Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

Speech Sound Errors
Speech Sounds • A phoneme is the consonant or vowel sound that a letter makes. For example, the letter b represents “buh”. • Moving the mouth to make speech sounds is called articulation. When a child has difficulty making a phoneme (speech sound) that most other same-aged children can already make, that child may have an articulation problem. In Speech and Language reports, phonemes are often written between two slanted lines, such as /b/, which means “the buh sound”. You may not recognize some of the “phonemes” since many are written using a code, called the International Phonetic Alphabet. Entire words and sentences can be written using this code. For example, the word “baby” would look like /bebi/. Children learn to make speech sounds in a hierarchical order using different parts of their mouth. Refer to the link called Quick Check for Speech. The link includes speech milestones to help you determine if errors are age-appropriate. Articulation Errors o These occur when a child cannot accurately manipulate his or her mouth to make a speech sounds. For example, the child may say “thun” for “sun” because the tongue cannot find the right place to land in the mouth. o An approximation (being close) is when a child says a word as well as he can, but not completely accurately. New talkers often make word approximations as they try to say new words. • Developmental Errors o Many children have these articulation errors in their speech; however, it is not necessary to be concerned unless most sameage children can easily make the sounds. The errors are considered “developmentally appropriate”.
TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

Phonological Processes • Phonological processes are used to describe the “simplifications” that children make as they attempt to imitate adult-like speech. Since young children can not easily control their mouth to organize all the tongue movements to make words as the adults do, they simplify their speech. A child may be able to “articulate” a speech sound, such as /d/; but be unable to put it into certain words. The child may say, “gog” for “dog”. • It is much easier for the child to use only the back of his or her mouth to make the “g” sound than it is to start way at the front of the mouth for “d” then move way to the back of the mouth for “g”. Think of it in terms of learning to play the piano. You may be able to easily press the middle c key over and over again. However, if you are asked to put middle c into a song, you may struggle to imitate an accomplished piano player (adult speaker) and make all sorts of errors (phonological processes or simplifications).

Phonological Delay • Phonological processes are considered normal or developmentally appropriate up to a certain age. If the processes persist longer than they should, the child may have a phonological delay. Children tend to make their simplifications in common patterns as outlined on the attached chart called Phonological Processes.

Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) • • Children with CAS have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words. This is not because of muscle weakness or paralysis.

TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

• •

The brain has problems planning to move the body parts (e.g., lips, jaw, tongue) needed for speech. The child knows what he or she wants to say, but his/her brain has difficulty coordinating the muscle movements necessary to say those words.

Red Flags:
• • • • • Does not coo or babble as an infant First words are late, and they may be missing sounds Only a few different consonant and vowel sounds are present Problems combining sounds; may show long pauses between sounds Simplifies words by replacing difficult sounds with easier ones or by deleting difficult sounds (although all children do this, the child with apraxia of speech does so more often) • May have problems eating

Oral Motor Weakness • In order to make the very rapid and precise mouth movements needed for speech, the mouth muscles must be strong and stable with good range of motion to reach the places in the mouth to make sounds. These children may also struggle with managing or chewing their food, blowing bubbles or horns, and sucking through a straw. Refer to the quiz for strategies.

TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

Phonological Processes
(Simplifications of Adult Speech)
The list below provides a general age-range when word errors may be considered normal or “age-appropriate” for a specific age:

Age
2

Age-Appropriate Simplifications
- Omits syllables:  efant for elephant -Omits the beginning or end of words:  up for cup  ba for ball -Omits a consonant in a blend:  poon for spoon -Common sound substitutions:  pig for big  tar for car  do for go              gog for dog, guck for duck toat for coat weg for leg yeg for leg won for run pish for fish dun for sun, do for zoo bery for very sue for shoe dip for ship duice for juice tare for chair doze for those

TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

Age
3

Age-Appropriate Simplifications
- Omits syllables:  efant for elephant -Omits the beginning or end of words:  up for cup  ba for ball -Omits a consonant in a blend:  poon for spoon -Common sound substitutions:  tar for car  do for go             gog for dog, guck for duck toat for coat weg for leg yeg for leg won for run do for zoo bery for very sue for shoe dip for ship duice for juice tare for chair doze for those

TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

Age

Age-Appropriate Simplifications
- Omits syllables:  efant for elephant -Omits a consonant in a blend:  poon for spoon

-Common sound substitutions:  gog for dog, guck for duck  toat for goat  weg for leg  yeg for leg  won for run  sue for shoe  dip for ship  duice for juice  tare for chair  doze for those

Age
4

Age-Appropriate Simplifications
-Common sound substitutions:  weg for leg  yeg for leg  won for run  sue for shoe  dip for ship  duice for juice  tare for chair  doze for those

Age
4½-5

Age-Appropriate Simplifications
-Common sound substitutions:  weg for leg  yeg for leg  won for run  doze for those

TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

Quiz
1. When a child substitutes one speech sound for another (example: Dun for Sun), what should you do first? a) Check the milestones charts to see if this substitution is age-appropriate b) Contact a speech therapist c) Correct the child and try to make him or say it the right way Answer: a When a child substitutes one speech sound for another (example: Dun for Sun), check the milestones charts to see if this substitution is age-appropriate. Most children make speech errors at some point in their development. Many times, these “errors” are considered normal for their age. Their mouths are not set up to make that sound yet. Whether the error is age appropriate or not, do not correct the child and do not rush to contact the speech-language pathologist (unless the child is very frustrated and very difficult to understand). A very proactive thing to do is to casually model the right way to say the sound. Emphasis it in your own speech. Do not use a corrective tone. Try to use an enthusiastic tone to show that you are listening to WHAT the child says, not HOW the child says it. Child: “I dee a dun!” You: “Yes, I SEE the SUN too! I SSSEE it!” Have fun at circle time making the sound all together without emphasis on any one child. For example, a fun way to train “s” is to run your finger down your arm as you make the snake sound. Another way is to smile (hide the snake behind your teeth) and let the air out (SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS). Refer to the Quick Tips for Speech Clarity 2. A child who struggles to chew food and drools more than expected will most likely have a) a language delay b) a hearing loss c) speech errors Answer: c A child who struggles to chew food and drools more than expected will most likely have speech errors because we use the same muscles for talking as we do

TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

Online Speech Therapy Telepractice

for managing our food and saliva. These errors may largely be due to oral motor (mouth) weakness. Blowing on horns, blowing bubbles through a straw into water, sucking liquids (thin and thick) through a straw, blowing bubbles through a wand, and whistling are some examples of how to exercise you mouth muscles. When using horns and straws, it is important to hold onto the item with the tips of your lips – never with your teeth. Have fun making faces! - Alternate a big smile with a big pucker Open mouth and wide and stretch out tongue Open mouth wide and stretch tongue up to roof of mouth Open mouth wide and stretch tongue into cheek. Switch sides. Now speed up like a ping pong ball!

Food helps to strengthen the mouth as well. For example, chewing on a cube of cheese with your back molars in a jaw strengthener. Remember, safety first. Never give a child food that may cause choking.

TinyEYE Therapy Services 127G-116 Research Drive, Saskatoon Saskatchewan, S7N 3R3 www.TinyEYE.com – 1.877.TinyEYE (846.9393)

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