Surface plasmon resonance

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The excitation of surface plasmons by light is denoted as a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for planar surfaces or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for nanometer-sized metallic structures. This phenomenon is the basis of many standard tools for measuring adsorption of material onto planar metal (typically gold and silver) surfaces or onto the surface of metal nanoparticles. It is the fundamentals behind many color based biosensor applications and different lab-on-a-chip sensors.
Contents
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1 Explanation 2 Realisation

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2.1 SPR emission

3 Applications

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3.1 Data interpretation

4 Examples

4.1 Layer-by-layer selfassembly

4.2 Binding constant determination

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5 Magnetic plasmon resonance 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

[edit]Explanation
Surface plasmons, also known as surface plasmon polaritons, are surface electromagnetic waves that propagate in a direction parallel to the metal/dielectric (or metal/vacuum) interface. Since the wave is on the

This field is highly localized at the nanoparticle and decays rapidly away from the nanoparticle/dieletric interface into the dielectric background. one can choose from various models (quantum theory." is complexvalued. the real part of the dielectric constant of the metal must be negative and its magnitude must be greater than that of the dielectric. Drude model. Light intensity enhancement is a very important aspect of LSPRs and localization means the LSPR has very high spatial resolution (subwavelength). etc. Because of the enhanced field amplitude. Localized surface plasmon polaritions (LSPRs) are collective electron charge oscillations in metallic nanoparticles that are excited by light.[1][2] [edit]Realisation Otto configuration . This condition is met in the IR-visible wavelength region for air/metal and water/metal interfaces (where the real dielectric constant of a metal is negative and that of air or water is positive).boundary of the metal and the external medium (air or water for example).). In order for the terms which describe the electronic surface plasmons to exist. described by a frequency-dependent relative permittivity between the external medium and the surface. To describe the existence and properties of surface plasmons. This quantity. They exhibit enhanced near-field amplitude at the resonance wavelength. though far-field scattering by the particle is also enhanced by the resonance. these oscillations are very sensitive to any change of this boundary. The simplest way to approach the problem is to treat each material as a homogeneous continuum. such as the adsorption of molecules to the metal surface. limited only by the size of nanoparticles. effects that depend on the amplitude such as magneto-optical effect are also enhanced by LSPRs. hereafter referred to as the materials' "dielectric constant.

and totally reflected. titanium or chromium are also known to be applicable. A thin metal (for example gold) film is positioned close enough. and an evanescent wave penetrates through the metal film. The light is again illuminating from the glass. 2: the metal film). and achieve the resonance at a given wavelength and angle. [edit]SPR emission When the surface plasmon wave hits a local particle or irregularity—like on a rough surface—. Typical metals that support surface plasmons are silver and gold. Using light to excite SP waves. there are two constructions which are well known. this is possible by passing the light through a block of glass to increase the wavenumber (and the impulse).Kretschmann configuration In order to excite surface plasmons in a resonant manner. one can use an electron or light beam (visible and infrared are typical). The incoming beam has to match its impulse to that of the plasmon. the metal film is evaporated onto the glass block. part of the energy can be re-emitted as light. In the Otto setup. Electronic and magnetic surface plasmons obey the following dispersion relation: where ε stands for the dielectric constant. S-polarized(polarization occurs perpendicular to the plane of incidence) light cannot excite electronic surface plasmons. In the Kretschmann configuration. and μ for the magnetic permeability of the materials (1: the glass block. The plasmons are excited at the outer side of the film. [edit]Applications Surface plasmons have been used to enhance the surface sensitivity of several spectroscopic measurements including fluorescence. but metals such as copper. In the case of ppolarized light (polarization occurs parallel to the plane of incidence). Raman . the light is shone on the wall of a glass block. that the evanescent waves can interact with the plasma waves on the surface and excite the plasmons. This configuration is used in most practical applications. This emitted light can be detected behind the metal film in various directions. typically a prism.

. DNA or proteins.1° during thin (about nm thickness) film adsorption.) In other cases the changes in the absorption wavelength is followed. Nanoparticles or nanowires of noble metals exhibit strong absorption bands in the ultraviolet-visible light regime that are not present in the bulk metal. (See also the Examples. QCM. However.[3] The mechanism of detection is based on that the adsorbing molecules cause changes in the local index of refraction. Related complementary techniques include plasmon waveguide resonance. extraordinary optical transmission. the technique can be extended to surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI). This interpretation may result multiple possiblerefractive index and thickness values. that the angle of the reflection minimum (absorption maximum) is measured. This method provides a high contrast of the images based on the adsorbed amount of molecules. which treat the formed thin films as infinite. in their simplest form. changing the resonance conditions of the surface plasmon waves.e. For nanoparticles. SPR reflectivity measurements can be used to detect molecular adsorption. This angle changes in the order of 0. and Dual Polarisation Interferometry [edit]Data interpretation The most common data interpretation is based on the Fresnel formulas. a camera). etc. somewhat similar to Brewster angle microscopy (this latter is most commonly used together with aLangmuir-Blodgett trough). However.scattering. Technically. This extraordinary absorption increase has been exploited to increase light absorption in photovoltaic cells by depositing metal nanoparticles on the cell surface. it is common. localized surface plasmon oscillations can give rise to the intense colors of suspensions or sols containing the nanoparticles. If the surface is patterned with different biopolymers. using adequate optics and imaging sensors (i. continuous dielectric layers. such as polymers. and second harmonic generation.[5] Shifts in this resonance due to changes in the local index of refraction upon adsorption to the nanoparticles can also be used to detect biopolymers such as DNA or proteins.[4] The energy (color) of this absorption differs when the light is polarized along or perpendicular to the nanowire. usually only one solution is within the reasonable data range.

In many cases no detailed models are applied. 38 nanometers) gold sensor. This is the so called 'dynamic SPR' measurement. One of the first common applications of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was the measurement of the thickness (and refractive index) of adsorbed self-assembled nanofilms on gold substrates. [edit]Binding constant determination .Metal particle plasmons are usually modeled using the Mie scattering theory. but the sensors are calibrated for the specific application. This example is a 'static SPR' measurement. The resonance curves shift to higher angles as the thickness of the adsorbed film increases. [edit]Examples [edit]Layer-by-layer self-assembly SPR curves measured during the adsorption of a polyelectrolyte and then aclay mineral self-assembled film onto a thin (ca. When higher speed observation is desired. one can select an angle right below the resonance point (the angle of minimum reflectance). and used with interpolation within the calibration curve. and measure the reflectivity changes at that point. The interpretation of the data assumes. that the structure of the film does not change significantly during the measurement.

RU) is observed. As the prey analyte binds the bait ligand. From these association ('on rate'. Now as the prey analyte dissociates from the bait ligand. the equilibrium dissociation constant ('binding constant'. as in any chemical reaction. For this. It is the equilibrium value for the product quotient. RU) is observed. a solution without the prey analyte (usually the buffer) is injected on the microfluidics that dissociates the bound complex between bait ligand and prey analyte. an increase in SPR signal (expressed in response units. Through a microflow system. After desired association time. kd). The actual SPR signal can be explained by the electromagnetic 'coupling' of the incident light with the surface plasmon of the gold layer. a decrease in SPR signal (expressed in response units. ka) and dissociation rates ('off rate'.Association and dissociation signal Example of output from Biacore When the affinity of two ligands has to be determined. a so-called bait ligand is immobilized on the dextran surface of the SPR crystal. This plasmon . KD) can be calculated. This value can also be found using the dynamical SPR parameters and. a solution with the prey analyte is injected over the bait layer. it is the association rate divided by the dissociation rate. the binding constant must be determined.

^ H. doi:10. (2008). the bait protein and possibly the prey protein. [edit]See also         Waves in plasmas plasmon Plasma oscillation Spinplasmonics Hydrogen sensor Nano-optics Biosensor Dual Polarization Interferometry [edit]References 1.200700594. Appl. [edit]Magnetic plasmon resonance Recently.12. Binding makes the reflection angle change.010.doi:10. ^ G. B.2006. ^ J. (2010). "A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk" (free download pdf). there has been an interest in magnetic surface plasmons.stam. Lett. Du et al.1016/j. . doi:10. Hiep et al. Adv. Phys. a property that has only recently been made available with the construction of metamaterials. 96: 081915. These require materials with large negative magnetic permeability.can be influenced by the layer just a few nanometer across the gold-solution interface i. 8: 331. "Plasmonic Au/Co/Au nanosandwiches with Enhanced Magneto-Optical Activity". M.1002/smll. Sci. 2. 3. (2007). Small 4: 202. X. "Evidence of localized surface plasmon enhanced magneto-optical effect in nanodisk array". Mater.1063/1.3334726.e. Technol. González-Díaz et al.

16.  Aslan K. Trupke and M. 9:538–544  Smith EA. 57. J. Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings. 1685-1706. ISBN 978-0-85404-267-8. L. Gollub.2007. Chau. L. Pillai.  Richard B M Schasfoort (Editor) and Anna J Tudos (Editor) (2008). 113. Lin. Catchpole. Green (2007). Phys. 101: 093105. Smith. Mater.4. J.02. Spectroscopy. Vier. Springer Verlag.1016/j. 75. T.leeds. ISBN 978-3540173632. Cheng. Anal. Mater. T. 195402 (2005)  http://www. Phys. (2007).stam. Y. Chem. A. Lakowicz JR. Sci.  Stefan Maier (2007). doi:10. Adv.-F. N. 2003. ^ S.-F. B 71. Appl.-K. D. R. K. Lin. 2004.astbury. visions and perspectives..  J. Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance. Adv. Berlin.-F. 100-105. Springer.  Chau. Plasmon light scattering in biology and medicine: new sensing approaches. Geddes C. RSC publishing. "Phenomenological studies of optical properties of Cu nanowires" (free download pdf). Perram.. S.uk/facil/SPR/spr_intro2004. S.001. Exploitation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance. Rev. 8: 277.. “Fiber-optic chemical and biochemical probes based on localized surface plasmon resonance. Actuators B 2006. 320A-332A.” Sens. 2003.  Hutter E. Technol. D.ac. 5. Mock.htm (a short detailed synopsis of how surface plasmon resonance works in practice)  Cheng. Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging as a Tool to Monitor Biomolecular Interactions in an Array Based Format.. Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications. . ISBN 978-0387331508. Corn RM. J. 19. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 2005. [edit]Further reading  A selection of free-download papers on Plasmonics in New Journal of Physics  Heinz Raether (1988).-J. Appl. 16. C. T. Fendler J.-K. Locharoenrat et al. R. “Colloidal Gold Modified Optical Fiber for Chemical and Biochemical Sensing”. ^ K.

Wang. Chem. 2007.. 926-932. H. 2007.-S. Cheng. Chen.gov) Categories: Electromagnetism | Nanotechnology | Spectroscopy | Biochemist ry methods | Biophysics | Forensic techniques • • • • • • Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit View history Top of Form Bottom of Form • • • • • • • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export • • • • • Languages Deutsch Français 한국어 Italiano Polski . C. S. L..  Lai. 22. Chau. Chau.” Biosens. [edit]External links  The affinity and valence of an antibody can be determined by equilibrium dialysis (ncbi. C.. C. Wang.” Anal.-C. N. L. “Detection of antinuclear antibodies by a colloidal gold-modified optical fiber: Comparison with ELISA. R. 901-907.-K.nlm. “Sensing Capability of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Gold Nanorods.. 388.-F.-K.nih. Chiang. C...-D. Bioanal. Bioelectron.-L.

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