .38490 According to Equation 60x. thus p. + . nozzle slope 91 I. .28 X 10170)10"6 .9.95 8. + 0. . tion 6Or.689Q.tan 0. the ratio p.25.09(9. radius of approach area 1.625M 0.2290 0.07M.3. and the throat area.96M.90 in.. Two more equations become available by substituting the above expressions of 0 for 0. . . + 0. ratio of specific heats 90 . According to Equation 5e A.1.= M.885M. For the same increment as that for the axial direction .10   (1752 + + 0. therefore 9  0.02 .994Q. .2.170 1Q. + 1.64Q.3 in'.) 16.4. .5 X 10r X 2.60 +3. Nozzle a. + 0. + 2. for design purposes here Includes a 1.6 X 10' X 2.02.96M. and 9.09(2.0.943Q. = The solution to the four Mimultancous equations has Q.4.) The value of p.100 lbin The mummatinn of the. ../A.1.71 X 10W.259 1.96  .00078 in 8.223Q.)10" Equating this deflection to that for the nozzle and collecting terms 1. + 0.809Q. ratio of momentums 15.2.3. Deegn 176. + . + 1.720 lbin/in = 10.585Mo 0w 0.068Q. and colleeing tem.15 PIMP.45 X 1. .M.11 X 6580)106 . + M.0.f.659Q.96 ..0 curve of Figure 23 Indicates the ratio A. .0119 in v All data are now ./A.8165M.865 lbin/in P .)10" The radial deflection at n~ from Equation  1.10 (2690 .300 lbn/in lb/in At.649 +  16.r. 0. Since A/A. a where a  8. .1.988 The radial deflection at c from Equation 60v A.0. complement of nozzle slope The resultant unit moment due to pressure forces on the mean circumference M. ../p. .96MO 1. . ailable to compute the stresses by means of Equations 58a through 58d and Equation 23. r.1640  2. according to Figure 22.124Q. theoretical nozzle exit aean r.(. = .00274 + (1.4.419Q . . 97.5 0.0.884.9. . r. . .529'.2.585M.0. Locating this ratio on the . .432000 lbin The unit moment about the mean radius . following the procedures illustrated in paragraph 171. namely the approach area earlier w p. W1.. the ratio A& 1..505Q. is 1.800 lbin/in Substituting values.
043 1. the exit radius becomes r.528 .1492 .232 .. 92 .1704 15 where r.124 1.000 . 1. .484 .118 . 'i.124 F F.11 150..082 1. the yield strength at elevated temperature is assumed to be the same as that for the tube.8 .485 2. \/ F 1.200 .0628 .050 1.1612 .04 .  1.200 From pat experience this length of nozsle appears for too short.0.242t and 7 1.75 in.25 1The tangential stress factor (Equation 61e).236 1. 003 ._ P.276 .122 1. Refer to Figure 48 for illustration.1704t P. Lt.568 1.603 .600 .0. .91.116 0.083 .1.1.242 1 Sil M 0 ASn 0 75*20' 908 0 75'29' 1.375 1. sr. at Station 1.340 j. the effective stress may be computed at each station. 1." A.75 X .355 42.2.023 .492 .060 1.0I.762"  3./r1 .06 + 133 + 488 .00 .242 .221 From Equation 61b (I+  .TABIE 25.551 F The axial stress factor (Equation 61d) .0576 0 .256 To compute the wall thickness.067 0 75°29' 1.103 0. P.80 .100 .320 1.44in F.1050 '.95 + 5. the equivalent stress factor 2.1.124 .54 1.591 29.000 lb/in' • Reerence 27.256 .• F/F.1.226 21.  1.5h .25 X 1.048 0.405 4. a+ 1.908. AL_(\ A .11 .805 1.625 1.762 W 3.188 1.25 0.060 . .758 37O05' 2.1704 146 . 022 .6e7 .00 . p/pM * f W.440 1.00 .0 )( UY / 1'. 1. From Equation 61a..0. 00 .124.962 1.033 . NOZZLE S4TRESSES.254 X .042 0. \r/Y At the exit.1112 .117 0.165 1.551 .. Streasea The nosule contour is now complete and with a computed wall thickness..900 .0973 . According to Equation 61f.25 X 1.300 1. r 3.1128 . 1.95/1 + ) =0.02i .405+ A.548 ..581 .405 n r 2 X 1.221 . For instance. W 4 75029' 1. +(0.445 1.078 0. r 2.551 2. 1.052 .44 3.2i U Uo .1.200 .144 22.097 .  1.050 1.712 e 2.445.43 90.1050 . Increased to a length of 5.41 1. From Equation 61c.160 21..700 .968 b.254' .150 1.25903. t Reference 27.123 1.286 27.572 (* ) .1.
.r2.286 The effective stress now becomes (Equation 019' 15600 x 1lb 27...0..1. is W... The actual wall rutin i(A I..053 ... •'"£"L" :'J'L:[5L""L .256Effective stresses at other stations are computed similarly with all data lhted in Table 25...30 1......t...1) . + 0. 0... the apparent wall ratio (Equation 61k) for a nominal wall thicknebs of 1.. . 2.~ ..117 .053 1. "93 / . ...00 .96× t ' 9 " 05.2.30 in.....445 + 0..117 "Ihzeffective wall thickaeu (Equation 61n) t.. 1....000 This wall is too thin for handling.......).947W....445 X ..... .. t..123 "7 2..... 0.I 'rom Equation 61g..2031 .. 203 0..... Continuing tWe nalculations for Station ... .052 in 150.. it is increased to the dimeiwons shown in TabIR 25..91..1....200 lbii .. ThArefore....0W 0.445  W ......r(W ... ....064 + o...
Gun (tube) assembled by shrinkage method. ~nmooth. Aý applied to mall arms. and which closes the rear of the chamber during burning of the propellant.. prestressing by radial expansion which see.~. that Is. pempgraved. and of a reduced which seats tho rotating band... cap. Consists of two or more concentric cylinders shrunk one on another. bed. thus preventing the escape of gas.. Common terminology for gun tube of "mall rms. In a rifled bore it Is measured on the surface of the lands.e.. centering cylinder. . bullet.e. A complete assembly. cannon. terms are defined with specific reference to their use in respect to guns. The projectile fired. using cold working. . or The term Itis may include muzzle appendages. not rifled. caliber. screwed or shrunk on the rear of a cannon. The rotating band centers the projectile and makes it fit tightly in the bore. A cylindrical section in the forward portion of the chamber.. gun. exp~ansio.GLOSSARY (In general. which is a component of a gun. The grooves are formed during manufacture Lf the projectile. Bore of a gun with smooth sirfe. complete round. generally limited to' calibers greater them30 grm. by radila Gun produced by cold working... All of the ammunition components necessary to fire a weapon ones. Bore of a gun tube with a diameter which decreases along all or part of the length of bore. rotatng.. or intended to be fired. ballstc cycle. mortar. The shrunkon retainer of a small arms lined tube.. The cylindrical surface of a projectile on which the projectile bears while In the bore of the weapon.. boand. The diameter of the bore of a gun tube. bore of a gun.) auMo et . from a small arm. This practice is followed In the manumfacture of ammunition for recoilless weapons. re. e&breseh. barrl. coldworked gun. It contains the chamber. builtup gun. Breechblock housing. bolt. firing mechanism or base cap. in which the breechblock engages. bon). breechblock. consisting of a tube and a breech mechanism. bourrelet. Sbore. that portion of the gun which carries the firing pin. Region of a gun tube in which the charge is placed. 94 . A movable steel block in the mechanism of a breechloading gun that seals the breech opening of the tube during firing... mting. Elapsed time from ignition of propellant to time that action of propellant gases on the projectile ceases.. bolt. i. and by engaging the rifling. A rotating band fitted to or integral with a projectile and containIng grooves to fit the rifling of the weapon. gun. breech ring. Sm: tabe. gives projectile its spin. oidiameter. choke bore. The rearprt of the pecially the opening that permits the projectile to be inserted at the rear of the bore. i. howitzer. Soft metal band around projectile near Ito bass. The interior of a gun tube. chamber. which see. A tapered bore with diameter decreasing towards the muzzle. tapered. ("selfhooping") A method of tube manufacture....
Conical section which includes ta The detlagratlun or detonation oi am pert 6. longitudinal interference between case and chamber. cannon with a medium length barrel between that of a mortar and a gun in length. revolver type. run. a component of a revolver type weapon. overheated propellant chamber pfre bursting charge.  16& rifling of a gun tube. howitser. . groove. transpiration. Cooling of gun tube by injecting a coolant through porous walls. pistol. Usually it consiats of the acnidental and spontaneous discharge of. forcing cone. The general term embraces such weapons as are sometimes specifically designated as gun. gun. fixed ammunition. Travel of a projectile from its original position in the gun chamber until it engages with the rifling in the gun bore. Rotatable cylinder containing a group of chambers equally spaced radially about the axis. One of the outer layers of a multilayer gun tube. Loaded into the weapon as a unit.1 u. . The forcing cone allows the rotating band of the projectile to be gradually engaged by the rifling thereby centering the projectile in the bore. drum.. and using a medium muzmle velocity. operating with a relatively high angle of fire. charge. . engraving. gas wash. The enlargement or wearing away of the bore of a weapon by the movement of hightemperature games and residues generated from the burning of the propellant. gun. designed to prevent cartridge cases from pulling apart during gun firing. Normally.. and with a cornparatively fiat trajectory (fired at low angles of elevation). Galling type.. which fires a projectile with relatively high initial velocity. erosion. for throwing projectiles by force.. shotgun. mortar. . Procem by which the cartridge cases are pulled from the chamber of a gun. . Ammunition with primer and propellant contained in a cartridge case permanently crimped or attached to a projectile... Metal fouling left in the bore of a weapon by the rotating band or jacket of a projectile. In automatic weapons.. 95 ) . . The science which deals with the motion of the projectile and accompanying phenomena in a gun tube. carbine. rifle. uI•.. General term for a piece of materiel. extraction. consisting essentially of a tube or barrel. The process by which the rotating bands of projectiles or jackets of bullets are cut by the rifling. The nonrecolling structure of a weapon that houses the recoiling parts and rotates about the trunnions to elevate the gun. A gun having several tubes rigidly attached together which rotate about a common axis and fire in rotation. frequency ratio. Specific term for a weapon with relatively long tube. 1. caused in. In small arms. or explosion an or firearm. cooling. coppering.. . revolver. . JaCket. One of the helical grooves forming the rifling. Usually termed a cartridge. A gun having several chambers rigidly attached together which rotate about a common axis and fire in rotation through a howitzer.. . Cooling of gun tube by iasulating bore surface from heat of propellant gases. firearm. gun. B. interior ballistcs. usually the force of an explosive. Erosion caused by propellant gas activity. .. a gun or barrel igniting abyfuze. or cooling. cradle. by chemical action and by friction between the projectile and the bore. usually over 30 calibers. ratio of natural frequency of gun tube to firing rate. .GLOSSARY(contlflued)J I • cookoff. munition caused by the absorption of heat from ita environment. cannon. crushup. boundary layer.
1. An insde cylinder of a small arms tube designed for withstanding erosion and heat damage to prolong tube life. (ESP) The pressure that will produce an equivalent stress (based on ueta seulWtemnmmeatclmto distortionenergy criteria) at some point in the tube that is equal to the minimum elastic limit of the material at ambient temperature (+70*F).. This method is also known as coldworking and autofrettage. which contains the operating mechanism.. Velocity of the projectile as it leaves the muzzle.•. The Malls. computed maximum. forming the rar portion of a recoilless weapon. k ifJta Lhe axis oi the gun there. A metal shell surrounding a metal hl+. rated mizdmum.. kidneyshaped.eg..C. elastic strength. nozzle. inressure. permissible individual maximum. preosure. (PIMP) which should not be exceeded maximum pressure of any individual roundby the under any service condition. pressure. Process of placing the round in the chamber. the l combination enmnprainn . core. of the weapon and to which the barrel and other components are attached.. The ratio of design pressure to the allowable s Te t for the ressfrhm allowab stress ia material. Flow of propellant ses through the nozzle produces the counterrecoil force to prevent rearward movement of the gun. mazle velocity.OLOSSARY(continued) Jacket. land. xs. r pr~esure.. The sum of the products of the chord by width of all nossle openings. Ipropellat gas. . radial expansion. propellant. Also called "Initial velocity. muzzle brake.. Usually designed to fire at very higlh elevations and to obtain very short ranges by combinations of reduced propelling charge and Swryhig eleatinsthe very high elevations. mouzle." nrzle. at which the rifling begins.. A nozzle with two or more kidneyshaped pamsgeways symetrically located. has the shortest tube' length. (The latter is a French term meaning "selfhooping.. The basic unit of a firearm. preasure.The end of a gun tube from which the sen ofagutubePressure d projectilJe is dischared. .. zle. a sm . in comparison to gun o sor howitzer of the same caliber. mortr. pressure.. A method of making gun tubes by expanding steel cylinders under internal pressure until the interior diameter has been permanently enlarged. 5.. central orifice. I am. mall a . Inside layer of a multilayer gun tube. (RMP) Pressure which should not be exceeded by the average of maximum pressures achievdd by firing a group of the specified projectiles at the specified muzzle velocity. the . A convergentdivergent structure.. centrally located. A low explosive substance which. nzzl Index. Device attached to the muzzle which utilizes escaping gases to reduce recoil forom. in which the rifing starts. 4. especially a small arm.. A nozzle with a bar tcros its opening to retain the round and to house the firing mechanism. More specifically. Pressure in a gun tube exerted by the propellant gSa.. presaure factor.•uJCU I . The pressure generated between rotating band and gun tube. 06O o drif96. through burning. One of the raised ridges in the bore of a riled gun tube. (CMP) The maximum pressure computed from interior ballistics equations. bullet. . rotating band. The position in a rifled gun bore . A nozzle with passageway nozze. Weapon 'which. laiding. can be made to produce gases at controlled rates and to provide the energy necessary to propel a projectile. bat breech. developed in the gun to achieve rated muzzle velocity during operation at 70*P.") receiver.
Guns which do not exceed a caliber of recoil system. One of three mutually perpendicular stresses on an element which is oriented such that no shear stress appears on the faces of the element. secondary. . which aeo streess larger than the stresse existing in immediate neighboring areas The larger stresses m usally due to discontinuities in the structure. rifling. The propelling charge. In recoilless weapons. riflg torque. sepazated ammunition. Ammunition in which the projectile. mernifixed ammunition. Separated ammunition is characterized by the arrangement of the propelling charge and the projectile for loading into the gun.GLOSSARY(continued) motion of the gun or tube. recoil system. no motion occurs and the gun is tiuly recoilless. It has zero twist for a short distaice from the oriltin. A recoil system composed of two complete systems. stres. The system of the double recoil type which permits recoil of the tube and its components. called lands. propellant charge (bag loaded) and primer are handled and loaded separately into the gun.ctioe of providing an interference between projectile and bore to preclude excessive clearances when the tube dilates hacause of propellant gas pressure. due to firing.7 . stress. The system of the double recoil type which permits the top carriage to recoil. The diametral taper of the forcing cone. Stress induced in a gun tube by the propellant gas. so that the zone charge within the cartridgt case an be adjusted to obtain the desired range. by discharging part of the propellant gases to the rear. compensate for wear. followed by increasing twist. Spiral grooves in the bore of a weapon designed to give a spin to the projectiles for greater accuracy %nd carrying power. double. recolliess. single. stress. the residual impulpe between gun tube and nozzle which may move the gun rearward or forward. recoil system. strees con sutration The presence of localized signflicantly in a structure. Torque induced by the rifling acting on the projectile. Riflbng designed to rifli. slope. pdnip. primary. A recoil system that has only the gun tube and its components as recoiling parts. stes. stress. contained in a primed cartridge case that is sealed with a olosing plug. No cartridge cae is utilized in this trpe of ammunition. small arms. 30 mm. a primary system and a secondary system. loaded into the weapon as a unit. wear compensating. chamber. The diametral taper of the chamber. pressure. separate loading ammunition. allowable working. forcing cone. The theory now employed in gun tube design is that of Heackyvon Mieee for t•he Wtrain energy concept. operation. equivalent. The resultant stres obtained by combining the principal streas according to some theory of failure. If the impulses balance. The maximum stress to which a structure is intended to be subjected durg normal performance. axiaL Principal stress in the longitudinal direction. Rifling includes both the grooves and the ridges between. strain compensation. Separated ammunition is used when the ammunition is too large to handle as fixed ammunition. slope. Of a gun: built so as to completely or nearly eliminate recoil. The pr. Ammiimtika1 in which the cartridge caen is not permanently fixeti to the projectile. recoil system.
go:. gaintwist. Rifling in which the degree of twist material. axis during firing. Rifling in which the twist is such as to impart a left hand rotation to the projectile when viewed from the origin. liner. uWle of. Adrank it. talm.) Hollow cylindrical structure in which the projectile reoevue Its motion and initial direction. Distance traveled by the projeetllerin the bore. JaMWeed tube. moambloc. Term applied to guns manufactured by wrapping wire under tension on a central tube. mnuldlye A more conentric . . twist. tqmtmlal. . Principal Atrom In the tangential dircton. tube. Rifling in which the twist io such an to impart a right hand rotation to the projectile when viewed from the origin. pining twist.. psjectlle. increasing. right hand. . twist. Angle formed by rifling and longitudinal line on bore surface. and cap assembled by threaded connection with shrink fit. assembled by shrink or is constant from the origin of rifling to the mussle. trave._!.. okeis. Tube made of one piece of twist. See: tube. tubestube com~posed of two fit. tube. °C) 'p . u.. (Oftenahortened to tube. unifom.. skeios tha l. Builtup nmail arms tube comprising barel. constant twist. Tubes for small urms are commonly called barrels. the path of the groove being a uniform spiral.d. left hand.GLOSSARY(continued) es.. multilayered. wirewrapped. Stres induced by shrink fit. twkit (of rifing). Strem Induced by a temperature gradient aerom a wall. whip. which the rifling makes one complete turn. Rlfling in rhich the degree of twist :ncreasee from the origin of rifling to the muzzle. Motion of tube in plane normal to its bulongitudinal tuow.. Inclination of the spiral grooves (rifling) to the axis of the bore of a weapon It is expressed as the number of caliberm of length in ike. tion.a irre i W'"'l  twist. quas two1ic. twist..
784. 1946. 6. May 1951. Army Ordance Experimental Station. Copper and Copper Alloys. 1958. MR678. TN2805. Contract W36034ORD7380. The Fraiklin Institute Report FA21442. Mechanical Vibrations. Sirens Analysis for Recoilless Rifle XMS8. Na. ORDP 20175. A New Concept of the Ballistic Efficieny of Recoilless Rfiea. Materials Handbook. Frankford Arsenal Report R312. D. 0. for Frankford Arsenal. W. John Band and Riting.ohn Wiley and Sons. Distribution of Mechanical and Thermal Stresses in Multilayer Cylinders. R. J. An Investigation of the Effects of Natural Frequency of Vibratim&of the Barrel upon the Dispersion of an Automatic Weapon. ScrewThread Standards for Federal Sernis. R. Artillery Ammunition Series. 12. 307. Hoffman and Sachs. ford Arsenal Report R. Strub. Seeley and Smith. Transactions ASME. J. Frank listics Designs for FAI System for Davy Crockett. M. Watervliet Arsenal Technical Report WVTRR6208.. April 1. 3. 1961.. Contract DA30069ORD3081 for Frankford Arsenal. Report 613. . McGrawHill Book Company. A Study of Past and Present Designs of Rotating Inc. OCM Item 29196. McGrawHill Book Company. S. Second Edition. H. C. 2041. Report 6110 for Frankford Arsenal. Elements of Armament Engineering. 23. Engineering Design Handbook.. Spotitr and Gimbal Brackets Calculations. Inc. Wente. M. The Design of Gun Tubes. XM64. 4. P. N. 13. ORDL. 19. Donnelly and H. 11. J. 5. Report No. 1952. et al. Study of Pressure Gradiants S in Rcoilless Rife Chamber. Advanced Mechanics of Ma. J. Technik.* 16. J. Inc. January 1958. 27 Septembo'r 1945. 20. Leipman and A.. January 1961. . C. Interior Bal 22. 25. et al. Gas Tables. C. Frankford Arsenal Report No. Wiley and Sons. Keenan and J. N. Van Nostrand Company. D.) 140. Third Edition. Elements of Gas Dynamics. 7. N. 18. D. 1965. Fourth Edition. E. Part One. N. N. Solid Propelants. 2. Simplife Method of Utilising Die.* &em Inide back cover for addttlonal information pertaining to Engineering Design Handbooks. Y. Den Hartog. Engireering Design Handbook. N. 1954. S. May 1962.. John Wiley and Sons. Y. Inc. Second Edition. Trarsient Thermal Stresses in Gun Tubes. Ordanee Engineering Associates. H. 1956. Design for Projection (U). Part 1. Strength of Materials. 1945. 29. Timoehenko. N.es Ros. Explosives Series. Y.. Y. Project T844020.. Part II.. Sources of Energy. Kateanis. Contract DA6034504ORD1. Hyperveloolty Guns and the Control of Gun Erosion. Stott. J.. Alexander Hammer. Part I. U. for thMe Design and Stress Analysis of Tubes and Chambers. 1957. Y.. Project TS44014. 14. Progresa Report for Frankford Arsenal. ORDP 20247 (C). Inc. A. Recoillma 10. R1008.. April Rile. Inc. W. ORDP 20302.I_ REFERENCES 1. Frankford Arsenal Technical Note TN1110.* 17. National Defe. Roshkoe. 30. 27. Washington. et al. Part I. Project No. March 1956.* 15. Engineering Design Handbook. Section 4. Formulas for Stress and Strain. Aircraft Arnaments.. S. J. (Confidential) 24. Frankford Arasenal Report No. Cookoff in Aircraft Guns. tortion Energy Concept. 1915. (Secret) 9. Barrel Research and Development at SpringVld Armord. Purdue Unik'eruity. terials. June 1958. A.. 26. Pascual. 28. Introduction to th Theoy of Ploasicityfor Engineers. 1948.nse Research Committee. Sban Compensated Barrels. 21. Roark. ' I . Musser. Inc. H.. M. McGrawHill Book Company.. 311. Technik. Y. D. Kahn... September • 1959. Minimum Weight Design of Noale for Isentropic Flow. Franklin Institute Laboratories Report No. Huge. (Confidential) S. April 1960. June 1946. Frankford Arsenal Report MR808. Kaye. Janu ary 1961. 28 February 1961. July 1955. Summary of Interior Ballistics Theory for Conventional Recoill. Y.StressAnalysis Nossle Section. King. ORDP 20106. Gunther Cohn.
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