CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

Milling process of durum wheat
A.T. JIMENEZ GONZALEZ
INSTITUTO DE MOLlNERlA E INDUSTRIAS CEREALISTAS IFES MADRID SPAIN

SUMMARY -The durum wheat milling process has specific characteristics. Some conditions influence semolina yield (i.e. good semolina yield ratio andquality): ( i ) genetic and physiologic properties of Triticum durum crop; ) physico(i chemical characteristics grain; (iii) qualities of milling products: semolina; economic conditions; environment of (¡v) (v) and working hygienic conditions. In line with these items kind of milling processes will the change, even though there are common sections. The durum wheat milling process could be defined as: "Grain, with very hard texture, is cleaned severely, tempered three steps, milled gradually into large particles similar size, and finally cleanedof in of seed coats"..

Key words: Durum milling, clean diagram, grinding diagram, tempering, technological quality, processes. new

RESUME "Processus de mouture du blé dur". La mouture durablé caractéristiques spécifiques. Certaines de des conditions ont une influence dans l'extraction des semoules, selon la proportion de semoules de qualité blé dur le et utilisé :(i) les caractéristiques génétiques et physiologiques de Triticum durum; les propriétés physiques et (ii) chimiquesdublé; (iii) lesqualitéstechnologiquesdesproduits de mouture : semoules; (iv) lesconditions économiques; (v) les facteurs de l'environnement et les conditions hygiéniques du travail. En accord avec ces conditions requises mouture changera selon les semouleries et les utilisations finales, bien qu'il y et la ait sections processus communs. Le processus de mouture deblé dur pourrait être défini comme suit "Le grain, avec une : texture d'amande peu friable, est nettoyé avec beaucoup d'attention, ensuite préparé pour la mouture après mouillag pendant trois étapes et les repos correspondantset en dernier lieu broyé peuB peu en grandes particules de dimensions similaires qui sont séparées des enveloppes par différentes opérations".

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Mots-clés:Mouture du blé dur, diagramme de nettoyage, diagramme de broyage, mouillage, qualité technologique,
nouveaux processus.

Introduction
Durum wheat is a very important crop in the Mediterranean region; but its uses are very variable. Thus, while European countries is almost completely used the elaboration of pasta products, in it in in the Middle East and North Africa used equally for breadmaking process and for pasta, couscous, bulgur it is and other various uses (Bozzini, 1988). With regard to these uses, durum wheat must have different technological properties and several transformation processes.

Objective of milling and technological quality of durum wheat
Two arethe main objectives commercial millingof durum wheat: (i)to reach the highest mill yield; of and (¡i) to satisfy the needs and requirements of the customers. Consequently, an ideal durum wheat should have good technological qualities and yield adequate semolina when milled. Although customers need semolina with specific qualities be usedin different processes (for pasta, couscous, bread to and bulgur products), there are common properties or technological qualities that wheat must have. On the other hand, some technological properties of semolina can be affected by the milling process. All properties of wheat and semolina defines the "technological quality of durum wheat and semolina", also known as "durum wheat milling value" and "pasta value" respectively (Abecassis 1990). et al., The durum wheat milling value is determined by the amount of extracted semolina with good

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Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens

Consequently. on the surface of of a the starch granules durum wheat (Greenwell and Schofield. (iii) Due to the long shape. 1). whose be size shouldbe in the range between300-400 pm to satisfy industry demand (Fig. of (i¡) Impurities and foreign seeds have negative incidence on yield. whereas protein poor endosperm reflects light. these broken kernels are not easy to recover during cleaning process. 1986) could responsible for its harder of be texture. the transfer of nitrogen products from leaves and stems to kernel and the amount endosperm protein. named 15K protein. there is a strong correlation between nitrogen availability the in soil. The absence protein. The endosperm is broken mainly across the starch granules. hard texture and low moisture of the durum wheat kernel broken during it is the harvest.Options Mediterraneennes technological properties. (vii) Hard texture is a genetic characteristic related to the compactness of endosperm and the presence of starch protein strong links. 44 Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . (iv) Small grains are not valid for milling due low endosperm/seed coat proportion. givingit a vitreous aspect.CIHEAM . Fig. When light interacts with protein rich and compact endosperm of it is diffracted. The break of endosperm wouldeasier across the starch granules yielding semolinas. t compressionforces 1. reaching a white appearance. (viii) As proposed by Dionigi (1962) and Henson and Waines (1983). vitreous aspect and hard texture are strongly associated correlate with and high yieldof semolina. to the (v) The size of grains mustbe always similar. This ratio could influenced by some of following features: be (i) Moisture content grain mustbe the lowest possible. The arrows represent the forces thatact on the endosperm during the grinding. all (vi) Sprouted grains could yield pastas with bad cooking qualities.

wet stems. 1991). The cleaning must be effective because the dimension of semolina particlesis as large as some impurities. and these could be mixed with semolina. The germ can not only contaminate and darken the semolina but also its lipoxigenase can oxidize carotenoids. (xiii) The protein content is related to weight and pasta values as well as pasta aspects (specks. Afterwards it is classified and stored according to the following parameters: endosperm texture. be Milling process The procedure more widely used the world is based on the opening grain and the recovering. flavour. The number of cleaning machines andtheir positions change according to the mill and the wheat origin. depend on the final use of semolina. protein. cooking strength. ash and moisture contents. leaves.Options Mediterraneennes (ix) A large and protuberant germ allows a good milling. colour. the purificationof Semolinais very easy. The precleaning process eliminates most of the larger impurities (sand. the gradient of ash abundance between endosperm and peripheral of grain is twice parts higher in bread wheat thanin durum wheat (Abecassis. fissures. is (xi) The ash content is. depending on thekind and amount of its impurities. dimension. Butis it demonstrated that the ash content depends not only on efficiency of the milling process but also on the type of wheat. etc. Theyield of the process is usually about6572%. The cleaning process is adapted to the typeof wheat. wheat is receptioned. ash content is also irregularly distributed into the kernel (Abecassis and Feillet. Cleaning is a very important phase whose control represents a main objective. 1988). The flow process chart standard first cleaning (Fig. stones. density to the and weight. because it is removed while the grain is cleaned. the grain is best stored. The and III phases. several impurities and foreign seeds are eliminated according shape. includes the following machines: of 3).CIHEAM . analyzed and precleaned. cleaning and milling. It has been demonstrated that the ash content is associated with a larger extraction. In fact. colour. are defined as "diagrams" (Bizzarri and Morelli. the most important characteristic. in Fig. Moreover. stickiness. aroma). (iii) Concentrator to select a heavy fraction (70%) and a light fraction (30%) containing ergot. surface texture) and cooking qualities (firmness. however these points will not discussed in this paper. This flow must also be of fitted to cleaning.). (xi) The brown colour of grain usually related with semolinasof good yellow colour. going gradually from the innerthe outer part of grain. 1985). so that.o the endosperm. f to II The main steps of the overall process are shown 2. During the cleaning process. (i) Sieving machine with aspiration channel to separate impuritiesof different dimensions from all the wheat. (i) Weigher and magnetic apparatus. vitreous appearance. because it is regulated in several countries. changing the yellow colourthe product. of (X)When the seed coat and endosperm are morphologically detached. perhaps.and preserved. Cleaning and conditioning o wheat f Firstly. in of step by step. i . The different ways that wheat and products its follow. The heavy fractionis directed towards a destoner to remove stones in order to protect the corrugation the of 45 Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . Wheat release and flow from bins and silos must be controlled to guarantee specific characteristics mixture previously defined. tempering and milling capacities.

Phases of generalprocess to transformdurumwheats. The wheat conditioning for milling consists of processes: damping and tempering. this step also avoids damage to the presses used-to produce pasta.Options Mediterraneennes rolls andto obtain perfectly cleaned semolina with low ash content. a recockle cylinder and a spiral separatorrecover round particles and grains. (¡v) The broken kernels which can reach are difficultto recover on the helicoidal separators and they flow together with vetch seed and other round particles. The light fraction' is transportedto a specific gravity separator which removes ergot. The water two is added and hasto penetrate into the grain. The goal to modify endosperm and seed coat textures is to yield large semolina and bran without endosperm. A specific gravity separator is used to remove the former. to Phase 1 I Precleaning First cleaning Phase II TeBpar ng S Storage Phase IV Fig. 2.CIHEAM . temperature and 46 Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . The healthy grains that flow from the specific gravity separator are to a scourer directed where the outer layers are cleaned and some germs are removed. The amount of added water and the tempering time depend on initial moisture. 3%. The grains the pass through a cockle cylinder. with minimal power consumption.

CIHEAM . Fig. this passage has the purpose of obtaining to the semolina free of seed coats. appa. Afterwards. . the be of prepared grain passes between the corrugated rolls (breaking passage). specific scourer I Fig. tempering I tem1 ring . 47 Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . some . The number of break passages are six. Thetechnicalcharacteristicsarespecific to producegoodsemolinas(InstitutodeMolineriae Industrias Cerealistas. eighteen purifiers and three or four reduction passages (Fig. The semolina with adherent seed coats are directed to the last breaking passages or detach passage with corrugated rolls. products are selected in the purifiers in several qualities according to their size. I sieving mach.Options Mediterraneennes endosperm structure-texture. where they are reduced to regular semolina. The first pure semolinas can be obtained here. second of 4 step 5 h. grain storaged I I 1 cockel cyl. 1991): (i) main positions sharp to sharp of corrugates. third step 30 min). Water addition controlled by automatic systems. appa. The mechanical conditions as well as the disposition and number of machines and passages change according to the process. This type of damping and tempering gives an ideal distribution of water into durum wheat. 5). 1983. The whole timetempering is approximately 9-1 0hours (first step h. 3.5% and the initial moisture is 7-8%. The tempering takes place when the wet grains are stored into specific bins. As the end moisture 16-17. Abecassis. recockel cyl. a first one modify endosperm and a second step prepare the seed to to coat before the break. the flow of wheat is fitted is by means of smaller bins. I sterilator scourer I I separat. The purer semolinas are further classified by size. subdivided into coarse of and fine from the fourth break. The mixture of products of various sizes have to be sorted in the plansifter. Firstof all. Firstcleaning.damping. The diagram is completed with six corrugated detaching passages. Some diagrams have special reduction passages transform the semolina with a lotof proportion of to attached bran. concentrator gravity destoner spira eparat. mix grain m a first damping 1 second damping weigher mag. to break passages 8 8 1 1 I ofdurumwheatconditioningto Milling The conventional milling should gradual. the water should be added in two steps. The break passage must work to produce minimal flours and the largest semolinas to facilitate the work purifiers.temperingandsecondcleaning milling. l third damping tempering weigher mag. the fine semolinas are stored directly and the gross semolinas are channelled to reduction passages.4 shows the main flows products. Following several size and quality selections they yield purer semolina.

the gross semolinas (1 pm) which are 300-500 obtained in breaks rolls. the sharp angles of of (¡v) corrugates are 25-30' and back angles are 60-65'. the position backto back. As the semolinais attacked by several insects. (i¡) specific sifting surface: 0.085 kg-' m' 1O0 24 h-'.5 mm 100 kg-' 24 h-'. (iii) specific sizeof purifiers sieve: 5. intermediate be of and finished products. To obtain gross semolina for producing couscous. respectively. the diagram is modified in order to classify by means of purifiers and detached passages.07-0.5-9. detaching passages 7-10. plansifters and purifiers have specific values that determine the characteristics of grinding diagram (Instituto de Molinería e Industrias Cerealistas.CIHEAM . The little mills is milled with milling stones are also very used.5 mm 100 kg-' O 100 24 h-'. In these cases. the milling process must be completely hygienic.5 andin in in reduction passages 8. (vi) the slopes of corrugates are 8-1 2% for breaking. The passages. semolina reductions 1-2. because its size avoids compacting and makes it unnecessary.8-2.Options Mediterraneennes times are usedto B1 and 62. step by step. as 48 Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . (v) little to avoid strong press on the products.5-1 mm 1O0 kg-' 24 h-'. reductions 0. Quality control The milling process must controlled by laboratory and statistical analysis wheat. well as of the milling work methodology. semolina can only stored for a short time. (i) lesser diameter rolls to reduce the milling place.2% for detaching 10-1 and 12% for reduction passages.4.5-8 mm 1O0 kg-' 24 h-'.Schematicgraphicofprincipalproductsflow of milling. Ibreakers I Ireduction rolls I Fig. detaching 3-8 mm kg-' 24 h-'. Semolina flows from without using the be the bins any extraction mechanism.6. (iii) ratios between the speed rolls of 1 :2 to decrease the shear effect. The semolinas cannot pass across the sterilizer because flour would be produced under those conditions. 1983): (i) specific lengths of rolls: breakings 4. In some North African countries durum wheat by bread wheat or mix diagrams. the load (vi) the number of corrugates/cm is: breaking passages 3.5-9.5.

Options Mediterraneennes P N FI lil pl a m P FI E F.7 Pr: N a m FI (v m E-c E-r 49 Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens .CIHEAM .

(eds). and the long. Paul. and Lintas. Paris.C.H. Gautier. 1-16. Minnesota. Dionigi. Milling of durum wheat. J. M. A starch granuleprotein associated with endosperm softness in wheat. Greenwell. J. Debranning processis new approachto wheat milling. ln: Les lndustries de Première Transformation des Céréales. de Godon.Fabriani. 990). have supplied part of the information. 1992). P. pp. Agrar.A. A. Madrid. pp. With regard milling process properly. Aliment. taux de cendres et réglementation. experimental and innovative processes are now milling developing (Satake. St. G.F. Spain. (eds).J. St. Agric. blé lnd. uncertain hard texture and vitreousness aspect.. although constant. lnd. pp. La moutureblé dur. 28. Bozzini. (eds). Some technological aspects of durum wheats (irregular ash content. (1988). and Willm. 139-1 52. they are based on a grain preprocess phase that consistthe debranning of grain by sequential friction and abrasion passages using modified in rice polishers. ln: Durum: Chemistry and Technology.63: 379-380.ln: Durum: Chemistry in the and Technology.G. and Morelli. La bianconatura dei frumentiduri e i mezzi per combatterla.protein content and quality) must be better controlled. is greatfully acknowledged. but a disadvantage that they require alot of power for preprocessing. P. increase of consumption of durum wheat forces to optimize and to improve the results. Tkac. strong interaction seed coatendosperm. distribution and production of durum wheat world. The endosperm then after grided.J. pp. AACC. diagramas. AACC. Crop Sci. A. A. Minnesota. G. C. 15: 263297. pp. 36: 13-18. Acknowledgements The documentation andtechnological services of Institutode Molineríae Industrias Cerealistas .. such as yield improvement.andWaines. and Feillet.Nitrogenmetabolismandyellowberryoftwobreadwheat cultivars. Origin.Options Mediterraneennes Conclusions and perspectives Milling of durum wheat isspecial and expensive procedure duethe required high quality of durum a to wheat. With small differences. Cereal Chem. 475-482. References Abecassis. O. Apuntes de Tecnología Molinera: Estudio de (1 8: Satake. there are and new needs.(1983). R. La filiére blé dur-pâtes alimentaires.. (1990). Some new. World Grain.seems that these new processes offer a yield is It milling advantage. morphology of outer layer. J. Juin 1990. B. Bizzarri. Abecassis. The help of Bühler S. Thefuture actions must consider these facts and be focused satisfy the needsof pasta industries and the to taste of consumers The slow. 23: 20-22. Céréal. (1962). C..(1986). The application is to durum wheats is in a early phase. Instituto de Molinería e Industrias Cerealistas (1983).. 50 Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . 161-189. laborious and specific transformation process. Lavoisier. and Lintas. J. (1 991). and Autran. Spain.. 362-396.S. 1990. (1988).D. to old the or the obtaining of smaller semolina. Paul. Pinto-Madrid. Madrid. and Schofield. C. Abecassis.Genet. Fabriani. relatively great amount of impurities.CIHEAM .IFES. Pureté des semoules de dur. J. (1985). Henson.